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innovations<br />

NETWORK<br />

ISSUE NO. 75 NOVEMBER 2012 A technical journal by <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f employees <strong>and</strong> colleagues<br />

http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

ANNIVERSARY<br />

TH<br />

P A R S O N S B R I N C K E R H O F F<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Future</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Cities</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong>


Table <strong>of</strong> Contents<br />

NETWORK<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Future</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Cities</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Meeting the <strong>Future</strong> Challenges <strong>of</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong> –<br />

(George J. Pierson)............................................................... 1<br />

25 + 75: Looking Forward – (John Chow)............................... 2<br />

TRANSPORTATION AND MOBILITY<br />

Streets <strong>and</strong> Highways<br />

City Streets & Highways: <strong>The</strong> Next Generation <strong>of</strong> Context <strong>and</strong><br />

Collaboration – (Hal Kass<strong>of</strong>f) ............................................... 5<br />

Aviation<br />

Airport <strong>Infrastructure</strong>, Funding, <strong>and</strong> Planning for Tomorrow –<br />

(Roddy Boggus) ................................................................... 7<br />

Aviation: Development <strong>of</strong> Regional Airports, the Next Phase <strong>of</strong><br />

Growth in India – (Arun Ch<strong>and</strong>ran) ........................................ 9<br />

Ports <strong>and</strong> Intermodal<br />

Port & Intermodal <strong>Urban</strong> Development in the 21 st Century –<br />

(Jeffrey Schechtman/Blair Garcia/Casey Dwyer/Shannon<br />

McLeod) ........................................................................... 12<br />

Transit<br />

Coping with Rapid Change <strong>and</strong> Choice in Transport –<br />

(Cliff Henke) ................................................................... 18<br />

Trends in “Catenary Free” Tramways – (John Morris/<br />

Mike Reeves).................................................................. 21<br />

<strong>The</strong> Middle East <strong>and</strong> Northern Africa (MENA) Railway<br />

Renaissance – (Brendan Young) ....................................... 24<br />

<strong>Urban</strong>ization <strong>and</strong> Transportation<br />

How <strong>Cities</strong> <strong>and</strong> the <strong>Urban</strong> Environment Will Evolve in<br />

the Next 10 to 25 Years – (Andrew Stoneman)..................... 28<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Transportation <strong>Infrastructure</strong> <strong>and</strong> Systems: Will Supply<br />

Meet Dem<strong>and</strong> During This Century? – (David McBrayer) ....... 30<br />

Challenges to Integrating <strong>Urban</strong>ization <strong>and</strong> Transportation -<br />

<strong>The</strong> Case <strong>of</strong> Cebu City, Philippines – (Dante Bautista/Anna<br />

Rosalie Arsa)..................................................................... 33<br />

Comprehensive Transportation Solutions for Tomorrow’s<br />

Salmiya, Kuwait – (Basheer Mohammed/Richard Crossley) ... 36<br />

Access <strong>and</strong> Amenity in Global <strong>Cities</strong> – (Andrew Pope/<br />

George Pund) .................................................................... 40<br />

URBAN TUNNELING<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Tunnelling: An Innovative Tool to Establish Risk<br />

Baseline for Buildings Along the Alignment – (Nagen<br />

Loganathan/Richard Flanagan) ......................................... 42<br />

URBAN PLANNING<br />

<strong>Cities</strong><br />

Sense <strong>of</strong> Home Found in Strong <strong>Urban</strong> Fabric –<br />

(Suzanne Johnson) ............................................................ 46<br />

New <strong>Cities</strong> - Sustainable <strong>Infrastructure</strong> – (Mark Chen) ..............49<br />

Delivering <strong>Future</strong> <strong>Cities</strong> – (Kathryn Vowles) ......................... 52<br />

Valuing Biodiversity as <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong> –<br />

(Martin Predavec) .............................................................. 54<br />

<strong>The</strong> Transforming <strong>Cities</strong> Project: How <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

is Shaping <strong>Infrastructure</strong> for the <strong>Future</strong> <strong>of</strong> Our <strong>Cities</strong> –<br />

(Thomas Jost).................................................................... 57<br />

Emerging-Market <strong>Cities</strong><br />

Opportunities <strong>and</strong> Practices for <strong>Urban</strong> Planning in Emerging<br />

Market Countries – (Henry Wu) .......................................... 59<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong>: Meeting the Challenges <strong>of</strong> Rapid<br />

<strong>Urban</strong>ization in India – (Milind Nirmal) ................................ 61<br />

Songdo International Business District – (Henning Kuehn) ..... 64<br />

WATER<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Future</strong> <strong>of</strong> Water <strong>and</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong> in US <strong>Cities</strong> –<br />

(Brian Van Weele/David MacIntyre/Mary Fickert Thomas)..... 67<br />

Sustainable Water Management for the <strong>Cities</strong> <strong>of</strong> India –<br />

(Allen Gale)........................................................................ 71<br />

Managed Aquifer Recharge - An Australian <strong>Urban</strong> Experience –<br />

(Sarah Bish/Stuart Brown/Liz Webb)................................... 73<br />

Water Footprinting – (Michael Hardisty/Lynne Ceeney).......... 75<br />

City-Shaping <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Requires Us to be Bold,<br />

Visionary, <strong>and</strong> Willing to Communicate – (Leisa Prowse/<br />

Stephanie Luyks)............................................................... 79<br />

ENERGY<br />

Power Generation<br />

Power Generation for <strong>Future</strong> <strong>Cities</strong> – (Bill Hatfield/<br />

Dominic Bowers) ............................................................... 81<br />

Efficiency <strong>and</strong> Low Carbon<br />

Looking at the <strong>Future</strong> Through the Lens <strong>of</strong> the Past – NYC<br />

by 2030 Should Have Cleaner Air, Lower GHG Emissions,<br />

<strong>and</strong> More Energy Efficiency – (Guido Schattanek) ................ 85<br />

Getting to Zero: Is <strong>The</strong>re a Viable Strategy for Achieving a<br />

Zero-Carbon Energy System? – (Doug Webber) .................... 88<br />

Retr<strong>of</strong>itting<br />

How Existing <strong>Urban</strong> Buildings <strong>and</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Can Be<br />

Enhanced by Retr<strong>of</strong>itting <strong>of</strong> Technology – (Kirsten Foy)............ 90<br />

CURRENT AND FUTURE TECHNOLOGY<br />

Utilising Building Information Modelling (BIM) on Projects, Now<br />

<strong>and</strong> in the <strong>Future</strong> – (Lisa Perrett)......................................... 93<br />

<strong>The</strong> Art <strong>of</strong> the Possible - A Peek Under the Tent – (Richard<br />

Madenburg) ...................................................................... 94<br />

Knowledge Management – Community Avatars –<br />

(Alan Knott) ...................................................................... 97<br />

NETWORK<br />

Call for Articles.................................................................. 98


NETWORK<br />

Meeting the <strong>Future</strong> Challenges <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

What does the future hold for cities <strong>and</strong> urban infrastructure?<br />

What will we as engineers, architects, planners,<br />

<strong>and</strong> construction managers be designing <strong>and</strong> building?<br />

How can innovation <strong>and</strong> improvements in infrastructure<br />

pave the way to better living in all parts <strong>of</strong> the world?<br />

To celebrate Network’s 25 th anniversary, we put these<br />

questions to the thought leaders, engineers, <strong>and</strong> project<br />

managers across key sectors <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

globally. <strong>The</strong>se are the pr<strong>of</strong>essionals who, together with<br />

their colleagues <strong>and</strong> clients, spend their time finding<br />

solutions to the transportation, urbanization, <strong>and</strong> infrastructure<br />

challenges <strong>of</strong> the present <strong>and</strong> envisioning creative<br />

infrastructure initiatives for the future.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has a long history <strong>of</strong> serving our<br />

clients <strong>and</strong> the public in many sectors <strong>of</strong> the industry.<br />

Innovation <strong>and</strong> technical excellence lie at the heart <strong>of</strong><br />

the way we conduct business. In this issue we look at<br />

future trends, challenges, <strong>and</strong> innovation in various sectors<br />

- as they relate to cities <strong>and</strong> urban infrastructure.<br />

Some topics include:<br />

• City streets <strong>and</strong> highways <strong>of</strong> the future that enhance<br />

the community;<br />

• Airports that bring great benefits to regions through<br />

smart planning <strong>and</strong> design;<br />

• Port <strong>and</strong> intermodal urban development in the 21 st<br />

century;<br />

• Transit that is safer, faster, lower in cost, sustainable,<br />

<strong>and</strong> provides an integration <strong>of</strong> systems for access <strong>and</strong><br />

mobility;<br />

• <strong>Urban</strong> tunneling <strong>and</strong> the development <strong>of</strong> an innovative<br />

method to assess risk prior to construction;<br />

• <strong>Cities</strong> <strong>of</strong> the future <strong>and</strong> the challenges <strong>of</strong> planning<br />

for urbanization <strong>and</strong> infrastructure in developed <strong>and</strong><br />

emerging economies;<br />

• Water, our most essential resource, <strong>and</strong> the importance<br />

<strong>of</strong> promoting sustainable solutions for its supply<br />

<strong>and</strong> management; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Energy that satisfies the objectives <strong>of</strong> low carbon<br />

emissions, security <strong>of</strong> supply, <strong>and</strong> low cost.<br />

Network celebrates 25 years <strong>of</strong> promoting technical<br />

exchange among the firm’s employees throughout the<br />

world by featuring topics <strong>and</strong> articles that show a commitment<br />

to engineering excellence <strong>and</strong> are written by<br />

our technical staff. Network also showcases <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s diverse technical expertise <strong>and</strong> problemsolving<br />

ability to our clients <strong>and</strong> the industry. It is exciting<br />

to look forward to projects in <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

future <strong>and</strong> to feel confident that we will be part <strong>of</strong> many<br />

<strong>of</strong> the great urban infrastructure projects to come.<br />

We congratulate Network on the 25 years it has worked<br />

to inspire the freedom <strong>of</strong> thought <strong>and</strong> creativity that<br />

characterizes our pr<strong>of</strong>ession, to create a means <strong>of</strong> sharing<br />

our technological experiences, <strong>and</strong> to enhance our<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essional expertise <strong>and</strong> our ability to benefit society.<br />

George J. Pierson<br />

President <strong>and</strong> Chief Executive Officer<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f Inc.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx Introduction<br />

1


2Transportation 2Introduction<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

In our various roles as employees at <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

<strong>and</strong> its affiliates, we frequently work on projects that affect<br />

the future <strong>of</strong> the communities that we live <strong>and</strong> work<br />

in. We are fortunate to have these amazing opportunities<br />

to improve our urban infrastructure <strong>and</strong>, because infrastructure<br />

is so long-lived, the improvements may st<strong>and</strong><br />

for future generations. To celebrate the 25 th anniversary<br />

<strong>and</strong> the 75 th issue <strong>of</strong> Network, we chose to look forward<br />

to “the future <strong>of</strong> cities <strong>and</strong> urban infrastructure.” <strong>Urban</strong><br />

infrastructure has been at the core <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

business since its beginnings in downtown New<br />

York City in 1885. (Within a decade after founding his<br />

engineering practice, William Barclay <strong>Parsons</strong> was named<br />

the Chief Engineer <strong>of</strong> the Board <strong>of</strong> Rapid Transit Railroad<br />

Commissioners, <strong>and</strong> he went on to manage the design,<br />

engineering, <strong>and</strong> construction <strong>of</strong> New York City’s first subway<br />

line. ) Similarly, infrastructure has been the common<br />

thread that has run through almost all 75 Network publications<br />

over 25 years, especially as it relates to cities<br />

<strong>and</strong> urban development. Similar to our 10 th <strong>and</strong> 20 th anniversary<br />

publications, this commemorative issue reflects<br />

on our past projects, examines the current challenges<br />

that our clients face, <strong>and</strong> considers the roles <strong>of</strong> engineering,<br />

technology, <strong>and</strong> innovation in bringing a brighter <strong>and</strong><br />

more sustainable future.<br />

Technical Publication about <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

Network is <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s technical journal<br />

about all aspects <strong>of</strong> infrastructure. I started this publication<br />

in 1986 to provide a company-wide vehicle for<br />

technical communication about <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

computer applications <strong>and</strong> information technology systems.<br />

<strong>The</strong> moniker Network was chosen as a pun on<br />

the computer networks that linked our approximately 30<br />

<strong>of</strong>fice locations <strong>and</strong> the networks <strong>of</strong> people who collaborate<br />

within the company. Within a year, the newsletter<br />

quickly evolved to incorporate technical elements <strong>of</strong> civil<br />

engineering disciplines. Each issue was designed to focus<br />

on a discipline or theme <strong>of</strong> strategic interest to our<br />

company, our clients, <strong>and</strong> partners. In our 75 issues,<br />

the publication has featured all areas <strong>of</strong> the firm’s infrastructure<br />

business, including transportation, buildings,<br />

NETWORK<br />

25 + 75: Looking Forward …<br />

by John S. Chow, New York, 1-212-465-5249, chow@pbworld.com<br />

power/energy, natural <strong>and</strong> mineral resources, water, <strong>and</strong><br />

the environment. We also cover all phases <strong>of</strong> project<br />

implementation, from planning <strong>and</strong> financial/strategic<br />

consulting, to design, construction, sustainability, <strong>and</strong><br />

operations & maintenance.<br />

Network’s Mission<br />

Our mission is to provide the firm’s employees anywhere<br />

in the world with a platform to present <strong>and</strong> discuss interesting<br />

<strong>and</strong> unique technical solutions they have developed<br />

<strong>and</strong> are applying to real-world problems. Our goals are to:<br />

• Promote technology transfer within the entire firm;<br />

• Encourage widespread dissemination <strong>and</strong> exchange <strong>of</strong><br />

technical information for the sake <strong>of</strong> solving problems,<br />

creating new applications, <strong>and</strong> completing projects;<br />

• Educate employees on the firm’s new, developing, <strong>and</strong><br />

emerging technical capabilities;<br />

• Broaden the underst<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>and</strong> usage <strong>of</strong> innovative tools<br />

<strong>and</strong> technology by <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f staff;<br />

• Foster the pr<strong>of</strong>essional development <strong>of</strong> employees by<br />

providing opportunities for writing <strong>and</strong> publication; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Support <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f in planning, developing,<br />

designing, constructing, operating, <strong>and</strong> maintaining critical<br />

infrastructure for our clients.<br />

At <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f, our technical capability lies at the<br />

heart <strong>of</strong> our work. Technical excellence is a cornerstone<br />

<strong>of</strong> our business, <strong>and</strong> it is important for us to strive for the<br />

highest technical st<strong>and</strong>ards in our services to clients.<br />

In This Issue<br />

As an urban <strong>and</strong> environmental planner <strong>and</strong> a transportation<br />

project manager, I have spent my technical career developing<br />

plans, writing reports, <strong>and</strong> analyzing future conditions<br />

for infrastructure projects around the country. I am<br />

always fascinated by the innovative <strong>and</strong> creative ideas that<br />

our technical experts regularly develop for their projects. For<br />

this issue, we invited many “thought leaders” <strong>and</strong> other key<br />

individuals from around the world to share their experiences,<br />

perspectives, <strong>and</strong> predictions about the future <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure<br />

in their various disciplines. We asked them to<br />

illustrate how cities <strong>and</strong> urban infrastructure will change in


the 21 st century, focusing on the following questions:<br />

• What are your visions <strong>of</strong> how cities <strong>and</strong> the urban environment<br />

will evolve in the next 10 to 25 years?<br />

• What are your visions <strong>of</strong> the future in any <strong>of</strong> the many<br />

disciplines involved in urban infrastructure?<br />

• How will infrastructure adapt to changing needs?<br />

• How can improvements in infrastructure pave the way to<br />

better living in all parts <strong>of</strong> the world?<br />

• What roles can planners, engineers, desigers, <strong>and</strong> other<br />

infrastructure developers play in:<br />

- Inspiring new ideas <strong>and</strong> innovative thinking for habitat<br />

<strong>and</strong> urban living;<br />

- Creating <strong>and</strong> implementing better <strong>and</strong> more effective<br />

infrastructure; or<br />

- Enhancing the future <strong>of</strong> our communities?<br />

<strong>The</strong> guest advisors <strong>of</strong> this issue (Mark LePla, Steven Lai,<br />

Paul Skoutelas, Alan Knott, <strong>and</strong> Karen Block) helped us<br />

gather articles <strong>and</strong> essays from different parts <strong>of</strong> the business<br />

around the world. <strong>The</strong>y helped to solicit articles from<br />

a diversity <strong>of</strong> perspectives <strong>and</strong> countries including China,<br />

India, Philippines, Korea, Kuwait, Dubai, Australia, Irel<strong>and</strong>,<br />

UK, Canada, <strong>and</strong> the US.<br />

<strong>The</strong> guest advisor Alan Knott encouraged members <strong>of</strong> the<br />

regional technical leadership team (TLT) <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

in Europe/Middle East/Northern Africa (EuMENA) to<br />

contribute six articles. Working with a TLT is an example <strong>of</strong><br />

a good partnership because the TLT supports many <strong>of</strong> the<br />

same values that Network has fostered. <strong>The</strong> TLT promotes<br />

technical excellence, best use <strong>of</strong> emerging technology, <strong>and</strong><br />

the development <strong>and</strong> successful deployment <strong>of</strong> our technical<br />

capability by:<br />

• Connecting the work <strong>of</strong> our technical leaders, heads <strong>of</strong><br />

discipline, <strong>and</strong> their equivalents;<br />

• Promoting <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s technical reputation<br />

<strong>and</strong> pr<strong>of</strong>ile;<br />

• Supporting our staff following a technical career path;<br />

• Positioning us to meet future technical challenges <strong>and</strong><br />

opportunities;<br />

• Seeking out the best ways to use technology, to manage<br />

knowledge, <strong>and</strong> to capitalise on our investment in R&D;<br />

<strong>and</strong><br />

• Driving our contribution to <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s global<br />

technical excellence initiative.<br />

<strong>The</strong> resulting 33 essays <strong>and</strong> articles have been organized<br />

into the overarching categories <strong>of</strong>:<br />

• Transportation <strong>and</strong> mobility (highways <strong>and</strong> streets, aviation,<br />

ports <strong>and</strong> intermodal, transit, urbanization <strong>and</strong><br />

transportation)<br />

NETWORK<br />

• <strong>Urban</strong> tunneling<br />

• <strong>Urban</strong> planning (cities, emerging-market cities)<br />

• Water<br />

• Energy (power generation, efficiency, <strong>and</strong> low carbon)<br />

• Things to come<br />

<strong>The</strong> articles from around the globe show how planning<br />

<strong>and</strong> designing with new paradigms can help solve the infrastructure<br />

problems we face, especially in areas <strong>of</strong> the<br />

world that are rapidly urbanizing. For example, the dozen<br />

essays about mobility for various modes <strong>of</strong> transportation<br />

describe 21 st century challenges that resemble a<br />

multi-headed hydra, consisting <strong>of</strong> massive congestion,<br />

dependence on fossil fuels, suburban sprawl, disconnected<br />

economic business centers, difficulties in financing<br />

public works, distribution logistics, <strong>and</strong> the desire for<br />

livability, equity, walkability, <strong>and</strong> access.<br />

<strong>The</strong> essays about surface transportation (roads, transit,<br />

rail) recommend the application <strong>of</strong> a range <strong>of</strong> solutions<br />

such as complete streets, congestion pricing, distancebased<br />

user fees, context sensitive solutions, integration<br />

<strong>of</strong> l<strong>and</strong> use development with new transportation infrastructure,<br />

public private partnerships, government targets<br />

for public transit mode share, ambitious investment in<br />

freight <strong>and</strong> passenger rail, bus rapid transit, bus feeders<br />

to transit, travel dem<strong>and</strong> management, parking management<br />

systems, multimodal choices, <strong>and</strong> conversion <strong>of</strong><br />

streets to urban pedestrian malls in downtown areas.<br />

Two articles about aviation from India <strong>and</strong> the US mention<br />

similar themes about the increase in passengers<br />

<strong>and</strong> freight, the growth <strong>of</strong> aerotropolises, funding from<br />

national airport improvement programs, the collection <strong>of</strong><br />

tariffs <strong>and</strong> fees, airports’ roles in economic development,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the role <strong>of</strong> regional airports in freight logistics.<br />

In port <strong>and</strong> intermodal urban development, an article<br />

jointly written by US <strong>and</strong> Australia colleagues recommends<br />

the exp<strong>and</strong>ed use <strong>of</strong> inl<strong>and</strong> ports <strong>and</strong> short sea<br />

shipping under certain conditions.<br />

A Great Team Effort<br />

Since 1986, I have had the pleasure <strong>of</strong> working with a great<br />

team. <strong>The</strong> corporate advisors have provided support <strong>and</strong><br />

strategic vision (starting with Paul Gilbert who provided the<br />

original idea for a technical newsletter). <strong>The</strong> rotating international<br />

advisors from many countries have broadened our<br />

perspectives <strong>and</strong> topics. <strong>The</strong> graphic artists <strong>and</strong> web site<br />

administrators have provided a well-designed product both<br />

in paper <strong>and</strong> electronically. And all the editors have been<br />

Introduction<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

3


Introduction<br />

dedicated <strong>and</strong> delightful. <strong>The</strong> Network team has enjoyed<br />

the comraderie <strong>of</strong> steering a product that will continue to<br />

evolve with the times.<br />

In <strong>Future</strong> Issues<br />

Thanks to all the authors <strong>of</strong> our past 75 issues for sharing<br />

their experience <strong>and</strong> knowledge. By describing the<br />

challenges you faced <strong>and</strong> the innovative methods that<br />

you used to solve the problems, you are providing lessons<br />

learned that other pr<strong>of</strong>essionals can use to improve our<br />

services to clients. When you write about applications <strong>of</strong><br />

NETWORK<br />

new technology, you are helping to improve the state-<strong>of</strong>the-art<br />

<strong>of</strong> the industry. We look forward to employees from<br />

many <strong>of</strong>fices contributing to this <strong>and</strong> other <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

publications. Please consider writing for upcoming<br />

topics, described on the last page, Call for Articles, including:<br />

innovation to improve communities, alternative project<br />

delivery systems, building efficiency, <strong>and</strong> Building Information<br />

