DAFF - Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

DAFF - Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

DAFF - Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries


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<strong>DAFF</strong><br />

May 2013<br />

Official newsletter <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong><br />

3<br />

4<br />

Also in this issue:<br />


Germany made<br />

undertaking to increase<br />

trade in Africa<br />


<strong>DAFF</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

DPW bring<br />

hope<br />

CAADP recognising role<br />

players<br />

By Samuel Kgatla<br />

5<br />


Global Feed <strong>and</strong> Food<br />

congress<br />

6<br />


Record-keeping important<br />

in the dairy industry<br />

8<br />

SECTOR<br />

9<br />

Outbreak <strong>of</strong> armyworms<br />

SECTOR<br />

Mr Thulas Nxesi,<br />

Minister <strong>of</strong> Public<br />

Works <strong>and</strong> Ms Tina<br />

Joemat-Pettersson,<br />

Minister <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong>.<br />

11<br />

12<br />

Animal Identification in<br />

Beef Cattle<br />

SECTOR<br />

UN launches the<br />

International Year <strong>of</strong><br />

Quinoa<br />

SECTOR<br />

Monsanto <strong>and</strong> UP<br />

collaborative research<br />

programme<br />

From now on, people in Alfred Nzo<br />

District Municipality in the Eastern<br />

Cape believe that things will improve<br />

<strong>and</strong> change for the better.<br />

This comes after successful site visits by<br />

ministers <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>,<br />

<strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong> (<strong>DAFF</strong>), Ms<br />

Tina Joemat-Pettersson <strong>and</strong> <strong>Department</strong><br />

<strong>of</strong> Public Works (DPW), Mr Thulas Nxesi,<br />

to Mvenyane <strong>and</strong> Ntsizwa projects in<br />

Matatiele <strong>and</strong> Mount Ayliff in April. The<br />

main purpose <strong>of</strong> the trip was to visit <strong>and</strong><br />

determine the conditions <strong>of</strong> the projects<br />

<strong>and</strong> see how both ministers can assist. The<br />

visits were also part <strong>of</strong> the Working For<br />

Water Programme (WfW). The partnership<br />

is expected to benefit many communities<br />

<strong>and</strong> the above departments are expected<br />

to play a vital role to ensure that the WfW<br />

Programme works well <strong>and</strong> benefits all<br />

the people.<br />

WfW is a joint multidepartmental initiative<br />

between <strong>DAFF</strong>, DPW, <strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong><br />

Environmental Affairs (DEA) <strong>and</strong> <strong>Department</strong><br />

<strong>of</strong> Water Affairs (DWA) <strong>and</strong> it was<br />

to p 2

<strong>Department</strong>al<br />

CEO Forum meeting<br />

By Musa Khumalo<br />

The <strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong>, in association<br />

with the CEOs <strong>of</strong> the different private<br />

sectors, held a meeting sponsored by<br />

the Industrial Development Cooperation<br />

(IDC) on issues that challenge both<br />

government <strong>and</strong> the private sector at<br />

the Saint Georges Hotel <strong>and</strong> Conference<br />

Centre on 24 April 2012.<br />

The CEO Forum meeting is held twice<br />

every year <strong>and</strong> involves the partnership<br />

between government <strong>and</strong> the private<br />

sectors in agriculture, forestry <strong>and</strong> fisheries.<br />

The chairpersonship rotates between<br />

the industry <strong>and</strong> the department’s senior<br />

head, Acting Director-General Mr Sipho<br />

Ntombela.<br />

Decisions were taken during the meeting<br />

regarding the L<strong>and</strong> Audit <strong>and</strong> the uncertainty<br />

that surrounds l<strong>and</strong> policies. It was<br />

agreed that the Director-General or the<br />

Chief L<strong>and</strong> Surveyor <strong>of</strong> Rural Development<br />

<strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Reform would be present in the<br />

next meeting to present a comprehensive<br />

picture <strong>of</strong> their policy initiatives around<br />

l<strong>and</strong> reform.<br />

With regard to the Strategic Infrastructure<br />

Project 11 (SIP 11) which addresses<br />

agro-logistics <strong>and</strong> rural infrastructure<br />

constraints in the country, the National<br />

Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC)<br />

has been commissioned by the department<br />

to monitor <strong>and</strong> evaluate SIP 11,<br />

which is a partnership between the private<br />

<strong>and</strong> public sectors. Mr Sipho Ntombela<br />

suggested that the private sector, though<br />

it has self-funded projects, should report<br />

to the department on the progress. In this<br />

way, the department could assist them with<br />

skills development <strong>and</strong> funding, among<br />

other things, so that the department can<br />

keep a record <strong>of</strong> job creation within the<br />

sector.<br />

The small, medium <strong>and</strong> micro enterprises<br />

(SMMEs) from the West Coast rock<br />

lobster sector, represented by Ms Mymoena<br />

Poggenpoel, commented on the joys<br />

<strong>of</strong> working with the department <strong>and</strong> they<br />

were pleased with the way <strong>of</strong> addressing<br />

the issues <strong>of</strong> small-scale fisheries.<br />

There is an implementing body which<br />

meets every six weeks <strong>and</strong> serves as the<br />

arm <strong>of</strong> the forum. The steering committee<br />

oversees <strong>and</strong> reports to the plenary on<br />

implementations that were discussed <strong>and</strong><br />

implemented.<br />

The next forum meeting will be held in<br />

October 2013.<br />

<strong>DAFF</strong> <strong>and</strong> DPW bring hope<br />

from p 1<br />

established many years ago. The WfW<br />

is a public funded national programme<br />

<strong>of</strong> DEA that aims at clearing, controlling<br />

<strong>and</strong> eradicating alien invasive plants.<br />

The WfW provides a vehicle for using the<br />

employment opportunities that arise from<br />

dealing with the environmental threat <strong>of</strong><br />

invading alien plants. In the longer term,<br />

however, some cost-effective means must<br />

be found to prevent reinvasion <strong>of</strong> cleared<br />

areas. The programme also contributes to<br />

job creation for local communities, which<br />

includes processing the plant material which<br />

has been harvested.<br />

Minister Joemat-Pettersson said that they<br />

need to commit themselves to the projects<br />

<strong>and</strong> see how they can improve the situation.<br />

“We must combine all our resources to<br />

make sure that our people are assisted. The<br />

government cannot do it alone, but we also<br />

need assistance from private companies. We<br />

must have a high-level management team<br />

to be involved in these projects. I am glad<br />

we are involved in this WfW programme.<br />

Together with DPW, we must provide fencing,<br />

seed, fertilisers <strong>and</strong> others. We are also<br />

planning to resuscitate the irrigation scheme<br />

around the uMzimvubu Dam. We must deal<br />

with the WfW programme first <strong>and</strong> then<br />

other projects can come in,” she said.<br />

The Minister also advised people to<br />

consider the issue <strong>of</strong> one family one food<br />

garden <strong>and</strong> one school one garden to<br />

eradicate hunger.<br />

Minister Nxesi outlined that they will<br />

only be prosperous if they can continue to<br />

work together <strong>and</strong> reiterated that their visits<br />

should yield positive results. He continued<br />

that they want the WfW programme to work<br />

effectively. “People must be trained in this<br />

project so that they start working on their<br />

own. There is sufficient water from rivers<br />

flowing to the sea <strong>and</strong> this can be stopped<br />

by building a dam. We must also remove<br />

the middlemen who are impeding service<br />

delivery. We will continue to collaborate<br />

with <strong>DAFF</strong> to fast-track service delivery,”<br />

concluded Nxesi.<br />

<strong>DAFF</strong>news is the newsletter <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong>. Private Bag X250, PRETORIA 0001.<br />

