1000 BC – AD 1500

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1000 BC – AD 1500

The Growth of Civilizations

1. Classical Greece - 2100 BC – 150 BC

2. Rome and Early Christianity – 750 BCAD 500

3. The Americas – 1000 BCAD 1500

4. Empires of China and India – 350 BCAD 600


The Americas

1000 BC to Ad 1500

•1. North America

•2. Meso America

•3. South America

•As advanced civilizations developed in Rome, other civilizations

developed in the Americas

•Early American civilizations all found ways to adapt to the varied

environments of the Americas

•Some developed sophisticated governments and engineering that

rivaled those of the ancient Romans


1000 BC- AD1500

Early Human Migrations


1. North America

1000 BC- AD1500

Kennewick Man – 9,000 year old human

skull found along the Columbia River

Gives us clues to some questions about

early Americans


Cultures of North America

1000 BC- AD1500

•Arctic and the Subarctic, Far West, Eastern Woodlands,

Desert West, Great Plains


Cultures of the Desert West

1000 BC- AD1500

Hohokam- 300 BC to AD

1500 –adobe-mixtures of

clay and straw for homes


Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde

Anasazi cliff dwelling

Anasazi – 100 BC to Ad

1300 –adopted the puebloaboveground

structure used

for homes


The Mound Builders

1000 BC- AD1500

•Hopewell – 200 BC to Ad

500 – some form of

organized labor

Mississippian – built some

of the earliest cities in

North America


Other Cultures in North America

1000 BC- AD1500

Inuit – Arctic Region -

no vegetation for foodfishing

instead

The Iroquois – Forest

Environment formed a

confederacy

Plains Indians –

treeless grasslands


Sculpture from the Americas

1000 BC- AD1500

• Origins of the Peoples of the Americas?


1000 BC- AD1500

The “Mother Culture” of Meso- America

Olmec-predated just about every other civilization in

Meso- America.

First to use writing system and first to use pyramids;

the one to give rise to later cultures in that region.


1000 BC- AD1500

2. Meso American Civilizations

•Mayan Aztec


1000 BC- AD1500

•The Olmec Civilization was small to the Mayan civilization,

which had its height in 1000 BC consisted of 10 million in

over 40 cities.


Lands of the Mayans

1000 BC- AD1500

The Yucatan

Peninsula


Mayan Cultivation of Maize

1000 BC- AD1500

•Slash and Burn-farming method

•Involves burning vegetation to clear

•It for planting


Chichen-Itza - Pyramid

1000 BC- AD1500

•Mayan cities such as Michen-Itza and Tikal were some

of the more spectacular cities, containing pyramids,

temples, and great palaces.


Chichen-Itza - Observatory

1000 BC- AD1500

•Mayans made advances in astronomy. They observed the

movements of the sun, moon, and planets. Calendar system

– 365 days farming schedule


Chichen-Itza - Ball Court

1000 BC- AD1500


1000 BC- AD1500

Overview of Tikal (Guatemala)

Temple of the Masks


1000 BC- AD1500

Tikal Jungle View at Sunset


Tikal - Main Court

1000 BC- AD1500

•Mayan cities functioned as city states, each had its own ruler and

government.

•Trade linked the cities.

•Warfare also linked other cities.

•Mayan cities never united.


•Tikal: Temple of the Masks

1000 BC- AD1500


1000 BC- AD1500

Tikal - Wall Mask of the Rain God

Chac, God

of Rain


Quetzalcoatl:

1000 BC- AD1500

The God of Wisdom & Learning


Mayan Glyphs

1000 BC- AD1500

sky king house child city

Mayan

Mathematics

•The Mayans developed a complex writing system, glyphs, or

symbols. They also created a number system, using the

concept of zero for the first time.


Mayan Glyphs

1000 BC- AD1500


1000 BC- AD1500

Mayan Underground Granaries: Chultunes


1000 BC- AD1500

Mayan Drinking Cup for Chocolate


Pakal: The Maya Astronaut

1000 BC- AD1500


1000 BC- AD1500

•The Aztecs, just a small group of farmers from northwest

Mexico, created the most powerful empire in Meso -

America.


