DGDC Annual report 2008 - Buitenlandse Zaken - Belgium

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DGDC Annual report 2008 - Buitenlandse Zaken - Belgium

KINGDOM OF BELGIUM

Federal Public Service

Foreign Affairs,

Foreign Trade and

Development Cooperation

DGDC ANNUAL REPORT

2008

DGDC - Directorate-General for

Development Cooperation


A word about the form. This year’s annual report is the first to appear only in a CD

version rather than on paper. In addition, we are publishing this report together with

a report by BTC, our partner for the implementation of bilateral cooperation.

The financial report and the statistical data for 2008 are found, as usual, in the

annexes, at least as far as the global DGDC figures go. Other departments also contribute

to the total Belgian official development assistance (ODA), but these data were

not yet all available as we went to press.

Over the next few months, more detailed data will be available to be accessed via the

DGDC and BTC websites and via an expanded CD-ROM.

The DGDC 2008 annual report is a publication of the Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs,

Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation.

It is available free of charge in French, Dutch and English.


Table of contents

Foreword by Charles Michel,

Minister for Development Cooperation 2


1. International policy context: development agenda under pressure 5

1. Slow progress towards the Millennium Development Goals 7

2. Economic crisis hits poor countries 8

3. High food prices, global shortage 13

4. Climate-sensitive development cooperation 18

2. Aid Effectiveness 20

1. The international context 23

2. Belgian practice 27

3. Example of a new cooperation programme: Mali 29

4. Example of a new cooperation programme: Niger 31

5. Effective aid and the reality of fragile States 33

6. Managing for results 36

7. Aligning aid on systems in the partner country 39

8. Harmonisation with non-governmental actors 43

9. Effectiveness of multilateral cooperation 46

3. DGDC awareness-raising activities 49

4. Annexes 53

1. Belgian Official Development Assistance (ODA) 2004-2008 54

2. Multi-year bilateral obligations and budget aid 56

3. Multi-year NGO programmes approved in 2008 58

Organization chart 62

Abbreviations 65

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Photo on cover and on this page: Novo Mundo


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Foreword

Global poverty remains a stubborn and multi-faceted phenomenon.

The world of international cooperation is therefore in constant evolution,

looking for the most effective approach in order to deliver results and

make a sustainable impact on poverty. Belgian Development Cooperation

is resolutely committed to this dynamic. Last year was a year of extensive

consultations, various shifts, and a catch-up movement in terms of bilateral

programmes.

Our aim in this annual report is to show this evolution, and also, above

all, to spotlight the results of the work. That is easier said than done.

We tend all too often to make an annual report into an account of

activities: to show all that we have done, and how much money we have

spent.

What we are more keen to do, as we did last year, is to paint a picture

of what effects and what results we are achieving with our cooperation.

Obviously, what ultimately counts is the longer-term results on the

ground: after all, every type of development cooperation seeks at the

end of the day to improve living conditions for the poorest population

groups, who stand in greatest need. But this often requires many intermediate

steps. Donor countries should no longer attempt to make that

difference on the ground themselves. Our partner countries, with their

policy officials, their population and their institutions, are responsible

themselves and they have to own the development process. That means

that if we are to be genuinely effective in the longer term, we have to

adapt the way in which we cooperate, and sometimes to overhaul it

radically. In that sense, too, within our own administration and in our

relations with the various actors in cooperation, lessons have been

learned and results achieved about which we want to report.

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Yet development cooperation does not operate in a vacuum. We have

observed major shifts over the past year in other policy areas - financial/

economic, climate, food prices. These are all crises with a major impact,

both on our partner countries’ scope for development and on development

cooperation budgets. Here, too, we want to linger for a moment

in this annual report and explain how we react to this with development

cooperation.

All of which means that this annual report is not just a backwards look, a

way of logging what has been done in the past, but also an invitation to

go the extra mile, to do better and to do more, for the challenges in the

short and medium term are huge.

There are various deadlines facing us in the next few years, by which

Belgium will have to account for the implementation of a number of

principles and declarations to which we have signed up.

In 2010, our cooperation will be examined by the Development Assistance

Committee of the OECD. This will entail the entire policy, the procedures

and the development programmes being submitted to a peer review by

two other members of this international organisation. In 2010, Belgium

will also be holding the European Presidency: a perfect opportunity to

drive the development agenda forward. In 2011 we will have to publicise

the progress we have achieved in the implementation of the Paris

Declaration and the Accra Action Programme on aid effectiveness, and

finally, in 2015, the world is awaiting the achievement of the Millennium

Development Goals.

Charles Michel

Minister for Development Cooperation

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International policy

context: development

agenda under

pressure

© Béatrice Petit

1. Slow progress towards the Millennium Development Goals

2. Economic crisis hits poor countries

3. High food prices, global shortage

4. Climate-sensitive development cooperation

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In this chapter, the annual report focuses specifically on the consequences

of the crisis year of 2008 for developing countries. Belgium has also made

efforts to mitigate the negative effects of the economic and financial crisis

for the developing countries.

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International

policy

context: development

agenda under

pressure

1. Slow progress towards the

Millennium Development Goals

2008 was a turbulent year. While the world was completely

focused on the risks of climate change for the

South, we were buffeted by first a food and energy

crisis and then a serious economic recession. The

urgency of the unfolding events was one of the main

features shaping the world’s development agenda in

2008.

every country. The gender and education goals are

not likely to be met globally, but there is often still

some progress being made. The biggest disappointment

is the lack of progress on infant and maternal

mortality, and there still remains a major slippage

between progress actually made and what was

planned in terms of water and sanitary services.

But the international community continued to work

steadily through it all. The achievement of the

Millennium Development Goals (MDG for short)

by 2015 remains the most important policy framework.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon released

an MDG report in September 2008 which stated that

the progress being achieved is inadequate. According

to the report, the poverty goal is likely, globally

speaking, to be attained (thanks to strong economic

growth in China and India), although by no means in

A more detailed analysis reveals that progress is

uneven across the various regions: most regions are

posting solid progress, although the pace is not quick

enough to be able to reach the 2015 target date.

Moreover, the report expresses anxiety at the growing

internal inequalities, even within countries achieving a

good average. The gulf between rich and poor has

actually increased in many countries. Every year,

DGDC drafts a specific MDG report for Parliament. This

is available in French and in Dutch at www.dgdc.be.

1. Eradicate extreme

poverty and hunger

5. Improve maternal health

2. Achieve universal

primary education

6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and

other diseases

3. Promote gender equality

and empower women

7. Ensure environmental

sustainability

4. Reduce child mortality

8. Develop a global partnership

for development

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2. Economic crisis hits poor

countries

Lower growth

World economic growth declined sharply because

of the financial and economic crisis. Although poor

countries do not have much of a stake on the international

financial markets, they do still feel the

effects of the crisis. The consequences vary widely,

depending on a country’s economic situation, its

exposure to risks and its problem-solving abilities.

Middle-income countries appear to be hit harder by

the economic crisis than low-income countries, because

they are more strongly integrated in the world

economy and the financial markets. However, low-income

countries have fewer resources and a lower capacity

to cope with the crisis. It is clear that the crisis

is afflicting all developing countries, even the very

poorest, which are virtually completely absent from

the financial markets.

‘Types’ of country

The World Bank classifies economies according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. This is the

basis that the Bank uses when determining the arrangements and conditions for the granting of loans.

Low-income countries: a GNI per capita of less than 936 US dollars. Eleven of the 18 partner countries for

Belgian Development Cooperation are low-income countries.

Lower middle income countries: a GNI per capita of between 936 and 3,705 US dollars. The partner countries

Algeria, Bolivia, Ecuador, the Palestinian Territories, Peru and Morocco belong to this group.

Upper middle income countries: a GNI per capita of between 3,706 and 11,455 US dollars. South Africa is

the only partner country in this group.

High-income countries: countries with a GNI per capita of over 11,455 US dollars. Belgium is in this category.

Source: World Bank, 2009 (figures based on GNI per capita 2007)

Belgium’s 18 partner countries for governmental development cooperation

North Africa :

1. Morocco

2. Algeria

Middle East :

14. Palestinian Territories

Latin

America :

15. Ecuador

16. Peru

17. Bolivia

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16

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West Africa :

3. Mali

4. Niger

5. Senegal

6. Benin

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2

3

Central Africa :

7. DR of Congo

8. Rwanda

9. Burundi

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4

7 8

9

13

10

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12

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East Africa :

10. Uganda

11. Tanzania

12. Mozambique

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Asia

18. Vietnam

13. South Africa

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The following four consequences of the

crisis hit the developing countries hard:

1. Trade declines. Many countries in the South

depend on the export of raw materials. The economic

recession meant sharp falls in the prices of a number

of raw materials in the second half of 2008. In particular,

oil and metal ore prices went into freefall.

Developing countries with significant raw material

exports have seen their incomes collapse; export

demand is also falling because the industrialised

countries are placing fewer orders.

2. Investments dry up. Developing countries are

regarded by investors as being more risky than

industrialised countries, and in addition, there is a

clear reduction in North-South investment movements.

Confidence has evaporated. Banks and investment

funds are strapped for cash. Investments in the

developing countries in 2007 amounted to some

1 trillion dollars, the equivalent of 8% of global GDP.

By 2008, the investment flow had halved to 500 billion

dollars.

TCX – innovative financing in the

local currency

Financial crises demonstrate the impact of the

exchange risks that hamstring entrepreneurs and

local banks in developing countries. The famous

hyper-devaluations of the late Nineties illustrate

the catastrophic consequences for financial

systems and economies. Many businesses were no

longer able to repay their loans because they had

become exorbitantly expensive.

The Currency Exchange Fund (TCX), intended to

promote investments in local currencies, offers a

solution to this problem. The fund can take on the

exchange risks formerly shouldered by the local

entities without putting their expansion on the

line. This means that institutions are no longer exposed

to risks that they cannot handle themselves.

The Belgian Investment Company for Developing

Countries (BIO) invested 10 million dollars in TCX.

The fund is unique of its kind. TCX aims to drastically

curb the risk of non-payment by businesses,

and to make a robust contribution to the development

of the local capital markets. TCX was originally

an initiative by the Netherlands Financing

Company for Developing Countries (FMO), in which

several bilateral and multilateral institutions hold a

stake.

www.tcxfund.com

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3. Remittances decrease. Migrants are the most

important bridge between developing countries and

the rest of the world. Between them, they send more

money back to their countries of origin (in remittances)

than the entire development cooperation budget

across all donors. But the crisis means that these

figures have fallen. Migrants are losing their jobs, or

the cost of living is rising steeply. So that knocks on

to their families back at home.

4. Development aid is threatening to fall. After

investments and remittances, development aid is the

third biggest monetary flow to the poor countries.

But the aid budget is being squeezed. It is one of the

most striking effects of this crisis. In recent years,

many donor countries promised to spend more on

development aid. This might prove to have been no

more than words, now that there is a greater tendency

to tighten the purse-strings. The consequences

would be particularly dramatic for sub-Saharan Africa:

almost two thirds of net capital inflow consists of

development aid. In many donor countries, development

aid is pegged to national income. When the

economy shrinks, it would mean an automatic drop in

the aid budget.

Belgium is continuing to aim for

the 0.7% standard

Belgium decided to meet the United Nations standard

by 2010. This standard lays down that the

industrialised countries must dedicate 0.7% of their

gross national income (GNI) to development cooperation.

This decision was enshrined in a law in

2002, making Belgium more ambitious than the EU,

which has set 2015 as the target date for achieving

the 0.7% standard.

This growth curve was sustained until 2005. In

2006 and 2007, federal spending on development

cooperation stalled, and in addition the period of

exceptionally high debt relief operations came to

an end. This meant a drop in total official assistance

for development cooperation, both in Belgium

and in the other member countries of the OECD

Development Committee.

despite the difficult budgetary situation, the DGDC

budget rose by 252 million euro (almost 23%) to

1.362 billion euro.

The total Belgian official development assistance

(ODA) includes

■■ spending on the DGDC budget,

■■ the development spending of Foreign Affairs,

Finances and some other federal public services

(FPSs),

■■ the debt relief operations by the National

Delcredere Office (which is a public institution that

insures export businesses against all manner of

risks such as non-payment, coups d’état, etc),

■■ some spending by the communities, regions,

provinces and municipalities.

To counter this negative trend, the government

decided to raise the DGDC budget for 2008 to

1.11 billion euro, an increase of 244 million euro (or

28% compared to 2007 expenditures). The amount

budgeted was entirely spent. When drawing up the

2009 budget, the growth dynamic was confirmed:

For 2008, total ODA was estimated at 0.47% of GNI

(a provisional figure), compared to 0.43% in 2007.