It is published by the Directorate Communication Services, Private Bag<br />

X144, PRETORIA 0001.<br />

Opinions expressed in <strong>DAFF</strong>news are not necessarily those <strong>of</strong> the<br />

editorial team. No part <strong>of</strong> this newsletter may be reproduced or<br />

transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying,<br />

recording or any information storage or retrieval system without prior<br />

permission from the editor.<br />

<strong>DAFF</strong>news is printed on triple green paper.<br />

Editor Piwe Mbiko (012) 319 6936 piwem@daff.gov.za<br />

Reporters Thuli Dube (012) 319 7929 nokuthulad@daff.gov.za<br />

Samuel Kgatla (012) 319 7181 samuelk@daff.gov.za<br />

Innocent Mhlanga (012) 319 7827 innocentm@daff.gov.za<br />

Rony Moremi (012) 319 6622 rincertm@daff.gov.za<br />

Mercia Smith (012) 319 6666 mercias@daff.gov.za<br />

Interns Elias Sekgwele (012) 319 7819 eliass@daff.gov.za<br />

Zwiswa Mulaudzi (012) 319 6958 zwiswam@daff.gov.za<br />

Subeditors Lerato M<strong>of</strong>okeng (012) 319 7927 leratom<strong>of</strong>@daff.gov.za<br />

Willie de Jager (012) 319 6636 williedj@daff.gov.za<br />

Distribution Pam Sutherl<strong>and</strong> (012) 319 7104 pamsu@daff.gov.za<br />

Website: www.daff.gov.za<br />

2<br />

May 2013 <strong>DAFF</strong>news No. 5

<strong>Department</strong>al<br />

Germany made<br />

undertaking to increase<br />

trade in Africa<br />

The South African Minister <strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>,<br />

<strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong>, Ms Tina<br />

Joemat-Pettersson, held a bilateral<br />

meeting with the German Minister <strong>of</strong><br />

Food, <strong>Agriculture</strong> <strong>and</strong> Consumer Protection,<br />

Ms Ilse Aigner, recently.<br />

The two ministers had discussions on<br />

issues relating to current agricultural <strong>and</strong><br />

trade policies, world food security <strong>and</strong><br />

cooperation in vocational training.<br />

Last week, Germany made an undertaking<br />

to increase trade in Africa, <strong>and</strong> South<br />

Africa in particular. South Africa exports<br />

close to R3 billion <strong>of</strong> fresh citrus fruit annually<br />

to the European Union. Germany is<br />

one <strong>of</strong> the major markets for South African<br />

citrus in the <strong>of</strong>f-season <strong>of</strong> EU producers<br />

which includes mainly Spain, Italy <strong>and</strong><br />

Greece. Approximately 40% <strong>of</strong> SA citrus<br />

exports go to the EU.<br />

The meeting culminated in the signing <strong>of</strong><br />

a statement <strong>of</strong> intent regarding cooperation<br />

in the field <strong>of</strong> initial <strong>and</strong> continuing<br />

vocational training for favourable economic<br />

development <strong>of</strong> an agricultural<br />

holding <strong>and</strong> for providing the population<br />

with safe food.<br />

Minister Joemat-Pettersson highlighted<br />

some <strong>of</strong> these issues, among others, South<br />

African citrus exports to the EU. South<br />

Africa mainly exports wines, paper <strong>and</strong><br />

processed fruit <strong>and</strong> vegetables, including<br />

fresh grapes <strong>and</strong> other products to<br />

Germany.<br />

As part <strong>of</strong> the trade partnership between<br />

the two countries, South Africa is looking<br />

at an agreement for the protection <strong>of</strong><br />

Geographical Indications (GIs) with regard<br />

to agricultural products such as cheese,<br />

meat products, olive oil, etc. The EU has<br />

a well-developed GI protection system.<br />

South Africa has just started with products<br />

like rooibos <strong>and</strong> honeybush tea.<br />

To date Germany has signed the following<br />

agreements with South Africa:<br />

• Declaration <strong>of</strong> Intent to Cooperation<br />

in the fields <strong>of</strong> Assistance to Cooperative,<br />

Legislation on Cooperation <strong>and</strong><br />

Assistance to Directorate Business<br />

Ms Ilse Aigner, German Minister <strong>of</strong> Food, <strong>Agriculture</strong> <strong>and</strong> Consumer Protection, with<br />

Ms Tina Joemat-Pettersson, Minister <strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong>, after<br />

signing the statement <strong>of</strong> intent regarding cooperation in the field <strong>of</strong> initial <strong>and</strong><br />

continuing vocational training.<br />

<strong>and</strong> Industrial Development signed<br />

10 October 1999.<br />

• Agreement with SA regarding the<br />

Development <strong>of</strong> Advisory Services<br />

in the Northern Province signed 10<br />

December 1999.<br />

• A Cooperation Agreement was signed<br />

between the Federal Republic <strong>of</strong><br />

Germany <strong>and</strong> the Republic <strong>of</strong> South<br />

Africa on Cooperation in the Field <strong>of</strong><br />

Veterinary Affairs on 26 September<br />

2008.<br />

• A Declaration <strong>of</strong> Intent on Cooperation<br />

in the Field <strong>of</strong> Initial <strong>and</strong> Continu-<br />

ing Vocational Training was signed 26<br />

September 2008.<br />

Says Minister Joemat-Pettersson: “South<br />

Africa’s partnership with Germany has<br />

historical roots. Moreover, our partnership<br />

since the advent <strong>of</strong> democracy has<br />

gone from strength to strength. Today’s<br />

bilateral will enhance the skills <strong>of</strong> our <strong>of</strong>ficials.<br />

This has major benefits not only for<br />

the department but for the general South<br />

African public. We welcome this move<br />

<strong>and</strong> look forward to even more investment<br />

opportunities.”<br />

No. 5 <strong>DAFF</strong>news May 2013<br />


<strong>Department</strong>al<br />

CAADP recognising role<br />

players<br />

By Rony Moremi<br />

In recognition <strong>of</strong> the central role<br />

played by agriculture in alleviating<br />

poverty <strong>and</strong> hunger <strong>and</strong> its contribution<br />

towards realising the Millennium<br />

Development Goals, the African Heads<br />

<strong>of</strong> State endorsed the Comprehensive<br />

African Agricultural Development Programme<br />

(CAADP) in July 2003.<br />

The main focus <strong>of</strong> CAADP is to encourage<br />

increased public investment in agriculture<br />

(by 10%) to reach a target goal <strong>of</strong><br />

6% in the sector.<br />

Since the endorsement, the <strong>Department</strong><br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong><br />

