GWSP Relevant Actions in China & Asia Region

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GWSP Relevant Actions in China & Asia Region

The 18th GWSP-SSC Meeting, , 18-20,Oct. 2011

GWSP Relevant Actions

in China & Asia Region

Prof. Jun Xia

Asia Scientific Network Office of GWSP (GWSP-ASNO)

Excusive Vice Chairman, GWSP-CNC

Leading Professor & Director,

Center for Water Resources Research,

Chinese Academy of Science (CAS)


GWSP activities in China &

Asia Region

‣ Since 2006, Chinese National Committee of

GWSP (GWSP-CNC) and Asia Scientific Network

Office of GWSP(GWSP-ASNO) , collaborated

with IAP , Inter-Academy of Council (IAC)-

Water Programme, carry out several key

research projects related GWSP in China and

organize a series of East Asia/Asia-Pacific

regional workshops to address the issue of

GWSP.


Several presentations &

plans focus on GWSP

research problem in

China & other Asia

countries, such as dams

impact and LUCC etc.


1. Impact of Climate Change on Water Cycle,

Regional Water Resources Security and the

Adaptation Strategy for the Eastern Monsoon

Area of China (2010-2014)

National Basic

Research project

(973 project)

supported by

MOST with 28

Million RMB, lead

by J.Xia

Eastern

Monsoon

Area


Research Area: Major

river basins that cover

95% population in China

Yellow 黄 河 River 流 域

海 河 流 域


淮 河 流 域

Songhua River


黑 龙 江 流 域


辽 河 流 域

Hai River

Huai River

Yangtze River


长 江 流 域

珠 江 流 域

Zhu River








项 目 研 究 区 : 与 季 风 区 联 系 的 流 域 系 统


Observation net work in China

There are more than

12,000 Hydro-Meteorological

Stations with more than

30 years records

Project partners:

BH,MWR

NCC,MDC


Key Research Issues

1. Time-space variability of water cycle &

its uncertainty to climate change &

human activities

2. Land & atmosphere interaction and

feedback mechanism by building

coupled hydro-climate models etc.

3.Vulnerability and adaptation of regional

water resources impact by climate change


MAJOR RESERACH

‣Detection & Attribution of

non-stationary hydrological

processes for past 50-100

years

‣Reduced uncertainty of future

different climate-hydrological

scenarios (GCMS) & downscaling

‣Coupling Land hydrological process

models with Regional climate models

‣ Impact of climate change on

Drought & water security

related to food security &

eco-system in North China

‣ Impact of climate change on

floods control security

related to South China ( Huai

River etc,.)

‣ Water resources vulnerability &

adaptation management


Water Resource Vulnerability

• It could be linkaged with water stress indicator

(resilience) , C(t) & sensibility, S.

• New study:

Vt ()

=

1S

Ct ()

W D

P

Ct ( ) = f1( r) ⋅ f2(1/( ⋅ ))

Q P

r – Use to availability ratio (%)

P/Q - water crowding (p / Million m 3 / yr)

W D /P - per capita water use (m 3 /p yr)


Haihe V(t)=0.80

Huaihe V(t)=0.20

Yellow V(t)=0.17

Song-liao V(t)=0.09

Yangze V(t)=0.06


New Study on mapping vulnerability

+

Sensibility S

water stress( resilience) C

Integrated Vulnerability S/C

2000 年 代 表 年 (1980-2000 年 序 列 )


Vulnerability change △V(t) to different scenarios

Base line(2000)

S1- Only water

supply change

S2-Only demand change

S3- both change


Adaption to climate change and both

human activities:

Shifting from higher vulnerable into blue by adaptive management,

particular good water governance, i.e. changing the rate of water

developing & using water crowding & per capita water use etc.

Hai river V(t)=0.80

Huai river

V(t)=0.20

Yellow river V(t)=0.17

Songliao

V(t)=0.09

Yangtze

V(t)=0.06

river

river


Good Water Governance

is the process in which government and

society get organized to use water

resources sustainably to meet needs

within a legal and ethical framework in

accordance t o t he wat er availabilit y at

any given time with equity and dignity.

( Kick-Off Meeting of the 6th WWF in Marseilles, June 2-5,2010)


Framework of Water Governance with Climate

change and adaptation (IWRA, 2010 )

Climate

change


Research shown

• Climate change and human activity are two big issue to

water sustainable use. Science & technology will play a

key role on understanding & reduce risk

• Water policy, in China will had to shift from

Water Quantity Management

Water Quality

Management

Water Supply Management Water Demand

Management

• Improving Water Governance will be a priority

on climate change adaptation.