The surge in DGDC spending was to some extent

offset by a further drop in debt relief operations.

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© IFAD / R. Grossman

Belgium and the World Bank

In order to tackle the consequences of the credit

crisis, the World Bank extended an extra 100 billion

dollars in 2008 for traditional loans to middle-income

countries. The Bank also reserved an extra 42 billion

dollars for loans at favourable conditions to lowincome

countries. The poorest countries could rely on

an emergency loan of up to 2 billion dollars, over the

long term and with no interest.

Belgian development cooperation in 2008 had about

195 million euro available for the World Bank, money

that was deployed as both voluntary and mandatory

contributions. These funds financed the following

programmes, among others:

Belgian Poverty Reduction Partnership.

This is a programme that Belgium has been

financing at the World Bank since 2000. Trough

this programme, Belgium supports, inter alia, 10

partner countries (Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin,

Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, DR Congo, Tanzania and

Mozambique) in drafting and implementing their

strategies to combat poverty, for this World Bank

contribution is used to finance ‘poverty economists’

expertise in these countries. The programme was

evaluated in 2006. The positive results formed the

basis for a new phase in the programme.

In Mozambique, as an example, such expertise is

closely aligned on the ‘General budgetary aid’

programme that Belgium supported for several years

(see chapter 2, p. 40), which was linked to the reform

of public finances. The expert supported the Ministry

of Planning and Development in exploring the effects

of the policy to combat poverty.

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© World Bank / Simone D. McCourtie

Fast Track Initiative (FTI). The objective of this

initiative is to make faster progress in the field of

universal basic education in the low-income countries

(MDG 2 and 3). Donors pledge through the FTI

that every partner country can work out a credible

national plan for universal, high-quality lower education.

They supply the financial resources for this plan.

A fund helps the partner country to bridge education

spending until the bilateral donors come on board

with their own support. Since 2003, Belgium has

been participating in the financing of this FTI fund

via an annual voluntary contribution of 1 million euro.

In Vietnam, this dovetails closely with the sectoral

budgetary aid that Belgium awards.

countries. Over 500 businesses have filed a business

proposal. Among the prize-winners were also three

African entrepreneurs from Belgium with a project to

brew beer from sorghum for Burkina Faso, a project

to extract biofuel from jatropha in Cote d’Ivoire and

an ethical publicity project for Mali and Burkina Faso.

The development Marketplace for African

Diaspora in Europe. D-MADE stimulates people

from the African diaspora (living in Europe) to set up

businesses in their home countries. D-MADE gave

16 African entrepreneurs the opportunity in 2008

to set up a business in their homeland. In this way,

almost 1 million dollars is to be invested in 11 African

© Béatrice Petit

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‘Higher food prices during 2008 alone may have increased

the number of children suffering permanent cognitive or

physical injury due to malnutrition by 44 million’

(World Bank, Global Economic Prospects 2009)

3. High food prices,

global shortage

Food security under pressure

Humanitarian actions

2008 had yet another crisis in store, which brought

high food prices and a global food shortage. From

Bangladesh and Haiti to Ethiopia, food riots broke

out. The World Health Organisation quotes a figure

of 178 million children suffering from malnutrition in

2008. In the light of the first Millennium Development

Goal (to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015),

this is a painful statistic to have to record.

Although ‘agriculture and food security’ has long

been among the five priority sectors for Belgian

development cooperation, Belgium has still decided

to further boost its efforts in the future: by 2010,

10% of the total aid budget must be devoted to

agriculture and food security. This percentage

must be raised to 15% by 2015. In the 7 Indicative

Cooperation Programmes agreed in 2008 (see below,

chapter 2), 5 partner countries (Benin, Bolivia, Mali,

Niger and Mozambique) chose ‘agriculture and rural

development’ as a priority sector.

The humanitarian actions are directed towards the provision

of food aid in the event of shortages. The aim is

to alleviate need in the short term. Belgian food aid

is largely delivered via the World Food Programme

(WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for

Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). In addition,

food aid is also distributed via non-governmental

organisations. Spending on food aid in 2008

amounted to 22.1 million euro.

Belgium also plays a driving role on the international

forum and is an advocate for unconditional food aid

in cash, in other words without the obligation to buy

the food in the donor country. Belgium also lobbies

at the WFP and the FAO for the purchase of food

(aid) from local farmers’ organisations and on local

markets (see text box on P4P). At Belgium’s instigation,

the WFP has taken a decision along those lines

regarding its purchasing policy.

In order to be able to guarantee food security,

Belgium has a two-pronged policy: humanitarian

actions and structural interventions.

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© FAO

P4P – Belgium’s pioneering stance in

the campaign against the food crisis

One of the spearheads of Belgian policy is the

purchase of food (aid) on local markets, in order

to strengthen their development. For example,

Belgium has for some years been stimulating the

purchase of corn and beans from the local farmers

in North Kivu (DR Congo).

Thanks to persistent efforts at international

level, Belgian policy has garnered a following.

In September 2008, the World Food Programme

launched the revolutionary ‘Purchase for

Progress’ (P4P) initiative. The aim of this initiative

is to radically reform the way in which the WFP

organises food purchases, in line with the logic of

local purchasing.

Belgian development cooperation in 2008 released

557,500 euro for the P4P project in the Democratic

Republic of Congo. This made Belgium the first

country to actively back the P4P reform initiative.

So as the pioneer, Belgium has also brought about

a multiplier effect.

P4P will be rolled out in 20 pilot countries in Africa

and Central America over the next 5 years. At least

350,000 local farmers will gain easier access to reliable

markets, where they can sell their goods for

honest, competitive prices.

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‘The thing is to allocate funds for research

into sustainable agricultural methods,

because world food production may indeed

have already reached its peak’.

Olivier de Schutter, UN Special Rapporteur

on the Right to Food since 1 May 2008

© DGOS / Jean-Yves Standaert

Structural interventions

Of at least equal importance are the structural interventions

designed to increase and improve food

production. Where food aid serves to react urgently

to a food shortage, structural interventions need to

prevent such shortages. The Belgian Survival Fund (BSF)

has been specially set up to improve food security in the

poorest African countries with the help of long-term

projects. This fund was established in 1999 at the

initiative of Parliament – what it is, in fact, is the successor

to an older parliamentary initiative. Projects

by the Survival Fund seek to take an integrated approach

to food security: alongside initiatives to improve

or increase food production, account is also

taken of such issues as health, sanitation, training

and institutional reinforcement.

A striking example of a project to promote food

security, backed by the Belgian Survival Fund, has

been carried out in Eastern Tigray, in the north of

Ethiopia. As a consequence of recurrent droughts, a

desperately degraded environment and border conflicts,

the area is under constant threat from food

shortages.

The results have been impressive. Over 10,000

households have been reached by the project.

Traditionally, women were not allowed to cultivate

the land. Training and awareness-raising activities in

the communities helped overcome the taboo, and 391

women with sole responsibility for their families are

now tilling their own land themselves.

The short rainy season normally allows no more than

one crop a year, but thanks to irrigation, farmers can

now tend a small vegetable plot, where they can

harvest up to 3 times a year. The vegetables also

form a valuable supplement to the traditional diet.

After 2 years, there were already 519 vegetable plots

under cultivation.

Finally, the quality and productivity of the local

livestock (cattle) was improved, without having to

increase the actual number of animals. This was

achieved by feeding them more, improving veterinary

services and making available good breeding stock. In

the meantime, 486 calves from the improved strain

have already been born.

The BSF was subjected to a thorough evaluation last

year, from which lessons were drawn for a new multiyear

programme (see chapter 2, p. 37).

A second form of structural intervention takes the form

of support to the agricultural sector, via bilateral,

multilateral and indirect cooperation. An example of

this is the increased funding for international

agricultural research via the Consultative Group on

International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). This consultative

group links donors to agricultural research

institutions and supports agricultural research to

the benefit of the poor. The research institutions are

specialised and between them cover pretty much all

the important food plants and crops for developing

countries (fish-farming and livestock, rice, potatoes,

corn, bananas, etc), as well as broader themes such

as biodiversity and deforestation.

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© Béatrice Petit

At bilateral level, there is renewed interest in

the agricultural sector in the new multi-year programmes

with the partner countries. These include

a whole string of projects and programmes. Here

are a few examples:

In Benin, Belgium is very active in the improvement

of agricultural productivity. Various programmes

provide aid to the government in implementing this

strategy. One such project is PAMRAD, the support

project for the rural community in the Atacora and

Donga departments. The aim of this project is take

a sustainable approach to food security and increase

yields for the farmers by promoting crops

other than cotton. These include rice, vegetables,

cashew nuts and crops with a short cycle. The initial

results were rather patchy. By focusing more

on institutional reinforcement and less on the

production itself, the effects on yields were pretty

minimal. And after all, higher yields are crucial for

sustainable food security. But more income can

be made from the vegetable crops if the problems

with storage and sales can be tackled, and that

calls for stronger organisations. Compelling results

have been achieved in the area of production

control and marketing of the cashew nuts.

In Mali, Belgium is supporting the development of

livestock-raising with a project to select and

multiply the Azawak cattle breed. The objective

is that as many people as possible from Menaka

become owners of the cattle as a guarantee for

food security and against poverty. This demands

a shift of mindset in order to change both the aim

and the methods in stock-breeding, certainly after

the succession of droughts. The farmers are slowly

beginning to get away from the idea that their

survival depends simply on owning animals. The

quality of the upkeep, care for the production and

the preservation of the environment are becoming

more important objectives.

The project has made the growth of the Azawak

cattle breed possible once again, after it had virtually

died out in the region as a result of drought

and other problems. The general conditions for

cattle breeding have been improved (in terms of

feeding and health) and milk production is back

on stream. Progress is also expected once the cooperative

organisations are set up. In the current

phase, efforts are being made to concentrate on

genetic improvement and upgrading production

and incomes from raising cattle.

In Niger, Belgium is supporting the project for the

‘promotion and dissemination of the red-coated

Maradi goat’. These goats are bred by the women

in the region. This action is designed to increase

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© Vets without frontiers

the incomes of the female goat-breeders by

improving the productivity of the goats. The provisional

result is an increase in that productivity

and therefore in the incomes, meaning that the

women’s autonomy is being strengthened.

In Tanzania, Belgium is supporting the project for

the sustainable improvement of banana growing.

The project seeks to raise incomes in the Kagera

area and the Kibondo district, and to guarantee

food security. This requires a reinforcement of institutional

capacity and public-private cooperation,

so that the innovations in growing methods can be

sustainably disseminated. In the first phase of the

project, the introduction of some superior banana

varieties has made for increased productivity. This

has delivered alternative incomes, bringing to life the

banana product (wine, beer, chips, flour) processing

and marketing sector. 2.5 million of these banana

varieties have now been planted. This has had a

positive effect on profits, but also on the environment

(soil and biodiversity). At the same time, this

project has had a snowball effect on other farmers

who were not involved in it.

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4. Climate-sensitive

development cooperation

Climate change has a direct impact on development

actions. According to the World Bank, no fewer than

one quarter of its projects are running a significant

risk of damage because of the adverse effects of

climate change. A study by the OECD has shown that

in some areas, this figure may be as high as 65%.

These are sobering statistics. Accordingly, Belgian

Development Cooperation staged a conference

in March 2008 called ‘Climate change and Belgian

development cooperation policy: challenges and

possibilities’.

The concluding item in this conference was a report

by the Belgian professor of climatology Jean-Pascal

van Ypersele. The report speaks of the ‘fundamental

injustice of climate change’. While responsibility

for global warming lies mainly with the developed

countries, it is the poor countries that are feeling its

most negative consequences. In addition, they are

least equipped with the resources to adapt to it.

The answer to climate change is a combination of

two thrusts: mitigation and adaptation.

Mitigation includes measures designed to reduce

the emission of greenhouse gases: ‘greener’ transport,

low-carbon industry, energy efficiency, etc.

Adaptation refers to interventions which limit the

consequences of climate change for our society:

building dams, reversing desertification, droughtresistant

seeds and suitable agricultural methods,

etc.

■■

A climate test for every project

Annemarie Van der Avort is the new climate

officer at DGDC, where she works to strengthen

multilateral environmental programmes. This is her

snapshot of the situation.

How much progress has DGDC made with integrating

climate-sensitive thinking?

“A Climate Task Force has been set up with representatives

from DGDC, BTC and the Minister’s

cabinet. Its remit is to convert the recommendations

in the climate report into concrete actions.