Management (BIM) systems.<br />

Seize the opportunity to share your knowledge about innovation!<br />

John Chow<br />

Executive Editor,<br />

Vice President,<br />

Transit & Rail Systems TEC<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

4


NETWORK<br />

City Streets & Highways: <strong>The</strong> Next<br />

Generation <strong>of</strong> Context <strong>and</strong> Collaboration<br />

by Hal Kass<strong>of</strong>f, Washington, DC, 1-202-783-0241, Kass<strong>of</strong>f@pbworld.com<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

Twenty-five years represents a brief snapshot in the evolution<br />

<strong>of</strong> streets <strong>and</strong> highways. But it’s long enough to mark<br />

trends that are likely to continue for much longer.<br />

Looking Back<br />

One way to start is to reflect upon the changes in our<br />

industry looking back 25 years, to the late 1980’s – when<br />

the U.S. Interstate Highway System was nearing completion.<br />

This was a time when the revitalization <strong>of</strong> cities was<br />

well under way, infusing new life into many downtowns<br />

<strong>and</strong> neighborhoods that had been declining, largely a<br />

result <strong>of</strong> the post World War II flight to the suburbs. It<br />

was also a time when we were just beginning to question<br />

decisions <strong>of</strong> the past few decades in which street <strong>and</strong><br />

highway improvements were based upon the dominance<br />

<strong>of</strong> the singular, overarching objective <strong>of</strong> moving traffic in<br />

larger volumes <strong>and</strong> with greater efficiency.<br />

<strong>The</strong> period <strong>of</strong> urban decline had already begun as the Interstate<br />

System was getting under way in the mid 1950’s <strong>and</strong><br />

early 1960’s. It should not be surprising that some urban<br />

planners, <strong>and</strong> many highway engineers, saw an opportunity<br />

to route new highways through blighted areas. Planners<br />

hoped for economic development <strong>and</strong> urban renewal to<br />

stem the tide <strong>of</strong> an exodus that was sapping the life <strong>and</strong> tax<br />

base out <strong>of</strong> their cities, while engineers sought the paths<br />

<strong>of</strong> least resistance <strong>and</strong> lowest cost. Under the pressures<br />

<strong>of</strong> containing costs <strong>and</strong> compressing schedules, there is<br />

no doubt that mistakes were made, even compared with<br />

major urban streets <strong>and</strong> highways that were more carefully<br />

conceived years earlier. Consider as examples the George<br />

Washington Parkway in the national capital region, the<br />

numerous parkways in New York City where residents vie<br />

for proximity to green spaces, <strong>and</strong> prestigious Lake Shore<br />

Drive in Chicago, which somehow fit in the immediate context<br />

<strong>of</strong> adjacent natural <strong>and</strong> manmade beauty. Compare<br />

these with urban expressways built later on, <strong>of</strong>ten on elevated<br />

structures or as at-grade de facto barriers, which<br />

<strong>of</strong>ten hastened instead <strong>of</strong> stemmed the urban decline they<br />

were intended to help reverse.<br />

From the vantage point <strong>of</strong> 2012, <strong>and</strong> the perspective that<br />

is the inevitable result <strong>of</strong> hindsight, we are entitled to be<br />

amazed at how the needs <strong>of</strong> different people – people living,<br />

working, walking, or perhaps riding a bus or a bicycle<br />

along an urban corridor – could have been inferentially <strong>and</strong><br />

at times explicitly subservient to the needs <strong>of</strong> people driving<br />

motor vehicles. A ‘complete street’ in 1987 could be<br />

described by some as one that removed parking in the<br />

peak hours <strong>and</strong> provided a progressive traffic signal system<br />

that <strong>of</strong>fered platoons <strong>of</strong> drivers more <strong>of</strong> the soothing<br />

hue <strong>of</strong> green <strong>and</strong> less <strong>of</strong>ten the abrupt intervention <strong>of</strong> red.<br />

<strong>The</strong> city, with its labyrinth <strong>of</strong> streets, was a place to get<br />

through as quickly as possible, with relatively little concern<br />

about the people for whom urban corridors were places<br />

in their own right—residential neighborhoods <strong>and</strong> commercial<br />

districts—<strong>and</strong> not merely rights-<strong>of</strong>-way for throughput.<br />

With the perspective <strong>of</strong> hindsight, we can perhaps appreciate<br />

the dilemma among planners <strong>and</strong> political leaders<br />

who were desperate to accommodate suburban commuters<br />

as a way to abate the decline <strong>of</strong> their downtowns,<br />

while <strong>of</strong>ten feeling compelled to compromise the needs<br />

<strong>of</strong> their own communities.<br />

Over the past 25 years, urban areas have been infused<br />

with new life as the values <strong>and</strong> preferences <strong>of</strong> younger generations<br />

prompted a mirror-image exodus, as compared<br />

with their parents, from the suburbs back to the diversity<br />

<strong>and</strong> opportunities <strong>of</strong>fered by more urban places. In turn,<br />

this has prompted a critical reassessment <strong>of</strong> streets that<br />

had been “improved” <strong>and</strong> highways which were built with<br />

a utilitarian mindset that emphasized traffic efficiency at<br />

the expense <strong>of</strong> communities. <strong>The</strong> result is that highway<br />

<strong>and</strong> traffic engineers <strong>of</strong> 2012 are increasingly approaching<br />

urban challenges in a more contextual vein, <strong>and</strong> with<br />

the engagement <strong>of</strong> stakeholders who themselves have<br />

varied, <strong>and</strong> at times competing, interests (witness the<br />

bicyclists <strong>and</strong> bus operators who vie for wide curb lanes<br />

while planners press for narrow lanes to discourage high<br />

speeds <strong>and</strong> through-trucks.)<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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6Transportation NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

Looking Ahead<br />

Looking to the next 25 years <strong>and</strong> beyond, it is very likely<br />

that cities will continue their resurgence. This seems to be<br />

the consensus <strong>of</strong> not only urban planners, but economists<br />

<strong>and</strong> political scientists as well. From the perspective <strong>of</strong><br />

transportation pr<strong>of</strong>essionals, it portends an exciting <strong>and</strong><br />

challenging shift back to an earlier era that preceded the<br />

dominance <strong>of</strong> cookie-cutter designs driven primarily by engineering<br />

st<strong>and</strong>ards. <strong>The</strong> leading edge <strong>of</strong> practice in 2012<br />

has already recognized the need to proactively seek out<br />

<strong>and</strong> engage, rather than react to <strong>and</strong> resist, the influence<br />

<strong>of</strong> a much more sophisticated <strong>and</strong> complex array <strong>of</strong> competing<br />

objectives. <strong>The</strong> efficiency <strong>and</strong> safety <strong>of</strong> moving cars<br />

<strong>and</strong> trucks cannot by any means be ignored, but must be<br />

addressed in the context <strong>of</strong> other goals. Traffic engineers<br />

<strong>and</strong> road designers who are unable to accept the concept<br />

<strong>of</strong> parity between transportation <strong>and</strong> contextual criteria<br />

will experience greater pushback. Those who are able<br />

<strong>and</strong> eager to seek out <strong>and</strong> value the creativity that can<br />

flow from multi-faceted, interdisciplinary gatherings <strong>of</strong> pr<strong>of</strong>essionals<br />

<strong>and</strong> stakeholders, <strong>and</strong> who can thereby better<br />

inform <strong>and</strong> inspire their proposed concepts <strong>and</strong> solutions,<br />

will be in resonance with the coming years <strong>and</strong> therefore<br />

in greater dem<strong>and</strong>.<br />

Over the next quarter century we can expect to see<br />

more street <strong>and</strong> highway-related activities that:<br />

• enhance rather than merely mitigate impacts to communities<br />

<strong>and</strong> the built <strong>and</strong> natural environments;<br />

• limit dem<strong>and</strong> through pricing while <strong>of</strong>fering congestion-free<br />

options through managed toll lanes on freeways<br />

that will no longer be completely “free”;<br />

• address ‘complete streets’ intended to accommodate<br />

the needs <strong>of</strong> pedestrians, bicyclists, <strong>and</strong> transit<br />

riders on a contextual <strong>and</strong> network level that customize<br />

solutions for the system as well as the setting ;<br />

• more fully leverage the strengths <strong>of</strong> alternate modes<br />

for freight <strong>and</strong> passenger movements through seamless<br />

interconnections <strong>and</strong> integrated operations;<br />

• take a hard, critical look at replacing aging freeways<br />

– particularly those that remain intrusive <strong>and</strong> which<br />

serve limited interregional <strong>and</strong> interstate functions;<br />

• increasingly replace surface <strong>and</strong> elevated freeways with<br />

underground solutions whose higher costs will be justified<br />

on the basis <strong>of</strong> broader-based, community-wide<br />

economic, environmental, <strong>and</strong> quality <strong>of</strong> life benefits;<br />

• generate road-related revenue through mileage-based<br />

NETWORK<br />

user fees as opposed to gasoline consumption taxes<br />

which will continue to decline as fossil fuel engines<br />

become more efficient <strong>and</strong> are increasingly replaced<br />

by renewable energy sources <strong>of</strong> propulsion;<br />

• attract private investment for high-cost solutions, particularly<br />

with the prospect <strong>of</strong> revenue streams that<br />

draw from mileage-based user fees;<br />

• are conducted through more transparent <strong>and</strong> interactive<br />

approaches, with explicit accountability for<br />

achieving performance-driven goals that are more<br />

broadly based; <strong>and</strong><br />

• reflect thought processes <strong>and</strong> decision-making driven<br />

by sustainability principles <strong>and</strong> the performancebased<br />

metrics <strong>of</strong> sustainability’s “triple bottom line”<br />

<strong>of</strong> economic, environmental, <strong>and</strong> equity criteria.<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> these transitions from the paradigms <strong>of</strong> the<br />

past to the realities <strong>of</strong> the future will advance more<br />

rapidly than others. (As a supremely confident planner<br />

once remarked, “our forecasts are almost always correct,<br />

though admittedly we sometimes don’t get the year<br />

right.”) <strong>The</strong>se trends imply a more sensitive <strong>and</strong> openminded<br />

approach to addressing the spectrum <strong>of</strong> street<br />

<strong>and</strong> highway projects from the simplest to the most complex<br />

– an approach that will depend upon a comprehensive<br />

grasp <strong>of</strong> physical, cultural, economic, <strong>and</strong> political<br />

contexts as well as a collaborative ethic among pr<strong>of</strong>essionals<br />

whose technical specializations have too <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

led to increasing compartmentalization. It is an approach<br />

in which transportation agencies must engage stakeholders<br />

proactively with teams <strong>of</strong> pr<strong>of</strong>essionals who view<br />

the excellence <strong>of</strong> the overall solution as dependent on<br />

their open-mindedness to each other <strong>and</strong> to the customers<br />

they serve. It is an approach that <strong>of</strong>fers optimism in<br />

the hope that urban streets <strong>and</strong> highways <strong>of</strong> the future<br />

will not be viewed as barriers <strong>and</strong> inevitably part <strong>of</strong> the<br />

problem, but as opportunities for enhancements that are<br />

key components <strong>of</strong> visionary solutions.<br />

Hal Kass<strong>of</strong>f is a Senior Vice President <strong>and</strong> Principal Pr<strong>of</strong>essional<br />

Associate <strong>and</strong> has spent the past 15 years with <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f working with clients <strong>and</strong> colleagues on making<br />

streets <strong>and</strong> highways <strong>of</strong> the future part <strong>of</strong> sustainability solutions<br />

rather than contributors to sustainability problems. He<br />

spent 25 years with Maryl<strong>and</strong> DOT, including 6 years as Director<br />

<strong>of</strong> Planning <strong>and</strong> Preliminary Engineering <strong>and</strong> 12 years as<br />

State Highway Administrator.


NETWORK<br />

Airport <strong>Infrastructure</strong>, Funding,<br />

<strong>and</strong> Planning for Tomorrow<br />

by Roddy Boggus, Dallas, TX, 1-214-583-3403, boggusr@pbworld.com<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

When aviation was new, most <strong>of</strong> our airports were constructed<br />

in “no-where” spaces where l<strong>and</strong> was cheap <strong>and</strong><br />

neighbors were few. Grass l<strong>and</strong>ing strips <strong>and</strong> a hangar<br />

or two usually defined the airport, as “aviation” was more<br />

<strong>of</strong> a hobby than a business. As aviation grew, this new<br />

fascination <strong>of</strong> flying found roots in the defense industry<br />

<strong>and</strong> mail delivery. Still, we built airports long before we<br />

recognized their potential to be economic drivers <strong>and</strong> before<br />

we knew how to utilize them as such.<br />

With the advent <strong>of</strong> commercial air travel, supporting industry<br />

desired to be close to the airports <strong>and</strong> development<br />

around airports began. Most <strong>of</strong> today’s existing<br />

airports have become constrained due to the development<br />

that has grown around them <strong>and</strong> lack sufficient<br />

federal funding to meet the infrastructure needs <strong>of</strong> the<br />

U.S. aviation system. Airports today have become an integral<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the global economy by not only moving passengers<br />

from country to country <strong>and</strong> continent to continent,<br />

but also in providing the logistical method for “just<br />

in time delivery” that drives much <strong>of</strong> the global manufacturing<br />

supply chain in the 21 st century. <strong>The</strong> 21 st century,<br />

the information age, is all about mobility - people <strong>and</strong><br />

goods on the move. As such, airports have become<br />

strong economic drivers <strong>of</strong> growth <strong>and</strong> development in<br />

the world. <strong>The</strong> realization <strong>of</strong> the economic benefit <strong>of</strong> airports<br />

<strong>and</strong> their ability to be drivers <strong>of</strong> major wealth <strong>and</strong><br />

development is not new but it is a relatively new concept<br />

to many in the political arena <strong>and</strong> the majority <strong>of</strong> the<br />

airport’s catchment area passengers.<br />

Efficient Mobility<br />

Efficient mobility is a competitive advantage in the global<br />

playing field, where value is created by time savings. <strong>Cities</strong><br />

are being graded, in part, by efficient mobility. Availability<br />

<strong>of</strong> air transportation directly contributes to the cities attractiveness<br />

for:<br />

• International business headquarters<br />

• National political organization headquarters<br />

• International non-governmental organization headquarters<br />

• Embassies<br />

• Think-tanks<br />

• National <strong>and</strong> international media organizations<br />

• Quality <strong>of</strong> life<br />

Our cities <strong>and</strong> airports are globally connected to sistercities<br />

around the world. This international focus does not<br />

allow airports to be locally or even nationally parochial <strong>and</strong><br />

also requires problem solving to occur beyond just a city<br />

or metropolitan scale. Transnational interaction helps produce<br />

economic globalization <strong>and</strong> airports must operate in<br />

the global marketplace.<br />

World City Airports<br />

Part <strong>of</strong> becoming a world city or a world airport is creating<br />

the synergy that drives the needed growth for this elevation<br />

in status. Typically, airports in the past have planned<br />

for the airport only, primarily to ensure that there are no<br />

adverse impediments to the airport doing its job - receiving<br />

<strong>and</strong> sending aircraft. However, airport planning can<br />

no longer be this narrow but must be as broad-based as<br />

urban or regional planning as opposed to just “airport”<br />

planning. Today we hear <strong>of</strong> ‘airport city’ <strong>and</strong> ‘aerotropolis’<br />

planning which, in layman terms, is just a rebr<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

<strong>of</strong> urban planning concepts - airports <strong>and</strong> their surrounding<br />

municipalities plan collectively to create catalysts for<br />

increased mobility into the region. This is a chicken-<strong>and</strong>egg<br />

strategy <strong>of</strong> creating the appropriate infrastructure to<br />

attract growth while needing the growth to justify the infrastructure.<br />

To make this work, airports <strong>and</strong> their cities<br />

must work together as a unit. <strong>Cities</strong>, aerotropolises, <strong>and</strong><br />

mega-regions are driving wealth in today’s world economy.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se megalopolitan areas account for more than 66% <strong>of</strong><br />

all economic activity <strong>and</strong> roughly 85% <strong>of</strong> all technological<br />

<strong>and</strong> scientific innovation. Without airports as anchors,<br />

the global movement <strong>of</strong> goods <strong>and</strong> commerce does not<br />

happen <strong>and</strong> growth stagnates <strong>and</strong> falls away. Similarly,<br />

airports that are constrained can negatively impact the<br />

economy <strong>of</strong> the region by forcing air traffic <strong>and</strong> development<br />

to go elsewhere.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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8Transportation NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

Financing Airports<br />

While the importance <strong>of</strong> airports, as drivers <strong>of</strong> economic<br />

wealth <strong>and</strong> anchors <strong>of</strong> our local involvement in the global<br />

market, continues to grow, so too does the importance <strong>of</strong> financing<br />

the growth <strong>and</strong> development <strong>of</strong> our national aviation<br />

system. Federal regulation <strong>of</strong> the national aviation system is<br />

no longer able to keep up with the infrastructure needs <strong>of</strong> our<br />

airports, <strong>and</strong> the U.S airport system, according to some, has<br />

fallen woefully behind that <strong>of</strong> other countries. As early as the<br />

1920’s, air mail traffic was regulated to avoid a monopoly in<br />

the carrying <strong>of</strong> the U.S. mail. This regulation continued in the<br />

late 1930’s with the creation <strong>of</strong> the Civil Aeronautics Board<br />

(CAB) to control routes, fares <strong>and</strong> schedules. Shortly after<br />

the end <strong>of</strong> World War II, the federal government developed<br />

a grants-in-aid program to help develop the nation’s aviation<br />

system. This program, along with the creation <strong>of</strong> the Federal<br />

Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1958, became the precursor<br />

to the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) in 1982.<br />

Just like the national highway system, much <strong>of</strong> America’s<br />

air transportation infrastructure is paid for with a simple<br />

tax on aviation fuel. State <strong>and</strong> federal agencies tax this fuel<br />

to provide the funds needed to make the National Aviation<br />

System (NAS) work. People pay the fuel tax as part <strong>of</strong> their<br />

ticket price. Airport finance today is marked by a prominent<br />

federal role <strong>and</strong> an even more significant role <strong>of</strong> debt finance.<br />

<strong>The</strong> federal role is exerted in two ways:<br />

• formula <strong>and</strong> discretionary grants funded by user taxes on<br />

airline tickets, aircraft fuel, freight waybills, <strong>and</strong> international<br />

departures; <strong>and</strong><br />

• exemption from federal tax on interest income for holders<br />

<strong>of</strong> airport bonds (a “tax expenditure” funded by the<br />

general taxpayer).<br />

In addition, the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Program,<br />

administered by the FAA, generates local funds to finance<br />

airport improvements. Although airport capital investment<br />

today is funded by this combination <strong>of</strong> airport cash<br />

reserves, debt capital raised by municipal bonds, commercial<br />

loans, <strong>and</strong> grants from state <strong>and</strong> federal governments,<br />

it is the sale <strong>of</strong> tax-exempt bonds <strong>and</strong> the provision<br />

<strong>of</strong> federal grants through the AIP program that finance the<br />

lion’s share <strong>of</strong> major capital projects.<br />

Since 1990, PFCs have become the basis <strong>of</strong> airport capital<br />

investment, funding projects that benefit local communities<br />

<strong>and</strong> that help meet passenger dem<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> growth for the<br />

estimated one billion passengers who will use the NAS by<br />

2015. PFCs are not a tax, but rather a user fee levied on<br />

NETWORK<br />

passengers who fly out <strong>of</strong> or transfer through an airport.<br />

<strong>The</strong> fees raised require FAA approval for their use <strong>and</strong> can<br />

only be used at the airport from which they were collected.<br />

<strong>The</strong> FAA Modernization <strong>and</strong> Reform Act <strong>of</strong> 2012 actually<br />

rolled back AIP funding for airports, while not increasing the<br />

PFC ceiling <strong>of</strong> $4.50 (which in today’s dollars is worth only<br />

$2.86). This reauthorization act, coupled with recent ancillary<br />

fees charged by the airlines that are not taxed to the<br />

benefit <strong>of</strong> the Aviation Trust Fund, as well as the ongoing<br />

need for infrastructure improvement, <strong>and</strong> the industry outlook<br />

that the federal government will be unable to continuously<br />

fund airports at the level required for the 21 st century<br />

(<strong>and</strong> beyond), have awakened our nation’s airports to<br />

changes that must happen for them to remain strong economic<br />

engines for today’s global transportation network.<br />

<strong>The</strong> ability <strong>of</strong> our national airport/aviation system to invest<br />

in the infrastructure necessary to maintain the quality <strong>and</strong><br />

level <strong>of</strong> service for this global economy is in jeopardy. Airports<br />

<strong>and</strong> their governing bodies are now looking for ways to<br />

increase their revenue generation systems. One <strong>of</strong> those<br />

options is to eliminate the federal cap on local Passenger<br />

Facility Charges (PFCs). Because airports serve a local area<br />

or region, local governmental bodies should be able to set<br />

the appropriate PFC level for their airports. Similarly, airports<br />

are requesting the creation <strong>of</strong> an opt-in deregulated<br />

PFC system, as it should be a local decision to opt into a<br />

deregulated PFC system. In an economic system that has<br />

deregulated airlines, but not airports, it would seem that our<br />

”laissez-faire” based system would recognize this need <strong>and</strong><br />

provide for the “depoliticalization” <strong>of</strong> our airport system.<br />

Conclusion<br />

One thing is for sure, the U.S. airport system is falling farther<br />

<strong>and</strong> farther behind the world airport system in terms<br />

<strong>of</strong> growth opportunity, customer service, infrastructure development,<br />

as well as multi-modal opportunities at transit<br />

hubs. <strong>The</strong> ability <strong>of</strong> our airports to partner with our communities<br />

to develop stronger regions <strong>and</strong> corridors <strong>and</strong><br />

bring the world to our fingertips is dependent on financial<br />

support. It has been said that air traffic is a bit like water, it<br />

flows where it can. If your city or airport is full or not ready,<br />

it will flow somewhere else. Are we ready?<br />

Roddy Boggus, Senior Vice President <strong>and</strong> Global Aviation Market<br />

Leader for <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinkerh<strong>of</strong>f, is responsible for managing the<br />

firm’s planning, financial, engineering, <strong>and</strong> construction services<br />

for airports nationwide. Mr. Boggus is an architect by trade <strong>and</strong><br />

the author <strong>of</strong> many aviation/security white papers <strong>and</strong> a regular<br />

columnist for Passenger Terminal World.