(<strong>DAFF</strong>) together with the New Partnership<br />

for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) National<br />

Planning <strong>and</strong> Coordinating Agency<br />

(NPCA) <strong>and</strong> the Food <strong>and</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong><br />

Organization (FAO) hosted a Stakeholder<br />

Sensitisation Seminar in October 2012 to<br />

evaluate existing South African policies<br />

<strong>and</strong> identify avenues to effectively implement<br />

CAADP in South Africa.<br />

A need to establish a national CAADP<br />

country team emanated as a resolution<br />

from the Stakeholder Sensitisation<br />

Seminar. The country team is formed<br />

by <strong>DAFF</strong>, <strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong> Rural Development<br />

<strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Reform (DRLD), National<br />

Treasury, the Presidency (Monitoring <strong>and</strong><br />

Evaluation), Agricultural Business Chamber<br />

(Agbiz),Transvaal Agricultural Union<br />

<strong>of</strong> South Africa (TAU SA), Agri SA, Food<br />

<strong>and</strong> Allied Workers’ Union (FAWU), NAFU<br />

(National African Farmers’ Union) <strong>and</strong><br />

AFASA (African Farmers’ Association <strong>of</strong><br />

South Africa).<br />

As a continuation <strong>of</strong> stakeholder engagement,<br />

<strong>DAFF</strong> together with the NPCA<br />

<strong>and</strong> FAO, hosted another workshop in<br />

February 2013. The aim <strong>of</strong> the workshop<br />

was to provide a platform for dialogue<br />

<strong>and</strong> come up with priorities <strong>and</strong> a commitment<br />

to develop a shared roadmap for<br />

the implementation <strong>of</strong> CAADP.<br />

During his opening remarks Mr Andile<br />

Hawes, DDG for Policy Planning <strong>and</strong><br />

Monitoring <strong>and</strong> Evaluation, said it is very<br />

important for programmes to make a<br />

meaningful contribution to communities<br />

through social mobilisation. He emphasised<br />

that programmes should have a<br />

positive impact on the economic growth<br />

<strong>of</strong> the country.<br />

In agreement with Mr Hawes, the FAO<br />

Representative in South Africa, Dr Tobias<br />

Takavarasha, said the days <strong>of</strong> planning for<br />

the mere sake <strong>of</strong> planning are over. He<br />

Winston Makabanyane interacting with stakeholders during one the four<br />

consultative group sessions.<br />

said 40 countries have already launched<br />

CAADP <strong>and</strong> 30 compacts have been<br />

signed; he further explained that signing<br />

the compact is like making marriage vows.<br />

A compact is a strategic benchmark in the<br />

country roundtable process. It is signed by<br />

key stakeholders <strong>and</strong> players in the country<br />

to demonstrate commitment to a shared vision<br />

<strong>and</strong> emerging strategies to collectively<br />

address the country’s agricultural development<br />

agenda. This endorsement puts a seal<br />

on the commitment <strong>of</strong> all parties to support<br />

<strong>and</strong> work towards increasing investment in<br />

the <strong>Agriculture</strong> sector. He also informed the<br />

delegates that ten countries which signed<br />

the compact have reached <strong>and</strong> surpassed<br />

the 10% budget target <strong>and</strong> reached a<br />

growth rate <strong>of</strong> 4,5% per annum in 2003 to<br />

2009. The FAO has committed US$96,661<br />

to the RSA for the review <strong>and</strong> alignment <strong>of</strong><br />

Agricultural Policies with the CAADP pillars.<br />

The four CAADP pillars are: Sustainable<br />

l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> water management (including<br />

reliable water control systems); improving<br />

rural infrastructure <strong>and</strong> trade related<br />

capacities for market access; increasing<br />

food supply, reducing hunger <strong>and</strong> improving<br />

responses to food emergencies; <strong>and</strong><br />

improving agriculture research, technology<br />

dissemination <strong>and</strong> adoption.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the most important factors <strong>of</strong><br />

CAADP implementation is operationalisation<br />

at provincial level by the provincial<br />

departments <strong>of</strong> agriculture. Provincial<br />

consultations are under way <strong>and</strong> so far<br />

the North West provincial consultation<br />

has been held in August 2012. These provincial<br />

consultations will culminate in the<br />

national <strong>and</strong> provincial specific priorities<br />

<strong>and</strong> strategies, which will assist in designing<br />

investment plans <strong>and</strong> they will be aligned<br />

to the national government priorities. It is<br />

anticipated that the South African compact<br />

will be signed this year by the Minister <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>DAFF</strong>, Minister <strong>of</strong> Finance, the Presidents<br />

<strong>of</strong> the agricultural unions as well as the<br />

President <strong>of</strong> the Congress <strong>of</strong> South African<br />

Trade Unions (Cosatu) <strong>and</strong> representatives<br />

<strong>of</strong> the private sector.<br />

4<br />

May 2013 <strong>DAFF</strong>news No. 5

<strong>Department</strong>al<br />

Global<br />

Feed <strong>and</strong> Food<br />

Congress<br />

Sun City International was abuzz with<br />

global feed <strong>and</strong> food value experts for<br />

a good cause. The 650 global leaders<br />

from various parts <strong>of</strong> the world<br />

converged for the 4 th Global Feed <strong>and</strong><br />

Food Congress (GFFC) in North West,<br />

South Africa from 10 to 12 April 2013.<br />

This was the first time it was held on<br />

African soil after it had been hosted in<br />

Brazil in 2005 <strong>and</strong> 2007, as well as in<br />

Mexico in 2010.<br />

The theme for the 4 th GFFC, which is<br />

“Safe Feed <strong>and</strong> Food for All” links to the<br />

global challenge to feed 9 billion people<br />

by 2050 <strong>and</strong> to do so sustainably. The<br />

theme further reflects the aspirations <strong>of</strong> the<br />

entire feed <strong>and</strong> food value chain. The main<br />

aim <strong>of</strong> the event organised by the Animal<br />

Feed Manufacturers’ Association (AFMA),<br />

International Feed Industry Federation<br />

(IFIF) <strong>and</strong> Food <strong>and</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong> Organization<br />

<strong>of</strong> the United Nations (FAO) has<br />

always been to provide a global platform<br />

for the industry, experts <strong>and</strong> governments<br />

to come together to discuss critical issues<br />

<strong>of</strong> food <strong>and</strong> feed safety, technology <strong>and</strong><br />

sustainability.<br />

Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Hlengiwe Mkhize, Deputy<br />

