Renaissance and Reformation

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Renaissance and Reformation

New Ideas, New Empires

• 1200 – 1800

• 1. Renaissance and Reformation – 1300 - 1650

• 2. Exploration and Expansion – 1400 - 1700

• 3. New Asian Empires – 1200 - 1800


Renaissance and Reformation

• 1300 – 1650

• The Italian Renaissance

• The Northern Renaissance

• The Protestant Reformation

• The Counter Reformation

•Major changes in Europe caused the medieval period to

give way to a new period

•Rediscovery of classical knowledge of Greece and Rome

•Knowledge led to a period of creativity called Renaissance

•New ideas about religion – struggle in Christianity called

Reformation


1. Causes of the Renaissance

1200 - 1800

• Increased trade with

Asia and other regions

as a result of the

Crusades

• Growth of large, wealth

city states in Italy

• Renewed interest in the

classical learning of

ancient Greek and Rome

• Rise of rich and

powerful merchants,

who became patrons of

the arts

• Increased desire for

scientific and technical

knowledge

• Desire to beautify

cities


The Beginning of Renaissance

1200 - 1800

• The Black Death and warfare

took over Europe in 1300s.

• These catastrophic events led

to many changes throughout

Europe in the 1300s.

• Urban areas also began to

specialize, particularly in Italy,

and gave rise to powerful citystates

• Examples – Venice, Milan, and

Florence

• Venetian merchants became

some of the wealthiest in the

world


Renaissance starts in Italy

1200 - 1800

• Italy had the remains

of Ancient Rome.

• Italy was on the

Mediterranean and in

an ideal place for

trading.

• The Roman Catholic

Church was based in

Italy.

• Italy was divided into

city states.


1200 - 1800

Renaissance Ideas

• A sustained period of renewed interest and remarkable

developments in art, literature, science, and learning –

Renaissance

• Humanism

• Secularism

• Sciences


Humanism

1200 - 1800

• Humanism – intellectual movement during that focused on the

study of worldly subjects, such as poetry and philosophy, and on

human potential and achievement


1200 - 1800

Secularism

• Secularism – dealing with the world and not in terms of religion

(form of later humanism)

• Secular writers – individual achievement and education could be

fully expressed only if people used their talents and abilities in

the services of their cities


1200 - 1800

Secular Writers

• Baldassare Castiglione -Italian wrote – The Courtier – describes

how perfect Renaissance gentleman and gentlewomen should act

• Niccolo Machiavelli – The Prince – harsh treatment of citizens

and rival states

Baldassare Castiglione

Niccolo Machiavelli


1200 - 1800

Sciences

• Human sciences such as history, geography, politics, and the

national world became an important avenue of inquiry,

challenging the church’s teachings about the world


1200 - 1800

Astronomers

• Nicholas Copernicus – Polish astronomer – heliocentric theory –

Sun is the center of the universe, not the Earth

• Galileo Galiliei – Italian astronomer – house arrest for

challenging church officials by expressing his views


Renaissance Art Flourishes

• Many artists were supported

by powerful patrons.

• They more topics than just

religious themes.

• Artists made realistic

artwork and used perspective

about nature.

• Perspective means making

close items larger than far

items to make it seem

realistic.

• Artists also used shading and

correct anatomy.

1200 - 1800


1200 - 1800

Patrons of the Arts

• City states were ruled

by powerful families and

a strong merchant class.

• The Medici family of

Florence was the most

famous of these.

• Another – Sforza family

• These families served as

patrons of the arts.

That means they gave

money to artists.

•Lorenzo de Medici – well

educated poet, supported

some of the more talented

artists


1200 - 1800

Leonardo Da Vinci

• He was the ultimate Renaissance

man.

• He was a painter and engineer.

• He created famous paintings and

also created inventions.

• He was known for his curiosity

and ingenuity.

• He learned about human anatomy

by dissecting cadavers.


1200 - 1800

The Last Supper

•The Last Supper in the Christian Gospels, was the last meal Jesus shared with

his 12 Apostles and disciples before his death.

•The last supper has been the subject of many paintings, perhaps the most

famous by Leonardo Da Vinci.

• “Eat bread and drink from this cup and do it in remembrance of me.”


1200 - 1800

The Mona Lisa

•The Mona Lisa is a 16th century

portrait painted in oil on a popular

panel by Leonardo Da Vinci during

the Italian Renaissance.

•The work is owned by the

government of France, and is on

the wall in the Louvre in Paris.

•It is perhaps the most famous

and iconic painting n the world.


The Notebooks of Leonardo

1200 - 1800

•20,000 pages with

notes recording his

ideas for building an

armored tank and

flying machines,

sketches of human

anatomy, and countless

other things


1200 - 1800

The Notebooks of Leonardo

•He designed and built canals,

developed a machine to thread in

screws, and designed the first

machine gun.