NETWORK<br />

Aviation: Development <strong>of</strong> Regional Airports,<br />

the Next Phase <strong>of</strong> Growth in India<br />

By Arun Ch<strong>and</strong>ran, New Delhi, India, +91-9971594809, ch<strong>and</strong>ran.arun@pbworld.com<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

<strong>The</strong>re are currently two ways to travel the 570 km (356<br />

miles) from India’s IT capital, Bangalore, to Karnataka’s<br />

regional town, Gulbarga – by road or train. It would<br />

take approximately 10 to 12 hours by either mode. If<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the stretch <strong>of</strong> National Highway is a broad road<br />

where the speedometer can show 80 to 100 km/hr, the<br />

next stretch on the state highways generally consists<br />

<strong>of</strong> patches <strong>of</strong> poor roads with potholes, without much<br />

lighting for night driving, <strong>and</strong> hardly any good rest areas<br />

to stop along the way. <strong>The</strong> train journey is equally tedious<br />

with average speeds <strong>of</strong> less that 100km/hr. This<br />

is indicative <strong>of</strong> the extremities in India. If it did exist, a<br />

third mode <strong>of</strong> travel would be in a 42-seater ATR or a<br />

19-seater aircraft that flies a few times a week, making<br />

the journey possible in just under a couple <strong>of</strong> hours. But<br />

there is a lack <strong>of</strong> a network <strong>of</strong> air routes across large<br />

parts <strong>of</strong> the nation.<br />

Nestled between the two metro cities <strong>of</strong> Hyderabad <strong>and</strong><br />

Bangalore, Gulbarga is being developed by private developers,<br />

both the airport <strong>and</strong> the township itself. To start<br />

with, in phase 1, a 1.9 km runway <strong>and</strong> a tiny 1,000 sq.<br />

ft. terminal is being built <strong>and</strong> the airport is scheduled<br />

to become operational in the third quarter <strong>of</strong> 2012. <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f is the lender’s engineer on this small<br />

airport that is being developed with a regional touch that<br />

redefines the way airports should work in the country in<br />

regional space. India’s unique geographic structure <strong>and</strong><br />

demographics are set to provide the catalyst for regional<br />

growth over the next decade despite the significant challenges<br />

that need to be overcome, such as volatile oil<br />

prices, high fuel taxes, <strong>and</strong> rupee devaluation.<br />

Even though a staggering compounded annual growth<br />

rate (CAGR) <strong>of</strong> 14.4% has been achieved in air passenger<br />

traffic in the last five years, India’s air travel penetration<br />

(total domestic passengers divided by the total population)<br />

is just about 5%. This ranks far behind developed<br />

countries like USA <strong>and</strong> Australia where the penetration<br />

is over 200%. China’s domestic traffic is five times the<br />

size <strong>of</strong> India’s despite having a 10% higher population.<br />

Passenger throughput in India is expected to reach 368<br />

million by 2020 (144 million in 2011) with domestic traffic<br />

constituting around 80% <strong>of</strong> the total (Source: Ministry<br />

<strong>of</strong> Civil Aviation, Government <strong>of</strong> India). For this to permeate<br />

the nearly 600 million strong middle class population,<br />

the overall development <strong>of</strong> the tier 2 <strong>and</strong> 3 cities 1<br />

in India is very much required, <strong>and</strong> for that adequate<br />

infrastructure planning <strong>and</strong> special concessions need to<br />

be established. At present, 70% <strong>of</strong> passenger air traffic<br />

in India is from the five metro airports (Delhi, Mumbai,<br />

Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore). This traffic needs to<br />

be spread out to the other cities <strong>and</strong> towns in order to<br />

decongest the metro airports <strong>and</strong> spur the economic<br />

development <strong>of</strong> the entire region.<br />

<strong>The</strong> rail network in India is well developed <strong>and</strong> trains are<br />

predominantly used as a preferred mode <strong>of</strong> transport between<br />

these lesser known cities. With the growth in air<br />

travel in recent times, airports are evolving as drivers <strong>of</strong><br />

business location <strong>and</strong> urban development in many cities<br />

around the world <strong>and</strong> the same model needs to be adopted<br />

to promote development <strong>of</strong> smaller cities <strong>and</strong> towns in<br />

India. As economies become increasingly globalized, <strong>and</strong><br />

time being the most precious commodity, air transport<br />

will ultimately become the backbone for the movement<br />

<strong>of</strong> people <strong>and</strong> goods. Eventually, each state within India<br />

should have at least one international airport, fed by a<br />

mix <strong>of</strong> regional <strong>and</strong> metro airports having a tie-in to a<br />

seaport <strong>and</strong> a rail network. This enables the transport<br />

1<br />

Based on the population <strong>and</strong> the level <strong>of</strong> development, Indian cities are classified into tier 1, 2 <strong>and</strong> 3 cities. Tier 1 cities are the major metros<br />

mostly with population over 4 mm (e.g., Mumbai, New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai <strong>and</strong> Kolkata). Tier 2 cities are the next rung cities with population<br />

between 1- 4 mm. <strong>The</strong>se are usually regional hubs such as state capitals, major ports or industrial centres. Tier 3 are minor cities with<br />

population less than 1 mm but with substantial growth potential <strong>and</strong> high disposable incomes.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

9


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>of</strong> heavy <strong>and</strong> light goods apart from passengers, which<br />

would lead to easing the congestion in the metro airports<br />

<strong>and</strong> assist in the regional development <strong>of</strong> India.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Aviation Sector Challenges<br />

<strong>The</strong> challenges that are faced by the aviation sector in<br />

India, <strong>and</strong> need to be overcome, start right at the policy<br />

level. Reforms are required to spell out l<strong>and</strong> acquisition<br />

norms, draw up a model concession agreement that<br />

states can use as a template, <strong>and</strong> define Public Private<br />

Partnership (PPP) guidelines that can be used across<br />

the various sectors. At present the limited regional<br />

airlines, which connect non-metros to metros, are not<br />

guided by uniform policies across the various states.<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> these policies are currently being developed.<br />

<strong>The</strong> government <strong>of</strong> India has taken a few initiatives. One<br />

<strong>of</strong> these initiatives is the establishment <strong>of</strong> the Airports<br />

Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA). <strong>The</strong> responsibilities<br />

<strong>of</strong> AERA are: to regulate the tariff for aeronautical<br />

services rendered at major airports in India, to determine<br />

other airport charges such as development fees<br />

<strong>and</strong> passenger service fees, <strong>and</strong> to monitor <strong>and</strong> set performance<br />

st<strong>and</strong>ards relating to quality, continuity, <strong>and</strong><br />

reliability <strong>of</strong> service at airports.<br />

<strong>The</strong> other challenge that is currently being faced by the<br />

sector is the low traffic volume which restricts the service<br />

level. Thus, on the one h<strong>and</strong>, the ability <strong>of</strong> the airport<br />

developer to recoup the costs through aeronautical fees<br />

alone is not possible <strong>and</strong>, on the other h<strong>and</strong>, the opportunities<br />

to attract alternative revenue sources are limited<br />

by the economic development potential <strong>of</strong> that area.<br />

<strong>The</strong> opportunities to attract alternative revenue sources<br />

(such as commercial property development <strong>of</strong> the area<br />

outside the airport) are also limited by the economic<br />

development potential <strong>of</strong> the area the airport serves.<br />

<strong>The</strong> airline industry is going through a tough phase <strong>of</strong><br />

consolidation which has resulted in lower charges, <strong>and</strong><br />

airlines are constantly competing for some <strong>of</strong> the airport<br />

developer’s revenue sources. This is hampering innovation<br />

<strong>and</strong> development <strong>of</strong> the industry <strong>and</strong> the cities<br />

around the airport. <strong>The</strong> lack <strong>of</strong> adequate private sector<br />

interest in the regional sector is another obstacle that<br />

needs to be overcome by the industry.<br />

As an example, if we look at the northeastern part <strong>of</strong> India<br />

we find that most <strong>of</strong> these states are inaccessible due to<br />

inadequate road/rail facilities. <strong>The</strong> only viable means <strong>of</strong><br />

transport in many areas in these states is air transport.<br />

Table 1 provides the air connectivity statistics across the<br />

northeastern region.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Table 1 – Airports <strong>and</strong> flights across the northeastern region <strong>of</strong> India<br />

(Source: Ministry <strong>of</strong> Civil Aviation)<br />

At present these states are served by limited scheduled<br />

<strong>and</strong> non-scheduled operations by a few airlines, but most<br />

<strong>of</strong> the major airlines do not operate in this region.<br />

Stimulus for Regional Growth<br />

To overcome some <strong>of</strong> the above challenges, the hub<strong>and</strong>-spoke<br />

model should be developed, where non-metro<br />

airports feed the metro airports, which in turn feed the<br />

international airports. <strong>The</strong> key benefit <strong>of</strong> a hub airport is<br />

that it can sustain a comprehensive <strong>and</strong> far wider network<br />

through a higher frequency <strong>of</strong> service, <strong>and</strong> a point-topoint<br />

airport enables this by ensuring that the hub airport<br />

continues to be fed with a good passenger volume. With<br />

sustained development <strong>of</strong> the regional airports, there is a<br />

constant increase in the number <strong>of</strong> transfer passengers at<br />

the hub airport which leads to better non-aeronautical revenues<br />

at these airports, a pattern found across all major<br />

international hubs.<br />

This goes on to substantiate the fact that better connectivity<br />

generates wider economic benefits for businesses,<br />

both through the efficiency <strong>of</strong> direct linkages <strong>and</strong> by providing<br />

an environment that benefits businesses. According<br />

to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO),<br />

every $100 expenditure in air transport produces benefits<br />

worth $325 for the local economy. In the international<br />

business world, facilitating the air transport in a region<br />

helps provide access to an international labor force, customers,<br />

<strong>and</strong> suppliers, <strong>and</strong> promotes knowledge-sharing.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se catalytic <strong>and</strong> ‘spillover’ effects increase the efficiency<br />

<strong>and</strong> productivity <strong>of</strong> businesses in that region, as<br />

well as attract inward investment <strong>and</strong> high pr<strong>of</strong>ile businesses<br />

to that city. <strong>The</strong> availability <strong>of</strong> air freight service<br />

further facilitates trade by enabling businesses to oper-<br />

10


ate on a more flexible <strong>and</strong> time sensitive scale, benefiting<br />

from services such as ‘just-in-time’ delivery.<br />

All this generates a virtuous cycle <strong>of</strong> connectivity <strong>and</strong><br />

growth. Industrial sectors in that area are benefitted by<br />

faster movement <strong>of</strong> high value products <strong>and</strong> air connectivity<br />

increases with the number <strong>of</strong> destinations served <strong>and</strong><br />

the frequency <strong>of</strong> flights along these routes as these destinations<br />

become more attractive. Private sector players become<br />

interested in airport expansion opportunities in order<br />

to reap the benefits <strong>of</strong> the increase in both inbound <strong>and</strong><br />

outbound tourism <strong>and</strong> this leads to the generation <strong>of</strong> new<br />

jobs, both directly <strong>and</strong> indirectly. With the gradual increase<br />

in the number <strong>of</strong> regional airports around a main airport,<br />

airlines are provided with more flight options. Both the<br />

hub-<strong>and</strong>-spoke model <strong>and</strong> the development <strong>of</strong> the regional<br />

airports can happen simultaneously. <strong>The</strong> above cycle indicates<br />

clearly that unlike metro airports, the non-metro<br />

airports cannot be sustained on passenger traffic alone.<br />

Other activities which will generate traffic <strong>and</strong> economically<br />

balance the l<strong>and</strong>side activities will have to be leveraged.<br />

Dedicated hubs, MRO (maintenance, repair <strong>and</strong> overhaul)<br />

facilities <strong>and</strong> cargo facilities to h<strong>and</strong>le logistics, need to be<br />

developed simultaneously in India <strong>and</strong> this can improve<br />

the overall scale <strong>of</strong> development in the country. High speed<br />

rail would provide a good supplement to the transport sector<br />

within the city.<br />

High quality transport infrastructure is a prerequisite for<br />

sustained economic growth <strong>and</strong> for maintaining competitiveness<br />

in a developing economy. A number <strong>of</strong> key actions<br />

are required to take the Indian aviation sector to its next<br />

level <strong>of</strong> growth. To start with, state government support is<br />

necessary to develop the multimodal connectivity, utilities,<br />

<strong>and</strong> security that are required for any new airport. Innovative<br />

funding solutions <strong>and</strong> proper tax incentives can help<br />

fuel the development <strong>of</strong> regional airports. A collaborative<br />

effort between the government <strong>and</strong> the industry to facilitate<br />

all-weather operations <strong>and</strong> night l<strong>and</strong>ing at Indian airports<br />

would provide the impetus for the development <strong>of</strong><br />

air-connectivity. Finally, all these activities will lead to the<br />

NETWORK<br />

development <strong>of</strong> a ‘city around the airport’ which is termed<br />

an “aerotropolis”. Although the reality <strong>of</strong> an “aerotropolis”<br />

is years away, the concept <strong>of</strong> one is being tried out in Durgapur<br />

(state <strong>of</strong> West Bengal) in India. Only time will tell if<br />

a gradual growth into an aerotropolis is a better sustained<br />

model than the development <strong>of</strong> one in a fixed timeframe.<br />

As Indian aviation becomes competitive internationally, India<br />

can potentially become a global hub.<br />

Conclusion<br />

To achieve the nation’s vision <strong>of</strong> becoming the third largest<br />

aviation market by year 2020, the government <strong>of</strong> India <strong>and</strong><br />

the industry need to continue to work closely to tackle the<br />

challenges <strong>and</strong> to explore the various opportunities in the<br />

aviation sector in India. <strong>The</strong> government envisages almost<br />

all districts in the various states in India as having connectivity,<br />

<strong>and</strong> has stressed that small airports in regional cities<br />

are the future. <strong>The</strong> total investment in the aviation sector<br />

up to 2020 is expected to reach USD 120 billion, <strong>of</strong> which<br />

USD 80 billion will be in new aircraft, <strong>and</strong> USD 30 billion<br />

in the development <strong>of</strong> airport infrastructure. <strong>The</strong> rest will<br />

be in ancillary services, such as ground h<strong>and</strong>ling, maintenance,<br />

air traffic management, security, <strong>and</strong> training. Presently,<br />

as many as 59 new airports across 16 states are<br />

on the table, or at some stage <strong>of</strong> execution. For many <strong>of</strong><br />

India’s regional towns, an airport will be their passport to<br />

prominence <strong>and</strong> future growth. Thus aviation is set to provide<br />

major impetus to the growth <strong>of</strong> regional India.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f can support India’s vision for growth<br />

in this sector by contributing its expertise to the early phases<br />

<strong>of</strong> a development project, such as the preparation <strong>of</strong><br />

a plan for development <strong>of</strong> the industrial area around the<br />

Jodhpur Airport for Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development<br />

Corporation (DMICDC), <strong>and</strong> by providing a broad<br />

range <strong>of</strong> project management services for the development<br />

<strong>of</strong> airports in the country.<br />

Arun Ch<strong>and</strong>ran is the Director <strong>of</strong> Aviation for <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

AAPSA region <strong>and</strong> has served as the Project Director for the<br />

Delhi International Airport.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

11


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NETWORK<br />

Port & Intermodal <strong>Urban</strong> Development<br />

in the 21st Century<br />

by Jeff Schechtman, Glastonbury, CT, 1-860-815-0273, Schechtman@pbworld.com; Blair Garcia, Norfolk, VA, 1-757-<br />

466-9671, garciab@pbworld.com; Casey Dwyer, Brisbane, AUS, +61 7 38546820, cdwyer@pb.com.au; <strong>and</strong> Shannon<br />

McLeod, Norfolk, VA, 1-757-459-4708, mcleodse@pbworld.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

A combination <strong>of</strong> factors threatens the expansion <strong>of</strong> port<br />

facilities to accommodate increasing global trade volumes.<br />

By virtue <strong>of</strong> their function, seaports typically have relied on<br />

the availability <strong>of</strong> waterfront property or l<strong>and</strong> adjacent to<br />

existing marine terminals to accommodate their expansion<br />

needs. Today, the lack <strong>of</strong> available l<strong>and</strong> or high cost associated<br />

with waterfront property has rendered the traditional<br />

approach to expansion infeasible in many locations. Further,<br />

as ports <strong>and</strong> the cargo volumes moving through them<br />

grow, so does the dem<strong>and</strong> on transportation infrastructure<br />

(e.g., highways, bridges, rail lines). As most ports are located<br />

in or adjacent to cities (in part to serve the needs<br />

<strong>of</strong> the local population), this increasing dem<strong>and</strong> results in<br />

roadway congestion, <strong>of</strong>ten accompanied by impacts on air<br />

quality <strong>and</strong> associated environmental justice issues in adjacent<br />

communities.<br />

Taken together, these challenges have resulted in the development<br />

<strong>of</strong> new concepts that are likely to play an increasing<br />

role in accommodating trade growth over the next<br />

20 years. Two such evolving concepts are:<br />

• Inl<strong>and</strong> ports, whereby new facilities are developed remote<br />

from major urban centers <strong>and</strong> connected to seaports<br />

via railways; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Short sea shipping, which focuses on diverting cargo<br />

from surface transport modes (truck/rail) onto coastwise<br />

<strong>and</strong> inl<strong>and</strong> waterway vessels.<br />

Inl<strong>and</strong> (Dry) Ports<br />

Inl<strong>and</strong> ports 1 are complex developments, <strong>and</strong> require a<br />

number <strong>of</strong> partners <strong>and</strong> stakeholders to play a role in the<br />

creation <strong>and</strong> operation <strong>of</strong> a facility. Key players include developers,<br />

seaports (as connected nodes feeding cargo to/<br />

from the inl<strong>and</strong> facility) <strong>and</strong> railroads, which usually provide<br />

the means by which cargo moves between inl<strong>and</strong> ports<br />

<strong>and</strong> seaports. Basic inl<strong>and</strong> intermodal terminals (IMTs) are<br />

sometimes referred to as ‘satellite terminals’ <strong>and</strong> can exist<br />

with only these participants.<br />

More robust inl<strong>and</strong> port facilities, which are based on modern<br />

supply chain management strategies, <strong>of</strong>ten include other<br />

complementary functions/facilities such as interstate/<br />

interregional rail service, warehousing, freight consolidation,<br />

<strong>and</strong> distribution centers. <strong>The</strong>se facilities, clustered together<br />

with the inl<strong>and</strong> intermodal rail terminal, form the inl<strong>and</strong> port.<br />

As the number <strong>of</strong> participants grows to include shippers,<br />

logistics service providers, <strong>and</strong> terminal operators, the success<br />

<strong>of</strong> an inl<strong>and</strong> port hinges on several key factors:<br />

• Location – Advances in supply chain management have<br />

resulted in a high degree <strong>of</strong> sophistication in identifying<br />

suitable locations for inl<strong>and</strong> ports. Like the airline<br />

industry, the integration <strong>of</strong> distribution centers with<br />

inl<strong>and</strong> terminals involves a ‘hub <strong>and</strong> spoke’ approach<br />

where efficient aggregation <strong>and</strong> redistribution <strong>of</strong> cargo<br />

to/from consumers is central to the strategy. As a result,<br />

inl<strong>and</strong> ports tend to be focused in locations with<br />

strong rail <strong>and</strong> roadway access to multiple major population<br />

centers <strong>and</strong> manufacturing areas.<br />

• Access to capital – Developing an inl<strong>and</strong> port can<br />

require thous<strong>and</strong>s <strong>of</strong> acres <strong>of</strong> real estate <strong>and</strong> millions<br />

<strong>of</strong> square feet <strong>of</strong> industrial space, along with<br />

the transportation infrastructure (rail lines, roadways,<br />

power distribution, etc.). <strong>The</strong> resulting capital<br />

investment, for a full build-out, can measure in the<br />

billions <strong>of</strong> dollars.<br />

• Business strategy alignment – Because <strong>of</strong> the costs<br />

involved, key participants must align their business<br />

strategies to reap long-term benefits from the inl<strong>and</strong><br />

port. Supply chain management, marketing, <strong>and</strong> operations<br />

become interwoven processes that require<br />

1<br />

Inl<strong>and</strong> port - an inl<strong>and</strong> freight terminal that is connected to a significant coastal port via a rail line or shallow draft vessel (barge) service. In<br />

some locations they are called “Dry Ports” even though they may have a waterborne component.<br />