The first action has been to set up an environment/

climate unit within our service. The task force has

set up a Climate Action Plan, on the basis of professor

van Ypersele’s 13 recommendations.”

DGDC / Dimitri Ardelean)

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Jean-Pascal van Ypersele delivers his climate report to

Minister Charles Michel


Which recommendations from the report will be

quite easy to implement, and which will be a lot

harder?

“Of the 13 recommendations, there are two which

we have already been working on in the past few

years. We have built up a fair body of expertise

around sustainable forest management. We have

built up experience with renewable energy projects

in places such as Rwanda. We have also engaged

in some groundwork for a policy on biofuels. What

is harder to do is to further raise and redirect the

development cooperation budget. When we carry

out bilateral cooperation, where the principle of

ownership is a central plank, there has to be a

demand for such a reorientation from the partner

country. So the ball is not always in DGDC’s court.

In 2007, DGDC devoted about 5% of its total budget

to specific activities dedicated to tackling climate

change.”

In the first phase, the new projects will be subjected

to a climate test, but the test is intended

for all projects. What is the likelihood that

current projects will have to be cut back because

they are not sufficiently climate-friendly?

“The aim is to take every project and examine what

it needs in the way of adjustments. The Climate

Task Force would love it if the budgets for development

cooperation were to allow for making

projects climate proof. But this is a political choice,

one that has to be validated by our partners in the

South.”

What is in the pipeline for 2009?

“We are organising training for the DGDC staff.

This internal awareness-raising should hopefully

allow us to include the fight against climate change

as a transverse theme in Belgian Development

Cooperation, for example when drawing up future

Indicative Cooperation Programmes (ICPs) with

the partner countries. Obviously there are also

the climate negotiations, including ‘COP 15’ in

Copenhagen, the major climate summit for drawing

up a post-Kyoto protocol. One very tangible action

will be the offsetting of the CO 2

emissions from the

DGDC staff’s flights.”

(© Béatrice Petit)

Belgium supports the ‘Programme to preserve

biodiversity in World Heritage Sites’ in DR Congo.

This programme was set up by UNESCO, the Institut

Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature (ICCN)

and specialist NGOs. The programme allows the

protection of five sites, each of which has very high

biodiversity. A number of pilot actions to conserve

them have already been conducted, in order to

increase the involvement of the local communities

in this programme. The ICCN is being reinforced

in its monitoring capacities. Some urgent action

plans also arose for the cleaning-up of the National

Parks.

In Bolivia, Belgium is supporting a programme for

integral forest management in the tropical forests

around Cochabamba. The anticipated result from

the programme needs to be more than the simple

reforestation of the pieces of forest used.

It should lead to communal, sustainable management

by the local communities. They are being

trained to grow new plants, and to manage smaller

and larger tracts of forest in an ecological way.

19


2

Aid effectiveness

(© Béatrice Petit)

1. The international context

2. Belgian practice

3. Example of a new cooperation programme: Mali

4. Example of a new cooperation programme: Niger

5. Effective aid and the reality of fragile States

6. Managing for results

7. Aligning aid on systems in the partner country

8. Harmonisation with non-governmental actors

9. Effectiveness of multilateral cooperation

21


The Millennium Declaration by the United Nations gave the first description

of the mutual obligations of both donor and beneficiary countries.

The declaration also gave the eight concrete Millennium Goals to be

achieved by 2015 (see chapter 1). In 2002, these countries met again in

Monterey, Mexico, to flesh out a global partnership for development.

They also discussed the question of the financing of the plan.

But it is not just a matter of quantity. Because these funding currents were

supposed to have an impact on the fundamental aspects of the problem -

access for the world’s poorest to elementary rights – it was also necessary

to put in place some qualitative rules. This was the subject of international

meetings which led in 2005 to the ‘Paris Declaration’ on aid effectiveness.

In this second chapter, the annual report goes into more detail on some

aspects of this agenda for more effective aid.

22


1. The international context

The Paris Declaration

The Paris Declaration laid down five principles

which combine to determine the effectiveness. They

stem from the general observation that development

cooperation was not productive, being based upon

good intentions, but riven from below by conflict and

individual interests.

The five principles are:

1. Ownership: The developing countries must exercise

effective leadership over their development

policies and carry out development plans.

2. Alignment: Donors base their overall support on

partner countries’ national development strategies.

Funding must be channelled via the partner

countries’ financial systems.

3. Harmonisation: Effectiveness also means that

the donor countries co-ordinate and complement

their actions, instead of all trying to carry on acting

independently.

4. Managing for results: Results must be presented

in order to be able to account for spending.

5. Mutual accountability: From now on, there is

talk of a partnership in which each party is accountable

vis-à-vis the other.

The Accra Action Programme

A wide gulf persisted between the intentions

expressed in the Paris Declaration and the actual implementation

by the States and other actors. Donor

co-ordination ensures a loss of individual visibility by

being subsumed into the whole, something that is

difficult to accept and dampens enthusiasm.

In September 2008, therefore, a meeting was organised

in Accra, Ghana. The aim was to reinvigorate the

Declaration and press for faster application of the

principles it had enunciated. Some specially adapted

measures and new deadlines were now to strengthen

the Paris Declaration. By 2011, a new report is

expected on the extent to which each party has lived

up to these promises.

The Accra Action Programme contains recommendations

which Belgium and the other OECD countries

have to integrate into their development cooperation.

This assumes an unavoidable change in behaviour so

that every country can convert these political intentions

into reality on the ground. This entails, inter

alia, the following:

■■ less geographical and thematic spread,

■■ focus on those countries and sectors where

expertise and competences have been built up,

■■ more co-ordination with other bilateral or multilateral

donors,

■■ making more use of the existing systems in the

partner countries themselves, accompanied by

support measures to reform the local institutions

and education systems,

■■ predictability of the aid,

■■ better co-ordination with all parties involved

within development cooperation, each one within

its own borders and procedures.

In other words, Accra seeks to ensure that both

partner and donor countries abide by the promises:

we want more, better and faster.

23


The true criterion for assessing the effectiveness of aid is

the improvement of the living standard of peoples.

Survey in 2006 on the follow-up to the Paris Declaration,

summary of the results, OECD 2007

‘The school building made from reinforced concrete

was still standing, but the education did not improve

noticeably’

The results are always shared

Interview with Marc Denys,

Director of Bilateral Cooperation

On 1 December 2008, Marc Denys became the

new director of the Bilateral Cooperation directorate.

This is his first job at the headquarters in

Brussels, after some 31 years out in the field. He

began his career in Africa as a junior agricultural

researcher for the FAO, and he has now returned

from Uganda, where as Attaché for International

Cooperation his roles included chairing the donor

groups on ‘health policy’ and ‘decentralisation’.

The emphasis in international development

thinking and action is now on effectiveness.

So was that not the case before?

The first change that ensured a much more systematic

and focused approach had already emerged

twenty or so years ago, when we began to use a

methodological framework at project level. But

even the most meticulously devised projects

remained much too isolated, set up by donors, run

by donors, evaluated by donors. Once the foreign

staff were no longer there, things all too often fell

apart, without any impact, without any transfer.

Even when foreign aid providers were employed

by a ministry in a partner country, there was too

little transfer and interaction. At that time, the

education programmes for the competent ministry

in Rwanda were set up by foreign advisers. They

also set the examinations, and corrected them. It

was just the actual teaching that was dispensed by

Rwandan teachers, and sometimes not even that.

You saw that approach reflected in the staff policy

of what was then the BADC. Cooperation staff

were accredited for periods of one or two years.

You had to be able to demonstrate your own

results for that, to prove yourself. Actually the best

thing was to make yourself indispensable – and

some local staff indeed found that quite easy.

What results stay with you from your long career

on the ground?

There were some undeniable concrete short-term

results, the immediate ‘output’: school buildings,

training for staff, planting projects and so on, but

they did not lead to lasting change, because they

were not embedded in a specific local and national

plan. The school building made from reinforced

concrete was still standing, but the education did

not improve noticeably. The point is that there was

usually no specific policy framework.

I see it as being a positive development that we

are now supporting our partner countries in drawing

up that policy of their own. The emergence of

homegrown high-quality development plans, in

general and for the various sectors, is a really

important result.

And once that plan is in place, the best way to support

it is with budgetary aid. It is better to stop

allowing any more isolated projects. Every project

24


© World Bank / Scott Wallace

causes distortions, even under the optimum circumstances.

When you as a donor support a particular

defined district, you cause an unbalanced distribution.

Either that one district is given an advantage

compared to others, or the external support is withdrawn

from the financing by your own government.

And there is always the temptation to handle the

resources of a donor project with less care than if

you have to account for the disbursement of your

own budgets vis-à-vis your own authorities.

But that does assume that there is a functioning

national monitoring and accountability system…

That is exactly what we have to support: the good

sectoral programmes via budgetary aid, and at the

same time, if necessary via projects and technical

assistance, strengthening of the institutions for

planning, monitoring and evaluation. Partner countries

are often not very far into this, partly because

donors have been monitoring their own projects

themselves for too long. But here, too, I see some

results over the past 10 years. In Uganda, for example,

there is now a great deal more involvement

by parliament. There is a properly working public

accounts committee which receives reports from

an independent auditor-general and looks at the

responsibility of the State spending and the results

achieved by each ministry, including budgetary aid.

Is the emphasis on ‘results’ not in conflict with

the focus on more co-ordination, harmonisation

and ownership? The better the mutual cooperation,

the harder it is to still talk about results

from Belgian cooperation?

Managing for results is not a question of planting

our own flag, but of clarity over what we want

to achieve. As donors, we must understand that

results are shared, and primarily by the partner

country. The fact that we, with various donors,

have supported the development of basic education

in Tanzania for ten years via budgetary aid has

led to better educational institutions by Tanzania

itself, and to better school results. That is a shared

result. Donors must not formulate these results

themselves, but must take them over from the

partner country. Partner countries must be able to

develop their own indicators. We must encourage

the conducts of baseline studies.

How, then, does the role of Belgian development

cooperation change?

Belgium has become more active in the technical

and political dialogue with the partner country,

and with the other donors. It is far more a matter

of policy work and less about the details of the

implementation.

25


In any case, budgetary aid is more a political issue.

You are negotiating with a country about how it

dispenses scarce resources. So budgetary aid is a

huge lever. As a donor group, you can bring pressure

to bear when, for example, too much money

is being ploughed into defence, or spending is not

being evenly distributed across the regions. That

is work on the ground that the embassy team has

to take on – not just the attaché but also the ambassador,

and backed by the expertise of BTC. To

act effectively, that team needs to have sufficient

decision-making authority and to be sufficiently

trained. You need, together with technical experts,

to weigh up whether all policy and monitoring conditions

are being met, and the results anticipated

are being achieved, in order to channel another

tranche of 1 or more millions of euros into the

partner country’s budget. That is quite a different

sort of responsibility, and you have to want to

carry it.

26


2. Belgian practice

In 2008, Belgium, together with various partner

countries, organised a catch-up operation in the

establishment of new cooperation programmes. ICP

stands for Indicative Cooperation Programme,

which is the most important document in bilateral

cooperation. This document sets out the relationship

between DGDC and every partner country for the

next four years. The ICP follows the priorities of the

poverty reduction plans and the sectoral development

plans of the country. The document sets out

the priority sectors and the results to be achieved, as

well as the strategy to achieve all this. The ICP is also

used as a basis for Belgian positions in the political

dialogue with the partner country and the co-ordination

process with other donor countries.

tasks between donor countries, Belgian Development

Cooperation is to concentrate in future on two

priority sectors in each partner country (with the

exception of the countries in the Central African

region, because of the scale of Belgian Development

Cooperation). Drafting an ICP is a long-haul task,

with various actors involved. This takes place in two

phases: the diagnosis or analysis of the country and

the description of the strategy.

Belgium wants more cooperation between the bilateral

programme and the other Belgian actors active

in the partner country (NGOs, universities, etc).

Possible partnerships and synergies are being explored

and encouraged, in order to exchange experiences

and good practices. Accordingly, the NGOs are

now involved in the Joint Committees in Mali, Niger

and Uganda. In Mali and Uganda, the NGO representatives

are invited as observers. Belgium is making

a study fund available in the partner countries. The

partner country can use part of this study fund to

convert the ‘Paris Declaration’ into practice.

