21.3 New Ideas in a New Society Guided Readings


21.3 New Ideas in a New Society Guided Readings

Chapter 21 Section 3

New Ideas in a New Society

Main Idea

The Industrial Revolution inspired new ideas about _______________ and affected society in many ways.

• What new ideas about economics developed during the Industrial Revolution?

• What _______________ economic ideas arose as a result?

• How did the Industrial Revolution affect _______________?

New Ideas about Economics

Capitalism and Competition

• Old mercantile system restricted trade

• _________________________economics

• Adam Smith, _______________ economy

• Thomas Malthus, _______________


• Industrialization _______________ and


New Roles for Business Leaders

• Shift in _______________ and power

• _______________

• Banking and finance

• Andrew _______________, rags to riches

• _______________ barons


What were some of the new ideas about economics?

• Answer: _______________ gave way to _______________ and competition, laissez-faire

economics and The Wealth of Nations allowed for increased role of entrepreneur

Competing Economic Views

Not everyone agreed that laissez-faire capitalism was good. Two who took a different stance were Robert

Owen and Karl Marx.

Robert Owen

• More hopeful than Malthus

• _______________

Society owns property

Society controls business

• Model industrial town

New _______________

• _______________ democracy

Karl Marx

• More _______________ socialism

• Predicted collapse of capitalism

• ______________________________

• Communism

• Government

– owns means of _______________

– controls economic planning


Why did capitalism provoke strong response from the socialists?

Answer: Socialists blamed capitalism for harsh working conditions, _______________ cities, and

the big gaps between rich and poor.

Effects on Society

The rise of new _______________ ideas was among the countless effects of the Industrial Revolution.

The shift away from _______________industries also affected _______________ life and the roles of

women in society.

Home Life

• Worlds of work

and home


• “Separate spheres”

• Business worldwithout



• Women-moral

guidance at home


• Industry-great power

• Control of other

nations’ economies

• Industrialization of

United States

• Period of

_______________ to

United States


• Increase in _______________

• Standard of living


• _______________ time

• Changes to many aspects of life:

– Art

– _______________

– Transportation

Effects of Industrialization on Women

Women Who went from _______________ industries to Factory Work

Earned low wages in low-skill jobs

_______________ from their families

No real improvement in their _______________

Other Working-Class Women

Found jobs as _______________, _______________, and child-care workers because more

families could afford to hire them

Found some new _______________ and cultural opportunities in cities

Overall _______________ for many women

Middle-Class Women

Freed from _______________ because many could afford to hire domestic help[p

Began to attend college and get jobs as _______________ and nurses

Those who did work were often _______________ by people who said they should not work

outside the home

Most affected by ideas of _______________ spheres

Identify Cause and Effect

What were some of the major effects _______________ had on families and countries?

Answer: families—wealth, leisure time, _______________; countries—_______________,

wealth, and living standards; _______________g of cities, pollution, rapid population


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