12


careful analysis <strong>and</strong> ‘buy in’ from participants <strong>and</strong><br />

stakeholders alike to yield the cargo volumes <strong>and</strong> efficiencies<br />

critical to success.<br />

• Environmental stewardship – <strong>The</strong> scale <strong>of</strong> inl<strong>and</strong><br />

port facilities can create challenges in the environmental<br />

permitting process, but also can provide<br />

opportunities to demonstrate environmental stewardship<br />

<strong>and</strong> mitigate impacts from the alternative<br />

(additional port development). Examples include<br />

the use <strong>of</strong> renewable energy sources such as wind<br />

<strong>and</strong> solar, clean fuel vehicles such as bio diesel or<br />

natural gas, using rainwater harvesting from buildings<br />

for irrigation <strong>and</strong> toilet flushing, <strong>and</strong> emphasizing<br />

energy efficiency in facility operation (such as<br />

use <strong>of</strong> sensors to activate lighting in ‘active zones’<br />

<strong>of</strong> warehouse/distribution buildings).<br />

<strong>The</strong> advent <strong>of</strong> intermodal terminals <strong>and</strong> inl<strong>and</strong> ports has<br />

been driven by different means <strong>and</strong> requirements <strong>and</strong> influenced<br />

by several types <strong>of</strong> challenges on various continents<br />

<strong>of</strong> the world:<br />

North America<br />

<strong>The</strong> most advanced freight intermodal rail network in the<br />

world is in North America. Six ‘Class 1’ railroad companies<br />

in the U.S. <strong>and</strong> Canada own <strong>and</strong> operate the rail<br />

tracks <strong>and</strong> the l<strong>and</strong> they are located on, locomotives/rail<br />

cars, <strong>and</strong> rail yards. Because the railroad was an integral<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the settlement <strong>of</strong> North America, the rail network<br />

has rapidly evolved into an extensive system that accommodates<br />

double stack trains along many corridors, connecting<br />

remote cities across the continent (see Figure 1).<br />

Figure 1 – Norfolk Southern Railway has the most extensive<br />

intermodal network in eastern North America (Source: Norfolk<br />

Southern Corporation)<br />

NETWORK<br />

This robust network has complemented the development<br />

<strong>of</strong> world-class, domestic/interstate intermodal <strong>and</strong><br />

inl<strong>and</strong> port rail yards that serve as port connections to<br />

hinterl<strong>and</strong> locations throughout the continent. <strong>The</strong>se include<br />

intermodal terminals on or adjacent to port terminals<br />

<strong>and</strong> large intermodal hubs in the center <strong>of</strong> the<br />

continent at the confluence <strong>of</strong> the six large railroads <strong>and</strong><br />

major freight distribution points. To alleviate traffic congestion<br />

in port cities, inl<strong>and</strong> ports/intermodal yards have<br />

been <strong>and</strong> are continuing to be developed to shuttle cargo<br />

by rail between the port <strong>and</strong> distribution hubs instead <strong>of</strong><br />

by truck from the port to its destination.<br />

Australia<br />

As one <strong>of</strong> the most aggressive <strong>and</strong> newest intermodal<br />

markets in the world, Australia is faced with many <strong>of</strong> the<br />

same challenges experienced in North America (e.g.,<br />

distance between cities), while trying to alleviate congestion,<br />

improve air quality, <strong>and</strong> alleviate capacity issues.<br />

Australia’s urban areas are responding to the need for<br />

sustainability, livability, congestion relief, <strong>and</strong> productivity<br />

by supporting intermodal terminal development.<br />

Australia faces major challenges in two key freight markets<br />

related to inl<strong>and</strong> ports/intermodal terminal development:<br />

• <strong>The</strong> import/export (IMEX) container market, where<br />

rapid growth in container volumes, combined with<br />

constraints affecting Sydney’s Port Botany, threaten<br />

to create a bottleneck that will add costs to the entire<br />

supply chain <strong>and</strong> increase congestion <strong>and</strong> decrease air<br />

quality in Australia’s largest metropolitan area.<br />

• <strong>The</strong> interstate container market, where Australia<br />

has yet to take advantage <strong>of</strong> the substantial operating<br />

cost savings <strong>and</strong> environmental benefits<br />

that can be achieved through greater use <strong>of</strong> rail to<br />

transport long distance freight between metropolitan<br />

areas <strong>of</strong> the country.<br />

<strong>The</strong> first inl<strong>and</strong> port in Australia, the Moorebank Intermodal<br />

Terminal, is being developed just outside Sydney to<br />

serve Port Botany <strong>and</strong> the greater New South Wales region<br />

(see Figure 2).<br />

Short Sea Shipping<br />

In many countries, marine transport is the only mode that<br />

has the capacity to meet the anticipated surge in freight<br />

volumes over the coming years. Short sea shipping 2 can<br />

also generate economic, safety, <strong>and</strong> sustainable benefits<br />

2<br />

Short sea shipping (Europe, Canada), coastal shipping (Asia, Australia), <strong>and</strong> marine highway (United States) are synonymous terms describing<br />

shipping between two ports without crossing an ocean.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

13


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NETWORK<br />

manufacturing centers.<br />

<strong>The</strong> location <strong>of</strong> its rivers<br />

<strong>and</strong> thous<strong>and</strong>s <strong>of</strong> berths<br />

along its vast coastline,<br />

combined with a lack <strong>of</strong><br />

road <strong>and</strong> rail alternatives<br />

in certain provinces, <strong>and</strong><br />

a US$32.9 billion investment<br />

in waterways as<br />

part <strong>of</strong> its Five-Year Plan<br />

for transportation development<br />

ending in 2015,<br />

are expected to continue<br />

strengthening China’s<br />

coastal shipping market in<br />

the future.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 2 – Sydney Area Map <strong>and</strong> the Moorebank Intermodal Terminal (Source: Australian Government,<br />

Department <strong>of</strong> Finance <strong>and</strong> Deregulation, Moorebank Project Office)<br />

for the regions served. <strong>The</strong>se may include benefits to urban<br />

areas gained from reduced costs <strong>of</strong> maintaining road<br />

infrastructure, relief from traffic congestion <strong>and</strong> bottlenecks,<br />

greater safety for the traveling public, <strong>and</strong> lower air<br />

emissions <strong>and</strong> noise pollution.<br />

Although shifting freight movement from a l<strong>and</strong>side to<br />

waterborne mode has become an important objective <strong>of</strong><br />

many national transportation policies, the success <strong>of</strong> converting<br />

these policies to successful short sea shipping<br />

services vary according to each continent’s geography,<br />

distribution system, <strong>and</strong> governmental support <strong>of</strong> domestic<br />

maritime transport initiatives.<br />

Asia<br />

Along with the rapid development <strong>of</strong> China’s economy <strong>and</strong> increasing<br />

transport dem<strong>and</strong>s in recent years, inl<strong>and</strong> waterway<br />

transport has been growing at an average <strong>of</strong> 8.8 percent 3<br />

per annum. In 2010, coastal shipping in China accounted for<br />

approximately 48 percent <strong>of</strong> the total freight ton-kilometers.<br />

Of the 3.8 billion tons <strong>of</strong> waterway freight traffic in China in<br />

2010, 40 percent passed through the Yangtze River 4 . <strong>The</strong><br />

Yangtze is one <strong>of</strong> China’s numerous high-class inl<strong>and</strong> waterway<br />

networks that link its major cities with industrial <strong>and</strong><br />

3<br />

World Bank<br />

4<br />

National Bureau <strong>of</strong> Statistics <strong>of</strong> China<br />

5<br />

Eurostat, EU Maritime Transport Statistics, Short Sea Shipping <strong>of</strong> Goods 2010<br />

Europe<br />

Since many European<br />

Union (EU) cities are located<br />

in close proximity<br />

to the coast or inl<strong>and</strong><br />

waterways, its geography<br />

supports a strong short sea shipping presence, which<br />

has grown steadily over the past few decades. In 2010,<br />

short sea shipping <strong>of</strong> freight in the EU-27 was nearly 1.8<br />

billion tons. Approximately 62 percent <strong>of</strong> EU-27 maritime<br />

freight was transported by short sea shipping, although<br />

the share <strong>of</strong> short sea shipping in total maritime transport<br />

varied widely by country 5 . Short sea shipping is also<br />

sustained by EU policies that encouraged its use, such as<br />

Figure 3 – <strong>The</strong> Ports <strong>of</strong> Rotterdam, Antwerp, Marseille <strong>and</strong> Hamburg<br />

are the top four ports for short sea shipping services in Europe<br />

(Source: Port <strong>of</strong> Hamburg)<br />

14


the Marco Polo II programme<br />

with a budget <strong>of</strong> US$513 million<br />

for transport <strong>and</strong> maritime<br />

projects from 2007-2013.<br />

High fuel taxes that make<br />

trucking relatively expensive in<br />

the EU, <strong>and</strong> recent technological<br />

enhancements to roll-on/<br />

roll-<strong>of</strong>f (ro-ro) ships that serve<br />

the EU short sea shipping<br />

market have further advanced<br />

interest in short sea shipping<br />

as an urban freight transport<br />

alternative (see Figure 3).<br />

NETWORK<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

North America<br />

In 2010, U.S. domestic marine<br />

traffic totaled about 890<br />

million tons, which consisted<br />

primarily <strong>of</strong> bulk cargo. Unlike<br />

China <strong>and</strong> Europe, the<br />

portion <strong>of</strong> U.S. domestic<br />

freight transported along its coastal <strong>and</strong> inl<strong>and</strong> waterways<br />

has decreased over the past three decades.<br />

Marine highway activity declined from 833 million tonmiles<br />

in 1990 to 503 million ton miles in 2010 6 . During<br />

the same time, truck <strong>and</strong> rail usage increased, both by<br />

about 7 percent, as a portion <strong>of</strong> total freight ton-miles.<br />

<strong>The</strong> primary North American inl<strong>and</strong> waterways run northsouth,<br />

while most major ports <strong>and</strong> inl<strong>and</strong> consumption<br />

centers are oriented west-east. Shipping regulations in<br />

the U.S. Merchant Marine Act <strong>of</strong> 1920, or the “Jones<br />

Act”, only allow vessels manufactured in the U.S. <strong>and</strong><br />

crewed by U.S. citizens to transport freight between U.S.<br />

ports without calling at a foreign port; this presents hurdles<br />

to marine highway progress, particularly the higher<br />

costs associated with building <strong>and</strong> operating qualified<br />

vessels. In 2010 about $222 million was allocated to<br />

marine highway <strong>and</strong> port-related development 7 . In order<br />

to fully realize the benefits <strong>of</strong> marine highway services<br />

Figure 4 – U.S. Marine Highway Corridors (Source: <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f Analysis)<br />

<strong>and</strong> alleviate congestion in its cities, the U.S. government<br />

will need to further invest in marine highway development<br />

(see Figure 4).<br />

Summary<br />

<strong>The</strong> growing constraints on l<strong>and</strong>side transport infrastructure<br />

located within or near densely populated<br />

<strong>and</strong> highly urbanized areas, along with the associated<br />

negative environmental consequences, are forcing the<br />

evolution <strong>of</strong> l<strong>and</strong>side freight transport strategies. Integration<br />

<strong>of</strong> existing maritime assets with other inl<strong>and</strong><br />

transport modes in the supply chain is imperative as<br />

countries throughout the world seek to protect <strong>and</strong><br />

enhance the quality <strong>of</strong> life in urban areas. <strong>The</strong> emergence<br />

<strong>of</strong> inl<strong>and</strong> ports <strong>and</strong> short sea shipping in the<br />

latter part <strong>of</strong> the 20th century will continue to evolve<br />

<strong>and</strong> exp<strong>and</strong> over the coming decades to accommodate<br />

cargo growth, while reducing roadway congestion <strong>and</strong><br />

improving air quality.<br />

6<br />

RITA Bureau <strong>of</strong> Transportation Statistics, U.S. Ton-Miles <strong>of</strong> Freight <strong>and</strong> USACE, U.S. Waterway System Transportation Facts, Geographic Distribution<br />

<strong>of</strong> U.S. Waterborne Activities in 2010.<br />

7<br />

<strong>The</strong> Consolidated Appropriations Act <strong>of</strong> 2010 (Pub.L. 111-117) appropriates Operating <strong>and</strong> Training funds to MARAD (Maritime Administration).<br />

Of such funds, up to $7 million is allocated to MARAD‘s Secure <strong>and</strong> Efficient Ports Initiative. <strong>The</strong> American Recovery <strong>and</strong> Reinvestment Act <strong>of</strong><br />

2009 (Pub.L. 111- 5) created the Supplemental Discretionary Grants for a National Surface Transportation System program under Title XI, also<br />

known as the TIGER Discretionary Grants program. <strong>The</strong> program extended eligibility for $1.5 billion in TIGER Discretionary Grants to projects in<br />

all surface transportation modes <strong>and</strong> notably to port infrastructure investments. Seven <strong>of</strong> the 51 TIGER Discretionary Grants, totaling $120.44<br />

million, were awarded to port projects expected to be on marine highway corridors. USDOT was authorized to award $600 million in National <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

Investment Grants pursuant to Title I (Department <strong>of</strong> Transportation) <strong>of</strong> the Consolidated Appropriations Act <strong>of</strong> 2010. DOT referred<br />

to the grants for National <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Investments as TIGER II Discretionary Grants. Seven <strong>of</strong> the 42 capital construction grants <strong>and</strong> a total <strong>of</strong><br />

$94.84 million went to port-related projects, some <strong>of</strong> which will benefit marine highway services.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

15


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Moorebank Intermodal Terminal<br />

<strong>The</strong> Australian government has undertaken a feasibility<br />

study for the development <strong>of</strong> an intermodal terminal<br />

on commonwealth l<strong>and</strong> at Moorebank in southwestern<br />

Sydney. <strong>The</strong> proposed facility will be the first <strong>and</strong> largest<br />

<strong>of</strong> its kind to be built in Australia. <strong>The</strong> terminal is<br />

a first step to providing an integrated transport solution<br />

to meet the significant growth in the movement <strong>of</strong><br />

freight to, from, <strong>and</strong> within the Sydney basin, <strong>and</strong> will<br />

provide significant congestion relief, freight capacity,<br />

<strong>and</strong> environmental benefits to the urban community,<br />

region <strong>and</strong> its surroundings.<br />

<strong>The</strong> study included economic <strong>and</strong> financial analysis<br />

<strong>and</strong> technical feasibility efforts, as well as a<br />

comprehensive environmental <strong>and</strong> social impact<br />

assessment that closely examined issues such<br />

as noise, traffic, <strong>and</strong> air quality. <strong>The</strong> client needed<br />

a flexible project team that was capable <strong>of</strong> maintaining<br />

an open channel with government decision<br />

makers without compromising study progress. <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f teamed with financial adviser<br />

KPMG <strong>and</strong> other consultants to plan <strong>and</strong> design<br />

a viable concept for an intermodal terminal covering<br />

the following specialties: rail, intermodal, civil,<br />

transport planning, environment, contaminated<br />

l<strong>and</strong> management, property, planning, power, water,<br />

<strong>and</strong> community consultation.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s team developed a structured<br />

planning <strong>and</strong> reference design development process<br />

that engaged <strong>and</strong> informed the client at all times. <strong>The</strong><br />

main elements included:<br />

• using proven ‘best practice’<br />

planning principles from mature<br />

intermodal freight markets<br />

globally;<br />

• providing technical options<br />

for intermodal operations<br />

<strong>and</strong> terminal infrastructure<br />

layouts, such as rail track,<br />

road, <strong>and</strong> terminal h<strong>and</strong>ling<br />

equipment;<br />

• selecting the most viable option<br />

via operational benefits,<br />

cost-effectiveness, <strong>and</strong> other<br />

criteria;<br />

NETWORK<br />

CASE STUDY<br />

• developing a reference design <strong>and</strong> functional reference<br />

design brief;<br />

• modeling strategic traffic benefits;<br />

• staging the development to suit dem<strong>and</strong> growth <strong>and</strong><br />

defer capital expenditure;<br />

• providing operational cost estimates for intermodal<br />

terminal operations;<br />

• developing capital expenditure estimates for the<br />

construction <strong>of</strong> all proposed infrastructure;<br />

• developing a conceptual intermodal terminal master<br />

plan that included vegetation green belts, warehousing,<br />

container storage, <strong>and</strong> commercial buildings;<br />

• developing a construction program <strong>and</strong> integration<br />

with relocation <strong>of</strong> existing defense units; <strong>and</strong><br />

• identifying risks associated with engineering solutions<br />

<strong>and</strong> environmental <strong>and</strong> planning approvals.<br />

Once complete, the new facility will advance Australia’s<br />

productivity <strong>and</strong> economic performance, promote<br />

significant industry development <strong>and</strong> investment, <strong>and</strong><br />

create jobs in southwestern Sydney. <strong>The</strong> benefits will<br />

include better management <strong>of</strong> heavy vehicle traffic<br />

on Sydney’s roads through more efficient distribution<br />

<strong>of</strong> containers by rail; an improved import <strong>and</strong> export<br />

speed efficiency <strong>and</strong> economic performance by rail;<br />

<strong>and</strong> improved air quality, decreased greenhouse gas<br />

emissions <strong>and</strong> motor vehicle accident rates. <strong>The</strong><br />

Moorebank Terminal will serve as a model for other<br />

IMT/inl<strong>and</strong> port developments in Australia <strong>and</strong> the<br />

world (see Figure 5).<br />

Figure 5 – Moorebank Intermodal Terminal Rendering (Source: Australian Government,<br />

Department <strong>of</strong> Finance <strong>and</strong> Deregulation, Moorebank Project Office)<br />

16


U.S. Marine Highway Development<br />

<strong>The</strong> capacity constraints along America’s inl<strong>and</strong> transportation<br />

corridors, increasing greenhouse gas emissions,<br />

<strong>and</strong> deteriorating highways <strong>and</strong> bridges has<br />

led the U.S. Department <strong>of</strong> Transportation to implement<br />

the America’s Marine Highway (AMH) Program.<br />

<strong>The</strong> program comprises 18 marine highway corridors<br />

throughout the U.S. <strong>The</strong> name <strong>of</strong> each is based on<br />

the interstate highway corridor it parallels. In 2011,<br />

the U.S. Maritime Administration awarded funding for<br />

three marine highway corridor studies: M95 along the<br />

East Coast (see Figure 6), M5 along the West Coast,<br />

<strong>and</strong> M55 along the Mississippi River.<br />

Figure 6 – M95 Corridor Map<br />

(Source: <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f Analysis)<br />

While the potential freight market for coastal shipping<br />

in the U.S. had been frequently studied, the<br />

Jeff Schechtman leads <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s activities in the<br />

ports & intermodal market in the Americas. He is a Senior Engineering<br />

Manager with diverse experience in planning, design,<br />

<strong>and</strong> construction supervision for port <strong>and</strong> marine facilities.<br />

Blair Garcia is the Port & Intermodal Planning Leader in the Americas<br />

<strong>and</strong> has assisted our business lines on many continents. His<br />

experience includes developing ports <strong>and</strong> intermodal terminals.<br />

NETWORK<br />

CASE STUDY<br />

AMH studies identified the prospective business<br />

case (costs, rates, <strong>and</strong> service parameters) <strong>of</strong> a marine<br />

highway system that would theoretically employ<br />

new <strong>and</strong> faster Jones Act vessels. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

led the M95 study <strong>and</strong> provided market <strong>and</strong><br />

technical expertise on the M5 study. <strong>The</strong> studies<br />

consisted <strong>of</strong> six key parts <strong>and</strong> objectives:<br />

1. Literature Review & Stakeholder Outreach – document<br />

best practices <strong>and</strong> lessons learned from previous<br />

<strong>and</strong> ongoing AMH initiatives in the U.S. <strong>and</strong><br />

abroad, <strong>and</strong> identify principal drivers <strong>of</strong> freight system<br />

modal choices by shippers <strong>and</strong> carriers;<br />

2. Market Analysis – analyze market data focused on<br />

diverting trucks, <strong>and</strong> provide information on anticipated<br />

cargo to be diverted to waterways;<br />

3. Operational Development – develop an operational<br />

plan that defines balanced, sustainable marine<br />

highway services <strong>and</strong> the parameters required to<br />

become a competitive service;<br />

4. Business Plan <strong>and</strong> Viability – perform business<br />

<strong>and</strong> financial analyses <strong>of</strong> the proposed services<br />

<strong>and</strong> evaluate them against private/public factors<br />

required to implement a successful service;<br />

5. Environmental Analysis – develop a base document<br />

that can serve as the foundation for a programmatic<br />

environmental document; <strong>and</strong><br />

6. Conclusions <strong>and</strong> Recommendations – provide an<br />

overall assessment <strong>of</strong> viability <strong>and</strong> make recommendations<br />

toward implementation <strong>of</strong> sustainable<br />

marine highway services based on the freight, operational<br />

<strong>and</strong> business analysis.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se studies have yielded a variety <strong>of</strong> strategies<br />

that can improve the viability <strong>of</strong> the marine highway<br />

corridors, <strong>and</strong> initiated an educated dialogue between<br />

stakeholders that could lead to the identification/creation<br />

<strong>of</strong> a financial <strong>and</strong> operational environment<br />

under which U.S. marine highway services<br />

can thrive.<br />

Casey Dwyer has over 30 years <strong>of</strong> management <strong>and</strong> strategic<br />

planning experience, with a focus on transport <strong>and</strong> distribution<br />

planning operations to clients across Australia.<br />

Shannon McLeod is a Transportation Planner <strong>and</strong> Strategic<br />

Analyst with more than 15 years experience in delivering operational<br />

solutions to maritime <strong>and</strong> intermodal initiatives.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

17


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NETWORK<br />

Coping with Rapid Change <strong>and</strong> Choice<br />

in Transport<br />

by Cliff Henke, Los Angeles, CA, 1-213-362-9487, henkec@pbworld.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

It has been said that we live in “cyber-time”: for the first<br />

time in human history we are able to make our own futures,<br />

not constrained by geography or the natural environment.<br />

Unprecedented global economic development—which has<br />

created greater dem<strong>and</strong>s for mobility <strong>and</strong> rapid urbanization—has<br />

also created congestion <strong>and</strong> shifting development<br />

patterns that also increasingly challenge our political<br />

institutions’ ability to respond. <strong>The</strong> challenge <strong>of</strong> fast global<br />

growth breeds interrelated challenges <strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong>ten-shifting<br />

points <strong>of</strong> congestion within exp<strong>and</strong>ing megaregions which<br />

many observers, such as author <strong>and</strong> urban theorist Richard<br />

Florida, say are the real engines <strong>of</strong> the economy now.<br />

Consequently, our ability to shape our environment through<br />

our own ingenuity has itself created problems <strong>of</strong> maldistribution<br />

<strong>of</strong> income, climate change, deforestation, <strong>and</strong> mass<br />

species extinction. Call it the problem <strong>of</strong> hyper-development.<br />