DGDC / Dimitri Ardelean)

Henrique Banze, Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs and Development

Cooperation of Mozambique, and Minister Charles Michel sign a new

cooperation agreement on 10 April 2008

When drawing up the new ICPs, Belgium has made

huge efforts to tie them in with the new dynamic

in terms of effective aid. In keeping with the

European Code of Conduct on the distribution of

Belgium also wants to investigate whether the implementation

of specific actions can be delegated more

to other (bilateral or multilateral) donors. Belgium will

devote approximately 5% of the ICP budget to actions

falling outside the priority sectors. These actions are

indeed directed at important topics such as women’s

rights (issues such as genital mutilation), the environment,

the social economy, the battle against HIV/AIDS

and children’s rights (for instance the battle against

exploitation and trafficking), but also the setting up

of businesses and the private sector (such as measures

to improve the commercial climate).

.

27


Belgium has not stood still, and in 2008 it has already set up new ICPs with 7 partner countries for the coming

four years. The countries and sectors involved are as follows:

Countries Sectors ICP amount

Palestine

Benin

Mozambique

Bolivia

Mali

Niger

Uganda

Education and consolidation of the society

Agriculture and health

General budget aid, rural development and health

Health and agriculture

Decentralisation, rural development and food security

Health, rural development and food security

Health and education

50 million euro

(2008-2011)

52 million euro

(2008-2011)

48 million euro

(2009-2012)

40 million euro

(2009-2012)

50.5 million euro

(2009-2012)

52 million euro

(2009-2012)

64 million euro

(2009-2012)

28


3. Example of a new cooperation

programme: Mali

Malian context

At the instigation of the OECD’s Development

Assistance Committee, Mali agreed in 1996 to a revision

of the aid. Since then, the country has made

huge strides in terms of the harmonisation of the

aid. Among other things, it has accepted a joint aid

strategy, and set up a technical unit and a secretariat.

Belgium, as president of the group of donor countries

(autumn 2006 to spring 2007), has thrown its weight

behind this initiative.

is in eleventh place among the donors to Mali.

Belgium’s aid amounts to 2.4% of the total international

aid for Mali. Mali is one of the 31 countries

chosen to accelerate the division of labour in the

framework of the Paris Declaration.

The technical unit is a support group which stimulates

the reflection within the group of donors so

that a dialogue with Mali is possible. This unit has

as its global objective to help to realise the Paris

Declaration. Belgium funds the operation of the secretariat.

It is this group of donors, known over there

as the Technical and Financial Partners, that has

devised the Joint Strategy for Aid to the Country

(SCAP in French). The aim of this strategy is to align

itself on the government’s orientations and priorities.

One of the elements is division of labour and complementarity

between the donors in their support

measures for the development of Mali. The aim is to

help Mali in the implementation of its growth and

poverty reduction policy. The common strategy is

based upon new cooperation agreements, a financing

plan and the dialogue with the Malian government in

line with a monitoring framework.

In addition, a detailed matrix has been set up by

the donors, offering an overview of the current and

future aid (2007-2011). The matrix also describes the

division of labour of the donors per sector. Belgium

© BTC

29


© BTC

What is Belgium’s place in this

process?

In the period 2004-07, Belgian bilateral cooperation

was involved in seven sectors and six regions. This

fragmentation did nothing to help the impact and the

effectiveness of the aid. To improve this, the new ICP

for 2009-2012 restricted the aid to two priority

sectors. In those two sectors, Mali and the other

technical and financial partners surely recognize

Belgian expertise.

Mali is a very large country, a factor which demands

a great investment in time and human capital if actions

are to be pursued. The geographical extent also

makes it not ideally suited to achieve synergies and

complementarity between actions. By imposing numerical

and spatial restrictions, the resources can be

better deployed to the benefit of the results that

Mali wishes to achieve. Belgium wants to continue to

support the national policy, to ensure continuity and

develop a long-term view in terms of bilateral actions.

The actions financed by Belgian Development

Cooperation are entered in the budget for Mali. This

is an important aspect, because it means that Mali

is much better able to plan the income and expenditure

for the various sectors. In 2005, as much as 82%

of the Belgian aid was already entered in the Malian

budget. This is set to rise to 85% by 2010.

The ownership of the interventions is entrusted to

the responsible Malian institutions. This puts them

more in tune with the national financing systems.

One step further is the use of Mali’s own public

financing systems to channel the aid (for example,

payments via the Malian exchequer). In 2005 this

was still 0%, by 2010 it is supposed to reach 60%.

In terms of the use of Mali’s own systems for public

tender procedures, we are faring rather better,

with the percentage reaching 79% by 2005.

Belgium plans 50.5 million euro for Mali in the new

ICP in support of Mali’s policy on growth and poverty,

formulated as ‘redistributive growth and a reduction

in poverty via the revival of the productive sectors

and the consolidation of the reforms in the public

sector’.

Accordingly, the funding is directed to:

■■ rural development and food security (first pillar of

the Malian policy plan), through support for subsectors

such as livestock, fisheries and agriculture;

■■ consolidation of the reforms in the public sector

(second pillar), through enshrining the decentralisation

achieved in the Koulikoro region.

Belgium participates in the technical group on

‘Agriculture and environment’ as part of the coordination

of donors. On the basis of its earlier

interventions (institutional support to the Ministry of

Agriculture and the project with the Azawak cattle

breed), Belgium has won itself a central position

among the donors in this sector. Belgium has delivered

genuine added value in the rural development

sector, more specifically livestock, where Belgium is

the most important bilateral donor and the leader of

the group.

In the decentralisation project in Koulikoro, too (in

the Banamba, Kolokani and Nara regions), Belgium

has delivered added value, something that has also

been recognised by the Direction Nationale des

Collectivités Territoriales as being a reference and

pilot project.

As far as delegated development cooperation goes,

Belgium is making an intervention for Cyprus for the

second successive year. This intervention (2008-09)

falls within the decentralisation of the Koulikoro

region.

30


4. Example of a new cooperation

programme: Niger

The context in Niger

Compared to Mali, Niger is not so far ahead with the

implementation of the Paris Declaration. The coordination

of donor countries is still rather tentative

and no matrix has yet been put in place in which all

donor contributions are brought together or in which

common objectives are framed. The process of interministerial

co-ordination is weak, and does not yet

make it possible for the government to take over its

running, a factor that hampers dialogue. However,

efforts have already been made in terms of the internal

co-ordination of donor countries working towards

better effectiveness of the aid. The government has

also already set up some sectoral frameworks in line

with the strategies, the action plans and the medium

term expenditure framework (MTEF).

Niger has not yet fully claimed ownership of the sectoral

approach, whereby the development of a sector

(health, agriculture, education, etc) is viewed as a

whole rather than there being simply more separate

projects carried out. However, this approach does

seem to have been accepted, and to be beginning to

bear fruit, in the Education and Health sectors. The

Technical and Financial Partners still have work to

do in terms of aligning the aid to the government’s

priorities.

What is Belgium’s place in this

process?

The previous ICP, for 2004-08, had already thrown its

weight behind the objectives in Niger’s plan for combating

poverty, and focused on three sectors: basic

education, basic healthcare (including maternity

care, HIV/AIDS, nutrition, water and water purification)

and rural development (livestock, rural water

works and gender). The ICP already had a geographical

concentration, which made for synergies and

complementarity between the interventions.

The preparation for the next ICP, for 2009-12, could

not be tackled via a matrix giving the contributions

from all donors, because this has not yet been set up.

According to the same principles as in Mali, Belgium

was able to choose two priority sectors in which its

added value has been recognised by Niger and by the

other donors.

The global objective of direct bilateral cooperation

2009-12 between Belgium and Niger fits within

Niger’s national strategy for faster development

and poverty reduction. The aid is focused on two

sectors: health and rural development/food security. In

order to accomplish this ICP, an amount of 52 million

euro is being made available to Niger.

31


© Béatrice Petit

The actions being funded by Belgium are consistent

with the national priorities and the sectoral programmes.

Belgium is playing an active role in the

co-ordination of the aid, in particular in the healthcare

sector, where Belgium leads the donor group.

Belgium is making use, where possible, of the national

systems and legislation, as in the case of public

tenders. However, the use of the national financing

systems is confined to sectoral budgetary aid for

Education.

Sectoral budgetary aid for Education has demonstrated

the limitations on the use of national

financial systems. Indeed, a financial audit indicated

cases of embezzlement. At the same time, this aid

demonstrates how much the dialogue

between the government of Niger and the

Technical and Financial Partners plays a role in

the constructive resolution of this crisis. To some

people, this ‘affair’ showed that democracy in

Niger is beginning to work better: the arrest of the

highest-up culprit, a parliamentary debate and a

cabinet reshuffle. However, it remains a question

to be tracked closely.

Capacity-building has always been a priority. The

new programme provides for a continuation of institutional

support. Technical support must not become

a ‘substitute’, but it must contribute to stronger institutions

for the country itself.

In the framework of harmonisation, Belgium is actively

working alongside other donors present in the same

regions: with Luxembourg in the Dosso region, and

equally with the Belgian NGO ‘Vets without Frontiers’

and Unicef in Maradi. Belgium and Niger have still not

formulated any objectives (to be achieved in 2010)

with regard to co-ordination, harmonisation and alignment.

This work is planned for the course of 2009.

32


5. Effective aid and the reality

of fragile States

The fine principles which are supposed to lead to

more effective aid sometimes collide with the stubborn

reality of development cooperation. These

clashes are all the more violent in countries rated as

‘fragile States’ in international development jargon.

These are countries with weak structures which have

trouble breaking out of the vicious circle between

conflict and underdevelopment. This is a major group

for Belgian cooperation. Depending on the definition,

at least 6 of the 18 partner countries would belong

in this category: DR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Niger,

Bolivia and the Palestinian territories.

to switch immediately to budgetary aid. This means

that in the education sector, an intermediate stage

has been built in, taking the shape of a ‘common

fund’, into which donors pay their contributions.

Instead of direct injection into the budget, managed

by Burundi, this fund is run jointly by Burundi and the

participating donors. At the same time, the running

of the fund is geared towards improved capacity in

terms of management at the level of the Minister of

Education. Belgium heads up the donor co-ordination

during the first three years of the Fund (see also

p. 42).

A consensus exists on the fact that fragile States

demand different responses than countries turning in

better performances. In Accra, the partner countries

and the donors made a formal commitment to tailor

their aid policy and practices to fragile situations, and

also pledged to monitor this more specific approach

carefully.

The difficulties facing Belgian cooperation in the

‘fragile’ partner countries illustrate the need for an

individual approach. In countries such as Niger, harmonisation

and alignment take longer, as can be

seen from the preparatory process for a new cooperation

programme (see above).

Burundi

In Burundi, too, the search is on for a differentiated

approach. The (financial) management systems are

still not fully ready to be able to be used by the

donors as they stand. They, in turn, are not inclined

© Béatrice Petit

33


© Béatrice Petit

DR Congo

Likewise, in DR Congo, which not only shows all the

signs of being a fragile State but is also a huge,

diverse country, the international aid community finds

itself facing restrictions. Congo is the focus of a large

number of donors from all round the world. Since 2006,

these donors have set an important process in motion,

the Country Assistance Framework. This is intended

to harmonise and co-ordinate the aid via a system

of Thematic Groups, discussion and decision-making

bodies which are supposed to form a framework for

the implementation of the aid. The Congolese arm of

the World Bank’s Belgian Poverty Reduction Partnership

(see also part 1 of the annual report) also supports this

process with a number of experts and studies.

Two years later, the results paint a mixed picture.

In conceptual terms, the system is recognised by

an external mission by the World Bank and the UN’s

Development Programme (UNDP) as exemplary; yet

there is a yawning gulf between theory and practice.

Both the Common Aid Framework (CAF) and the

Congolese poverty reduction plan contain sectors

which are highly political, such as security, reform

of the public administration, and support for democratic

institutions. This remains too much a matter

of ‘development specialists’, with the political decision-making

layer feeling sidelined. After ten years

of war, development aid was virtually restricted to

humanitarian aid, administered by the humanitarian

organisations and not directed at the development

34


of a specific policy by the country itself. Against that

background, it is not easy to integrate economic development

and the fight against poverty in political

terms both with the external partners and within the

Congolese structures. In response to the weakness

of the public, private and NGO structures, the donors

and their Congolese interlocutors all too often provide

substitute aid that is detached from the sociopolitical

reality in Congo: technical assistants still do

the work themselves too often, while the Congolese

organisations should be being strengthened.

being increasingly pulled into the dialogue about aid

– which indicates that the political character is being

underscored and it is not merely a technical question.

Work is also underway on a structural strengthening

of the civil society organisations, instead of simply

using them for the delivery of the aid. And finally,

more and more attention is also being paid to the

informal economy, which ultimately comprises 80% of

the reality in Congo.

