Sustainable Technologies for Innovative Materials - AIBN

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Sustainable Technologies for Innovative Materials - AIBN

Sustainable Technologies

for Innovative Materials

Rudy Koopmans,

Core R&D, Dow Benelux BV


R.J. Koopmans


Some facts

• Plastics as materials in 2005:

• > 200 Million mT

• Growing with GDP

Major Plastics Capacity 2005

80000

70000

Thousand mT

60000

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0

23%

9%

PE PP PVC PS PET ABS PA PC NR SR

2%

3%

8%

55%

Automotive Agriculture Electrical & Electronic

Building Leasure & Sports Packaging

R.J. Koopmans


Polymer Processing

Feedstock

Application

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Polyolefin Plastic Production

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Renewable Feedstocks

Can Lower Dependency

on Petrochemicals and

Be Cost Effective

World Consumption of Oil, Gas and Coal

Chemical Industry Feedstock Consumption

$0.39

$0.26 $0.07

$0.40

R.J. Koopmans

Page 6 of 34


Emerging Future – Duality in Feedstock & Processes

97%

Energy

Oil Based

Oil

Well

Refinery

3%

Petrochemicals

Heat

Pressure

Catalyst

Renewable Resources Based

Oils

85% x%

FARM

Feed /

Food

25%

Food

Commodity

Processor

Carbo-

hydrate

80%

15%

75%

20%

Bioprocessing

Plant

Expression

Specialty

Processor

Broad variety of commodity and differentiated chemicals and plastics

R.J. Koopmans


$ustainable Chemistry

• Green chemistry

• Use of renewable resources

» Sugars, vegetable oils, lignin, proteins

• Fine & bulk chemicals, pharmaceuticals, bio-colorants,

solvents, bioplastics, vitamins, food additives, biopesticides,

bio-fuel (ethanol, biodiesel)

• White/Industrial Biotechnology

• Biocatalysis (enzymes & cells)

• Fermentation (micro-organisms + break- through in genetic

engineering)

R.J. Koopmans


Seed Oils:

Attractive Alternative to Petrochemical Feedstock

O

O

O

O

O

O

18:2

18:1

18:1

Flexible Foam

Applications:

• Bedding

• Furniture

• Automotive seats

• Carpet

R.J. Koopmans


Steps to Innovative Materials

• Learning from Nature

• Taking the Long View

R.J. Koopmans


What Don’t We Know?

How Far Can

We Push

Chemical Self

Assembly?

Synthetic chemistry - The last 100 years:

making & breaking strong covalent bonds

Science, Vol 309, July 2005

Nature – The last 1,000,000,000 years:

knit together small molecules using weak links

• Hydrogen bonds

• van der Waals forces

• π-π interactions

• ionic forces

R.J. Koopmans


19 th Century Chemistry

Archibald Scott Couper

1858 – Tetra-valence of C

1865 – Hexagonal ring of Benzene

Auguste Kekulé

“The production of

the complex from

the simple, is

outside the

competence of the

merely human. It is

the work of a

creator, or of a life

force operating

within living

systems.”

R.J. Koopmans


21 st Century Chemistry

?

“Design & build materials

structure chemically from

the bottom up”

Get used to thinking

a bit more like

Nature!

Robert F, Service

R.J. Koopmans

Anion hopping of (and on) functional oligoarginines: from chloroform to cells

Naomi Sakai, Shiroh Futaki and Stefan Matile, Soft Matter, 2006, 2, 636


What does it mean today?

• Self-Assembly

• Self-assembly is a

method of

spontaneous

organization of

molecules into higher

order structures and

defined by the set

boundary conditions

• Fundamental Rules

• Like prefer like

• Assembly governed by

energetically

favorable reactions

*Biomimetic self-assembled nanofibers

Ho-Wook Jun, Sergey E. Paramonov and Jeffrey D. Hartgerink, Soft Matter, 2006,

2, 177

Biomimetic silicification of 3D polyamine-rich scaffolds assembled by direct

ink writing

Mingjie Xu, Gregory M. Gratson, Eric B. Duoss, Robert F. Shepherd and Jennifer A.

Lewis, Soft Matter, 2006, 2, 205

*

R.J. Koopmans


Natural polymers as Material Building Blocks

• Peptides & Proteins

• Polynucleotides

• DNA

• RNA

• Polysacharides

• Cellulose

• Starch

• Lipids

• Hybrids

• Organic - Organic

• Organic - Inorganic

HO

HO

nano-surfaces

4

3

OH

6

5

2

OH

O

1

O

4

6

OH

HO

3

5

O

2

OH

1

O

H

n/2

R.J. Koopmans


Bio-Inspired Materials Structural Proteins

Biomaterials Examples:

Bio-adhesive: blue mussel (A 3 KYKA 4 YK)

Collagen: (GPHyp)

Coiled-coils: (Leucine zippers)

Elastin: (VPGVG)

Silk: silkworm ((AG) n XG repetitive sequence)

dragline spider (A n GGX)

J. Van Hest - TUN

San Diego State University College of Sciences

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Self Assembling Peptides

Highly cooperative H-bonds

Cross-strand attractive forces

Lateral recognition of adjacent beta-sheet strands

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Self Healing Peptide Surface Coatings

C.Whitehouse, J.Fang, A.Aggeli, M.Bell, R.Brydson, C.Fishwick, J.Henderson, C.Knobler, N.Boden et al, . Angewandte

Chemie, in press

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Peptide Self-Assembly

S. Zhang - MIT

R.J. Koopmans


Natural Silks:

Dragline spider silk is nature’s high performance fiber

“biosteel”

J. Van Hest - TUN

R.J. Koopmans


Processing Silk

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Innovative Glues: fibrillar microstructures

Hemisphaerota cyanea

Gekko gecko

1 mm 100 μm

6 μm

10 μm

10 μm

70 g!

1 μm Anolis carolinensis

T. Eisner & D.J. Aneshansley.

PNAS 97, 6568-6573 (2000).

N.W. Rizzo, et al. J. Roy. Soc. Interface 3, 441-451 (2006).

R.J. Koopmans


Industrial Importance of Adhesion

• Lamination

• composites, paint, coatings, safety glass

• Miniaturization of mechanical components

• micro/nano structures

• Adhesives Proper

• permanent (glues,epoxies)

• reusable (PSA)

• Biology

• Cell adhesion, protein interactions, blood clots

20 μm

http://www.healthsystem.virginia.e

du/internet/bims_mmsb/home.cfm

R.J. Koopmans


Super Hard Coatings: Nacre

10-20 micron wide, 0.5 micron thick

Proteins keeps hexagonal Aragonite platelets in place

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Perspectives

• Plastics are here to stay!

• Green chemistry & White biotechnology

Materials innovation inspired by nature

• Bottom up approach

• New “Materials transformation” challenges

• Polymer Processing will get a new dimension

R.J. Koopmans


Thank You


The Human Element

• Dow Advertisement campaign

• Based on 2015 sustainability goals

• Collaboration with communities

• Product responsibility and stewardship

• Focus on energy and climate change

• Enable breakthroughs for humanity

challenges

• Durable clean drinking water availability

• Adequate food supplies

• Decent housing

• Personal health and safety

R.J. Koopmans

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