If anything, it <strong>and</strong> its complexity are accelerating.<br />

While our leaders grapple with these daunting challenges,<br />

they must also contend with yet another challenge unique<br />

to our new century; we <strong>and</strong> our increasingly mobile neighbors<br />

want better commute choices, ideally ones that can<br />

be made based on conditions in real time, the same way<br />

that airline <strong>and</strong> intercity railway reservation <strong>and</strong> status information<br />

has been available for years. Little wonder why<br />

such services as Google Transit <strong>and</strong> Nextrip have grown so<br />

rapidly in recent years.<br />

What is thus needed is a flexible, integrated set <strong>of</strong> surface<br />

transportation infrastructure <strong>and</strong> service solutions, combined<br />

with planning tools, service information, <strong>and</strong> public<br />

policies that enable faster, more flexible responses to the<br />

previously mentioned challenges. Fortunately, development<br />

<strong>of</strong> such tools is well underway, <strong>and</strong> our firm is at the<br />

forefront <strong>of</strong> advancing them.<br />

Why “small starts” have become so popular<br />

Let’s take the infrastructure solutions first. So-called “small<br />

starts”—smaller-scale, less-expensive public transport investments<br />

that include bus rapid transit (BRT), streetcars<br />

(or trams outside the U.S.), <strong>and</strong> commuter services involving<br />

diesel-powered, self-propelled passenger rail vehicles—are<br />

becoming increasingly popular because they can be deployed<br />

much more quickly than traditional urban rail projects.<br />

In fact, many <strong>of</strong> these projects have been planned,<br />

designed, <strong>and</strong> opened for revenue service in less than four<br />

years—within a single term <strong>of</strong> most elected <strong>of</strong>ficials.<br />

Furthermore, because these projects <strong>of</strong>ten use existing rail<br />

or road infrastructure, they can be deployed incrementally,<br />

adding to their flexibility. Combined with state-<strong>of</strong>-the-art<br />

travel dem<strong>and</strong> modeling, traffic engineering simulations, visualizations,<br />

<strong>and</strong> other computer-based planning <strong>and</strong> engineering<br />

tools, we can now <strong>of</strong>fer cities much more informed<br />

choices that respond to changing development conditions<br />

much faster than ever before.<br />

In the near term, part <strong>of</strong> meeting the worldwide intraregional<br />

mobility challenge must also include coping<br />

with poor overall economic conditions throughout the<br />

world, resulting in severe budget constraints caused in<br />

major part by the lower tax revenues that are the result<br />

<strong>of</strong> the economic collapse. In the U.S. as well as in other<br />

countries, governments have responded in part with increased<br />

deficit-financed expenditures on infrastructure<br />

projects, including public transport. <strong>The</strong> political <strong>and</strong>/<br />

or economic sustainability <strong>of</strong> those programs, however,<br />

has largely ended. Most governments are now looking<br />

at public transport investments that can achieve progress<br />

at lower costs. This is a major reason why BRT <strong>and</strong><br />

streetcar projects have become more popular. This is<br />

not to say that larger scale projects such as high-speed<br />

rail, light rail or metro systems are less necessary; far<br />

from it. Rather, they will grow less rapidly than BRT <strong>and</strong><br />

streetcars, because BRT <strong>and</strong> streetcars are more suitable<br />

in a broader variety <strong>of</strong> situations.<br />

Related to this trend is a growing utilization <strong>of</strong> existing infrastructure<br />

in a more productive manner for the same rea-<br />

18


sons. This approach includes an increasingly multimodal<br />

use <strong>of</strong> assets via smart growth 1 <strong>and</strong> complete streets 2<br />

strategies. In addition, creation <strong>of</strong> managed lanes on intraurban<br />

highways <strong>and</strong>/or congestion pricing with dynamic<br />

tolling is <strong>of</strong>ten combined with expansion <strong>of</strong> transit service,<br />

typically involving new or exp<strong>and</strong>ed BRT services, such as<br />

in Denver, London, or San Diego, but can also include other<br />

modes. <strong>The</strong> elegance <strong>of</strong> this approach combines a mechanism<br />

to help control peak-period congestion on streets <strong>and</strong><br />

highways while providing a funding mechanism to exp<strong>and</strong><br />

public transport alternatives.<br />

Meanwhile, for the same reasons—to save or stretch<br />

public-sector expenditures—the growing trend toward<br />

more alternative project delivery methods (e.g., designbuild,<br />

design-build-operate <strong>and</strong> maintain, <strong>and</strong> higher-risk<br />

concession arrangements such as build-own-operatetransfer,<br />

etc.) has begun to be employed with smaller<br />

projects such as the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway BRT<br />

in the U.K (design-build) <strong>and</strong> the U.S. Highway 36 BRT<br />

project in Denver. That city is also a pioneer in the use<br />

<strong>of</strong> private sector operations contracts for BRT, as are Las<br />

Vegas <strong>and</strong> Phoenix. We will see a growing use <strong>of</strong> these<br />

contractors in the U.S., which emulates other nations<br />

that have long used private operators in provision <strong>of</strong> BRT<br />

<strong>and</strong> tram services, because it gives <strong>of</strong>ficials greater flexibility<br />

in responding to the rapidly shifting development<br />

conditions mentioned earlier.<br />

Integrated flexibility<br />

Our collective future will not only be much more multimodal,<br />

but also much more intermodal, i.e., integrated<br />

<strong>and</strong> based on information that enables more choice in<br />

real time than ever before. <strong>The</strong> most sophisticated examples<br />

<strong>of</strong> this are in London, where travelers are able<br />

to select a variety <strong>of</strong> bus <strong>and</strong> rail services from different<br />

providers, in real time. A vast number <strong>of</strong> bus <strong>and</strong><br />

rail services operated by a variety <strong>of</strong> U.S. agencies are<br />

also available in real time through several web-based<br />

services, though there are fewer examples <strong>of</strong> real time<br />

trip planning tools involving multiple providers. <strong>The</strong> next<br />

step will be to link multiple agencies in real time, ideally<br />

with smart-phone accessible tools such as Google<br />

Transit <strong>and</strong> Nextrip, <strong>and</strong> also to implement use <strong>of</strong> a<br />

common fare media across multiple services.<br />

NETWORK<br />

To do this requires technical expertise <strong>and</strong> experience<br />

that is beyond the capacity <strong>of</strong> overstretched transit<br />

agencies <strong>and</strong> local governments, particularly after the<br />

budget-cutting effects <strong>of</strong> the Great Recession. This is in<br />

part why program management services are also in increasing<br />

dem<strong>and</strong>. Assignments are increasing not only<br />

for multibillion-dollar long-term investment programs in<br />

cities such as Phoenix, Denver, or Salt Lake City; but<br />

also in rapidly growing smaller cities such as Fresno,<br />

now California’s fifth largest city, which recently hired<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f as program manager for its BRT<br />

service that is under development.<br />

States <strong>and</strong> municipalities throughout the country are continuing<br />

to face serious gaps between the level <strong>of</strong> dem<strong>and</strong><br />

by citizens <strong>and</strong> businesses <strong>and</strong> the revenue available to<br />

finance, construct, operate <strong>and</strong> maintain their infrastructure.<br />

Public transportation has not seen the current levels<br />

<strong>of</strong> dem<strong>and</strong> since the 1950s <strong>and</strong> it will not likely abate<br />

anytime soon, due to the demographic <strong>and</strong> socioeconomic<br />

trends mentioned previously. In addition, whether in rapidly<br />

urbanizing developing countries or already industrialized<br />

nations, many studies show that people increasingly prefer<br />

to live in cities when they have viable options, due to the<br />

greater number <strong>of</strong> job opportunities there.<br />

However, traditional sources <strong>of</strong> funding are woefully insufficient<br />

to meet the growing infrastructure needs, particularly<br />

at the federal level in the U.S. Public-Private Partnerships<br />

(P3s) are becoming a more acceptable practice for<br />

addressing these needs. In fact, P3s may become much<br />

more commonplace with smaller projects, such as BRT<br />

<strong>and</strong> streetcar systems, because the economic barriers to<br />

<strong>and</strong> risks associated with the use <strong>of</strong> these arrangements<br />

will typically be lower due to their lower costs <strong>and</strong> smaller<br />

scale. As they are in a variety <strong>of</strong> countries throughout the<br />

world, private sector operators may become more prominent<br />

in the U.S. as well.<br />

Greater Need for Consulting Expertise<br />

Thanks to <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s broad experience in<br />

all modes <strong>of</strong> public transport <strong>and</strong> disciplines needed to<br />

deliver projects, it has been in a strong position to capitalize<br />

on these industry trends. Moreover, as the pr<strong>of</strong>essional<br />

services division <strong>of</strong> Balfour Beatty, with its world-<br />

1<br />

Smart growth is an urban planning strategy that concentrates growth in compact walkable urban centers to avoid sprawl, <strong>and</strong> which typically<br />

encourages transit, bicycle, <strong>and</strong> other non-auto transport use.<br />

2<br />

Complete streets (also known as livable streets) are roads designed <strong>and</strong> operated to enable safer, more visually attractive, <strong>and</strong> more comfortable<br />

access <strong>and</strong> travel for a broader variety <strong>of</strong> users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists, <strong>and</strong> public transport users <strong>of</strong> all ages <strong>and</strong><br />

physical abilities.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

19


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

class expertise in construction contracting, their combined<br />

strengths make them unique in their ability to integrate<br />

diverse disciplines <strong>and</strong> broad project delivery expertise in<br />

all surface transport modes <strong>and</strong> to take advantage <strong>of</strong> the<br />

new, more integrated, intermodal world that is emerging.<br />

As we have already demonstrated on P3s, not only in the<br />

U.S. but throughout the world, such projects take much<br />

due diligence, planning, <strong>and</strong> above all, interdisciplinary coordination.<br />

Just as the nations <strong>of</strong> the globe enter a rapidly<br />

urbanizing era where humans control their destiny more<br />

than ever before, our firm has all the right pieces available,<br />

NETWORK<br />

including the tools for greater interdisciplinary cooperation<br />

that will help us knit together more robust, integrated solutions<br />

that this new era also dem<strong>and</strong>s.<br />

Cliff Henke is a Senior Analyst <strong>and</strong> Senior Principal Technical Specialist<br />

at <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s Transit & Rail Technical Excellence<br />

Center. He heads <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s practice area network on<br />

transit systems technology (PAN 33). A 30-year veteran <strong>of</strong> public<br />

transportation technology <strong>and</strong> policy analysis, Cliff serves on several<br />

national industry advisory boards <strong>and</strong> is a member <strong>of</strong> APTA’s<br />

legislative committee leadership.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

20


In the last few decades there has been a renaissance in<br />

the construction <strong>of</strong> tramway systems worldwide. Trams,<br />

which employ electric traction, contribute to improved<br />

quality <strong>of</strong> urban life by providing sustainable urban transport.<br />

And while people will not forsake their cars to<br />

travel by bus, they seemingly will do so for trams. It is<br />

clear that tram transport has a major part to play in the<br />

urban spaces <strong>of</strong> the future.<br />

To date, overhead wires (catenaries) have been employed<br />

as the most effective means <strong>of</strong> power distribution, but<br />

their visual impact on the urban streetscape, especially<br />

heritage areas, is increasingly seen as problematic.<br />

Where a catenary has been deemed unacceptable,<br />

the usual outcome has been not to build the tramway.<br />

However, in some instances a compromise has been<br />

reached where the catenary has been removed for<br />

a small section <strong>of</strong> the alignment, <strong>and</strong> an alternative<br />

source <strong>of</strong> traction power has been employed to overcome<br />

the ‘gap’.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Trends In “Catenary-Free” Tramways<br />

By John Morris, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, +44(0)191-226-2646, morrisj@pbworld.com <strong>and</strong><br />

Michael Reeves, Godalming, UK, +44(0)1483-52-8982, reevesm@pbworld.com<br />

Ground level contact systems:<br />

Alstom’s APS <strong>and</strong> Ansaldo’s Tramwave<br />

Alstom’s APS employs a ground-level power collection<br />

system with a third rail recessed into the track, providing<br />

power to the tram (see Figure 1). Two collector<br />

shoes, one on each<br />

end <strong>of</strong> the tram, take<br />

up power from the<br />

third rail which is energised<br />

only when the<br />

tram is present, preventing<br />

pedestrians<br />

from coming into contact<br />

with a live rail.<br />

Ansaldo’s Tramwave,<br />

is a ground-level power<br />

supply system which is<br />

similar in concept to<br />

the Alstom APS system<br />

(see Figure 2).<br />

Figure 1 - Alstom’s APS (Ground-<br />

Level Power Supply)<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

Until recently, the technology to support catenary-free installation<br />

was very limited <strong>and</strong> was restricted to third rail<br />

type contact systems. However, recent technological development<br />

in the areas <strong>of</strong> induction systems, batteries,<br />

<strong>and</strong> super-capacitors has made the vision <strong>of</strong> catenaryfree<br />

operation achievable.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se systems tend to fall into two distinct categories:<br />

those which employ an alternative method <strong>of</strong> ‘continuous’<br />

power supply/collection to eliminate the catenary<br />

entirely, <strong>and</strong> those which use energy storage systems<br />

to overcome the ‘gaps’ where catenary cannot be installed,<br />

or is not preferred.<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> these solutions involve significant additional<br />

equipment costs at the construction stage along with<br />

associated ongoing maintenance costs. However, with<br />

careful design these additional costs can be mitigated<br />

<strong>and</strong> possibly removed altogether.<br />

Both systems were<br />

conceived, designed,<br />

<strong>and</strong> developed to:<br />

• Completely eliminate Figure 2 - Ansaldo’s Tramwave<br />

the visual impact<br />

created by traditional<br />

overhead lines;<br />

• Enable easy insertion <strong>of</strong> the power line between the<br />

rails <strong>of</strong> a new or existing tram line; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Avoid creating obstacles for pedestrians <strong>and</strong> road<br />

vehicles <strong>and</strong> dispense with on-board power storage<br />

systems.<br />

Both systems require a significant amount <strong>of</strong> electrical<br />

distribution infrastructure below the rail surface<br />

<strong>and</strong> at the trackside in order to effect the energisation<br />

<strong>and</strong> de-energisation <strong>of</strong> the contact rail when a tram is<br />

present, <strong>and</strong> have associated installation <strong>and</strong> maintenance<br />

costs.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

21


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>The</strong> APS system is in operation in the French city <strong>of</strong> Bordeaux<br />

where trams use pantographs <strong>and</strong> catenary in outlying<br />

areas. APS is employed for some 30% <strong>of</strong> the system.<br />

As yet we are not aware <strong>of</strong> an operational tram system using<br />

Ansaldo’s Tramwave technology, however it is employed<br />

on a number <strong>of</strong> bus rapid transit systems.<br />

Ground level induction system:<br />

Bombardier PRIMOVE<br />

<strong>The</strong> PRIMOVE system is a conventional tram system in all<br />

respects with the exception <strong>of</strong> its catenary-free operation,<br />

employing a contactless inductive power transfer from undertrack<br />

cables (see Figure 3).<br />

Figure 3 – Bombardier PRIMOVE<br />

System<br />

<strong>The</strong> electrical supply<br />

components are invisible,<br />

hidden under the<br />

vehicle <strong>and</strong> beneath<br />

the track, <strong>and</strong> the system<br />

is said to operate<br />

in all weather <strong>and</strong><br />

ground conditions.<br />

<strong>The</strong> PRIMOVE system<br />

additionally uses the<br />

MITRAC energy saver super-capacitors to ensure continuous<br />

vehicle operation <strong>and</strong> for storing energy from regenerative<br />

braking, <strong>and</strong> is only available for Bombardier<br />

Flexity Outlook trams.<br />

PRIMOVE requires considerable sub-surface electrical<br />

distribution & control equipment with associated cost<br />

implications.<br />

Energy Storage systems:<br />

Translohr – Catenary-Free<br />

Lohr Industrie <strong>of</strong> France manufactures rubber tyred trams<br />

which use a single guide rail (see Figure 4) <strong>and</strong> usually<br />

operate from an overhead line (the guide rail also provides<br />

the return path for the current). However, there are<br />

variants which run from internal batteries on sections <strong>of</strong><br />

the route where overhead<br />

wires are deemed<br />

undesirable.<br />

Figure 4 - Transohr Catenary-Free<br />

System<br />

NETWORK<br />

Battery recharging is via<br />

the catenary installed<br />

throughout the remainder<br />

<strong>of</strong> the system. To<br />

date this has only been<br />

implemented on systems<br />

where there are relatively short gaps in the catenary, not<br />

on a full system without catenary, but is well proven in service.<br />

Lohr Industrie –WiPost<br />

Lohr Industrie has recently announced a design for a totally<br />

catenary-free tramway system employing ultra-capacitors.<br />

This system employs a reverse-catenary in which the vehicle<br />

recharges the ultra-capacitors by engaging with a<br />

fixed collector shoe (electric current collector) mounted<br />

on lighting columns via a pick-up on the ro<strong>of</strong> which runs<br />

the entire length <strong>of</strong> the tram. <strong>The</strong> collector shoes are only<br />

energised upon contact between the arm <strong>and</strong> the contact<br />

line (see Figure 5).<br />

WiPost requires considerable<br />

sub-surface electrical<br />

distribution & control<br />

equipment with associated<br />

cost implications.<br />

Kawasaki – SWIMO.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Kawasaki SWIMO<br />

concept was announced<br />

Figure 5 - WiPost System<br />

back in 2008, <strong>and</strong> employs<br />

industrial rechargeable bipolar nickel metal hydride<br />

(NiMH) batteries to alternate between sections <strong>of</strong> track<br />

with <strong>and</strong> without catenaries.<br />

<strong>The</strong> onboard battery system was designed to supplement<br />

electric power, enabling the distances between substations<br />

to be increased, potentially reducing the total number<br />

<strong>of</strong> substations, <strong>and</strong> cutting overall maintenance <strong>and</strong><br />

installation costs.<br />

SWIMO is applied on light-rail systems where there is a<br />

requirement to operate on battery power on sections <strong>of</strong><br />

the system, <strong>and</strong> recharges at compact, high-rate charging<br />

facilities placed at regular intervals along the line, or from<br />

the catenary where installed.<br />

Recharge time at one <strong>of</strong> these stations is said to be less<br />

than 5 minutes, <strong>and</strong> it<br />

is capable <strong>of</strong> operating<br />

on non-electrified sections<br />

for distances <strong>of</strong><br />

up to 10km.<br />

SWIMO trams are currently<br />

operating in Sapporo,<br />

Japan (see Figure<br />

6), where an existing<br />

Figure 6 – Kawasaki SWIMO Tram in<br />

Sapporo, Japan<br />

22


tramway has added low cost extensions without any form<br />

<strong>of</strong> traction supply. Battery recharging takes place at turnback<br />

(reversing) points. To date it appears that this is the<br />

only system employing SWIMO, <strong>and</strong> little detail on its performance<br />

is available.<br />

Kinkisharyo ameriTRAM<br />

Kinkisharyo, a leading Japanese manufacturer, has a proprietary<br />

lithium-ion powered propulsion system marketed<br />

as e-Brid technology (see Figure 7).<br />

NETWORK<br />

Super-capacitors, although <strong>of</strong>fering low cost solutions to catenary-free<br />

operation, are restricted in their application due<br />

to the limited distances over which they can power a tram,<br />

but have an advantage in that they are broadly cost neutral.<br />

Recent advances in battery technology <strong>of</strong>fer the possibility<br />

<strong>of</strong> catenary-free tram operation over significant distances,<br />

with the potential for achieving significant cost reductions<br />

in both construction <strong>and</strong> operating costs for both new tramways<br />

<strong>and</strong> extensions to existing tramways.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

This technology has been adapted for a tramway vehicle<br />

designed specifically for the North American market <strong>and</strong><br />

br<strong>and</strong>ed ameriTRAM.<br />

Catenary-Free Trams in the <strong>Future</strong> City<br />

With appropriate system design, a combination <strong>of</strong> the<br />

catenary-free concepts such as SWIMO <strong>and</strong> ameriTRAM,<br />

applied in both urban centres <strong>and</strong> at system extremities,<br />

<strong>of</strong>fers the potential for significant cost reductions for future<br />

tramways.<br />

More significantly, urban areas increasingly face visual<br />

intrusion from catenary poles <strong>and</strong> overhead lines which<br />

obstruct the visibility <strong>of</strong> l<strong>and</strong>mark buildings <strong>and</strong> squares.<br />

Catenary-free operation can make tram transport viable<br />

<strong>and</strong> contribute to the preservation <strong>of</strong> urban heritage areas<br />

<strong>and</strong> the creation <strong>of</strong> modern liveable spaces.<br />

Figure 7 – e-Brid Technology<br />

ameriTRAM vehicles are propelled by a combination <strong>of</strong> overhead<br />

catenary <strong>and</strong> on-board lithium-ion batteries. e-Brid<br />

charges the batteries while running on catenary power. In<br />

battery mode, e-Brid also uses power recovered from regenerative<br />

braking, <strong>and</strong> can run on battery power for up to 8km.<br />

Is Catenary-Free More Expensive / Less<br />

Efficient?<br />

Almost without exception the solutions above have required<br />

a degree <strong>of</strong> “dual-equipping” <strong>of</strong> either the trams or<br />

the guideway or both. Tram weights are increased by the<br />

additional burden <strong>of</strong> batteries or capacitors<br />

<strong>The</strong> third rail <strong>and</strong> inductive power collection systems provide<br />

an effective means <strong>of</strong> catenary-free operation, but<br />

have high initial costs. In some cases described, initial<br />

reliability has been poor.<br />

<strong>The</strong> practicalities <strong>and</strong> economics <strong>of</strong> hybrid operation are<br />

well proven within the automotive <strong>and</strong> bus industries, <strong>and</strong><br />

tram technology can benefit from the same R&D effort the<br />

automotive industry is applying to electric vehicles. Transfer<br />

to a tramway system will require careful design <strong>of</strong> the<br />

alignment <strong>and</strong> modelling <strong>of</strong> the traction power requirement<br />

to optimise the areas to be catenary-free <strong>and</strong> the areas to<br />

be equipped with catenary. However, the benefits are considerable,<br />

for costs, project implementation timescales,<br />

<strong>and</strong> integration into the urban environment, whilst at the<br />

same time <strong>of</strong>fering an effective, reliable, sustainable, <strong>and</strong><br />

safe form <strong>of</strong> urban transportation.<br />

John Morris is Technical <strong>and</strong> Assurance Director for <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f rail & transit business in the UK <strong>and</strong> a member <strong>of</strong> the<br />