Minister <strong>of</strong> Economic Development, represented<br />

the South African government<br />

<strong>and</strong> said that South Africa is proud to be<br />

hosting the 4 th GFFC.<br />

“In South Africa, when we talk about<br />

food security we also include the issue <strong>of</strong><br />

l<strong>and</strong> reform. Even our President, Jacob<br />

Zuma, alluded to that during his State <strong>of</strong><br />

the Nation Address this year. <strong>Agriculture</strong><br />

remains one <strong>of</strong> the most important drivers<br />

<strong>of</strong> our economy. Our small-scale farmers<br />

must be assisted so that our l<strong>and</strong> can be<br />

more productive. This congress affords<br />

us the opportunity to review the key legislative,<br />

trade <strong>and</strong> practical aspects <strong>of</strong> a<br />

sector that plays a key role in food safety<br />

<strong>and</strong> security,” she said.<br />

She further urged delegates to learn<br />

from one another <strong>and</strong> to recognise the<br />

importance <strong>of</strong> transfer <strong>of</strong> technology <strong>and</strong><br />

partnerships, which are the key to increasing<br />

global feed <strong>and</strong> food production <strong>and</strong><br />

food security worldwide.<br />

Mario Sergio Cutait, Chairperson <strong>of</strong><br />

IFIF thanked the people <strong>of</strong> Africa, especially<br />

South Africans, for their hospitality.<br />

He also added that that the congress was<br />

first class in terms <strong>of</strong> organisation.<br />

“I think the feed <strong>and</strong> food industry does<br />

not know how strong <strong>and</strong> powerful we<br />

are. We must be proud <strong>of</strong> what we did<br />

in South Africa. I close the congress with<br />

more energy than that which I had when<br />

I was opening it. The congress was the<br />

best <strong>and</strong> we had many good speakers.<br />

I want to thank you all <strong>and</strong> I hope to<br />

see you soon at our next meeting,” he<br />

concluded.<br />

Meanwhile, international delegates<br />

also proved that they can excel in<br />

dancing. This was noticed during<br />

the beach party at the<br />

Valley <strong>of</strong> the Waves at<br />

Sun City. The party<br />

also presented<br />

to everyo<br />

n e<br />

By Samuel Kgatla<br />

an opportunity to network <strong>and</strong> exchange<br />

contacts.<br />

It was agreed that poverty, conflicts, starvation,<br />

corruption <strong>and</strong> HIV/AIDS are some<br />

<strong>of</strong> the challenges facing the feed <strong>and</strong> food<br />

business in Africa. It was also agreed that<br />

African agriculture is at the turning point<br />

<strong>and</strong> must adopt more “market friendly”<br />

policies. African governments must also<br />

recognise the crucial role played by the<br />

private sector in investing more for “food<br />

security” in Africa.<br />

The committee for GFFC will decide on<br />

the venue for the 5 th GFFC in the coming<br />

months.<br />

No. 5 <strong>DAFF</strong>news May 2013<br />


Sector<br />

Record-keeping important in<br />

the dairy industry<br />

By Lelanie Metaxas<br />

Glen Agricultural Institute<br />

When visiting dairy farms, Extension<br />

Officers or other Specialists <strong>of</strong>ten ask<br />

production questions to ascertain<br />

which aspect <strong>of</strong> the dairy producer’s<br />

production system needs to be improved.<br />

Often the records kept by these producers<br />

are totally absent or very sketchy, <strong>and</strong><br />

they are therefore unable to provide the<br />

Extension Officer or Subject Matter Specialists<br />

with good <strong>and</strong> reliable information.<br />

This severely restricts the assistance the Extension<br />

Officer or Subject Matter Specialist<br />

can give the producer, as he/she cannot<br />

quickly see where improvements can be<br />

made to dairy farm management.<br />

On a dairy farm the herd structure, reproduction<br />

records, health records, milk<br />

production records <strong>and</strong> nutritional records<br />

are very important. Let us h<strong>and</strong>le each<br />

<strong>of</strong> these records separately to illustrate<br />

why they are important for a farmer to<br />

manage his dairy operation, as well as to<br />

provide information to Extension Officers<br />

or Subject Matter Specialists assisting the<br />

dairy producer.<br />

Herd structure records:<br />

The herd structure <strong>of</strong> a dairy herd is<br />

important because it tells you:<br />

• How many cows are in the various<br />

production stages:<br />

Early in milk; mid lactation; late lactation;<br />

dry.<br />

This is an indication <strong>of</strong> how sustainable<br />

the milk production is throughout the<br />

year. There should be cows in every stage,<br />

indicating a sustained breeding process<br />

throughout the year with the goal <strong>of</strong> providing<br />

enough milk for all the months in the<br />

year. Dairy processing companies prefer<br />

constant milk production, as this helps with<br />

production targets in the factories.<br />

• It also indicates the age structure in<br />

the herd.<br />

A dairy herd should have cows being<br />

milked for their third or more lactation<br />

cycle, second lactation cows <strong>and</strong> first<br />

lactation cows. This shows that the cows<br />

are well looked after <strong>and</strong> that replacement<br />

heifers are joining the herd regularly. If<br />

there are only young cows in the herd,<br />

the farmer should improve the health <strong>and</strong><br />

general management programme, <strong>and</strong> if<br />

there are very few first lactation cows joining<br />

the herd, the farmer should investigate<br />

the reproduction programme on the farm<br />

for problems.<br />

Reproduction records:<br />

The reproduction records on a dairy<br />

farm are very important because they<br />

provide information on:<br />

• The bull used to inseminate the cows<br />

<strong>and</strong> heifers (AI or natural mating).<br />

This is very important as breeding the<br />

daughter (or another genetic relationship)<br />

with the same bull as the mother<br />

causes serious inbreeding. Inbreeding is<br />

a big problem in the dairy industry, <strong>and</strong><br />

help from pr<strong>of</strong>essionals (like <strong>of</strong>ficials from<br />

semen companies or Herd Improvement<br />

Scheme <strong>of</strong>ficials (ARC, breed societies,<br />

Stamboek) when selecting semen for<br />

artificial insemination is very important.<br />

For this reason the pedigree <strong>of</strong> the cow<br />

<strong>and</strong> the resultant calf is vital. From this<br />

information pr<strong>of</strong>essionals can determine<br />

to what degree a certain bull will lead to<br />

inbreeding or not.<br />

• Records<br />

The farmer should always have records<br />

<strong>of</strong> which cow calved down when, which<br />

bull’s semen resulted in successful conception,<br />

<strong>and</strong> what the resultant calf’s records<br />

are (ease <strong>of</strong> calving, birth weight, etc.).<br />

This also gives an indication <strong>of</strong> bulls that<br />

might breed big calves <strong>and</strong> might lead to<br />

calving problems, or if a specific cow has<br />

a tendency towards calving problems.<br />

• The reproduction records provide an<br />

indication <strong>of</strong> the success <strong>of</strong> the reproduction<br />