1200 - 1800

Michelangelo

• He was a sculptor, engineer,

painter, architect, and poet.

• He created marble

masterpieces and painted the

Sistine Chapel.

• He also created the design for

the dome of St. Peter’s

Cathedral.


The Statue of David

1200 - 1800

•Statue of David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture

created by Michelangelo from 1501 to 1504.

•The marble statue portrays the Biblical King David in the

nude.

• He chose to represent David before his victory over Goliath.


The Pieta

1200 - 1800

•Pieta is the subject in Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary

cradling the dead body of Jesus, most often found in sculpture.

•The sculpture was created by Michelangelo.

•It is a masterpiece of the Renaissance.


The Sistine Chapel

1200 - 1800

•The Sistine Chapel is the best-known chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the

official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City.

•It is famous for its architecture and its decoration which has been

frescoed throughout by the greatest Renaissance artists including

Michelangelo.

•He painted 12,000 square feet and the Last Judgment was perhaps his

greatest achievement.


1200 - 1800

Rafael, the School of Athens

•Raffaello Sanzio, who became known as Rafael, was a renowned

painter and an accomplished architect.

•The School of Athens – fresco, a painting made on fresh, moist

plaster.

•Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers from the past and

present who were admired by the humanists

Raffaello Sanzio,


1200 - 1800

Rafael’s other work

•Also well known for his painting of the

Madonna, or mother of Jesus


1200 - 1800

The Dome of St. Peter’s

Basilica

Renaissance architecture

reached its height with the

work of Donato Bramante.

•Chosen as architect of

Rome

•His design for St. Peter’s

Basilica influenced the

appearance of many smaller

churches


1200 - 1800

2. The Northern Renaissance

•In the 1200’s and 1300’s, most

cities in Europe were in Italy.

•1500’s – large cities throughout

northern Europe – London, Paris,

Amsterdam

•Trade, the movement of artists

and scholars, and the

development of printing helped

spread Renaissance ideas

northward


1200 - 1800

The Printing Revolution

• During the Middle Ages,

books were copied by scribes

and monks by hand.

• Around 1455, a German

named Johann Gutenberg

created the first moveable

type printing press.

• This made books much more

common and much more

accessible to the people.


1200 - 1800

The Printing Press

•First publication was 1,282 page Bible

•Within 35 years, a Gutenberg press appeared

as far as Constantinople.

•With easier access to books, more people

learned to read and more books were printed.


1200 - 1800

Philosophers and Writers

• As Renaissance ideas

spread throughout

Europe, northern

humanists expressed

their own ideas in

works that combined

the interests of

theology, fiction, and

history

• Created philosophical

works, novels, dramas,

and poems


Desiderius Erasmus

1200 - 1800

• Leading Christian

humanist who wrote

extensively about the

need for a pure and

simple Christian life.

• Advised readers on the

need to teach their

children.

• His writings fanned the

flames of a growing

discontent with the

Roman Catholic Church


1200 - 1800

Sir Thomas More’s Utopia

• Thomas More was an English

writer.

• He wrote a book about a

perfect society called

“Utopia” where everyone is

equal and everyone lives in

peace and harmony.

• We still use the word utopia

to describe a perfect world

or society.

• Easton Right!


1200 - 1800

William Shakespeare

• Shakespeare was the

most important literary

writer during the

Renaissance.

• He wrote 37 plays that

are still performed

today.

• He also greatly enriched

the English language.

• Mr. Schenk – the

William Shakespeare of

the 21 st century?


1200 - 1800

Christine de Pisan

• Italian-born writer who

wrote important works

focusing on the role

women played in society

• Writings included

poetry, a biography of

Charles V, and works

that guided women on

proper morality


1200 - 1800

Artists

• The artists of northern

Europe, just like

philosophers and writers,

were influenced by the

Italian Renaissance.

• Italians tried to capture

the beauty of Greek and

Roman gods in their

paintings, northern

artists often tried to

depict people as they

really were

•Albrecht Durer – used Italian

techniques of realism and perspective

in his own works.

•Jan van Eyck – Flemish painter who

focused on landscapes and domestic

life


1200 - 1800

3. The Protestant Reformation

• Criticism of the Roman

Catholic Church led to a

religious movement called the

Protestant Reformation and

brought changes in religion

and politics across Europe


1200 - 1800

Catholicism in the 1400s

• Over the centuries, the Roman

Catholic Church had gained power

and wealth in Europe.

• The Catholic Church dominated

people’s lives during the Middle

Ages.

• The church became very involved

in political affairs, including

starting wars and fighting for

money and other interests.