EuMENA technical leadership team (TLT). He has been involved<br />

in catenary design for over 30 years, <strong>and</strong> is chairman <strong>of</strong> the British<br />

st<strong>and</strong>ards committee <strong>and</strong> UK delegate to European st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

committee for electrification fixed equipment.<br />

Mike Reeves is a Senior Principal Engineer <strong>and</strong> Head <strong>of</strong> Discipline<br />

for LRT in <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f rail & transit business in<br />

the Godalming <strong>of</strong>fice <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f. He is a chartered<br />

electrical engineer with 25 years <strong>of</strong> experience in light rail <strong>and</strong><br />

light rapid transit <strong>and</strong> has been involved in all but one <strong>of</strong> the UK<br />

tramways <strong>and</strong> light rail systems.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

23


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NETWORK<br />

<strong>The</strong> Middle East <strong>and</strong> Northern Africa<br />

(MENA) Railway Renaissance<br />

by Brendan Young, Dubai, UAE, +971 4 376 7222, youngb@pbworld.com<br />

<strong>and</strong> gas reserves, this seems paradoxical. But it serves<br />

to demonstrate the ambition <strong>of</strong> the region’s governments<br />

as they strive towards reform, increased infrastructure<br />

investment, more sustainable economic development,<br />

<strong>and</strong> political cooperation. But what is really driving the<br />

boom? And what challenges lie ahead for clients, consultants,<br />

<strong>and</strong> contractors tasked with delivering modern<br />

railways in the MENA region?<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 1 - Traffic on Riyad’s Al Fahad Street (Source: Bloomberg)<br />

<strong>The</strong> Middle East <strong>and</strong> Northern Africa (MENA) region has<br />

experienced strong population growth in the past 20<br />

years, from 240 million in the early 1990s to over 330<br />

million today 1 . This is expected to grow to well over 500<br />

million in the next 20 years. Much <strong>of</strong> the projected population<br />

growth is likely to be concentrated in major cities.<br />

Already, over 60 percent <strong>of</strong> the people in the MENA region<br />

live in urban areas. In countries where arid, inl<strong>and</strong> areas<br />

are virtually inhabitable, such as Qatar, well over 90 percent<br />

live in metropolitan areas.<br />

<strong>The</strong> increasing migration <strong>of</strong> people to urban areas will<br />

continue to put pressure on <strong>and</strong> create needs for jobs,<br />

public services, infrastructure, <strong>and</strong> housing. More people<br />

usually translate to more cars <strong>and</strong> in MENA cities, such<br />

as Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (see Figure 1), this will worsen<br />

an already highly congested road network. As a result,<br />

new transport infrastructure <strong>and</strong> particularly rail transit<br />

modes have again risen to the forefront <strong>of</strong> government<br />

infrastructure strategies.<br />

<strong>The</strong> MENA region is now experiencing a railway renaissance.<br />

For a region widely known to possess great oil<br />

Significant investment in rail will be made in the Gulf<br />

Corporation Council (GCC) states <strong>of</strong> Saudi Arabia, Qatar,<br />

United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait, Oman, <strong>and</strong> Bahrain<br />

(see map on Figure 2) where over $US100bn <strong>of</strong> new railways<br />

are planned, building further on recently completed<br />

metro <strong>and</strong> long distance rail lines.<br />

Although rail networks have long been established<br />

in Egypt, Iraq <strong>and</strong> Iran, Saudi Arabia has led the region<br />

in recent rail infrastructure development with the<br />

completion <strong>of</strong> the North-South Railway, a mixed freight<br />

<strong>and</strong> passenger line, <strong>and</strong> the opening <strong>of</strong> the Meshaaer<br />

Metro line, serving pilgrims in Makkah. Hot on their<br />

heels has been the UAE, with the recent opening <strong>of</strong><br />

two metro lines serving the high density coastal areas<br />

<strong>of</strong> Dubai <strong>and</strong> the recent commencement <strong>of</strong> construction<br />

on the 1,200km Etihad (Arabic for ‘Union’) Railway,<br />

a trans-Emirate freight (<strong>and</strong> future passenger)<br />

line connecting the seven Emirates <strong>of</strong> the United Arab<br />

Emirates. <strong>The</strong> Etihad Railway will eventually form the<br />

UAE’s contribution to the highly ambitious GCC railway,<br />

a proposed (approx.) 2,000km mixed traffic railway<br />

connecting Kuwait in the northern Gulf to Oman in<br />

the south, <strong>and</strong> an important l<strong>and</strong> bypass <strong>of</strong> the Strait<br />

<strong>of</strong> Hormuz, a strategic bottleneck for shipping trade<br />

at the head <strong>of</strong> the Arabian (aka Persian) Gulf. It has<br />

also been mooted that the GCC network will ultimately<br />

link with Europe via Baghdad <strong>and</strong> Istanbul <strong>and</strong> North<br />

Africa via Cairo.<br />

1<br />

World Bank<br />

24


Figure 2 – Map <strong>of</strong> the Middle East; highlighted countries form the GCC<br />

<strong>The</strong> GCC railway, which will connect the region’s principal<br />

centres <strong>of</strong> population <strong>and</strong> industry, will be an interesting<br />

test case for the success <strong>of</strong> rail freight <strong>and</strong><br />

passenger transport in the wider region. Political cooperation,<br />

financial investment, <strong>and</strong> governance are key<br />

challenges, but the long term strategic <strong>and</strong> economic<br />

rewards are obvious. <strong>The</strong> railway renaissance can be<br />

attributed to three key factors: population growth, discussed<br />

above; economic <strong>and</strong> political reform; <strong>and</strong> increased<br />

recognition <strong>of</strong> rail as means for economic <strong>and</strong><br />

environmental sustainability.<br />

Economic <strong>and</strong> political reform<br />

<strong>The</strong> growing youth population <strong>and</strong> high unemployment,<br />

particularly in North African <strong>and</strong> Levantine countries, that<br />

fuelled the recent Arab Spring has had a widespread influence<br />

across the region, bringing about varying degrees <strong>of</strong><br />

economic <strong>and</strong> political reform in Arab nations.<br />

While the GCC, largely made up <strong>of</strong> wealthy sovereign<br />

states, has been less affected by political unrest, most<br />

GCC countries have chosen to be proactive by decreeing<br />

reform <strong>and</strong> increased public spending.<br />

Government investment in infrastructure together with a<br />

maturing financial services sector, are renewing global<br />

interest in MENA countries as investment destinations.<br />

Neighbours to the east in India <strong>and</strong> China, in particular,<br />

are also increasing <strong>and</strong> strengthening their trade links<br />

with the region, which is an encouraging sign.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Freight <strong>and</strong> passenger railways, if properly planned <strong>and</strong><br />

implemented, help achieve the socio-economic goals <strong>of</strong><br />

improved equity, mobility, <strong>and</strong> access to employment <strong>and</strong><br />

markets, which in turn improve liveability <strong>and</strong> economic<br />

performance. For MENA governments, this translates to<br />

greater social <strong>and</strong> political stability.<br />

Economic <strong>and</strong> environmental sustainability<br />

Metropolitan passenger railways create economic benefits<br />

in terms <strong>of</strong> access to employment, greater productivity<br />

<strong>and</strong> resource efficiency, <strong>and</strong> they stimulate l<strong>and</strong> use development.<br />

<strong>Cities</strong> like Dubai are already benefiting from<br />

the implementation <strong>of</strong> major urban infrastructure projects,<br />

particularly highways <strong>and</strong> metro rail, as it marks a maturing<br />

<strong>of</strong> the city, improving the prospects <strong>of</strong> attracting vital<br />

foreign investment. This implementation <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure<br />

projects also generates employment <strong>and</strong> supports<br />

the development <strong>of</strong> many secondary industries.<br />

A contiguous long distance rail network connecting key<br />

economies <strong>and</strong> markets in the MENA region <strong>of</strong>fers similar<br />

potential economic benefits, provided the trade <strong>and</strong><br />

customs barriers are resolved. Hence, there is renewed<br />

interest in introducing rail as viable alternative to shipping<br />

<strong>and</strong> road transport <strong>and</strong> as a tool to improve the long term<br />

sustainability <strong>of</strong> MENA economies.<br />

<strong>The</strong> GCC railway, if successfully implemented, will provide a<br />

stronger physical connection between member states but<br />

more importantly, promote the GCC as a global economic<br />

force <strong>and</strong> reduce their reliance on oil <strong>and</strong> gas revenue.<br />

Railways are also seen as a beacon for environmental<br />

sustainability. Governments in the region, particularly oilexporting<br />

nations, are under increasing pressure to reduce<br />

their carbon emissions <strong>and</strong> are looking closely at<br />

rail-based transportation alternatives.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re has been a strong reaction by governments in the<br />

GCC to reduce their ‘real’ contribution through emissions<br />

reduction programs, much <strong>of</strong> which has been targeted at<br />

reducing vehicular emissions <strong>and</strong> congestion in the transportation<br />

sector. Many transport agencies have set ambitious<br />

public transport mode share targets for the future. In<br />

Dubai, the Roads <strong>and</strong> Transport Authority has set a target<br />

public transport mode share <strong>of</strong> 30 percent by 2030. This<br />

requires a significant expansion <strong>of</strong> the existing metro network<br />

2 <strong>and</strong> the addition <strong>of</strong> secondary transit modes.<br />

2<br />

In 2012, the Dubai <strong>of</strong>fice <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f completed the Dubai Rail Master Plan for the RTA. It proposes over 250km <strong>of</strong> new metro rail<br />

lines forming the backbone <strong>of</strong> the future public transport network for 2030 <strong>and</strong> beyond.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Investment in both freight <strong>and</strong> passenger railway projects,<br />

therefore, <strong>of</strong>fer governments both the opportunity to secure<br />

their long term economic future <strong>and</strong> improve environmental<br />

sustainability.<br />

Challenges<br />

<strong>The</strong>re are many obvious challenges affecting or likely to<br />

affect the development <strong>and</strong> success <strong>of</strong> rail-based transport<br />

in the MENA region. For passenger railways, the typically<br />

extreme climatic conditions (50 o C+ summer weather),<br />

mostly experienced in the GCC, significantly curbs people’s<br />

ability to walk <strong>and</strong> cycle to train stations. For freight railways,<br />

long distances <strong>and</strong> physical terrain (shifting s<strong>and</strong>s)<br />

create difficult conditions for both construction <strong>and</strong> operation.<br />

However, there are several other key factors affecting<br />

the market that can perhaps be more easily influenced <strong>and</strong><br />

need to be addressed to enable the successful implementation<br />

<strong>of</strong> projects in the region.<br />

Density <strong>and</strong> car dependency<br />

In general, the low density, car-dependant nature <strong>of</strong> urban<br />

areas, particularly in the booming Gulf region, threatens<br />

to undermine the viability <strong>of</strong> many new passenger rail projects,<br />

before the ground is broken.<br />

Although more recently, in places like Doha <strong>and</strong> Dubai, there<br />

has been a marked shift towards higher density, inner city<br />

living, driven mainly by new real estate development, the<br />

influx <strong>of</strong> expatriates, <strong>and</strong> changing lifestyle expectations <strong>of</strong><br />

modern Middle East citizens, more deliberate integration<br />

<strong>of</strong> l<strong>and</strong> use <strong>and</strong> transport is still required to make public<br />

transport work in cities where the default mode <strong>of</strong> travel<br />

is still the car. But provided future urban planning efforts<br />

do not compromise lifestyle choice, many <strong>of</strong> the physical<br />

changes required to support public transport use can be<br />

achieved over time.<br />

Funding, procurement <strong>and</strong> regulatory<br />

environment<br />

To some extent, the financial challenges posed during the<br />

credit crunch have forced a rethink on infrastructure project<br />

delivery toward shared investment models or public private<br />

partnerships (PPP), i.e., using private sector capacity <strong>and</strong><br />

public resources in order to deliver public sector infrastructure.<br />

However, the interest in such models from wealthier<br />

nations like the UAE <strong>and</strong> Kuwait appears to be on the sharing<br />

<strong>of</strong> project risk <strong>and</strong> the need to ‘buy-in’ intelligence from<br />

NETWORK<br />

Success story – Dubai Metro<br />

<strong>The</strong> Dubai Metro is now in its third year <strong>of</strong> operation.<br />

<strong>The</strong> 52km Red Line (opened in 2009) <strong>and</strong> the<br />

23km Green Line (opened in 2011) form a network<br />

that serves the densest areas <strong>of</strong> the city <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Dubai International Airport, one <strong>of</strong> the busiest airports<br />

in the world. <strong>The</strong> ‘Metro’ has exceeded all<br />

ridership projections with over 300,000 passengers<br />

using the system daily.<br />

<strong>The</strong> large ‘take-up’ could be attributed to the timing<br />

<strong>of</strong> the opening, i.e., at a point where there was a collective<br />

belt-tightening by Dubai residents. However,<br />

there continues to be good commuter ridership <strong>and</strong><br />

a high number <strong>of</strong> tourists using the line. This has<br />

resulted in strong ‘all-day’ ridership numbers <strong>and</strong><br />

good fare box revenue. Many <strong>of</strong> Dubai’s neighbours<br />

have been looking on with interest.<br />

foreign sources, rather than pure dollars. In Jordan, an<br />

aid-dependent nation, the government has a strong public<br />

sector, but is almost totally reliant on the private sector to<br />

fund new infrastructure 3 .<br />

As a result, several <strong>of</strong> the proposed passenger railway<br />

schemes in the region are being procured through PPP or PFI<br />

(private finance initiative) models, including metro schemes<br />

in Kuwait City <strong>and</strong> Makkah. Consequently, there is currently a<br />

great dem<strong>and</strong> for legal <strong>and</strong> financial services to support the<br />

development <strong>of</strong> effective procurement models <strong>and</strong> provide<br />

guidance to newly established rail authorities. It remains to<br />

3<br />

In 2011, the Dubai <strong>and</strong> Amman <strong>of</strong>fices <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f assisted a private investor to develop a scheme for the Zarqa-Amman LRT in<br />

Jordan. <strong>The</strong> project was a BOT to be wholly privately funded (incl. US-based OPIC capital); however, the scheme was rejected by the government<br />

<strong>of</strong> Jordan, the third such scheme to be rejected.<br />

26


e seen if the MENA region can achieve a greater strike rate<br />

for successful PPPs than elsewhere in the world.<br />

A railway infrastructure boom also requires the support <strong>of</strong><br />

a robust legislative <strong>and</strong> regulatory framework. Dubai, one<br />

<strong>of</strong> the pioneers <strong>of</strong> rail transport in the region with a 75km<br />

metro network, continues to create <strong>and</strong> develop its railway<br />

regulatory framework, well into its third year <strong>of</strong> operation 4 .<br />

Strong support is required to guide government authorities<br />

in the founding years <strong>of</strong> the regional rail industry.<br />

Helping them create a robust commercial <strong>and</strong> legal<br />

framework that covers the entire rail project lifecycle is<br />

imperative. Such a framework must allow for efficient<br />

<strong>and</strong> competitive tendering, encourage private investment,<br />

<strong>and</strong> protect rail authorities at the same time.<br />

Access to skilled labour <strong>and</strong> capacity building<br />

In the long term, knowledge <strong>and</strong> experience are required<br />

to help grow <strong>and</strong> sustain a local rail industry. In the short<br />

term, the sheer number <strong>of</strong> major rail projects currently under<br />

development in the Middle East dem<strong>and</strong>s a huge pool<br />

<strong>of</strong> specialised resources to plan, design, build, operate,<br />

<strong>and</strong> regulate railways. At present, these can generally only<br />

be drawn from outside the region.<br />

Significant additional skilled resources are still required<br />

to develop rail projects in the MENA region. In Qatar,<br />

over 125km <strong>of</strong> new metro rail lines must be designed,<br />

procured, built, <strong>and</strong> commissioned in readiness for the<br />

2022 FIFA World Cup. Several other regional projects are<br />

currently progressing to the latter stages <strong>of</strong> project development,<br />

attracting all the major consultants, contractors,<br />

<strong>and</strong> suppliers in the global rail industry. However, attracting<br />

talent to the region on any more than a short term<br />

basis remains a challenge.<br />

NETWORK<br />

With proper training <strong>and</strong> development schemes at the<br />

project level, <strong>and</strong> investment in engineering <strong>and</strong> ‘polytechnic’-style<br />

education programs, a substantial base <strong>of</strong> local<br />

skilled labour can be built over time. Of course, the industry<br />

must attract talent through some form <strong>of</strong> incentivisation,<br />

as many government desk jobs in the region may still<br />

come with higher salaries <strong>and</strong> higher status.<br />

<strong>The</strong>refore, meeting short term skilled resource requirements<br />

<strong>and</strong> long term capacity requirements in the MENA<br />

rail sector is also a significant challenge.<br />

Conclusion<br />

<strong>The</strong> planned implementation <strong>of</strong> rail projects across the<br />

MENA region is ambitious. While some project timelines<br />

remain in flux, there is a real drive behind rail projects,<br />

particularly in the GCC, that should significantly increase<br />

the number <strong>of</strong> rail kilometres in the next 10-20 years in<br />

the region. Based on current plans, an estimated total <strong>of</strong><br />

US$150bn is likely to be invested for these projects up to<br />

2022. This will represent an average <strong>of</strong> US$15bn annually<br />

for the next decade in MENA region. Around 75 percent <strong>of</strong><br />

this expenditure will be in the Gulf.<br />

With better integration <strong>of</strong> l<strong>and</strong> use <strong>and</strong> transport planning<br />

strategies by governments (‘planning it right’), implementation<br />

<strong>of</strong> best practice project delivery models (‘making it<br />

happen’), <strong>and</strong> capacity building for the long term (‘h<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

it over’), these projects <strong>and</strong> the region’s rail industry have<br />

a great chance <strong>of</strong> success.<br />

Brendan Young is an <strong>Urban</strong> Planner <strong>and</strong> Senior Project Manager<br />

with 13 years’ experience in the transportation industry in Australia,<br />

the UK <strong>and</strong> the Middle East. He is currently Operations<br />

Manager for the rail, transit & aviation market sector for <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s Middle East <strong>and</strong> Northern Africa (MENA) region.<br />

4<br />

<strong>The</strong> Dubai <strong>of</strong>fice <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f is currently preparing the Dubai Rail Planning & Design Guidelines, a suite <strong>of</strong> documents aimed at<br />

ensuring quality, safety <strong>and</strong> innovation in future planning <strong>and</strong> design <strong>of</strong> railway projects in the Emirate <strong>of</strong> Dubai.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

27


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NETWORK<br />

How <strong>Cities</strong> <strong>and</strong> the <strong>Urban</strong> Environment<br />

Will Evolve in the Next 10 to 25 Years<br />

by Andrew Stoneman, Bristol, UK, +44(0)117 933 9217, stonemana@pbworld.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> areas are unlikely to experience significant changes<br />

to their transport infrastructure over the next 10 to<br />

25 years. <strong>The</strong>re will be notable exceptions to the rule,<br />

where flagship infrastructure will be implemented, but<br />

these large items have long gestation periods which<br />

mean that if it is not on the books already, it is not likely<br />

to see the light <strong>of</strong> day before 2035.<br />

However, localised changes will be much in evidence.<br />

<strong>The</strong> use <strong>of</strong> road space will be modified to provide for<br />

public transport, either buses or potentially trams. Nonmotorised<br />

modes will also benefit from policies that provide<br />

road space with more cycle lanes being provided.<br />

<strong>The</strong> urban streetscape will be “decluttered” with physical<br />

signage being reduced as traffic regulations migrate<br />

onto smartphones <strong>and</strong> portable devices.<br />

<strong>The</strong> vehicles in which we travel will become more intelligent,<br />

with the car recognising traffic restrictions<br />

by communicating with the highway via GPS. Public<br />

transport boarding <strong>and</strong> alighting points will communicate<br />

with users, telling them <strong>of</strong> services that are approaching.<br />

<strong>The</strong> car will continue to dominate urban networks, although<br />

there will be changes to the vehicles themselves.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se changes will tend to be centred on using smaller,<br />

more fuel efficient engines coupled with smaller, lighter<br />

bodies. In 25 years time, it is likely that electric vehicles<br />

will be a high proportion <strong>of</strong> the vehicle fleet.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> freight movement will be dominated by electric<br />

vehicles as edge <strong>of</strong> town depots will consolidate deliveries<br />

into vehicles that are quieter <strong>and</strong> less polluting then<br />

the present range <strong>of</strong> large vehicles.<br />

<strong>The</strong> one significant change to common transport infrastructure<br />

will be the implementation <strong>of</strong> cable cars. Following the<br />

successful introduction <strong>of</strong> a cable car system in Greenwich,<br />

a number <strong>of</strong> transport authorities will consider implementing<br />

similar systems to connect centres that are separated by a<br />

physical barrier, whether it is a river, road or railway.<br />

Turning to the changes in l<strong>and</strong> use <strong>and</strong> the planning system,<br />

the next 10 to 25 years will be characterised by a<br />

focus on using l<strong>and</strong> with greater intensity. Large, sprawling,<br />

low density cities are inefficient to operate <strong>and</strong> provide<br />

for in terms <strong>of</strong> travel. By increasing the concentration<br />

<strong>of</strong> activity, there will be more tall buildings <strong>and</strong> more<br />

multi-purpose buildings – such as retail at lower levels,<br />

<strong>of</strong>fices in the mid-levels, <strong>and</strong> residential accommodation<br />

towards the upper levels.<br />

<strong>The</strong> pressure at ground level for space will increase,<br />

hence the need to focus the provision <strong>of</strong> highway capacity<br />

on vehicles with the capacity to carry a large number<br />

<strong>of</strong> passengers – primarily buses but potentially light rail.<br />

<strong>The</strong> green spaces in our urban areas will become more<br />

heavily protected <strong>and</strong> cherished. <strong>The</strong> dem<strong>and</strong>s on using<br />

them for cultural <strong>and</strong> social events will increase, making<br />

them vibrant centres <strong>of</strong> activity rather than each being<br />

an oasis <strong>of</strong> tranquility in the urban heart.<br />

<strong>The</strong> suburbs will remain popular as long as transport links,<br />

by mass transit, to the city centre remain strong <strong>and</strong> locations<br />

for employment, education, <strong>and</strong> retail remain accessible<br />

by car. However, the attraction <strong>of</strong> “out <strong>of</strong> town”<br />