MWR in China is processing a strategies of water

management based on three red lines control

• The red line I : water resources development

controlled by Total Water Resources Quantity.

• The red line II : water use efficiency improved by

Water Demand Management.

• The red line III: water resources protection by Water

Quality Management (control of waster water etc.).

Adaptive management will face to new opportunity

& challenges on implementing these strategies


Advantages for this project

GWSP concepts

CNC-GWSP Peoples play a key role

Supported by MST, China Govermanment

Real coloborated team:

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ministry of Water Resources

National Climate Center in China

Several Key Universities in China


New Actions: China-Australia

cooperation project supported by

CSIRO & CAS in 2012-2014

‣Title : Monsoon System, Climate Change and

Water Resource

‣Water Project leaders

‣Australia side: Prof. Lu Zhan & Qianxi Shao,

CSIRO

‣Chinese side: Prof. J.Xia, Zhenhui Xie & Zhaohui

Lin, CAS


The Trend of Extreme Drought Frequency

in China from 1951 to 2006

50E

40E

30E

The red diagonal area is the

increasing trend of extreme

drought, the green diagonal area

means a decreasing trend of

extreme drought. (Left Figure)

20E

80E 90E 100E 110E 120E 130E 140E

Trend of surface Wet index

Variation in Northeast China

(Right Figure)

An increasing trend is

detected in northeast China.

SWI anomaly

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

-0.15

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Ma Zhuguo, 2006


Two Key Aspects for

CSIRO-CAS Cooperation:

Hydrological Variability and Extremely

Events

Impacted by Climate Change

(1) developing Distributed Integrated hydro-

Carbon-Nitrogen model (Lu Zhang and

J.Xia & others from IAP)

(2) developing Non-stationary Extremely

Hydro-Statistic Models related to Droughts

and Floods to changing environment (Q X

Shao and J.Xia & others from IAP)


New challenges on

Coupling of water and carbon

• Most existing distributed hydrological model

in China only described hydrological processes

with less consideration of Carbon-Nitrogen

cycle thought hydrological process.

• However, new research show couple of water

and carbon could change understanding on

impact of climate change on ET and runoff.


Non-stationary

Extremely Droughts and Floods

Big challenges on Non

• How to well describe distribution of nonstationary

extremely events related to droughts

and floods disasters

• How to identify potential linkage or statistic

relationship between climate change and

extremely event changes in its return period and

happened intensity?


2. Case study on Global Catchment Initiative

(GCI) in Huai River Basin, China

supported by MOST-MEP with 10.3 Million RMB lead

by J.Xia, 2009-2013

Huai River Basin

Total area : 270,000 km 2

Populations: 165 million,

LUCC: 11, 000 dams and

sluices in the basin

Yellow

Sea

Floods & Droughts

Water Pollution


Distribution of dams and sluices in Huai River

Basin

淮 河 流 域 重 点 闸 坝 的 分 布


Flood control engineering and wetland distribution

in Huai River


Complexity & Risk in Huai River

Flooding disaster

Water pollution risk

Flood control & water

projects operation role

Waste water control ?

Non-point pollution?


One example is river pollution

event in 1994 during flooding

period in Huai main river

Rainstorm

in upstream

Over reservoirs

warming stage

Open gates

to discharge

Let 0.2 billion m 3 polluted water

accumulated in gates during non-flood

period to go to the downstream.

Polluted water reached 90 km

Waterworks had to stop water supply for 54

days. 1.5 million peoples face to

drinking water problem. It caused at least

RMB 2 billion worth of damages.


Major Tasks & Researches

Identifying major causes of Huai River

water problem

Assessing impact of dams/sluices &

climate change on water quality and

eco-system

Developing comprehensive approaches

by waste water control & water projects

operation to improve river health


1. Filed Survey in Huai River


Water quality assessment in Huai River( 2009)

COD Good water (I – III) 54.9% Bad water (> IV) 44.1%

TP Good water (I – III) 80.3% Bad water (> IV) 19.3%

TN Good water (I – III) 25.4% Bad water (> IV) 74.6%


2. Developing distributed hydrological

model coupled with reservoir operation

processes, river water quality change and

river ecological assessment

H y d rolo g ical m o d elin g

Water quality

model

Eco-hydrological

model


Huai River network of with operations of

reservoirs and flood gates

息 县 淮 滨 王 家 坝 鲁 台 子 蚌 埠 闸 小 柳 巷


3. Developing innovation tools based on

integrated models to assess impacts of dams

& sluices and climate change on

– River flow regimes

– Water quality

– Ecosystem

and water quality management to improve

river quality by water project operation and

restoration technologies.