The absence of genuine ‘ownership’ is a major cause

for the malfunction in the mechanisms which have

been created just to help increase the effectiveness

of the aid. Other factors are also involved. The

macro-economic framework remains food for specialists,

and everyone expects more and better from

the public institutions, in a State whose budget is the

same as that of its neighbouring country of Congo-

Brazzaville, which has 15 times fewer inhabitants. The

State does not yet have a strong enough presence

everywhere, and it has particular difficulties in correctly

channelling the major interests of Congolese

and foreign private investors. Some of them are the

first to complain about the incompetence, but on the

other hand, this chaos plays into the hands of some

dishonest contractors as well.

The painful realisations are shared by many involved

on the ground, and are increasingly giving rise to the

reorientation of the approach to aid. For example,

the priority for the EU and some Member States is to

reform the technical assistance and have it less centralised

in the capital, Kinshasa. Diplomats are also

35


6. Managing for results

It is not enough just to report how many resources

an organisation is devoting and what activities it is

conducting. The most important thing is to know

precisely what it is actually achieving. So we have to

manage cooperation for results. This is less obvious

than it looks. After all, the tendency is always to say

how much money you are going to give, and what

activities you are going to conduct. In the preparatory

process ahead of the new Indicative Cooperation

Programmes, efforts are also made to give a clear

indication of what results are being pursued. In the

same way, when it comes to subsidies to NGOs,

they are requested to formulate results. But what

sort of results can we expect from the development

programmes?

Sorts of results

■ ■

■■

The impact on development: this result in the

longer term is harder to measure or attribute. It

is usually the result of the interaction between

many factors. Alongside the efforts by the partner

country involved and the common contributions

by the various donors, external contextual

elements such as climate, politics, situations of

conflict, economic shocks and so on also have just

as much a role to play.

Ultimately, it is a matter of the results in the

longer term on the ground. But this often implies

a lot of intermediate stages. Lessons are also

learned from these intermediate stages, and results

achieved, too, in the procedures and organisation

of the individual administration and in the

relations with the various actors in cooperation,

and this report covers those as well.

Results are not always easy to quantify, or even to

see. It is important to define what sort of results a

project or programme is seeking to achieve:

■■ If it is the immediate material accomplishments,

such as a school building, a water pump, roads,

an education programme or a new organisational

model, then we talk about the product or the

output.

■■

The outcome: the results in the short or medium

term that show what direct effects the development

project or programme has achieved. Has the

school building led to an increase in the number

of children able to get an education? Has the

water pump meant that women have more time

for other tasks?

The results on the basis of

evaluations

Evaluations of development programmes can help in

estimating whether Belgian development aid is being

wisely dispensed and contributing to the reduction of

poverty in the world. There is thus a need for feedback

of the results, but this does not suffice. It is

not enough to know what the evaluations have to

say. A relevant and efficient evaluation also clearly

indicates how the experiences collected can be used.

The importance of evaluations is no longer up for

discussion. The use of these results thus assumes

that decisions are made and measures taken which

are based upon them. Likewise, an evaluation can

show how the knowledge acquired, the techniques

36


and the new attitudes can have an influence on these

decisions. This method is particularly important in

the evaluation of the organisational capacity building

programmes: everyone still has things to learn

here. The evaluations in this field provide information

to help improve strategies for capacity-building

and make them more sustainable. Also, the manner

in which the DGDC administration itself sets about its

business can be refined and improved in this way.

So it is the responsibility of the evaluation service

and the management of DGDC to make good use of

the results of evaluations and carefully follow the

recommendations. Every evaluation must also contain

an answer, a reaction on the part of the political

decision-making and the management. In the recent

past, too little direct use has been made of the recommendations,

but in 2008, that changed. One of

the indicators laid down by the DGDC management

plan in order to manage for results is that 100% of

the evaluations must get a management response.

But the responsibility lies not just with the management.

The evaluation reports must be readable and

of high quality, with conclusions based on correct information,

sound and well argued.

A participative process can also strengthen the

evaluation. The DGDC evaluation service strives to

work this out in the preparation and implementation

of evaluations. In every evaluation, the most important

plus points have emerged because the managers,

staff members and other persons involved have

taken part in full. For them, it is also an important

learning process. The changes put forward encourage

these participants to take decisions and to act.

The evaluations of Belgian development cooperation,

whether they be conducted by the internal

DGDC evaluation service or by the Special Evaluation

Service, can be consulted at www.dgdc.be and

www.diplomatie.be. Where a ‘management

response’ has been formulated, this is likewise

available on the website.

The evaluation of the Survival

Fund

The programme of the Belgian Survival Fund (BSF) focuses

on food security, in partnership with Belgian

Technical Cooperation (BTC), NGOs and multilateral

institutions. A recent evaluation covered the activity

programme from 1999 to 2007. The evaluation report

is actively used and forms the basis for a new multiyear

programme for the Survival Fund. This is the

subject of broad discussion, both in Parliament and

with the various actors carrying out projects in the

framework of the BSF.

The conclusions of the evaluation indicate that the

context of cooperation has evolved considerably

over recent years. Nevertheless, the BSF approach

remains relevant:

■■ emphasis on agriculture,

■■ integrated approach to the food issue with other

social services,

■■ capacity-building in grassroots organisations and

decentralised authorities,

■■ attention to the problem of individual capacity of persons

and defensive strategies against external shocks.

37


© Vets without frontiers

In addition, projects within the BSF are often test

cases, laboratories for an innovative approach by

means of which relatively scant resources can still

tackle a complex topic.

But at the same time, there are also weaknesses.

In practice, not enough work has been done on

the aspect around the ‘defensive strategy’ against

threats in terms of food security. There is a lack of

more concrete directives on how to apply such a

strategy. Also, the criteria for the choice of the countries

seem not be very operational in practice. The

programme is not reaching the poorest and most vulnerable

groups systematically enough. Many projects

still seem to be making a relatively modest contribution

to actual food security - although they certainly

satisfy the needs of the beneficiaries. There is (too)

little synergy with other cooperation initiatives (by

the BSF itself and other channels).

The contribution made by the BSF to development

cooperation is, however, more topical than ever,

given the current food crisis. In order to increase the

effectiveness of a new BSF programme, it will be

necessary to take better account of aspects such as

the following:

■■ the specific focus on food security needs to be

sharpened still further;

■■ better integration into the other programmes by

Belgian Development Cooperation. This certainly

applies in the case of the bilateral cooperation

programmes, but also the work on a new strategy

note for agriculture, the application of the principles

of the Paris Declaration, etc;

■■ greater attention to supporting local, decentralised

institutions.

These conclusions and recommendations are used

to map out the strengths and weaknesses for a new

phase of the BSF.

38


7. Aligning aid on systems in

the partner country

Project aid and budget aid

Conventional project aid tends not to be aligned on

the management systems of the partner country.

A project is carried out in many cases outside the

national budget, and also often outside the policy

framework, project materials are often purchased by

(and in!) the donor country, etc. The partner country’s

own management bodies are not strengthened

by this, in fact often quite the reverse.

In many cases, a form of budget aid is more appropriate

as an aid instrument. This means that the financial

contribution is merged with the budget of the

partner country - which itself becomes responsible

for it and administers it itself, under clearly-defined

conditions (see text box).

Belgium has experimented for several years with

various forms of budget aid. The experiences were

evaluated in 2007, which resulted early in 2008 in a

new handbook. This offers a framework with criteria

for the assessment process - why budget aid should

or should not be given to a particular country - and

a practical guide with procedures and accountability

mechanisms.

We give a description below of three examples of

Belgian budgetary aid: Mozambique, Vietnam and

Burundi.

What is budget aid?

Budget aid is an instrument in development cooperation,

just like projects or larger programmes.

The great advantage of budget aid is that it makes

use of the partner country’s management systems,

cutting out the need for parallel circuits, which

place an unnecessary burden on the partner country’s

administration.

However, budget aid is not a blank cheque.

It is money that is pumped direct into the partner

country’s budget, under clearly-defined conditions,

as a contribution to the country’s general policy

(general budget aid) or to a specific sector (sectoral

budget aid). The authorities in the donor countries

(ideally jointly) and the partner country itself make

the assessment. In 2008, DGDC developed a new

handbook which set out precisely the conditions

under which Belgium grants budget aid. Belgium

itself no longer grants direct general budget aid,

but can delegate this via the World Bank or the

European Union (as was agreed for Mozambique in

2008). But Belgium is active in sectoral budget aid,

in particular in the health and education sectors.

Budget aid stands or falls with the political dialogue

between the partner country and the

donors. In that dialogue, the conditions are agreed

(policy plans, objectives, indicators) and the monitoring

is guaranteed (by reference to agreements

on reporting, evaluations, audit obligations, etc).

Also, almost always, technical expertise is supplied

as well. The precise contributions by Belgium or

any other donor can no longer be identified, and

Belgium can also not show that its money in par-

39


ticular has delivered a given result. That is not the

purpose. The purpose is for the partner country to

be strengthened in achieving the planned results

itself. Belgium can be proud to have contributed

towards that.

Budget aid is not a cure-all. In order to tackle specific

questions that the partner country cannot immediately

resolve for itself, though, projects often

provide a useful addition, specifically in terms of

training, as test cases, etc. These projects must

also be aligned wherever possible on the partner

country’s systems, and strengthen them, for example

when it comes to tender procedures, reporting

and financial responsibility, etc.

IMF stated in January 2009 that Mozambique was

effectively making progress in a number of fields of

crucial importance for its development. For example,

Mozambique was succeeding, despite the economic

malaise, in attracting more private investment capital.

Economic growth was maintained at a strong 7%.

Mozambique also succeeded in generating more of

its own income via more efficient tax collection.

Mozambique - general budget

aid

© World Bank / Eric Miller

Over the past 6 years, Mozambique has received

11 million euro from Belgium in the form of general

budget aid. This figure was added to the general

budgetary resources of Mozambique, without being

specifically allocated to one or another sector. This is

not a blank cheque, the money serves to support the

development policy that Mozambique itself has committed

to paper.

A policy dialogue is conducted around this strategy

with the various donors. Every year, a thorough

examination is conducted, by agreement between

Mozambique and the donors, into the extent to

which this policy is actually being effectively carried

out. General budget aid comes with accompanying

measures to improve the management of

Mozambique’s public finances. Belgium also contributed,

alongside the general budget aid, to a reform

programme for the Ministry of Finance and the taxation

system. Indirectly, financed via the World Bank,

Belgium also supported the Mozambiquan Ministry of

Planning and Development with an expert on combating

poverty.

The results can be seen in the annual progress

report that Mozambique itself draws up about the

achievements and the challenges. In a common

opinion about this report, the World Bank and the

The IMF and the World Bank also applaud the careful

monetary policy and the price stability. One important

observation is that Mozambique is successfully

driving back poverty, in particular in rural areas.

But some areas of concern still remain. At the same

time as a real reduction in poverty, a greater

inequality is looming – a trend that must be closely

monitored. The country still continues to be heavily

dependent upon foreign aid. Until 2007, it was also

neatly paying off its internal debt, but this stalled in

2008 because the foreign aid was late in arriving…

Mozambique is keeping inflation under control with

difficulty, partly because of climate shocks (such as

flooding) and high food prices. So the country seems

at the moment to be still very vulnerable, certainly in

the present crisis. Many issues still remain to be discussed

in the policy dialogue between Mozambique

and the donor community. But the country is indisputably

succeeding better in taking control of its own

development.

The exact contribution made by Belgian aid to the

achievement of this result cannot be specified – after

all, it is general budget aid. But there is no doubt that

Belgium has made an effective contribution towards

this positive evolution.

40


© DGDC/ Dimitri Ardelean

Vietnam – budget aid for

Education

Belgium is one of the seven donors who are contributing,

via targeted budget support, to the

Vietnamese programme for ‘Education For All’. This

policy plan for 2003-2015 was set up by Vietnam, by

agreement with the donors. Vietnam’s own contribution

amounts to about three quarters of the total

programme budget. In 2009, no more donor contributions

are planned. At the request of the Ministry of

Planning and Investment, the donors are contributing

25% of the funding of 5 components in the ‘National

Targeted Programs’ for basic education:

■■ universalisation of lower and lower secondary

education,

■■ updating of the curriculum and textbooks,

■■ improvement of teacher training by improvements

to the infrastructure of the training institutions

and the quality of the training programmes,

■■ support for education in neglected areas and for

ethnic minorities,

■■ improvement of the general school infrastructure.