<strong>of</strong>fices will diminish, as businesses will look for locations<br />

that are accessible to a large pool <strong>of</strong> qualified staff <strong>and</strong> are<br />

convenient for “face to face” meetings. And <strong>of</strong>fice workers<br />

will seek either the social <strong>and</strong> cultural convenience <strong>of</strong> living<br />

in the city centre or a central business location to visit on<br />

the two or three occasions they are in the <strong>of</strong>fice.<br />

Public transport in the suburbs will remain a significant<br />

challenge as trip patterns are dispersed <strong>and</strong> costs increase.<br />

Potentially, walking <strong>and</strong> cycling will become<br />

dominant modes for younger travellers, as car ownership<br />

costs increase over time.<br />

28


Where mass transit links into the urban centre are<br />

strong for the rural hinterl<strong>and</strong>s, there will be pressure<br />

on l<strong>and</strong>, with developers seeking to build houses to accommodate<br />

those willing to commute. <strong>The</strong> increase in<br />

the use <strong>of</strong> technology will provide a number <strong>of</strong> people<br />

the opportunity to work from home – not full time but<br />

one or two days a week. Technology for fares on public<br />

transport will be improved such that the penalty for<br />

these work patterns is removed.<br />

How <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Will Adapt to Changing<br />

Needs<br />

Adapting is the operative word, as space in many cities is<br />

in limited supply, so large new infrastructure is not easy<br />

to provide – <strong>and</strong> much <strong>of</strong> it is already there but not used<br />

to its maximum potential.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Small scale infrastructure – signs, lines <strong>and</strong> street furniture<br />

– will be minimised <strong>and</strong> removed from the highway.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Role <strong>of</strong> Planners, Designers, <strong>and</strong><br />

Engineers<br />

Planners, designers, <strong>and</strong> engineers have a role to play in<br />

seeking to find ways to maximise the use <strong>of</strong> existing resources<br />

– whether these are space or infrastructure. Planners<br />

need to direct development <strong>and</strong> activity to locations<br />

where it can be readily accessed <strong>and</strong> easily powered, watered,<br />

<strong>and</strong> maintained. Designers need to consider how<br />

the planned patterns <strong>of</strong> activity can be provided with infrastructure<br />

or how existing infrastructure can be used to its<br />

full potential. Engineers need to seek ways to enhance the<br />

existing infrastructure <strong>and</strong> improve the way we maintain<br />

<strong>and</strong> conserve the resources that are already in place.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

Large infrastructure will essentially remain unchanged<br />

in its physical form, but its management <strong>and</strong> operation<br />

will be focused on maximising efficiency. Systems<br />

will be designed to accommodate more users within<br />

the same footprint, with peak dem<strong>and</strong> periods being<br />

spread over more hours rather than planners looking<br />

at increasing capacity within a given hour.<br />

Andrew Stoneman is Technical Director in the Bristol <strong>of</strong>fice <strong>and</strong><br />

has worked with a number <strong>of</strong> clients promoting major schemes<br />

<strong>and</strong> developing transport strategies in the UK <strong>and</strong> overseas. His<br />

responsibilities include identifying technological <strong>and</strong> policy trends<br />

in transport <strong>and</strong> developing the resources <strong>and</strong> skills to address<br />

these changes. He is a member <strong>of</strong> the EuMENA technical leadership<br />

team (TLT).<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

29


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NETWORK<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Transportation <strong>Infrastructure</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

Systems: Will Supply Meet Dem<strong>and</strong> During<br />

This Century?<br />

by David McBrayer, Houston, TX, 1-281-589-5856, mcbrayer@pbworld.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Prologue<br />

<strong>The</strong> accustomed pattern in urban transportation <strong>and</strong> its<br />

infrastructure seems to be:<br />

• Deficiencies are noted<br />

• In response, improvements are made<br />

• Dem<strong>and</strong> rises quickly as a result <strong>of</strong> the improvements<br />

• Deficiencies are noted (go back to the starting point)<br />

While such is characteristic <strong>of</strong> progress in this <strong>and</strong> many<br />

other fields <strong>of</strong> human endeavor, there is at the same time<br />

an inevitable yearning for a happier process – one that<br />

keeps supply <strong>and</strong> dem<strong>and</strong> in a state <strong>of</strong> perpetual balance.<br />

Is that possible? Would the result have consistent <strong>and</strong> enduring<br />

benefits? Would those benefits be commensurate<br />

with costs? Are the costs affordable? Is the only viable solution<br />

a “carrot <strong>and</strong> stick” approach? What emerging technologies<br />

<strong>and</strong> their uses contribute toward best solutions?<br />

Emerging technologies <strong>and</strong> their uses<br />

<strong>The</strong> transportation planning toolbox grows ever more varied<br />

<strong>and</strong> complex. Which tools will be used, <strong>and</strong> how, to<br />

optimize the provision <strong>and</strong> use <strong>of</strong> infrastructure? For decades<br />

we have seen, with varying effects, car pool <strong>and</strong><br />

van pool programs, implementation <strong>of</strong> advanced urban<br />

transit systems, staggered <strong>and</strong> otherwise rearranged<br />

work hours, work-at-home options (telecommuting), encouragement<br />

<strong>of</strong> walking <strong>and</strong> bicycling, <strong>and</strong> other methods<br />

<strong>of</strong> managing amounts <strong>of</strong> travel, especially during peak periods.<br />

Here are some topics that may fit into urban transportation<br />

strategies as our century progresses:<br />

1. Electronic tolling<br />

2. Mileage tracking<br />

3. GPS navigation<br />

4. Automated driving<br />

5. Reversible lanes<br />

6. TOD <strong>and</strong> other mixed-use development<br />

7. Initiatives such as encouraging infill <strong>and</strong> re-intensification<br />

<strong>of</strong> central-city development<br />

8. Teleconferencing, videoconferencing, e-mail, internet<br />

networks, smart phones<br />

Also important to mention are advances in infrastructure<br />

design, construction, <strong>and</strong> financing methods, but<br />

working only with the above list, there are multiple interrelationships<br />

that could have synergistic applications.<br />

<strong>The</strong> range <strong>of</strong> actions <strong>and</strong> their potential effectiveness is<br />

very broad indeed.<br />

Flying cars, mini-helicopters<br />

As in every decade past, visionaries predict fundamental<br />

reorganization <strong>of</strong> urban form <strong>and</strong> accompanying<br />

transportation networks. Some visions come true, some<br />

do not. From childhood, I have seen speculation about<br />

commuting via flying cars <strong>and</strong> mini-helicopters that will<br />

free us from the constraints <strong>of</strong> surface (or underground)<br />

rights <strong>of</strong> way <strong>and</strong> conveyances. Although various obstacles<br />

to these ideas becoming reality are being overcome<br />

(the viability <strong>of</strong> GPS-based navigation, for example, might<br />

sort out the three-dimensional separation <strong>of</strong> thous<strong>and</strong>s<br />

<strong>of</strong> simultaneous conflicting door-to-door routes), there<br />

still are good reasons why we can never expect to see<br />

ourselves traveling in that way. Will that dream be realized<br />

in another way, with GPS precision supporting fully<br />

automated urban travel?<br />

We could imagine a world, within the next 88 years, in<br />

which urban travel is programmed <strong>and</strong> automated in<br />

such a way as to maximize the productivity <strong>of</strong> our transportation<br />

rights <strong>of</strong> way. In developed cities, right <strong>of</strong> way<br />

expansion is increasingly difficult <strong>and</strong> costly; making<br />

best use <strong>of</strong> what is already there will have high priority.<br />

In theory at least, we could see expressways, arterials,<br />

30


<strong>and</strong> perhaps even lower streets in the urban hierarchy<br />

employed as paths for automated vehicles, controlled<br />

electronically to avoid speed conflicts, manage gaps between<br />

vehicles, deploy reversible lanes or change numbers<br />

<strong>of</strong> lanes at will, re-invent the way intersection traffic<br />

is managed <strong>and</strong>, overall <strong>and</strong> in real time, maximize<br />

throughput as well as travel safety. Automation <strong>of</strong> public<br />

transportation vehicles – buses, for example – could reduce<br />

labor costs, one <strong>of</strong> the key drivers <strong>of</strong> operating <strong>and</strong><br />

maintenance costs. At the same time, automation could<br />

support effective blending <strong>of</strong> fixed-route <strong>and</strong> dem<strong>and</strong>responsive<br />

transit operating strategies, allowing the<br />

“seams” in transit – walking or driving to a stop or station,<br />

waiting, transferring, walking again – to be <strong>of</strong> much<br />

less consequence, resulting in transit more <strong>of</strong>ten being<br />

the mode <strong>of</strong> choice.<br />

Is that only a dream, or is there an element <strong>of</strong> reality in<br />

the prospect <strong>of</strong> an all-out application <strong>of</strong> technology in<br />

the use <strong>of</strong> urban transportation infrastructure <strong>and</strong> systems?<br />

One hundred years ago, the automobile was a<br />

fledgling industry, unsupported by adequate roads, <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>of</strong> limited value in cities, where public transportation<br />

was dominant for trips not made by walking. We have<br />

come a long way, but with each new development that<br />

makes travel more convenient <strong>and</strong> comfortable, there<br />

are new problems to be faced <strong>and</strong> resolved.<br />

Traveling where, why, when, <strong>and</strong> how<br />

Along with maximizing the usefulness <strong>of</strong> transportation<br />

rights <strong>of</strong> way there are opportunities to reduce needs<br />

for transportation. Our basic measures <strong>of</strong> travel are<br />

person-miles or goods-miles. Travel quantities can be<br />

reduced either by reducing numbers <strong>of</strong> trips, or reducing<br />

the length <strong>of</strong> trips.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Mixed-use development is an example that in some degree<br />

achieves both. In the experience <strong>of</strong> the author, effective<br />

mixed-use development can not only reduce needs to<br />

travel in cities, but also <strong>of</strong>fer considerable convenience<br />

to its residents. In Singapore, my wife <strong>and</strong> I lived in an<br />

apartment that had a supermarket, fast food outlet, other<br />

restaurants, <strong>and</strong> a wide variety <strong>of</strong> shops in the same<br />

building downstairs. Next door was an <strong>of</strong>fice tower which,<br />

as it happens, is now the location <strong>of</strong> a <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

<strong>of</strong>fice. Although this was not the case when I lived<br />

there, our <strong>of</strong>fice at that time was an easy quarter-mile<br />

walk away, as was an MRT subway station. In the United<br />

States earlier in my career, we once rented an apartment<br />

in a building across the street from my workplace. This<br />

was ideal, until my employer’s lease expired <strong>and</strong> the <strong>of</strong>fice<br />

was moved beyond walking distance!<br />

Engagement in center-city infill or redevelopment is<br />

another trend that can reduce travel – person-miles or<br />

goods-miles. This development pattern results in shorter<br />

trips, albeit with greater intensity, but that intensity<br />

provides a better market for public transportation services,<br />

thus promoting more efficient use <strong>of</strong> available<br />

travel corridors.<br />

Aside from l<strong>and</strong> use rearrangements to put trip origins<br />

<strong>and</strong> destinations in the same place or at least closer<br />

to one another, the effectiveness <strong>of</strong> telecommuting <strong>and</strong><br />

other non-travel coordination <strong>of</strong> business activities is<br />

improving, as communications technologies gain power<br />

<strong>and</strong> capability. “Travel” via internet, satellite, <strong>and</strong> cellular<br />

communications is ubiquitous <strong>and</strong> <strong>of</strong>ten highly<br />

effective, removing many physical place-to-place trips<br />

from travel dem<strong>and</strong>.<br />

On the goods movement side (not my field, I hasten to<br />

say), emerging efficiencies appear to be tendencies to<br />

shop by internet (deduct a shopping round trip), <strong>and</strong> delivery<br />

<strong>of</strong> purchases via the mass transit equivalent <strong>of</strong><br />

the second half <strong>of</strong> our shopping trips – planned deliveryroute<br />

shipping methods such as UPS <strong>and</strong> FedEx.<br />

Balancing supply <strong>and</strong> dem<strong>and</strong><br />

One <strong>of</strong> those problems, as noted at the outset, is the<br />

fact that exp<strong>and</strong>ed transportation infrastructure induces<br />

growth in travel dem<strong>and</strong>. With apologies for heavily paraphrasing<br />

the words <strong>of</strong> Charles Dickens’ Mr. Micawber,<br />

a little more supply than dem<strong>and</strong> keeps misery at bay.<br />

In our cities, however, that result has not been consistently<br />

possible. Houston’s Katy Freeway, with <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s help, is today a vast improvement over<br />

its status a decade ago. Built now to higher st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

<strong>and</strong> with nearly twice as many traffic lanes in a combination<br />

<strong>of</strong> freeway, high occupancy-toll, <strong>and</strong> frontage roads,<br />

it provides a dramatic improvement in level <strong>of</strong> service.<br />

One result <strong>of</strong> that level <strong>of</strong> service has been to accelerate<br />

the development <strong>of</strong> Houston’s western suburbs; as<br />

a result, significant peak-period congestion has already<br />

returned to this impressive new facility. My home-to-work<br />

journey’s six freeway miles are <strong>of</strong>ten as quick by frontage<br />

road as by freeway lane.<br />

More carrots, fewer sticks<br />

Achieving that elusive supply-dem<strong>and</strong> balance, as well as<br />

paying for new infrastructure <strong>and</strong> systems, brings us to this<br />

topic. Do we really mean fewer sticks, or do we conclude<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

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Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

simply that the sticks ought to be somehow proportional to<br />

the carrots – for example, should real <strong>and</strong> perceived costs<br />

be reasonably well-related to benefits or incentives associated<br />

with reaching that elusive goal – a little more supply<br />

than dem<strong>and</strong>? Is it not reasonable to expect that those<br />

who eat carrots pay for their production?<br />

One challenge for the 21 st century, therefore, is to improve<br />

that relationship between cost perception <strong>and</strong> benefit appreciation.<br />

As matters st<strong>and</strong>, the intricate web <strong>of</strong> transportation<br />

infrastructure funding sources <strong>and</strong> methods obscures<br />

the connection between using <strong>and</strong> paying for transportation.<br />

<strong>The</strong> consequences are widespread, affecting those who<br />

must decide how <strong>and</strong> when to invest in infrastructure, those<br />

who choose which infrastructure or transportation system<br />

or mode to use, transportation user choices <strong>of</strong> location <strong>and</strong><br />

trip destinations, <strong>and</strong> user acceptance or rejection <strong>of</strong> funding<br />

proposals (i.e., taxes, tolls, fares).<br />

Recognition <strong>of</strong> this subject as a critical problem to be<br />

solved is producing a search for better ways to assess<br />

transportation user fees. Inadequacies <strong>of</strong> fuel taxes in<br />

this regard are well known, <strong>and</strong> technologies are available<br />

to implement other methods. Tolls have been around<br />

for centuries, but electronic tolling is a recent development<br />

that is efficient <strong>and</strong> potentially applicable on a<br />

widespread basis rather than being confined to accesscontrolled<br />

routes. Measurement <strong>of</strong> a vehicle’s miles travelled,<br />

<strong>and</strong> where they are travelled, is now possible. Relating<br />

specific amounts <strong>of</strong> travel to the cost <strong>of</strong> providing the<br />

infrastructure being used is now an available method to<br />

charge for transportation consumed.<br />

As usual, there are challenges in implementing ‘per<br />

mile’ fees. Arguments are raised about privacy, or about<br />

the facility being used having been paid for already, for<br />

example. On the positive side, fees <strong>of</strong> this kind might<br />

not only put infrastructure funding on a more direct basis,<br />

but also provide a means <strong>of</strong> improving the user’s<br />

perception <strong>of</strong> the cost <strong>of</strong> travel, which is an important<br />

step in persuading people not to overreact to level <strong>of</strong><br />

service improvements.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Management Strategies<br />

Management strategies to achieve this or any other vision<br />

<strong>of</strong> our cities’ future must encompass an array <strong>of</strong><br />

interrelated topics, if transportation supply <strong>and</strong> dem<strong>and</strong><br />

are to balanced <strong>and</strong> stabilized:<br />

• Brainstorming “toolboxes” in all the disciplines involved<br />

in infrastructure deployment<br />

• Underst<strong>and</strong>ing the full range <strong>of</strong> possible solutions<br />

• Assuring that projects are economically justified, as<br />

well as socially <strong>and</strong> environmentally sound<br />

• Achieving user appreciation <strong>of</strong> travel costs <strong>and</strong> benefits<br />

• Determining viable funding sources<br />

• Employing optimal project delivery strategies<br />

Silos are for storage, not strategies<br />

Effective management <strong>of</strong> infrastructure programs requires<br />

broad-based strategies. <strong>The</strong> strategies will seek<br />

to optimize the city form <strong>and</strong> development being served,<br />

the underst<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>of</strong> the public being served, the modal<br />

<strong>and</strong> facility interactions when new infrastructure is implemented,<br />

the sources to be used in funding projects,<br />

the methods used to implement them, <strong>and</strong> techniques<br />

employed in their operation. Those requirements put<br />

comprehensive planning at the forefront <strong>of</strong> the process.<br />

Consistent <strong>and</strong> enduring benefits<br />

Is there an opportunity, in a multi-discipline company<br />

such as <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f, to serve as a forum in<br />

which infrastructure solutions are not resolved within a<br />

single “silo”, but developed through an interactive process?<br />

Such a process can encourage ourselves <strong>and</strong> our<br />

clients to address project objectives within as broad as<br />

possible a context, <strong>and</strong> thus initiate actions across the<br />

spectrum <strong>of</strong> urban development <strong>and</strong> management; indeed,<br />

<strong>of</strong> urban living, to all our benefit.<br />

David McBrayer is a Principal Pr<strong>of</strong>essional Associate who primarily<br />

focuses his transportation planning skills on public transportation<br />

improvement. As a “h<strong>and</strong>s-on” analyst, he greatly values the<br />

contributions that technological advancements have brought to his<br />

career, both as objects in transportation solutions, <strong>and</strong> as methods<br />

used in developing those solutions.<br />

32


NETWORK<br />

Challenges to Integrating <strong>Urban</strong>ization<br />

<strong>and</strong> Transportation – <strong>The</strong> Case <strong>of</strong> Cebu<br />

City, Philippines<br />

By Dante B. Bautista, Pasig City, Philippines, +63 2 6871061, bautista.dante@pbworld.com; <strong>and</strong><br />

Anna Rosalie Arsa, Pasig City, Philippines, +63 2 6871061, arsa.rosalie@pbworld.com<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

<strong>The</strong> city <strong>of</strong> Cebu is the capital <strong>of</strong> Cebu Province <strong>and</strong> is<br />

also the regional capital <strong>of</strong> the Visayas in Central Philippines.<br />

Cebu City was the first Spanish settlement in<br />

the Philippines <strong>and</strong> is currently considered one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

most progressive cities in the Philippines. It is known<br />

as the “Queen City <strong>of</strong> the South” due to its considerable<br />

business <strong>and</strong> tourism potential. Cebu is the Philippines’<br />

main domestic shipping port <strong>and</strong> is home to about 80<br />

percent <strong>of</strong> the country’s domestic shipping companies.<br />

Tourism is a major industry <strong>and</strong> traditional businesses<br />

also thrive here.<br />

Mactan Isl<strong>and</strong> lies across the Mactan Channel, opposite<br />

Cebu City (see Figure 1). <strong>The</strong> isl<strong>and</strong> is part <strong>of</strong> Cebu Province<br />

<strong>and</strong> it is divided into Lapu-Lapu City <strong>and</strong> the municipality<br />

<strong>of</strong> Cordova. <strong>The</strong> isl<strong>and</strong> is connected to Cebu by two<br />

road bridges - the Mactan-M<strong>and</strong>aue Bridge (or first bridge)<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Marcelo Fernan Bridge (or second bridge). <strong>The</strong><br />

Mactan-Cebu International Airport, the country’s second<br />

busiest airport, is located on Mactan Isl<strong>and</strong>. In addition<br />

to the airport, the isl<strong>and</strong> hosts the Mactan Export Processing<br />

Zone (MEPZ), an industrial tax-free zone opened<br />

in 1979 with over 35 large business ventures.<br />

Cebu City is the centre <strong>of</strong> a metropolitan area called Metro<br />

Cebu, which includes the cities <strong>of</strong> M<strong>and</strong>aue, Lapu-Lapu,<br />

<strong>and</strong> Talisay. Presently, Metro Cebu has a total estimated<br />

population <strong>of</strong> about 2.6 million.<br />

Figure 1- Map showing location <strong>of</strong> current major bridges in Cebu<br />

Traffic Condition<br />

Historically, the development <strong>of</strong> transport infrastructure<br />

in Cebu is dem<strong>and</strong>-driven, meaning that transport infrastructure<br />

is developed when dem<strong>and</strong> is already manifested,<br />

compromising livability <strong>and</strong> urban expansion in the<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

33


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

process. For example, the first bridge was opened five<br />

years after the relocation <strong>of</strong> the airport from Cebu City<br />

to Mactan Isl<strong>and</strong>. <strong>The</strong> second bridge was constructed<br />

when severe congestion was already being felt on the<br />

first bridge. <strong>The</strong> dem<strong>and</strong> was so apparent that when the<br />

second bridge was opened, the actual traffic volume exceeded<br />

forecast by 50 percent.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f, through the years <strong>and</strong> in several<br />

engagements with different clients, studied the significance<br />

<strong>of</strong> Cebu, identified the challenges to integrate urbanization<br />

<strong>and</strong> transport needs, <strong>and</strong> recommended solutions<br />

to support growth by way <strong>of</strong> – the third bridge. <strong>The</strong><br />

project, which was conceptualized by <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

for Metro Pacific Tollways Corporation, underwent<br />

a pre-feasibility study. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f analyzed<br />

traffic trends <strong>and</strong> directions, <strong>and</strong> concluded that to minimize<br />

the gap between rapid urbanization in Cebu, a third<br />

bridge is needed. <strong>The</strong> study also revealed that the third<br />

bridge will serve the traffic dem<strong>and</strong> that is expected to<br />

be realized 6-7 years from now.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Given the above foundation, the viability <strong>of</strong> the third bridge<br />

is premised on high motorization rate <strong>and</strong> strong dem<strong>and</strong><br />

to cross Cebu to Mactan Isl<strong>and</strong> (see Figures 2 & 3).<br />

Third Bridge Alignment <strong>and</strong> Structure<br />

<strong>The</strong> third bridge will cross the 800-meter wide Mactan<br />

Channel wherein at least 50 meters are navigable by<br />

international <strong>and</strong> domestic shipping with 8.8 meters<br />

controlling depth. <strong>The</strong> alignment was chosen based on<br />

studies conducted by <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f (see Figure 4).<br />