plan on the farm.<br />

1. Are the cows taking a long time to<br />

conceive? Are there specific cows that<br />

take a long time to conceive or is it a<br />

general problem?<br />

2. Is there a difference in the conception<br />

success rates between the different<br />

inseminators?<br />

3. Are there variations in the conception<br />

success rates between seasons <strong>and</strong> /<br />

or weather patterns?<br />

4. Did the conception rates suddenly<br />

drop?<br />

All these figures can give an indication <strong>of</strong><br />

whether the difference in conception rates<br />

are management related (heat detection,<br />

inseminator skill, nutritional problems), if<br />

they are specific to certain animals, or if<br />

they are climate related. The conception<br />

rate <strong>of</strong> cows tend to decrease if it gets very<br />

hot (heat stress), during very bad weather<br />

periods (also stress related), <strong>and</strong> the<br />

natural fertility <strong>of</strong> the cows also vary with<br />

seasons. These are aspects that the farmer<br />

does not have any control over. However<br />

the farmer can improve heat detection<br />

<strong>and</strong> inseminator skill by looking at the<br />

work procedure <strong>of</strong> staff on the farm <strong>and</strong><br />

can cull inherently infertile cows. He can<br />

also solve nutritional problems with expert<br />

help or with greater diligence in nutrition<br />

management on the farm.<br />

Health records<br />

Health records are an important indicator<br />

<strong>of</strong> management practices on the<br />

farm.<br />

Regular vaccination <strong>and</strong> dosing <strong>of</strong> cattle<br />

is important to manage the incidence <strong>of</strong><br />

certain diseases on the farm. This is specific<br />

to the area, <strong>and</strong> assistance from the<br />

local veterinarians to formulate these plans<br />

is very important. The vaccination <strong>and</strong> dosing<br />

plan for a farm close to the ocean in<br />

KwaZulu-Natal will be very different from<br />

the plan in the Free State area.<br />

From the records it is also possible to<br />

determine if there is a specific management<br />

problem on the farm.<br />

If there is a high incidence <strong>of</strong> metabolic<br />

disturbances like milk fever, bloat, acidosis,<br />

this would indicate that the nutritional<br />

programme should be adapted to elimi-<br />

to p 7<br />

6<br />

May 2013 <strong>DAFF</strong>news No. 5

from p 7<br />

nate the problems.<br />

If there a high incidence <strong>of</strong> mastitis, this<br />

might indicate hygiene problems in the<br />

dairy itself, or in the camps where the cows<br />

are kept throughout the day.<br />

A high incidence <strong>of</strong> diarrhoea among<br />

the calves might indicate a problem with<br />

the health programme <strong>of</strong> the cows or<br />

the calves (as the immunity status <strong>of</strong> the<br />

cow can influence the immunity <strong>of</strong> the<br />

calf through collostrum), or it could be a<br />

problem with the nutrition or environment<br />

that the calf is subjected to.<br />

There are also legislatory requirements<br />

if the farmer has a dairy <strong>and</strong> is supplying<br />

milk to the public.<br />

• The herd must be certified to be brucellosis<br />

<strong>and</strong> tuberculosis free yearly,<br />

as these diseases can also infect<br />

humans through the milk. These tests<br />

must be done by a Veterinarian, <strong>and</strong><br />

the herd must be certified free from<br />

these diseases. This certificate must<br />

be supplied to the dairy processing<br />

company, or be freely available if there<br />

should be any enquiry about the safety<br />

<strong>of</strong> a producers’ milk. The State Veterinarians<br />

<strong>and</strong> Animal Health Technicians<br />

can also be approached to assist<br />

with these tests.<br />

• The dairy parlour must pass a health<br />

inspection from the local municipal<br />

health department, certifying that the<br />

dairy produces hygienic <strong>and</strong> healthy<br />

milk to the public. In this inspection the<br />

facility itself is inspected, <strong>and</strong> various<br />

samples are taken to ascertain whether<br />

any harmful bacteria are present in the<br />

milk or on the equipment used to milk<br />

the cows <strong>and</strong> store the milk. The water<br />

used in the dairy must also be <strong>of</strong> an<br />

extremely high quality <strong>and</strong> should be<br />

fit for human consumption.<br />

These records can even give an indication<br />

if specific problems occur in specific<br />

areas on the farm, or during specific seasons.<br />

Poisonous plants in specific camps<br />

can poison animals during spring (when<br />

these plants are the first to show green <strong>and</strong><br />

therefore attract animals), but cause no<br />

problems during other periods <strong>of</strong> the year.<br />

This would help the farmer determine his<br />

grazing programme, or determine whether<br />

steps should be taken to eradicate specific<br />

plants.<br />

Milk production records<br />

These are the most likely records for a<br />

farmer to keep, but the farmers do not<br />

always underst<strong>and</strong> how much information<br />

can be extracted only from these records.<br />

The best producing cows can be determined<br />

from these records, <strong>and</strong> this is what<br />

most farmers use these records for.<br />

Good milk production is not just about a<br />

high peak <strong>of</strong> milk production. The subsistence<br />

(for how long she produces a lot <strong>of</strong><br />

milk <strong>and</strong> if her milk drops slowly or quickly<br />

throughout her lactation cycle) <strong>of</strong> a cow<br />

is also important. The volume <strong>of</strong> milk she<br />

produces over her entire lactation cycle,<br />

<strong>and</strong> if she had a normal or short lactation<br />

cycle, is actually the more important<br />

information that can be obtained from the<br />

milk production records.<br />

The milk production records can also be<br />

used to determine if there are management<br />

or health problems on the farm. A<br />

sudden drop in production can be an immediate<br />

indication <strong>of</strong> feed problems, that<br />

the cow is ill, or that the conditions in the<br />

camps have deteriorated. It is a management<br />

tool, indicating that there is a serious<br />

problem <strong>and</strong> that the farmer should<br />

investigate the cause immediately.<br />

On the milk production record sheet<br />

(cow byre sheet) important management<br />

information should also be recorded. The<br />

cows’ calving dates (indicating in which<br />

stage <strong>of</strong> their lactation cycle they are),<br />

health problems, insemination attempts<br />

(with which bull) <strong>and</strong> any significant event<br />

that would influence the production <strong>of</strong> the<br />

cows should be recorded. This can give a<br />

quick overview <strong>of</strong> the state <strong>of</strong> the herd in<br />

Sector<br />

a specific month. This would also help the<br />

staff to determine if the milk can be used<br />

or should be discarded, for example if the<br />

cow had been treated with antibiotics.<br />

Nutritional records<br />

It is important for a farmer to keep<br />

record <strong>of</strong> how much <strong>of</strong> what is fed to the<br />

cows, as this information will be vital if a<br />

Specialist must try <strong>and</strong> determine where<br />

nutritional problems started. This would<br />

help the Specialist to determine if low milk<br />

production or problems with the quality<br />

<strong>of</strong> the milk could be related to problems<br />

with fibre quantity or quality, energy or<br />

protein ratios in the rations, mineral deficiencies<br />

etc. Information on specific feed<br />

sources could also assist in determining if<br />

there were quality problems with specific<br />

batches <strong>of</strong> feed. The cost <strong>of</strong> feeding the<br />

cows versus the income received through<br />

the milk is also <strong>of</strong> utmost importance, as<br />

a farming operation that runs at a loss<br />

cannot be sustainable.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Though keeping these records can be<br />