The Vietnamese government took responsibility itself

for the components relating to IT training and application

in schools, boosting foreign language learning

and support for vocational training.

The most important indicators, drawn up in order to

measure the progress of the programme, show a consistently

positive evolution. For example, Vietnam

has made a major increase in the funding for education

for ethnic minority children. Via the ‘Education

For All’ programme, and other programmes in the

education sector, Vietnam is succeeding in effectively

delivering universal basic and lower secondary education.

The country is working on improving the quality

and accessibility of education. This is measured by

reference to indicators such as the number of schools

with minimal infrastructure, the number of teachers

having taken extra training, the pupil/teacher ratio,

the percentages of students repeating a year or

dropping out, the number of graduates by sex, population

group, location and so on.

The actual payment of the donor contributions depends

on the quality of the reports to be submitted

twice a year (activity report, financial report and

audit). This approach ensures an improvement in

monitoring and financial reporting by the Vietnamese

institutions, partly thanks to better cooperation between

the Ministries of Education and Planning and

Investment and the Exchequer.

41


© Béatrice Petit

Burundi - Common Education

Fund

The newly elected government in Burundi has set

as priorities ‘education for all’ and free basic education.

However, there are some serious challenges

to be faced: there is a shortage of teachers, classrooms,

books, budget … Some donor countries, such

as France, the United Kingdom, Luxembourg and

Belgium, have proposed supporting this ambitious

project. Under the leadership of Burundi’s Minister

of Education, Saïdi Kibeya, an important exercise

was conducted in policy dialogue about a national

sectoral plan, harmonisation of procedures, etc. The

donors channel their aid via a Common Fund.

Saïdi Kibeya says: “We have a national strategy to

reduce poverty. Its third pillar relates to the development

of the human capital within which education

has a central place. That is why we started working

back in 2005 on a sectoral plan for education, harmonised

with the national poverty reduction strategy.

But this plan obviously needs financial resources ...”

So the role of the donors is purely a financial one?

Yes, but they also have an accompanying role. They

can mobilise technical and financial partners.

The Common Fund brings together four different

countries. Is it not hard to work with such a group?

It is a unique and very effective framework compared

to earlier mechanisms. Now we have a co-ordination

structure with the partners. The procedures are

unique and the relationships uniform. The Minister

of Education does not have to react to four different

projects or programmes with various procedures.

There is a single point of contact and that circulates

the necessary information. It is a lot easier to work

with such a uniform framework.

Which aspects does the Fund finance?

These are set out in the sectoral plan. Basic education

accounts for the lion’s share: 50 to 60% of the

budget, intermediate education gets 25% and higher

education and the universities 17%. The first sectoral

plan, which is now being rolled out, deals with the

infrastructure: cost estimates for 400 to 500 classes.

Other elements relate more to quality: school books

and teacher training.

Training for staff of financial

management institutions

The financial management of government funds

is of crucial importance in implementing efficient

and sustainable development strategies. For the

period December 2007 – November 2008, Belgium

financed two training courses at the International

Monetary Fund (IMF) for staff from Central Banks

and Ministries of Finances from various African

countries (both partner countries and others).

These two training programmes were particularly

warmly received by these countries.

The first training course provided for a programme

in ‘Financial Programming and Policies’ for 33 participants

from 17 French-speaking African countries

(including the partner countries DR Congo, Mali,

Morocco, Niger, Rwanda and Senegal). The second

course focused on ‘Macroeconomic Management

and Fiscal Policy’ for 26 participants from 15

African countries (including the partner countries

Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania and

Uganda).

Thanks to this success, the IMF decided to extend

the training programmes, once again with Belgian

contributions.

42


8. Harmonisation with

non-governmental actors

One of the working principles in the Paris Declaration

is the harmonisation of aid from the various donors,

both the various countries and the various actors, in

other words also multilateral and non-governmental

organisations (NGOs). Over the past year, there has

been quite extensive consultation with the NGO

sector about further harmonisation, with results both

on the ground and in Belgium. The revised co-financing

of the sector (see below) must lead to a qualitative

improvement in the future.

Consultation on the ground –

the example of Ecuador

In Ecuador, the various actors involved did not wait

for the Paris Declaration before starting to work

more closely together – they have already been

doing that since 2000. Lieven De La Marche, international

cooperation attaché, outlines how, in this

partner country, the discussion with and between

the various governmental and non-governmental

partners is proceeding, and what results this has

delivered over the years.

“In Ecuador, we set up FABEC, the ‘Forum of Belgian

Actors in Development Cooperation in Ecuador’ -

www.fabec.org.ec. FABEC seeks to create a local consultation

and cooperation structure which will serve

as a reference for Belgian Development Cooperation

in this partner country. We want, in this way, to

achieve greater effectiveness in the operation of

each of the organisations. FABEC has fifteen or so

members, including the Development Cooperation

Bureau (DGDC) and BTC, ten or so NGOs, VVOB, BIO

and the local representatives of university coopera-

tion. The Forum meets about four times a year. We

exchange information and hold debates about topics

and sectors shared by different members. For example,

in 2008, a workshop was held around specific

agricultural methods and a dialogue with Ecuadorian

policy experts about the new constitution. In that

context, FABEC was involved in the preparation of

strategy notes and governmental cooperation programmes,

a point which will be particularly highlighted

in 2009 in the preparation of the Mixed

Commission in 2010. Likewise, with regard to joint reporting

and positioning vis-à-vis proposals and policy

options from the Ecuadorian government, FABEC

plays a role.

Can you regard the efforts of local and Belgian

non-governmental partners on the one hand,

and government cooperation on the other, as

complementary?

Several cooperation associations have already been

set up. NGOs and VVOB are involved in the framing

and implementation of bilateral projects – in particular

with regard to rural development and agriculture

– and one bilateral project led to a university

training project in the health sector. These intensive

forms of cooperation have generally delivered good

results. The most striking example was the bilateral

project PROLOZA, which works on social and productive

infrastructure in the provinces of Loga and

Zamora Chinchipe, where both Vredeseilanden and

VVOB and their local partners were involved in financial

and supervisory terms. The cooperation associations

can take on various shapes. We are shifting the

focus increasingly on to strengthening the government

institutions. They need to devise an adequate

43


policy and guarantee high-quality service provision.

This is regarded inter alia in the new programmes put

forward in the ICP for 2007-2010. NGOs work even

more with the ultimate target group(s) and ‘users’ of

the public services. They serve to complement the

bilateral programmes, for example by organising and

training those users or setting in place social control.

Experiences in Ecuador teach us that forms of

cooperation are genuinely effective if the singularity

of the approach, intervention mode and dynamic of

each of the organisations is recognised and if good

agreements are reached about responsibilities and

objectives.

Consultations in Belgium

1) The reform of co-financing

The reform of the co-financing system stimulates the

qualitative enhancement of the NGOs. Organisations

with demonstrable transparent operation, sound

financial health, good management and effective

action can enjoy programme financing over three

years (instead of annual action plans or even separate

projects). Recognition as a ‘programme NGO’

brings the organisation concerned more financial

security and less administrative rigmarole.

58 of the 76 candidate NGOs have already gained approval

for this three-year financing. DGDC has already funded

programmes (2008-10) for 51 NGOs. Ten or so have submitted

projects in 2008 – this still remains possible.

At the same time, therefore, there is also a need for

measures to ensure the monitoring, evaluation and

control of these projects and programmes, in close

agreement with the NGOs themselves. Administrative

and financial procedures are already operational, but

these can still be simplified.

2) Dialogue with all Belgian indirect

actors

The Minister for Development Cooperation has started

an extensive dialogue with all actors receiving

DGDC funding (NGOs, universities and so on). The

dialogue seeks to improve the effectiveness of the

cooperation.

© VVOB

Do you notice an impact in the field of NGO

reform: from a loose project approach via

annual action plans to a multi-year programme

approach?

Various NGOs have been active here for years, and

have clearly developed their own area of action and

attention. The reforms allow the NGOs to guarantee

continuity in their approach. NGOs such as VECO

(sustainable agriculture), Protos (integral water management),

Broederlijk Delen (environment and human

rights/citizen participation) have a clear thematic

focus and work within a long-term perspective. For

others, such as Volens, the programme approach is

relatively new.

In the course of this dialogue, the role of the NGOs

is explored, with regard to their activities both in the

South and in the North, in a number of fields:

■■ awareness-raising, education and calls for action

from the public for an equitable North-South

relationship;

■■ mobilisation, co-ordination, framing of proposals

with regard to North-South relations: control over

the government and the private sector so that

their actions and policy measures take account of

the rights of weaker population groups from the

South;

■■ strengthening of local NGOs and their attempts to

sustainably improve their rights;

■■ interventions in emergency and sensitive

situations.

44


Throughout this debate, the innovative role of the

NGOs was also mentioned.

So the dialogue is being continued, and aims to

achieve a consensus about what the NGOs can do

in order to further improve their expertise and their

comparative advantages, and refine their effectiveness.

This dialogue can be tracked via the DGDC website

(www.dgdc.be).

.

Against this background, the NGOs have also conducted

a critical self-examination around their strong

and weak points in terms of effectiveness. This

examination can likewise be found on the DGDC

website.

The authors of this reflection note that ‘we should be

thinking about the effectiveness of the NGO sector

in Belgium neither euphorically nor pessimistically.

Belgian NGOs can do something, but they certainly

need to work on eliminating their weaknesses’. The

government is willing to work with them in this frank

dialogue.

Strengths

Weaknesses

The coherence of the NGO programmes with their

strategic framework including the development of

their own specific features

The results-oriented character of their actions. Their

strategy to achieve their objectives and make a good

assessment of their results

The delivery of added value for their partners in the

South and the valorisation of their partners in the

wider context

Their view of synergy in the South and their cooperation

with various actors, but less with the Belgian

actors

Their solvency and liquidity

Their broad supporter base and decentralised operation

in Belgium

The diversity of the sector that is tackling new

challenges

At the level of the NGOs themselves

At the level of the entire sector

The complementarity between their North and South

operation

The weak application of the logical framework, in particular

with regard to the indicators and the application

of powerful monitoring and evaluation

The development of a vision on their new roles and

partner relations

The formal relations with the partners

The description of their cooperation modalities and

their sources of financing

In the case of some NGOs, a major dependency on

DGDC financing

The average operation of their managing bodies

The obstacles amid the diversity to making progress

on internal division of labour, upscaling and

harmonisation

45


9. Effectiveness of multilateral

cooperation

Belgium has decided to conduct a fundamental

switch in the funding of the multilateral partner organisations.

Belgium is opting for maximum application

of so-called ‘core financing’ – the contribution

to an organisation’s general resources – and wants

at the same time to scale down the ‘earmarked

contributions’ – these being contributions that

Belgium assigns to specific projects within an organisation.

In addition, the financing of the multilateral

organisations will now be conducted on the basis of

multi-year programmes – meaning that the Belgian

aid becomes easier to predict. This new policy fully

meets the call for more effectiveness in the operation

of the multilateral development organisations.

The UN Secretary General, the officials in charge at

the Funds and Programmes and the Member States

of the UN have repeatedly pointed to the need for a

reassessment of the core contributions. The donors’

current financing practices are partly to blame for

the existing fragmentation, overlapping and lack of

coherence in the multilateral system. The overly high

level of ‘earmarked’ contributions makes it hard for

an organisation to devise its own long-term policy.

It can only carry out the various projects and programmes

at the request of a whole string of donors.

A limited number of specific financing channels will

not participate in this shift from ‘earmarked’ to

‘core’ contributions, namely the contributions from

the Belgian Survival Fund, for the basic allocations

for peace-building (preventive diplomacy and conflict

prevention) and for part of the humanitarian

financing.

Belgian Development Cooperation will, furthermore,

be able to fund specific programmes with the multilateral

organisations in the framework of the bilateral

cooperation with the 18 partner countries. Within the

bilateral envelopes available for this purpose, though,

a certain percentage can be used for delegated

cooperation with other actors, such as multilateral

organisations. This must, of course, happen by

agreement with the bilateral policy in that partner

country. Belgium has, in the past, financed specific

interventions with its multilateral partners, because

the chosen partner was seen as being a well placed

– if not the best placed – actor to conduct activities

relevant to development in that given area. Examples

of this are the UNDP in terms of strengthening parliaments,

UNIFEM in terms of gender-based budgeting,

UNICEF in terms of child protection, etc.