Assessing contribution of the river pollution events for

the overload waste water and water projects

Normalization rate

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

water projects

昭 平 台

水 库

白 龟 山

水 库

马 湾 拦

河 闸

漯 河 橡

胶 坝

沙 河 周

口 闸

water projects

槐 店 闸 阜 阳 闸 颍 上 闸 蚌 埠 闸

闸 坝 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.19 0.03

排 污 1.00 0.97 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.94 0.81 0.97

waste water

discharge

Upstream

(reservoirs)

Middle & down stream

(with waste water discharge)


( a ) ( b )

( c )

( d )

( e ) ( f )

淮 河 流 域 1961~2005 年 不 同 时 段 内 平 均 温 度 的 空 间 分 布

(a. 春 ;b. 夏 ;c. 秋 ;d. 冬 ;e. 汛 期 ;f. 全 年 )


CSIRO_baseline

CSIRO_A1B_2010s

precipitation:

1239.8 mm

air temperature:17.5


p=29.8%

Risk

increase

precipitation:

1239.5 mm

air temperature:17.5


p=37.8%

降 水 :1239.5:

mm; ; 气 温 :17.5:


One case study

Reservoirs in

mountain areas

Integrated

operations

Waste water

control

Operation rules for river health

River

system

Operation ways

Flood &

water quality

Reservoirs

restoration

Water

level

Water quality

standard in

river system


Discussions

How China’s Project related Global


Catchment Initiative (GCI) could be

linked with exciting GWSP -Asia

Region / GWSP- Global Project or

programme?

Working Plan in 2011-2014


3. Regional Activities on Water System related to

Climate Change & Water.

Ecohydrology International Symposium in Asia, 13-15 April

2011, Daegu, Republic of Korea


International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

(IUGG) General Assembly Melbourne, Australia,

1 July, 2011

大 旱 次 数

50

40

30

20

10

0

山 西 . 河 南 世 纪 大 旱 次 数 变 化 过 程 线

山 西

河 南

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

世 纪 序 号 ( 百 年 )

Drought Characteristic

Analysis : Case Study

in Yellow River

Water Governance

Hai Ying/Corbis

2011 年 1 月 15 日 , 黄 河 河 南 温

县 段 河 道 南 岸 , 大 片 河 床 裸

露 龟 裂 。

东 方 早 报

自 从 黄 河 断 流 之 后 , 运 河 漕 运

也 成 了 消 失 的 迷 梦 一 般 。


Singapore International Water Week: One of

activities from GWSP Asia Group: Governance

in Urban Water Quality and Water

Disasters: A Focus on Asia, 4-8 July, 2011

Co-Chair, Jun XIA, Third Annual Global Water

Policy Dialogue, An SIWW 2011 Co-located Event


XIVth World Water Congress

25-29 Sept., 2011, Recife, Brazil


Jun Xia’s Presentations

Plenary Session, XIVth IWRA World Water Congress,

Sept. 27th, 2011

Global Framework for

Water Governance

Jun XIA

President, IWRA

Directors & Leading Professor

Center for Water Resources Research,

Key Lab. of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes,

Chinese Academy of Science (CAS)

Plenary Session, XIVth IWRA World Water Congress,

Sept. 26th, 2011

Global Water Events:

From the Congress to the Forum 2012

Jun XIA

President, IWRA

Directors & Leading Professor

Center for Water Resources Research,

Key Lab. of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes,

Chinese Academy of Science (CAS)


China Session, XIVth IWRA World Water Congress,

Sept. 26th, 2011

Integrated Assessment and Management for

Water Quality & Quantity:

Case Studies in China

Given by Dr. Jun XIA

Directors & Leading Professor,

Center for Water Resources Research,

Key Lab. of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Process,

Chinese Academy of Science


The 9th China Water Forum,

Lanzhou, Aug.,2-3, 2010

Title:

Water & Regional Sustainability

Section : GWSP in China


Perspective on GWSP

Research in China


Plan on workshop/ Symposium on

Asia Network of GWSP in 2012

- Prof. Felino Lansigan action in the

Philippines

- Prof. Sharad Kumar Jain in India

- Prof. Jun XIA in Qiandao, China


Challenges in the future

(1) How to develop a workable plan in

Asia region on the global

observation /date network of

GWSP ?

(2) How to get support for GWSP on

global & regional water issues?


WGSP – ANSO/CNC will make contribution on

GWSP research on EA/AP regions in coming

years!

Any comment and suggestion

are welcome !

Thank you !

E-mail: xiaj@igsnrr.ac.cn

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