seen as a lot <strong>of</strong> work, if the regular recordkeeping<br />

procedure is incorporated<br />

into the daily routine <strong>of</strong> the dairy farm,<br />

it is easy to implement. The information<br />

supplied by these records is priceless, as<br />

it assists the farmer with his daily management<br />

tasks, AND can help the Extension<br />

Officer or Subject Matter Specialist to<br />

assist the manager when <strong>and</strong> if problems<br />

do occur.<br />

No. 5 <strong>DAFF</strong>news May 2013<br />


<strong>Department</strong>al<br />

Phytosanitary import measures<br />

for fresh citrus fruit<br />

Citrus black spot (CBS) is caused by<br />

the fungus Guignardia citricarpa <strong>and</strong><br />

results in superficial blemishes on<br />

fruit, affecting the cosmetic appeal <strong>of</strong><br />

the fruit.<br />

Within the global trade environment,<br />

the introduction <strong>and</strong> spread <strong>of</strong> plant pests<br />

are managed through the application <strong>of</strong><br />

phytosanitary measures, provided that such<br />

measures are scientifically justifiable.<br />

In 1992 the European Economic Community<br />

<strong>and</strong> in 2000 the European Union<br />

(EU) implemented phytosanitary measures<br />

to prevent the entry <strong>of</strong> CBS infected fruit<br />

into their territory. Considering that the<br />

disease occurs in certain parts <strong>of</strong> SA <strong>and</strong><br />

that the EU is an important export market<br />

for South African citrus, the department as<br />

well as key industry partners has engaged<br />

the relevant EU authorities over a number<br />

<strong>of</strong> years. From South Africa’s perspective,<br />

the phytosanitary import measure in question<br />

in respect <strong>of</strong> Citrus Black Spot disease<br />

is more stringent than can be scientifically<br />

justified. Despite protracted engagements,<br />

the EU’s stance in this regard has not<br />

changed.<br />

South Africa has continued to recognise<br />

the necessity to comply with the relevant<br />

import conditions as determined by the<br />

EU legislation. This has been achieved<br />

through strengthening phytosanitary systems<br />

within the country. In October 2012,<br />

SA received further notification that the EU<br />

will be imposing a threshold <strong>of</strong> not more<br />

than five interceptions for CBS in one trading<br />

season. This means that after the occurrence<br />

<strong>of</strong> five interceptions in the current<br />

export season, the EU will initiate processes<br />

to institute stricter measures, which could<br />

include a ban on further imports <strong>of</strong> citrus<br />

fruit from South Africa.<br />

Based on a growing international body<br />

<strong>of</strong> scientific evidence, the <strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong> (<strong>DAFF</strong>)<br />

continues to uphold the opinion that the<br />

EU phytosanitary import requirements in<br />

respect <strong>of</strong> CBS are more stringent than<br />

can be technically justified for protecting<br />

the health <strong>of</strong> potential hosts <strong>of</strong> the relevant<br />

pathogen in EU Member States. Within<br />

the international trade environment, there<br />

are several dispute resolution mechanisms<br />

available to address this matter. We have<br />

gone some way in following the consensual<br />

dispute resolution processes but because<br />

<strong>of</strong> the seriousness <strong>of</strong> this matter, the <strong>DAFF</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> other key government departments are<br />

considering initiating other parallel dispute<br />

resolution processes.<br />

Outbreak <strong>of</strong> armyworms<br />

The armyworm is not a registered pest<br />

in terms <strong>of</strong> the Agricultural Pests Act,<br />

1983 as it is the case with locusts <strong>and</strong><br />

redbilled quelea, so the government<br />

does not provide chemicals or financial<br />

aid to farmers for the veld damage.<br />

However, Agri SA in collaboration<br />

with the Directorates Agricultural Inputs<br />

Control <strong>and</strong> Disaster Risk Management<br />

<strong>and</strong> Climate Change <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Department</strong><br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong>,<br />

succeeded to secure funding to supply<br />

chemicals, spraying equipment to combat<br />

the pest, owing to the high costs <strong>of</strong> insecticide<br />

<strong>and</strong> the labour required. Training<br />

<strong>of</strong> farmers <strong>and</strong> farm workers as to the<br />

spraying methods were given as well. This<br />

assistance from the department is truly<br />

appreciated.<br />

New outbreaks <strong>of</strong> armyworms are quite<br />

possible <strong>and</strong> farmers are requested to<br />

contact their nearest extension <strong>of</strong>fice<br />

or provincial department <strong>of</strong> agriculture<br />

should it happen.<br />

As reported at meeting <strong>of</strong> the Commercial<br />

Policy Committee <strong>of</strong> Agri SA on 13<br />

March 2013, the intention was given that<br />

as soon as the survey on the magnitude<br />

<strong>of</strong> the outbreak <strong>of</strong> the armyworms <strong>and</strong><br />

damage done has been completed, the<br />

<strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Fisheries</strong> will be approached to declare<br />

armyworm as a pest in terms <strong>of</strong> the Agricultural<br />

Pests Act, 1983<br />

8<br />

May 2013 <strong>DAFF</strong>news No. 5

Sector<br />

Animal Identification<br />

in Beef Cattle<br />

Mohlapo Teboho Daniel<br />

Animal Scientist<br />

Decision making about which cattle<br />

to retain as breeding stock or to dispose<br />

<strong>of</strong> by selling has been a problem<br />

not only to emerging farmer but also<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essionals <strong>of</strong>fering them technical<br />

advice.<br />

This problem is commonly due to lack<br />

<strong>of</strong> proper animal identification <strong>and</strong> performance<br />