• CORRUPTION


1200 - 1800

Dissatisfaction with the Church

• As the wealth and the power

of the church grew, so did

instances of financial

corruption, abuse of power,

and immortality

• Indulgences – pardons issued

by the pope that people could

buy to reduce their time in

purgatory

• Purgatory – Catholics believed

that after dying people went

to purgatory, where their

souls worked off their sins

they had committed

• Significance – Nationalism, or

devotion to a particular state

or nation rather than the

church, began to grow as a

result of the corruption of

the Catholic Church


1200 - 1800

Early Reformers

• Two men step forward – John Wycliffe – believed that the

church should give up its earthly possessions

and Jan Hus – preached against the immortality and worldliness

of the Catholic Church –burned at the stake

• Led to Martin Luther


1200 - 1800

Martin Luther and the 95 Thesis

• 1517 –marked the beginning of the

Protestant Reformation

• Martin Luther - 95 thesis – public

complaints about the church

• Indulgences are sinful and had no

power to remit sin

• Meant for the church leaders

(academic Latin)

• Faith and through good works

• Translated the Bible to German so

common people could read it

• Reaction-Holy Roman Emperor –

Edict of Worms – Luther is an

outlaw and condemned for his

writings (Lutheranism – formally

recognized branch of Christianity


1200 - 1800

The Spread of Protestantism

• Ulrich Zwingli –

proposed reforms

went even further

than those of

Luther

• Theocracy -

government in

which church and

state are joined

and in which the

officials are

considered to be

divinely inspired

• His movement

gained support in

Switzerland, but

Luther and his

supporters opposed

him

•John Calvin –

most important

Protestant

reformer

•Predestination –

holds that God

knows who will be

saved and guides

the lives of those

destined for

salvation

•Instituted a

religious

government in

Switzerland


1200 - 1800

Protestantism Spreads to

• As the Protestant

Reformation began with

criticisms of the Catholic

Church, In England, it

began with the king

• King Henry VIII – wanted

to divorce Queen Catherine

of Aragon because he could

not give him a male heir

• Wanted to get his marriage

annulled, or declared

invalid based on church

laws, so he could remarry

• Founded the Church of

England and broke away

from the Catholic Church;

also married Anne Boleyn

England


1200 - 1800

Henry’s Heirs

• Henry VIII had six wives

• First wife Catherine of

Aragon – daughter - Mary

• Second wife Anne Boleyn –

daughter - Elizabeth

• Third wife Jane Seymour –

son – Edward VI

• Last three – no children

•King Edward VI died at 15;

•Queen Mary restored Catholicism

and burned hundreds of people at the

stake “Bloody Mary”

•Queen Elizabeth – Protestantism

and restored Church of England


1200 - 1800

4. The Counter-Reformation

• Catholics at all levels

recognized the need for

reform in the Church.

• Their work turned back

the tide of

Protestantism in some

areas and renewed the

zeal of Catholics

everywhere

• Known as the Counter

Reformation – cleanse

the Catholic Church


Jesuits

1200 - 1800

• Early reformers before

Jesuits – Girolamo Savonarola

– change the church – “the

bonfire of the vanities

• Jesuits – renewed the

church’s emphasis on

spirituality and service –

Society of Jesus

• Founded by Ignatius of

Loyola- combat the Protestant

Reformation

Ignatius of Loyola-


1200 - 1800

The Council of Trent

• Pope Paul III – convened

the Council of Trent in

1545 –

• examined the criticisms

of the Protestants and

the delegates addressed

the abuses that weakened

the church

• Council rejected

Protestant emphasis on

individual faith and

argued that the church

could help believers

achieve salvation


1200 - 1800

Reforming Catholics

• Charles Borromeo –

archbishop of Milan

1560 – 1584 –

implemented the

reforms ordered by

the council

• Francis of Sales –

regained Savoy, under

control of Calvin

• Teresa of Avila – most

famous female spiritual

leader who inspired

many would-be

Protestants to remain

Catholic


1200 - 1800

The Inquisition

• Roman Inquisition – Catholic

Church established a church

court to fight Protestantism

• Protestants are witches; led

to Spanish inquisition –Index

of Forbidden Books

• Seen by Protestants as

further abuses of the

Catholic Church


1200 - 1800

Religious and Social Effects

• The Counter Reformation

affected the whole world at

the time

• A renewed zeal for

Catholicism spread throughout

continents (Jesuits)

• Rifts opened in the Protestant

church

• Persecution and Hysteria –

Muslims and Jews are heretics

– forced to convert or leave

• Witchcraft trials – sentenced

to death for being a heretic

Salem, Mass (U.S.)


1200 - 1800

Religious Wars and Unrest

• In 1494, King Charles VIII of

France invaded Italy

• Began a series of wars in

which France and Spain were

fighting for the Italian

peninsula

• Wars helped expand the

Italian Renaissance

• Conflicts among Germans –

Peasants War (taxes) –led to

Peace of Augsburg – let the

prince decide what religion

would be practiced

King Charles VIII

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