The stronger emphasis on core financing does mean

that the possibility of supporting Belgian policy

focuses disappears, and the visibility must be supplemented

in other ways. The partner organisations are

being sent a letter in January 2009 by the Minister,

asking them to announce this change of policy. This

change will also bring about changes in the way

in which DGDC monitors the organisation. DGDC

will take a more proactive part in the management

bodies.

46


© Unicef / G. Pirozzi

Effectiveness in multilateral

cooperation: ‘One UN’ – pilot projects

Since early 2007, the United Nations has had pilot

projects running in 8 countries in order to get its

many development organisations on the ground to

start operating as a single entity, the so-called ‘One

UN’ concept.

The pilot projects are a direct consequence of the

2006 report ‘Delivering as One’. This came into being

at the instigation of the then Secretary-General Kofi

Annan, for the sake of creating more coherence and

effectiveness in the operational activities of the

United Nations. The UN organisations are gathered

in the field in line with the ‘Four Ones’ principle: one

leader, one programme, one budget and one office.

After the first year, the ‘One UN’ pilot projects

already seem to be delivering some concrete results.

Much stronger national ownership of the development

process seems to have arisen, together with

improved alignment on the national priorities. There

are clear signs of more coherence and less fragmentation

and duplication. There are likewise reports of

lower transaction and administrative costs for the

conduct of the aid. On the other hand, the establishment

of the new working method did demand very

intensive and occasionally costly efforts by the organisations

concerned themselves. In this way, the

UN hopes to make the development programmes

faster and more effective, and thus to accelerate

progress towards the achievement of the Millennium

Development Goals.

47


1

Internationale

beleidscontext:

ontwikkelingsagenda

onder druk

Tegelijk zorgde dit project voor een sneeuwbaleffect

bij andere boeren die hier niet bij betrokken

waren.

48


3

DGDC awareness-raising

activities

© Béatrice Petit

49



1

Internationale

beleidscontext:

Sensibiliseringsactiviteiten

ontwikkelingsagenda

onder van druk DGOS

De impact van de klimaatverandering

is dramatisch

Belgian Development Cooperation attended

the Open Business Day run by the

Federal Public Service for Foreign Affairs

on Sunday 5 October 2008. With an extensive

exhibition, DGDC gave an overview of

its activities to some 2,000 visitors.

Tegen 2080:


ondervoed.


weinig of te veel water.


laaggelegen gebieden moeten vluchten.


hebben risico op malaria.

Bron: UNDP

L’impact du changement

climatique est dramatique

D’ici 2080:


seront sous-alimentées.


pénurie ou d’excès d’eau.


les zones côtières et les régions de basse

altitude.


taires courront le risque de contracter la

malaria.

Source : UNDP

The impact of climate

change is dramatic

The situation in 2080:


nourished.


flooding or drought.


flee coastal zones and low-lying areas.


risk of contracting malaria. Bron: UNDP

Millenniumdoelstelling 7 : Waarborgen van een duurzaam milieu

Objectif du Millénaire 7: Assurer un environnement durable

Millennium development goal 7 : Ensure environmental sustainability

www.diplomatie.be

By means of mobile exhibitions,

DGDC keeps the

public informed about the

North-South issue. These

exhibitions are available for

free to Belgian schools,

municipalities, social/

cultural organisations,

associations and so on.

Minister Charles Michel visits the Belgian Development Cooperation

stand at the European Development Days 2008 in Strasbourg (15 to

17 November 2008).

50


Dimension 3, the magazine of the Belgian Development

Cooperation, had a makeover in September 2008, with its

content being reoriented, on the basis of the results of a wide

readership survey. In 2008, five issues of Dimension 3 were

published.

DGDC once again subsidised

some audiovisual productions in

2008, including ‘Les Damnés de

la Mer’, a documentary by the

Belgian Moroccan Jawad Rhalib.

Awareness-raising activity in the Brussels

stations on the occasion of World Water

Day on 22 March 2008. Some 20,000

informative cards were handed out.

51


www.diplomatie.be

Bodemvriendelijke landbouw herstelt

g e d e g r a d e e r d l a n d i n d e U l u g u r u -

b e r g e n ( T a n z a n i a )

D o o r m a s s a l e o n t b o s s i n g e n i n t e n s i e v e l a n d b o u w o p d e

h e l l i n g e n s t r o o m t d e v r u c h t b a r e b o d e m w e g . H i e r d o o r

b r e n g t d e l a n d b o u w w e i n i g o p e n v e r v u i l t h e t w a t e r i n

d e v a l l e i . D u u r z a m e b o d e m v r i e n d e l i j k e l a n d b o u w b i e d t

e e n o p l o s s i n g : m i n i m a l e l a n d b e w e r k i - n g , m a x i m a l e b o

d e m b e d e k k i n g ( o n d e r m e e r m e t b o m e n ) , r o t e r e n v a n

g e w a s s e n . O o k t r a d i t i o n e l e k e n n i s w - o r d t b e n u t : c o m

p o s t e r e n o p h e t v e l d , t e r r a s b o u w .

L ’ a g r i c u l t u r e r e s p e c t u e u s e d u s o l

restaure les terres dégradées dans les

m o n t a g n e s U l u g u r u ( T a n z a n i e )

L a d é f o r e s t a t i o n m a s s i v e e t l ’ a g r i c u l t u r e i n t e n s i v e s u r

l e s c o t e a u x p r o v o q u e n t l e d é p l a c e m e -n t d e s t e r r e s f e r

t i l e s , r é d u i s a n t a i n s i l a p r o d u c t i o n a g r i c o l e e t p o l l u a n t

l’eau de la vallée. L’agriculture durable respectueuse du

s o l o f f r e u n e s o l u t i o n : t r a v a i l - m i n i m a l d u s o l , c o u

v e r t u r e m a x i m a l e d u s o l ( e n t r e a u t r e s p a r d e s a r b r e s ) ,

c u l t u r e s a l t e r n é e s . L e s a v o i r t r a d i t i o n n e l e s t é g a l e m e n t

m i s à p r o fi t : c o m p o s t a g e d e s c h a m p s , c o n s t r u c t i o n d e

t e r r a s s e s .

Soil-friendly agriculture revives

d e t e r i o r a t e d l a n d i n t h e U l u g u r u

m o u n t a i n s ( T a n z a n i a )

A s a r e s u l t o f m a s s i v e d e f o r e s t a t i o n a s w e l l a s i n t e n s i v e

a g r i c u l t u r e o n t h e h i l l s , f e r t i l e l a n d i s w a s h e d a w a y .

H e n c e , a g r i c u l t u r e i s l o w - p r o d u c t i v e a n d t h e w a t e r i n

t h e v a l l e y i s c o n t a m i n a t e d . S u s t a i n a b l e s o i l - f r i e n d l y

a g r i c u l t u r e o f f e r s a s o l u t i o n : a -m i n i m u m o f s o i l d i s

t u r b a n c e , a m a x i m u m o f s o i l c o v e r ( e . g . w i t h t r e e s ) ,

culture rotation systems. Traditional knowledge is also

b e i n g u s e d : i n - fi e l d c o m p o s t i n g , t e r r a c e c u l t i v a t i o n .

I n t e r u n i v e r s i t y c o - o p e r a t i o n o f K U L e u v e n ( V L I R - U O S )

B u d g e t : 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 E U R – 1 9 2 9 0 7 0 7

MOD 1 : Honger uitroeien MOD 7 : Duurzaam milieu

OMD 1 : Eradiquer la faim OMD7 : Environnement durable

MDG 1 : Eradicate hunger MDG7 : Sustainable environment

ER IS MAAR EEN AARDE

VOOR 6,6 MILJARD MENSEN

De opwarming van de

aarde is het gevolg van

de enorme uitstoot van

broeikasgassen door vooral

de rijke landen. Toch

betalen de arme landen de

grootste prijs : ondervoeding,

armoede, ziekte, migratie en

milieuschade.

Daarom wil de Belgische

ontwikkelingssamenwerking

deze landen bijstaan om zich

te beschermen tegen het

veranderende klimaat. Voor het

welzijn van de hele aarde.

‘ ‘

SAMEN DE AARDE

LEEFBAAR HOUDEN !

© NASA

22 april: Dag van de Aarde

UNE SEULE TERRE

POUR 6,6 MILLIARDS D’ÊTRES HUMAINS

Le réchauffement de la Terre

est le résultat des énormes

quantités de gaz à effet de

serre que rejettent surtout

les pays riches.

Cependant, ce sont les

pays pauvres qui en

paient le prix fort :

malnutrition,

pauvreté, maladies,

migrations,

dégradation de

l’environnement.

C’est pourquoi la

Coopération belge au

développement s’engage

à aider ces pays à se

protéger des changements

climatiques, pour le

bien-être de toute la Terre.

© NASA

22 avril : Journée de la Terre

TOUS ENSEMBLE

POUR UNE TERRE VIABLE !

FOD BUITENLANDSE ZAKEN, BUITENLANDSE HANDEL EN ONTWIKKELINGSSAMENWERKING • www.dgos.be

SPF AFFAIRES ETRANGERES, COMMERCE EXTERIEUR ET COOPERATION AU DEVELOPPEMENT • www.dgcd.be

DGDC issued various brochures in 2008, including

on the themes of ‘Environmental care

and development cooperation’ and ‘Food aid

and food security’.

An advertisement in the framework of Earth Day on 22 April

2008 in ‘Het Nieuwsblad’, ‘Het Laatste Nieuws’, ‘Le Soir’,

‘La Dernière Heure’ and ‘Metro’. These newspapers allow us

to reach a readership of 1.5 million people.

The General Information Cycle, the training programme for anyone who wants to get actively involved in

development cooperation, took a fresh turn in 2008. From now on, the Information Cycles are even more

interactive, and more closely focused on concrete commitment.

© Jan Crab

52


43

Annexes

© Béatrice Petit

1. Belgian Official Development Assistance (ODA) 2004-2008

2. Multi-year bilateral obligations and budget aid

3. Multi-year NGO programmes approved in 2008

53


1

Internationale

beleidscontext:

ontwikkelingsagenda

onder ANNEXES druk

1. Belgian Official Development

Assistance (ODA) 2004-2008

Technical cooperation and

scholarships

Financial cooperation and

budget support

Special emergency aid for

Central Africa (launched in

2006)

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Directorate-General for Development Cooperation (DGDC)

Governmental cooperation

84,038,873 116,882,862 122,055,980 131,827,879 164,074,553

20,820,769 17,678,158 29,053,860 31,351,646 47,751,840

0 0 10,000,000 5,000,000 20,500,000

Operation costs BTC 9,472,500 23,029,208 19,053,589 20,306,000 21,032,890

Contribution to debt

cancellations

13,634,000 20,208,491 0 0 0

State-to-state loans 22,706,038 20,226,866 26,767,703 25,559,245 16,045,620

Subtotal

Governmental

cooperation

150,672,179 198,025,585 206,931,131 214,044,770 269,404,903

Non-Governmental cooperation

Cooperation via NGOs 90,564,124 93,284,701 96,284,169 99,150,043 99,612,783

VVOB 7,875,062 8,028,469 8,400,000 8,596,316 8,452,767

APEFE 7,905,188 7,725,953 7,234,846 8,524,332 8,094,522

VLIR - Flemish

Interuniversity Council

CIUF/CUD - Interuniversity

centre of CFWB

24,160,539 26,805,442 28,327,157 26,607,871 28,729,722

22,858,533 21,070,392 24,927,496 23,910,341 23,782,966

Scientific institutions 11,249,727 11,795,108 12,977,337 13,476,508 14,150,776

Other non-governmental 9,303,627 18,662,082 9,049,536 7,456,760 10,425,793

Subtotal

Non-governmental

cooperation

173,916,799 187,372,146 187,200,541 187,722,171 193,249,328

54


Multilateral cooperation

Voluntary multilateral

contributions

7,052,650 7,407,129 7,440,313 6,678,391 8,296,267

to the United Nations 6,753,929 7,120,875 7,171,625 6,422,346 8,018,560

Obligatory contributions 92,490,130 79,412,997 96,389,812 90,791,450 95,567,930

to the United Nations 65,411,069 62,229,604 72,770,395 62,478,816 67,159,693

European Development

Fund and Bank

91,771,261 103,496,574 104,669,938 104,860,013 132,560,006

World Bank Group 82,322,583 152,333,333 78,325,000 76,000,000 175,320,000

Regional Development

Banks

19,710,918 18,379,920 29,938,415 27,266,541 30,860,353

Environmental treaties 9,926,777 10,067,313 9,738,378 12,668,806 12,679,354

Multilateral debt

cancellation

Subtotal Multilateral

cooperation

0 0 8,161,708 12,832,368 18,674,711

303,274,319 371,097,265 334,663,565 331,097,570 473,958,621

Belgian Survival Fund

Governmental/management/awareness

raising

2,290,174 2,166,659 6.568.713 4,620,058 13,313,634

Via NGOs 8,728,110 9,142,301 12.584.625 13,363,246 13,843,855

Via multilateral institutions 8,981,241 8,690,648 8.346.622 12,014,882 6,484,181

Subtotal Belgian

Survival Fund

19,999,526 19,999,608 27,499,960 29,998,186 33,641,671

Community building 9,488,497 4,615,834 14,948,666 15,242,863 19,262,250

Humanitarian food aid 14,858,849 17,355,827 15,359,000 14,525,000 25,882,000

Local NGOs in the South 715,896 3,985,539 6,890,296 5,007,409 5,999,580

Africalia 1,680,000 1,628,651 1,935,000 2,310,000 2,015,000

Support to the private

sector (BIO,,,,)