record keeping. Consequently,<br />

cattle with good performance have been<br />

selected against due to their temporary<br />

short falls during selection e.g. they may<br />

be sick at time <strong>of</strong> selection. Therefore,<br />

good genetic material may be lost due to<br />

uninformed selection practices.<br />

First step to proper animal performance<br />

record keeping is animal identification.<br />

This can be done in number <strong>of</strong> ways i.e.<br />

Ear notching, ear tagging, br<strong>and</strong>ing, tattooing<br />

etc. However, the most commonly<br />

used methods in cattle are ear notching<br />

<strong>and</strong> ear tagging.<br />

Ear notching<br />

In this method, calves ears are clipped<br />

on the edges at specific areas to resemble<br />

a certain number.<br />

Ear notch numbers<br />

Even though this method gives an animal<br />

a permanent mark, it does not provide<br />

complete information to identify animal.<br />

Thus, a year in which calf was born is not<br />

included, hence necessitates insertion <strong>of</strong><br />

ear tags.<br />

Ear clipping<br />

If the calf is the first to be born during a<br />

particular year, it will be clipped once on<br />

the top edge <strong>of</strong> the left ear.<br />

Ear tagging<br />

Ear tags provide complete information<br />

about the animal i.e. a year in which<br />

animal was born <strong>and</strong> the calf number<br />

for that particular year can be written on<br />

ear tags.<br />

The other positive thing about ear tags<br />

is that the information can be read from<br />

a distance without invading animal’s flight<br />

zone. However, this identification method<br />

is best applied together with ear notching,<br />

since ear tags can easily be lost when animals<br />

are in bushy camps or veld.<br />

It is therefore important to give your<br />

cattle identity at birth in order to have a<br />

track record <strong>of</strong> its performance from birth.<br />

Thus, the decision to keep or sell will be<br />

based on known performance information<br />

<strong>of</strong> individual animal.<br />

Livestock imports<br />

from Namibia<br />

The Red Meat Industry Forum calls<br />

all industry role-players to action to<br />

adhere to the agreement reached in<br />

the recent past between South Africa<br />

<strong>and</strong> Namibia on trading <strong>of</strong> livestock<br />

between the two countries.<br />

The South African Red Meat Industry,<br />

representatives from the Namibian<br />

Meat Board, Namibian Agricultural<br />

Union <strong>and</strong> the Livestock Producers<br />

Organisation agreed that livestock<br />

destined for South Africa could only be<br />

exported to one <strong>of</strong> three destinations:<br />

• directly to an abattoir for immediate<br />

slaughter<br />

• directly to a recognized feedlot<br />

for eventual slaughter or<br />

• as breeding stock for livestock<br />

improvement, if accompanied by the<br />

correct stud stock documentation<br />

During recent months livestock<br />

with the Namibian ‘N’ br<strong>and</strong> mark<br />

on the neck, but with the traceability<br />

ear tags removed, are appearing on<br />

South African livestock sales in ever<br />

increasing numbers in various Northern<br />

Provinces.<br />

No. 5 <strong>DAFF</strong>news May 2013<br />


Sector<br />

Red meat research <strong>and</strong><br />

development<br />

The livestock sector is <strong>of</strong>ten attacked<br />

by the media, especially regarding<br />

environmental <strong>and</strong> sustainability<br />

concerns.<br />

The livestock industries in South Africa<br />

recognize the effect <strong>of</strong> livestock on<br />

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) production<br />

<strong>and</strong> climate change <strong>of</strong> between 4 <strong>and</strong><br />

8%. The livestock industries met recently<br />

to interrogate current research commissioned<br />

as well as relevant projects <strong>and</strong><br />

programs by other role players regarding<br />

climate change. The most prominent<br />

researchers in South Africa <strong>and</strong> industry<br />

partners were engaged.<br />

The aim <strong>of</strong> the workshop was to<br />

establish a centre for excellence in the<br />

livestock industry <strong>of</strong> South Africa for<br />

climate <strong>and</strong> the environment. They have<br />

the following objectives:<br />

• Share available information <strong>and</strong> dissemination<br />

<strong>of</strong> information<br />

• Collate other information regarding<br />

studies conducted as well as current<br />

initiatives<br />

• Study <strong>and</strong> contribute to the “Climate<br />

sector plan for <strong>Agriculture</strong>, <strong>Forestry</strong> &<br />

<strong>Fisheries</strong>” as published on 7-1-2013<br />

for comment by 7-4-2013<br />

• Build <strong>and</strong> secure an information centre<br />

<strong>and</strong> data bank<br />

• Build <strong>and</strong> secure Research <strong>and</strong> Development<br />

capacity<br />

• Identify areas <strong>of</strong> risk <strong>and</strong> potential<br />

risks, as well as prioritization there<strong>of</strong><br />

• Conduct Research <strong>and</strong> Development<br />

studies<br />

The above should be done in close liaison<br />

with participating industries so as to<br />

effectively address the special challenges<br />

facing each industry.<br />

Important factors that must be considered:<br />

• The nutritional value <strong>of</strong> meat, dairy<br />

<strong>and</strong> products there<strong>of</strong>, its function in<br />

a sustainable diet <strong>and</strong> the implications<br />

<strong>of</strong> reductions in meat consumption<br />

in the health status <strong>of</strong> a society<br />

where micro-nutrient deficiencies are<br />

increasingly prevalent;<br />

• The multidimensional role <strong>of</strong> livestock<br />

in a sustainable food, leather <strong>and</strong><br />

fibre system;<br />

• Possible adaptive responses to reduce<br />

vulnerability <strong>of</strong> the emerging sector to<br />

climate risks;<br />

• The noteworthy progress made by the<br />

meat industry in an effort for continuous<br />

improvement.<br />

The workshop was concluded with<br />

a concept R&D plan for the Climate<br />

Change <strong>and</strong> Water Footprint research<br />

focus area.<br />

The following challenges facing the<br />

industry are to be addressed:<br />

• Restoring the value <strong>of</strong> grassl<strong>and</strong>s /<br />

rangel<strong>and</strong>s<br />

• Pastoral risk management <strong>and</strong> decision<br />

support systems<br />

• Improved production efficiency<br />

• Global warming <strong>and</strong> sustainable<br />

livestock production<br />

• The disconnection between food <strong>and</strong><br />

nutrition needs<br />

• Greenhouse gasses from South<br />

African livestock, carbon sequestration<br />

<strong>and</strong> water footprint (Measuring<br />

techniques <strong>and</strong> Database <strong>of</strong> national<br />

<strong>and</strong> regional figures)<br />

• Greenhouse gas, water <strong>and</strong> waste<br />

management<br />

• Emerging sector<br />

• Food security<br />

The meat sector considers it vital to have<br />

a balanced perception <strong>of</strong> how products<br />

are produced <strong>and</strong> consumed <strong>and</strong> best<br />

contributes to a sustainable food system.<br />

It is encouraging that other industries contribute<br />

resources to RMRD SA to manage<br />

the process.<br />

Liaison will be coordinated by Pr<strong>of</strong> Hettie<br />

Schönfeldt, RMRD SA Research Manager<br />

<strong>and</strong> Dr Giel Scholtz, Subject Working<br />

Group Coordinator<br />

For further information contact send an<br />

email to info@rmrdsa.co.za<br />

10<br />

May 2013 <strong>DAFF</strong>news No. 5

Sector<br />

UN launches the International<br />

Year <strong>of</strong> Quinoa<br />

By Rony Moremi<br />

The United Nations (UN) launched the<br />

International Year <strong>of</strong> Quinoa <strong>and</strong> the<br />

aim <strong>of</strong> declaring 2013, International<br />

Year <strong>of</strong> Quinoa is to raise awareness <strong>of</strong><br />

the nutritional, economic, environmental<br />

<strong>and</strong> cultural values <strong>of</strong> quinoa.<br />

The Food <strong>and</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong> Organization<br />

(FAO) Director-General, Graziano José da<br />

Silva said, “Today we are here to recruit<br />

a new ally in the fight against hunger <strong>and</strong><br />

food insecurity --quinoa”. It is estimated<br />

that 1 billion people were affected by<br />

malnutrition in 2010 according to FAO<br />

reports. The recognition forms part <strong>of</strong> the<br />

FAO strategy to promote traditional <strong>and</strong><br />

forgotten foods in order to promote food<br />

security <strong>and</strong> will also contribute to efforts<br />

<strong>of</strong> attaining the Millennium Development<br />

Goal <strong>of</strong> halving poverty by 2014. This<br />

also forms part <strong>of</strong> a broader strategy to<br />

encourage the utilisation <strong>of</strong> indigenous<br />

knowledge as a solution to modern-day<br />

challenges, especially in food security.<br />

At the launch, the Secretary-General <strong>of</strong><br />

the UN, Ban Ki-Moon said “I hope this<br />

International Year will be a catalyst for<br />

learning about the potential <strong>of</strong> quinoa<br />

for food <strong>and</strong> nutrition security, for reducing<br />

poverty, especially among the world’s<br />

small farmers—<strong>and</strong> for environmentally<br />

sustainable agriculture.” He also emphasised<br />

the contribution quinoa will make<br />

towards the zero hunger challenge, which<br />

aims to provide adequate nutrition to all<br />

people. He further added that quinoa<br />

holds a promise <strong>of</strong> improved income for<br />

small-scale farmers.<br />

Quinoa is a grain-like crop which is<br />

grown for its edible seeds, it is a pseudocereal,<br />

meaning that it is not necessarily a<br />

cereal. It has been grown in the Andes,<br />

in North America, <strong>and</strong> because <strong>of</strong> its<br />

versatility, it can be grown in arid areas; it<br />

so versatile that it can be grown in areas<br />

experiencing temperatures <strong>of</strong> 8 to 38 0 C.<br />

It has been part <strong>of</strong> the staple diet <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Andes for centuries. This superfood has<br />