Lands of the Aztecs

1000 BC- AD1500

•What land did they conquer?


Aztec View of Tenochtitlan

1000 BC- AD1500

•The Capital City of the Aztecs. Covered five miles and had a

population of 200,000. One of the largest cities in the world

at the time.


1000 BC- AD1500

Tenochtitlan: The “Venice” of the Americas


Aztec Chinampa or Floating Garden:

15ft. to 30ft. wide

1000 BC- AD1500


Tenochtitlan - Chinampas

1000 BC- AD1500

•Tenochtitlan was built on swampy island in the middle of a

lake. To create more farm land they build floating gardens


Aztec Writing

1000 BC- AD1500

•They kept written

records similar to

Mayans but not as

advanced.

Aztec Math

•They also used

Math. Conquered

People were

required to pay a

tribute, a tax.


Aztec Sun Stone -- Calendar

1000 BC- AD1500

•They

created a

260-religious

calendar and

a 365-day

solar

calendar.

They also

calculated

movements of

planets.


The Aztecs Were

1000 BC- AD1500

Fierce Warriors

•Achievements in the Arts and Sciences. Artisans made

bright feathers into headdresses, shields, and wartime

costumes. Metalworkers fashioned gold and silver.


Aztec Gold

1000 BC- AD1500


Aztec Sun Motifs

1000 BC- AD1500


Aztecs Sacrifice Neighboring Tribes to

the Sun God-needed human blood

1000 BC- AD1500


Heart Sacrifice

1000 BC- AD1500

on an Aztec Temple Pyramid


1000 BC- AD1500

Wall of Skulls, Tenochtitlan


Sacrificial Statue, Tenochtitlan

1000 BC- AD1500


1000 BC- AD1500

Ruins of the City Center, Tenochtitlan


Aztec Codex

(15c Manuscript)

1000 BC- AD1500

•Lasted a short period of time, 200 years. Contact with

the Europeans brought an end to the empire.


1000 BC- AD1500

•The Codex

Mendoza :The

Founding of

Tenochtitlantwenty

years after

the Spanish

Conquest it contains

the history of the

city


1000 BC- AD1500

3. South America

•Many years after earlier civilizations such as the

Chavin, Moche, and Nazca, the Inca Civilization brought

the entire Andes Mountain region into one empire.


Lands of the Incas

1000 BC- AD1500

•They began as a

small tribe in the

Andes, but by the

early 1500’s their

empire extended

almost the entire

Pacific coast

throughout the

Andes.


Cuzco: Ancient Capital of the Inca

(11,000 ft. above sea level)

1000 BC- AD1500


Machu Picchu

1000 BC- AD1500

•Pachacuti –leader of the Inca used political alliances

and military force to gain control.

•The emperor had most of the power.


Machu Picchu

1000 BC- AD1500


Incan Suspension Bridges

1000 BC- AD1500

•The first known bridges

spanned cannons, and rivers.

Woven out of fibers and vines.


Incan Terrace Farming

1000 BC- AD1500

•Terraces increased the amount of land available for

agriculture.


Incan Digging Sticks

1000 BC- AD1500


The Quipu: An Incan Database

1000 BC- AD1500

•Keep track of moving

goods they used set of

colored and knotted

cords.


1000 BC- AD1500

Over 100 Different Types of Potatoes

Cultivated

by the Incans


Produce from a Typical Incan

Market

1000 BC- AD1500


Incan Ceramic Jars

1000 BC- AD1500

Peanut

Potato

Squash

Cacao God

Cacao Pod


Maize in Incan Pottery

1000 BC- AD1500

& Gold Work


Inca Gold & Silver

1000 BC- AD1500

•Artisans made intricate ornaments out

of gold and silver.


Incan Mummies

1000 BC- AD1500

•The Incas lasted only

about 100 years.

•The arrival of the

Spanish in Peru in 1532

marked the end.

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