30,592,014 27,895,000 19,871,551 28,138,365 44,626,496

Interest subsidies 6,468,051 8,192,718 11,409,718 11,009,296 13,053,489

Awareness raising en

education in Belgium

Administration,

evaluation, other

5,523,781 5,575,389 6,275,862 6,944,171 6,022,631

3,444,369 1,399,181 1,689,470 1,958,388 1,213,826

Total DGDC 720,634,281 847,142,744 834.674.759 847,998,189 1,088,329,793

55


1

Internationale

beleidscontext:

ontwikkelingsagenda

onder druk

2. Multi-year bilateral obligation

and budget aid

New multi-year bilateral agreements entered into in 2008

Country Project/programme Amount

(in euro)

Benin Agricultural support - Mono and Couffo departments 5,500,000

Expertise fund 1,250,000

Institutional support to the Ministry of Agriculture 3,500,000

Institutional support to the healthcare sector 4,300,000

Burundi Institutional and operational support to the justice system 5,800,000

Institutional support to the Ministry of Public Health 900,000

Support for the reform of paramedic training 2,000,000

Institutional support to ISABU - Agricultural Research Institute 3,000,000

Institutional support to the Ministry of National Education and

800,000

Scientific Research

Support for vocational training 5,000,000

Local social and economic development - rural roads 10,000,000

Cambodia Basic healthcare - consolidation phase 3,000,000

Morocco North Morocco education programme 3,000,000

Micro-credits 2,000,000

Waste processing 14,500,000

Mozambique Rehabilitation of basic infrastructure 3,400,000

Palestine Construction & rehabilitation of schools 10,000,000

Reinforcement of healthcare 5,000,000

Rwanda Institutional support for sanitary development - Kigali 15,000,000

Support for small animal husbandry 5,000,000

Reconstruction of Bushenge hospital 1,800,000

Social/economic and cultural development in Northern Province 4,000,000

Provision of drinking water and sanitation 12,320,000

Senegal Healthcare insurance system 2,500,000

Capacity-building - decentralised financial systems 4,400,000

Tanzania Sustainable improvement of banana cropping 1,500,000

Income-generating activities - Kigoma and coast region 2,162,000

Vietnam Provision of water and sanitation 7,500,000

Institutional reinforcement at provincial and district level 2,500,000

Various partner Replenishment / extension of existing projects and funds 6,130,000

countries

Total 147,762,000

56


Overview of new multi-year commitments for budget aid 2008

Country Programme Amount (in euro)

Uganda

Decentralisation process - local government sector investment

4,000,000

plans

Health sector 10,000,000

Peru Health sector (health insurance) 3,000,000

Burundi Education sector 5,000,000

Support for economic reforms (via World Bank Trust Fund) 4,000,000

Total 26,000,000

This table includes only the amounts transferred to the partner country, not the associated expertise costs

57


1

Internationale

beleidscontext:

ontwikkelingsagenda

onder druk

3. Multi-year NGO programmes

approved in 2008

Multi-year NGO programmes approved in 2008

Prog. 2008-2010

NGO Title Subsidy (in euro)

11 11 11

From the international perspective, achieving better

North-South relations by joining forces in Flanders

16,568,039

ACTEC A job for everyone 7,109,885

AQUADEV

VBRC-OS Rotary

ATOL

Programme for the reinforcement of African microfinance

organisations

Vacci-plus in DR Congo - City of Kinshasa Province -

health sector

Methodological support for development initiatives in

the South

2,199,936

1,258,448

917,860

Autre Terre Doing business differently in North and South 1,630,641

Artsen zonder

vakantie

Reinforcement of the health systems, with the emphasis

on hospitals

1,653,600

Bevrijde Wereld Food for the future 4,205,596

Broederlijk Delen Solidarity for sustainable development 22,232,465

CARAES

CDI-Bwamanda

CEMUBAC

Orthopaedagogical Care and Mental Health Care for the

Great Lakes Region

Contribution to socio-economic development in the

Northern Equatorial Province (DR Congo), the Yaka

Region (DR Congo) and South Borgou (Benin)

Developing welfare for populations through improvements

to health and the struggle against hunger with

due regard to the MDGs

3,037,978

3,086,883

1,969,508

58


NGO Title Subsidy (in euro)

CETRI

CNCD-11.11.11

DMOS

COTA

Understanding the world better in order to change it -

points of view from the South

Coordinating the actors in international co-operation

to promote the Millennium Goals and the right to

development

Integral training directed at upwards mobility and active

citizenship for young people in South and North

Information, awareness-raising and quality support for

the actors in cooperation

577,372

1,912,430

16,363,835

1,048,269

Rode Kruis België Present, always, everywhere 6,499,815

Damiaanactie

Improving basic health in developing countries by combating

leprosy & TB

13,720,686

DISOP Employability and citizenship 11,562,652

Djapo From basic school to world school 1,838,030

Echos

Communication

Entraide et

fraternité

Solidarité Socialiste

FOS

Handicap

International

Promoting new development cooperation practices to

accompany the emergence of a new human-centred

development cooperation paradigm

Promoting peasant agriculture through citizen

approaches

Reinforcing social actors in the South and the North

committed in networks for the promotion of democracy

and economic and social rights

Organisations in North and South - Solidarity for the

right to health and right to decent work

Upright living: for a society that prevents avoidable disability,

for a society for all where disabled people enjoy

their rights

1,156,874

3,536,276

9,123,039

10,937,501

13,295,362

Les Iles de Paix More enlightened and active public opinion 1,145,477

59


NGO Title Subsidy (in euro)

IPIS

Information and advice service on topics affecting nongovernmental

development actors

436,582

ITECO Education as a vector for North/South social change 1,177,642

Louvain

développement

Max Havelaar

The welfare and dignity sought by disadvantaged populations

in deprived countries are improved: LD contributes

to the international relations policy of the UCL as a

dynamic actor serving society

More sustainable development in the South thanks to

more sales of Fairtrade-labelled products in the North

8,560,418

1,358,844

MEMISA Reinforcement of the health system at various levels 9,663,471

Miel Maya Honing Bee-keeping, sustainable development and fair trade 660,984

Artsen Zonder

Grenzen

Improving access to healthcare for persons with AIDS

and/or TB

12,258,964

Le Monde selon les

Femmes

Oxfam magasins du

monde

Gender as a development condition 1,314,827

The Made in Dignity campaign with younger people 1,328,783

Oxfam Solidariteit

Oxfam

WereldWinkels

Petits Pas

Changing the balance of power to ensure respect for

social and economic rights

Fairtrade: an honest alternative for the North and the

South alike

Reinforcement of the capacities in the North and the

South for environmentally responsible and endogenous

development

10,795,967

2,493,827

477,945

60


NGO Title Subsidy (in euro)

PROTOS Water: a lever in development 8,701,896

Rode Kruis

Vlaanderen

Improving the situation of the most vulnerable 5,674,699

SCI North/South Action/Training 495,393

Steunfonds Derde

Wereld

Empowerment for the right to health 2,733,885

SLCD

Protestantse

Solidariteit

Combating poverty in rural communities targeted by an

integrated socio-economic development programme

Support for the fight against HIV/AIDS, TB and leprosy in

central and western Africa

3,199,999

3,422,476

SOS Faim Supporting rural people in their fight against poverty 10,980,845

TRIAS

UCOS

Linking-up: local economic development in a globalising

world

Active world citizenship for more international solidarity

and sustainable development in North and South

17,163,553

426,765

VIC From integration to self-determination 3,878,401

Vredeseilanden

Dierenartsen

Zonder Grenzen

Wereldsolidariteit

A viable living for family farmers through participation in

the markets

Optimising the contribution of livestock-raising in the

economy and social life of farming/breeding families

Getting together with the social movements to promote

dignified work and social protection to combat poverty

and social exclusion

17,772,898

4,355,527

12,073,830

Total 299,996,880

61


1

Organigram

Organization Internationale

chart

van The de FPS FOD Foreign beleidscontext:

Buitenlandse Affairs Zaken,

Buitenlandse Foreign ontwikkelingsagenda

Trade Handel en

Ontwikkelingssamenwerking

and Development Cooperation

onder druk

S0.4

Special Evaluator

S0.1

Crisis Centre

S0.2

Missions

Inspectorate

S0.3

Regions and

Communities Interface

S0.5

Conflict

Prevention and

Peacebuilding

S0.6

Modernisation

and Management

Support

S0.7

Security

P&C

Press and

Communication

P&S

Protocol

and Security

62


Minister

Policy Unit

Chairman

Executive

Committee

DG

Bilateral Affairs

(B)

B&B

Budget and

Management

Control

DG

Consular Affairs

(C)

P&O

Personnel and

Organisation

DG

Development

Cooperation

(D)

ICT

Information and

Communication

Technology

DG

European Affairs and

Coordination

(E)

DG

Legal Affairs

(J)

DG Multilateral Affairs

and Globalisation

(M)

63


1

Internationale

Organization chart DGDC

beleidscontext:

Directorate-General for Development

Cooperation ontwikkelingsagenda

onder druk

Director General D

D0.0

General Affairs &

Secretariat

D0.1

Policy Support

D0.2

Quality Control &

Evaluation

D0.3

Budget and ODA

D1

Governmental

Programmes

D2

Special

Programmes

D3

Non-governmental

Programmes

D4

Multilateral

and European

Programmes

D5

Awarenessraising

Programmes

D1.1

North Africa

and Middle

East

D2.1

Emergency

Aid,

Rehabilitation

and Food Aid

D3.1

NGOs

D4.1

United

Nations and

Bretton

Woods

Institutions

D5.1

Third-Party

Awarenessraising

D1.2

Central Africa

D2.2

Survival Fund

D3.2

Universities

and Scientific

Institutions

D4.2

European

Union

D5.2

Awarenessraising

by

DGDC

D1.3

West Africa

D3.3

Other

Partners

D4.3

Sectoral

Funds and

Programmes

D1.4

Southern

Africa,

East Africa

D3.4

Budget

Programming

and Financial

Control for

Non-governmental

Programmes

D1.5

Latin America

and Asia

D1.6

Regional

Cooperation

64


Abbreviations

BIO

BSF

BTC

DG

DGDC

DRC

EU

FAO

GNI

HIV/AIDS

IMF

ICP

MDG

NGO

ODA

OECD

UN

UNDP

UNRWA

VVOB

WFP

Belgian Investment Company for Developing Countries

Belgian Survival Fund

Belgian Technical Cooperation

Director-General

Directorate-General for Development Cooperation

Democratic Republic of Congo

European Union

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gross National Income

Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

International Monetary Fund

Indicative Cooperation Programme

Millennium Development Goal

Non-Governmental Organisation

Belgian Official Development Assistance

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

United Nations

United Nations Development Programme

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East

Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Support

World Food Programme

65


Colophon

Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and

Development Cooperation

Communications Department

Rue des Petits Carmes 15

B-1000 Brussels

Belgium

www.diplomatie.be

www.dgdc.be

Contributions and coordination: Directorate-General for Development Cooperation

Final editing: Jan De Mets

Translation: Bellis Translations

Design: www.cibecommunicatie.be

Production: Communications Department FPS Foreign Affairs

Contact: +32 2 501 81 11 – www.diplomatie.be/en/contact

Responsible editor: Dirk Achten, rue des Petits Carmes 15, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium

The information contained in this report is for information only. The Federal Public Service is in

no way legally bound by it.

Legal registration: 0218/2009/11

April 2009


Federal Public Service

Foreign Affairs,

Foreign Trade and

Development Cooperation

www.diplomatie.be

www.dgdc.be

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