been referred to as the Andes’ ancestral<br />

gift <strong>and</strong> is the only plant food packed with<br />

all the good nutrients such as amino acids<br />

<strong>and</strong> vitamins.<br />

Cultivation <strong>of</strong> the crop has been exp<strong>and</strong>ed<br />

to Kenya, North India, North America<br />

<strong>and</strong> Europe <strong>and</strong> it is already showing high<br />

yields according to da Silva. Studies by the<br />

FAO indicate that quinoa production could<br />

also be developed in the Himalayas, the<br />

plains <strong>of</strong> northern India, the Sahel, Yemen<br />

<strong>and</strong> other arid regions <strong>of</strong> the world.<br />

As a way <strong>of</strong> promoting food security<br />

through consumption <strong>of</strong> indigenous<br />

foods, the <strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Agriculture</strong>,<br />

<strong>Forestry</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Fisheries</strong> (<strong>DAFF</strong>) developed<br />

a national strategy on indigenous food<br />

crops. Indigenous crops are crops that<br />

have their origin in South Africa or Africa,<br />

crops such as sorghum, cow pea, millet<br />

<strong>and</strong> amaranth. The purpose <strong>of</strong> the strategy<br />

is to lay a foundation <strong>and</strong> framework for<br />

the development <strong>of</strong> the indigenous crop<br />

sector through supporting research <strong>and</strong><br />

technology development <strong>of</strong> indigenous<br />

crops, promoting sustainable production<br />

practices <strong>and</strong> promoting consumption <strong>of</strong><br />

these crops to create a dem<strong>and</strong> on both<br />

the local <strong>and</strong> export markets. <strong>DAFF</strong> also<br />

hosted a consultative workshop to solicit<br />

inputs from stakeholders regarding the<br />

strategy last year. The strategy has been<br />

submitted for internal approval.<br />

No. 5 <strong>DAFF</strong>news May 2013<br />


Sector<br />

SA’s foot-<strong>and</strong>-mouth disease<br />

application rejected<br />

The OIE has rejected South Africa’s<br />

application to be decared free <strong>of</strong> foot<strong>and</strong>-mouth<br />

disease.<br />

The OIE questioned certain technical<br />

details regarding the Directorate Animal<br />

Welfare’s testing procedures. South Africa<br />

will be able to again apply in September<br />

2013, but this application will only be<br />

considered in May 2014. Pork producers<br />

are, however fortunate in that they can still<br />

export pork if they are compartmentalised.<br />

This is, however, not true for other red<br />

meat species.
<br />

Imports<br />

Significant drop in imports in February<br />

There was a significant drop in imports<br />

in February compared to the previous<br />

year. It seems that the weakening R<strong>and</strong> is<br />

having an effect on imports. A total <strong>of</strong> 33<br />

314 tons <strong>of</strong> pork were imported in 2012.<br />

This is the highest import figure ever. The<br />

main exporting countries so far this year<br />

are Germany, Canada <strong>and</strong> Spain. Imports<br />

from Germany alone represent more than<br />

37% <strong>of</strong> total imports. Ribs constitute 58%<br />

<strong>of</strong> the total figure <strong>and</strong> other cuts, 39%.<br />

Monsanto <strong>and</strong> UP collaborative<br />

research programme<br />

A media breakfast <strong>and</strong> information<br />

session held in Pretoria served to<br />

inform media role players <strong>of</strong> the agricultural<br />

sector about the nature <strong>and</strong><br />

scope <strong>of</strong> the Monsanto - BE at UP Collaborative<br />

Research Programme.<br />

Monsanto SA contracted BE at UP (Pty)<br />

Ltd in the second half <strong>of</strong> 2012 to undertake<br />

a research <strong>and</strong> development programme<br />

aimed at investigating weed resistance for<br />

the broader South African farming community<br />

<strong>and</strong> to undertake the promotion<br />

<strong>of</strong> good agricultural practices (GAPs) in<br />

this regard.<br />

The project also aims to build capacity<br />

<strong>and</strong> generate new scientific knowledge <strong>and</strong><br />

under the leadership <strong>of</strong> Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Charlie<br />

Reinhardt, extraordinary Pr<strong>of</strong>essor to the<br />

<strong>Department</strong> <strong>of</strong> Plant Production Soil Science,<br />

a team <strong>of</strong> postgraduate students will<br />

complete masters <strong>and</strong> Ph.D. qualifications<br />

respectively, investigating the optimisation<br />

<strong>of</strong> integrated modes <strong>of</strong> action for weed<br />

control in the South African context.<br />

“One <strong>of</strong> the main objectives <strong>of</strong> Monsanto<br />

in contracting the University to do<br />

research on this subject, is to be proactive<br />

<strong>and</strong> we see this as part <strong>of</strong> our product<br />

stewardship in South Africa,” says Kobus<br />

Steenekamp, Business Leader for Monsanto<br />

South Africa.<br />

The programme in its current form is<br />

dedicated to finding effective ways for<br />

dealing with weeds’ resistance to glyphosate<br />

in South Africa as well as to advocate<br />

effective weed management practices.<br />

The programme will run for three years.<br />

Water quality for intensive pig<br />

production systems<br />

Dr James Meyer, Premier Pork Producer’s<br />

Consultant on water affairs<br />

<strong>and</strong> a member <strong>of</strong> PPP’s Water Committee,<br />

says that producers should<br />

take the environmental legislation on<br />

water seriously, as many do not comply<br />

with these.<br />

The stipulations <strong>of</strong> the National<br />

Water Act (NWA) <strong>and</strong> the National<br />

Environmental Management Act (NEMA)<br />

are especially important when farmers<br />

want to exp<strong>and</strong> their piggeries. The<br />

major question that has to be answered<br />

in terms <strong>of</strong> these acts is if water usage is<br />

legal, Dr Meyer says.<br />

He points out that the agricultural sector,<br />

especially intensive industries such as the<br />

pig industry, would be in the spotlight<br />

in future <strong>and</strong> would be easy targets<br />

for environmentalists. “Even if you do<br />

everything right, you will still have to<br />

prove your farming operation has no<br />

impact on the environment. And be<br />

assured that you will be inspected. Start<br />

by monitoring your water usage so that<br />

you know what the situation on your<br />

farm is,” Dr Meyer says.<br />

12<br />

May 2013 <strong>DAFF</strong>news No. 5

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