Considerations in the choice <strong>of</strong> the alignment included<br />

right-<strong>of</strong>-way availability at l<strong>and</strong>side <strong>and</strong> the ability to serve<br />

the future growth axis.<br />

Figure 4 – Proposed alignment <strong>of</strong> third bridge<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 2 - Traffic Generation for Cebu<br />

Figure 3 - Vehicle Trips in Cebu<br />

This alignment will be a direct connection from the main<br />

highway <strong>of</strong> the Cebu City center (General Maxilom Avenue)<br />

to the existing causeway, up to the Mactan Circumferential<br />

Road in Lapu-Lapu City. Several design options were<br />

provided for this alignment; one <strong>of</strong> which will have straight<br />

viaduct structures across the avenues <strong>and</strong> cross the Cebu-Mactan<br />

Channel with two main spans <strong>of</strong> 225 meter<br />

long box girder with a maximum elevation <strong>of</strong> 68 meters.<br />

Another design option also has the viaduct structures going<br />

over the avenues, but crosses the Cebu-Mactan Channel<br />

with a 450 meter span cabled stayed structure <strong>and</strong> a<br />

maximum elevation <strong>of</strong> 64 meters.<br />

Integration Between the Third Bridge Project<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> Growth<br />

<strong>The</strong> magnitude <strong>of</strong> the project is proportionate to investment<br />

costs. Since the projected amount <strong>of</strong> traffic (or dem<strong>and</strong>)<br />

for the third bridge, once operational, is sensitive to<br />

the toll fee, <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f looked for opportunities<br />

to enhance financial viability. In the process, the study<br />

identified two very important elements that will define the<br />

future <strong>of</strong> Cebu as well as the third bridge. <strong>The</strong>se are:<br />

34


• the proposed relocation <strong>of</strong> the existing international<br />

airport; <strong>and</strong><br />

• the availability <strong>of</strong> a large area for reclamation <strong>and</strong><br />

development into a new business hub.<br />

<strong>The</strong> existing Mactan-Cebu International Airport is<br />

nearly operating at capacity, both in terms <strong>of</strong> the<br />

terminal building <strong>and</strong> the runways. Expansion<br />

would be difficult, as the airport is surrounded<br />

by private communities <strong>and</strong> tourism sites. While<br />

there are agencies that are pushing for the refurbishment<br />

<strong>and</strong> expansion <strong>of</strong> the terminal building,<br />

other sectors put forward a proposal for the relocation<br />

<strong>of</strong> the entire airport. <strong>The</strong> identified area for reclamation<br />

is within close proximity to the proposed<br />

third bridge <strong>and</strong> is ideal for airport relocation. <strong>The</strong> model<br />

to be adopted would be for the developer to replicate the<br />

existing airport on a larger scale <strong>and</strong> be given the right to<br />

develop the old airport into a mixed-use urban hub.<br />

<strong>The</strong> area at the approach <strong>of</strong> the third bridge on Mactan<br />

Isl<strong>and</strong> is a vast low-tide area with dead coral reefs <strong>and</strong> an<br />

average <strong>of</strong> 1-meter deep water. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f identified<br />

1,500 hectares that may be reclaimed. <strong>The</strong> planned<br />

airport relocation will require approximately 350 to 400<br />

hectares for the new airport, which leaves 1,100 hectares<br />

for other development. Considering a 70 percent efficiency<br />

rate, this translates into a developable area <strong>of</strong> 800 hectares.<br />

If developed at an average floor-area ratio (FAR) <strong>of</strong><br />

0.50, this area will generate enough traffic volume in the<br />

future to ensure financial viability <strong>of</strong> the third bridge project.<br />

A project <strong>of</strong> this magnitude will not happen overnight;<br />

hence <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f formulated a business strategy<br />

as part <strong>of</strong> their study:<br />

• In the next three to four years when the plans are being<br />

prepared <strong>and</strong> the concession agreement between the<br />

government <strong>and</strong> Metro Pacific Tollways Corporation is<br />

being finalized for the construction <strong>and</strong> operation <strong>of</strong> the<br />

third bridge by Metro Pacific Tollways Corporation, the latter<br />

will need to rehabilitate the oldest first bridge. This is<br />

important as this bridge is currently at the state <strong>of</strong> needing<br />

repair <strong>and</strong> reduced capacity to cross Mactan Channel<br />

may result in slowing urban growth <strong>and</strong> an economic<br />

shift to other urban centers;<br />

• Build the third bridge as a component <strong>of</strong> the reclamation<br />

<strong>and</strong> airport relocation projects (see Figure 5). This<br />

NETWORK<br />

Figure 5 - Integrated Third Bridge <strong>and</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Use Development<br />

strategy will ensure that by its completion, there will be<br />

enough traffic generated by the l<strong>and</strong> development; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Consider incorporating shadow tolling 1 to the third bridge<br />

toll fees to enable cross subsidies for the maintenance<br />

<strong>of</strong> the other two bridges.<br />

Conclusions<br />

<strong>The</strong> comprehensive studies done by <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

present a possible formula to disentangle the ageold<br />

‘chicken-or-egg’ problem <strong>of</strong> which should come first,<br />

transport infrastructure or l<strong>and</strong> development. <strong>The</strong> spatial<br />

“co-development” <strong>of</strong> the third bridge <strong>and</strong> the l<strong>and</strong> developments<br />

(with airport relocation) clearly need proper timing<br />

<strong>and</strong> government support. Despite the many challenges, the<br />

future <strong>of</strong> Cebu City will be brighter with the third bridge project<br />

– where it will again be proven that urbanization happens<br />

with the right transport infrastructure, or vice versa.<br />

References<br />

• National Statistical Coordination Board (2011).<br />

Philippine Statistical Yearbook.<br />

• <strong>The</strong> American Chamber <strong>of</strong> Commerce <strong>of</strong> the Philippines,<br />

Inc. (2010). Arangkada Philippines 2010: A Business<br />

Perspective<br />

Dante Bautista is a Civil Engineer with a master’s degree in urban<br />

<strong>and</strong> regional planning. He has been with <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f for<br />

more than 15 years.<br />

Anna Rosalie Arsa is a Transport Planner in the Philippines <strong>of</strong>fice<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f. She has a master’s degree in regional<br />

development planning <strong>and</strong> management.<br />

1<br />

A shadow toll is a contractual payment made by a government, for each driver using a road, to a private company that operates <strong>and</strong> maintains<br />

this road (built using government funding). Payments are based, at least in part, on the number <strong>of</strong> vehicles using a section <strong>of</strong> road, <strong>of</strong>ten over a<br />

20-30 year period. <strong>The</strong> shadow tolls or per vehicle fees are paid directly to the company without intervention or direct payment from the users.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

35


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NETWORK<br />

Comprehensive Transportation Solutions<br />

for Tomorrow’s Salmiya, Kuwait<br />

By Basheer Mohammed, Kuwait, +965 67003635, mohammedb@pbworld.com; <strong>and</strong> Richard Crossley, Kuwait, +965<br />

65032296, crossleyr@pbworld.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

This article presents <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s recent experience<br />

<strong>of</strong> developing comprehensive transportation planning<br />

solutions for the Salmiya district in Kuwait. Over the<br />

years <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has been involved in several<br />

high-pr<strong>of</strong>ile transportation planning studies in Kuwait,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the team has developed unique insight into meeting<br />

challenges in delivering high quality projects in this<br />

rapidly changing environment. <strong>The</strong> article highlights the<br />

importance <strong>of</strong> pursuing a wide range <strong>of</strong> solutions in a<br />

cohesive manner, applying sound study techniques <strong>and</strong><br />

engaging the client <strong>and</strong> other key stakeholders in the<br />

solution-making process. Given the geographic, climatic,<br />

demographic, economic, <strong>and</strong> cultural similarities within<br />

the the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), the approach<br />

adopted in Salmiya has the potential to be applied to<br />

other cities in the region.<br />

Figure 1: Salmiya Study Area<br />

Salmiya Area Planning Study<br />

Kuwait Municipality commissioned a study, the Traffic<br />

Management <strong>and</strong> Updating Plan for Salmiya Area, in January<br />

2011 as part <strong>of</strong> ongoing efforts to revise development<br />

plans for key districts in Kuwait. Salmiya is located<br />

approximately 10 kilometres southeast <strong>of</strong> Kuwait City <strong>and</strong><br />

may be considered Kuwait’s flagship mixed-use district,<br />

being a residential, cultural, <strong>and</strong> commercial hub. It is<br />

also home to major education, healthcare, <strong>and</strong> employment<br />

centres, all <strong>of</strong> which generate high travel dem<strong>and</strong>s.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Salmiya study area is shown in Figure 1.<br />

<strong>The</strong> consultant team, comprising UK-based planners<br />

Building Design Partnership (BDP), <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f,<br />

Deloitte, <strong>and</strong> local Kuwaiti partners, completed<br />

the study in March 2012. <strong>The</strong> main objectives <strong>of</strong> this<br />

commission were to revise the local plan for Salmiya<br />

to guide future development for the period up to 2030<br />

<strong>and</strong> to develop a comprehensive <strong>and</strong> sustainable<br />

transportation <strong>and</strong> traffic management strategy to support<br />

the development plans. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f was<br />

tasked with the development <strong>of</strong> the transportation <strong>and</strong><br />

traffic management strategy.<br />

<strong>The</strong> road network in Salmiya<br />

is heavily weighted in favour<br />

<strong>of</strong> vehicular movement at the<br />

expense <strong>of</strong> pedestrians. Traffic<br />

congestion, unregulated parking,<br />

<strong>and</strong> poor road safety are<br />

major current issues. <strong>The</strong> existing<br />

public transport is busbased<br />

<strong>and</strong> is characterised<br />

by poor quality <strong>of</strong> the vehicles<br />

<strong>and</strong> passenger facilities; the<br />

patronage is limited to those<br />

who have no other alternative.<br />

Salmiya’s population is forecast<br />

to grow from 240,000<br />

residents to 350,000 by 2030,<br />

<strong>and</strong> potentially to 400,000 be-<br />

36


yond 2030. This will not only place significant pressure<br />

on the highway network, but also present major challenges<br />

to parking management, pedestrian circulation, <strong>and</strong><br />

road safety.<br />

From the outset, <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f advised the client<br />

<strong>of</strong> the benefits <strong>of</strong> adopting comprehensive, multi-modal<br />

<strong>and</strong> sustainable solutions, in contrast to the traditional<br />

approach <strong>of</strong> addressing only road capacity improvements.<br />

A robust study methodology was developed using the recently<br />

developed New Traffic Model for Kuwait (NTM) as a<br />

key analysis tool. A fully calibrated <strong>and</strong> validated sub-area<br />

model <strong>of</strong> Salmiya in 2030 was prepared, including all<br />

committed l<strong>and</strong> uses <strong>and</strong> transportation schemes. <strong>The</strong><br />

study approach involved reviewing current <strong>and</strong> future issues<br />

based on analysis <strong>of</strong> forecast travel dem<strong>and</strong>s. Identifying<br />

<strong>and</strong> testing a wide range <strong>of</strong> solutions to address<br />

these issues was a crucial task, <strong>and</strong> ensuring continuous<br />

client engagement was fundamental to the success <strong>of</strong><br />

the project. As part <strong>of</strong> this process, regular workshops<br />

were also held with the client <strong>and</strong> other key stakeholders.<br />

Vision for Salmiya 2030<br />

<strong>The</strong> Vision for Salmiya 2030 is that <strong>of</strong> a vibrant mixed use<br />

district that maximizes the leisure, shopping, <strong>and</strong> recreational<br />

potential <strong>of</strong> its waterfront assets, theme parks, <strong>and</strong><br />

shopping facilities <strong>and</strong> appeals to the wider metropolitan<br />

population <strong>and</strong> visitors from the region <strong>and</strong> beyond. Salmiya<br />

will pioneer a healthier urban lifestyle underpinned with<br />

vibrant pedestrian precincts <strong>and</strong> strong neighbourhoods.<br />

Traffic <strong>and</strong> transportation solutions proposed by <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f were aimed at providing: a high degree <strong>of</strong><br />

accessibility by all modes; a ‘step change’ in the quality<br />

<strong>of</strong> public transport provision; <strong>and</strong> major improvements to<br />

the pedestrian environment. <strong>The</strong> solutions were assembled<br />

into three (3) transport strategy options with varying<br />

emphases <strong>and</strong> levels <strong>of</strong> investment. <strong>The</strong>se options were<br />

tested for a forecast population <strong>of</strong> 350,000 by 2030. <strong>The</strong><br />

three transport strategy options are:<br />

Option 1: Minimum Investment – several minor junction<br />

improvements along with the projects committed to<br />

under previous studies, which included two major road<br />

schemes plus metro <strong>and</strong> tram networks; <strong>and</strong> parking<br />

supply would be made to meet parking dem<strong>and</strong> in the<br />

central area <strong>of</strong> Salmiya.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Option 2: Balanced Investment in Private <strong>and</strong> Public<br />

Transport – includes all measures in Option 1, plus upgrading<br />

<strong>and</strong> grade separation along two key highway corridors;<br />

a high quality local Salmiya feeder bus service to<br />

complement the metro <strong>and</strong> tram systems; <strong>and</strong> restrictions<br />

on through traffic along the main thoroughfare, Salem<br />

Al Mubarak Street.<br />

Option 3: Balanced Investment plus Travel Dem<strong>and</strong><br />

Management (TDM) – includes all the private <strong>and</strong> public<br />

transport schemes in Option 2, plus travel dem<strong>and</strong><br />

management measures to control the amount <strong>of</strong> car traffic<br />

<strong>and</strong> achieve a balance between use <strong>of</strong> car <strong>and</strong> public<br />

transport. This was the first attempt in Kuwait to test the<br />

potential benefits <strong>of</strong> TDM measures to discourage the<br />

use <strong>of</strong> the private car <strong>and</strong> further improve public transport<br />

patronage. Option 3 was also tested for a potential population<br />

figure <strong>of</strong> 400,000.<br />

Appraisal <strong>of</strong> Strategy Options<br />

<strong>The</strong> transport options were tested by comparing the following<br />

performance indicators with those from 2030 No<br />

Build 1 scenarios:<br />

• Public transport mode share<br />

• Vehicle trips with an origin or destination in Salmiya<br />

• Total vehicle kilometres<br />

• Total vehicle hours<br />

• Average speed (km/hour)<br />

• Percentage <strong>of</strong> network at Level-<strong>of</strong>-Service (LOS) D 2 or<br />

better<br />

<strong>The</strong> following conclusions were drawn:<br />

• Option 1 did not provide adequate capacity to satisfy<br />

future travel dem<strong>and</strong> in Salmiya.<br />

• Option 2 provided a high degree <strong>of</strong> accessibility by all<br />

transport modes, <strong>and</strong> included the maximum development<br />

<strong>of</strong> highway <strong>and</strong> public transport infrastructure that<br />

could reasonably be accommodated in Salmiya whilst<br />

improving conditions for pedestrians <strong>and</strong> cyclists. This<br />

option should support the continued economic success<br />

<strong>of</strong> Salmiya <strong>and</strong> improve the quality <strong>of</strong> life for residents<br />

<strong>and</strong> visitors alike.<br />

• Option 3 demonstrated that a package <strong>of</strong> TDM measures<br />

could play an important role in further increasing<br />

the public transport mode share <strong>and</strong> providing some<br />

associated relief from congestion on the highway network.<br />

It was therefore recommended that such mea-<br />

1<br />

<strong>The</strong> No Build scenario includes only committed projects – two major road schemes plus metro <strong>and</strong> tram networks.<br />

2<br />

Level-<strong>of</strong>-Service (LOS) measures operating conditions within a traffic system as a function <strong>of</strong> variance from ideal conditions. LOS D represents<br />

the limit <strong>of</strong> the range <strong>of</strong> acceptable operating conditions.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

37


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NETWORK<br />

Figure 2 – Recommended Road Network Improvements<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 3 - Proposed Public Transport Networks<br />

38


sures would be required to accommodate growth in<br />

population beyond 350,000.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Recommended Strategy<br />

Option 2 was developed into a series <strong>of</strong> more detailed<br />

recommendations:<br />

Road Network Improvements<br />

Figure 2 illustrates the recommended Road Network Improvements.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se include:<br />

• Minor road network improvements including conversion<br />

<strong>of</strong> four (4) roundabouts to traffic signal operation,<br />

<strong>and</strong> improvements to other traffic signal intersections.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se improvements provided increased<br />

capacity <strong>and</strong> enhanced pedestrian facilities;<br />

• Major road network improvements including upgrades<br />

along three major arterials, including a 4.5 km long<br />

four-lane viaduct with a two-lane service road maintained<br />

beneath; one major underpass extending over<br />

two junctions; one multi-level interchange; selective<br />

widening; <strong>and</strong> a series <strong>of</strong> troughs to improve service<br />

levels <strong>and</strong> safety;<br />

• Redefinition <strong>of</strong> the road hierarchy; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Improved access management along key arterials.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Pedestrian Improvements<br />

• New pedestrian bridges at five locations;<br />

• Pedestrian-only phase at major junctions in Salmiya<br />

(first such proposal in Kuwait);<br />

• Pedestrian crossings with flashing amber signals at key<br />

mid-block locations, <strong>and</strong> push button countdown signals<br />

at signal-controlled intersections; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Widening <strong>of</strong> sidewalks <strong>and</strong> improved pedestrian links to<br />

car parks <strong>and</strong> bus stops.<br />

Improvements in the Vicinity <strong>of</strong> Schools<br />

• Specific proposals to address problematic parking <strong>and</strong><br />

traffic circulation issues for seven schools in Salmiya.<br />

Parking Improvements<br />

• A comprehensive package <strong>of</strong> proposals to improve the<br />

quality <strong>and</strong> regulation <strong>of</strong> parking.<br />

Policies <strong>and</strong> Regulations<br />

• Key recommendations made in relation to policies <strong>and</strong><br />

regulations, particularly requirements <strong>of</strong> transport impact<br />

assessments <strong>and</strong> travel plans.<br />

Conclusion<br />

In order to meet the increasing mobility <strong>and</strong> accessibility<br />

needs <strong>of</strong> a fast-developing mixed-use urban area, <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f developed a comprehensive <strong>and</strong> multi-modal<br />

transportation strategy, <strong>of</strong>ten including new concepts for<br />

Kuwait (such as the transformation <strong>of</strong> Salem Al Mubarak<br />

Street into a public transport <strong>and</strong> pedestrian corridor as<br />

illustrated in Figure 4).<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

Figure 4 – Salem Al Mubarak Street<br />

Public Transport Proposals<br />

• New high quality <strong>and</strong> highly accessible local bus services<br />

proposed in Salmiya to provide a feeder system<br />

to the metro <strong>and</strong> tram stations <strong>and</strong> to <strong>of</strong>fer an attractive<br />

alternative to the car for local trips; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Several recommendations proposed to improve the<br />

quality <strong>of</strong> the existing bus provision. Figure 3 illustrates<br />

the proposed local bus network together with the metro<br />

<strong>and</strong> tram networks.<br />

Based on <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s extensive transportation<br />

planning experience in Kuwait, acceptance <strong>of</strong> the proposals<br />

was facilitated by adopting a systematic study approach;<br />

carefully integrating international best practice;<br />

promoting comprehensive <strong>and</strong> multi-modal solutions; <strong>and</strong><br />

fully engaging the client <strong>and</strong> other key stakeholders in the<br />

solution finding process.<br />

Basheer Mohammed is General Manager <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

in Kuwait <strong>and</strong> also manages the transportation planning team<br />

based in Kuwait. He has worked on a variety <strong>of</strong> projects in Kuwait,<br />

Saudi Arabia, <strong>and</strong> Canada.<br />

Richard Crossley is part <strong>of</strong> the transportation planning team for<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f in Kuwait. Prior to this he was a director with<br />

specialist transport planning consultants, MVA, <strong>and</strong> has 39 year’s<br />

experience on projects in the UK, Eastern Europe, China, Singapore,<br />

Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates <strong>and</strong> Kuwait.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

39


Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

NETWORK<br />

Access <strong>and</strong> Amenity in Global <strong>Cities</strong><br />

by Andrew Pope, Sydney, AUS, +61 2 92725523, apope@pb.com.au; <strong>and</strong><br />

George Pund, Sydney, AUS, +61 2 92725514, gpund@pb.com.au<br />

<strong>Cities</strong> are growing; more <strong>of</strong> us are urbanites than ever<br />

before. Technology is connecting us more efficiently,<br />

more capably, <strong>and</strong> more practically. Much <strong>of</strong> the world<br />

has moved from a production economy to a knowledge<br />

economy, making it more attractive to live <strong>and</strong> work in<br />

an urban environment. Given this, global cities compete<br />

for the best talent. <strong>The</strong> challenge is to provide<br />

effective transport infrastructure, <strong>and</strong> yet retain <strong>and</strong><br />

improve amenity - that is, the quality <strong>of</strong> the urban environment<br />

being pleasant <strong>and</strong> agreeable in situation.<br />

<strong>The</strong> dominant focus for transport infrastructure in the<br />

last 50 years has been on vehicles. We have largely<br />

been deterred from walking from point to point – how<br />

<strong>of</strong>ten road crossings are more arduous for foot traffic<br />

than for vehicle traffic. This also extends to buildings:<br />

next time you move between floors in a commercial<br />

space see how more evident the lifts <strong>and</strong> escalators<br />

are, compared to staircases. Movement is dictated by<br />

speed <strong>and</strong> efficiency, not by health or social needs.<br />

<strong>The</strong> city <strong>of</strong> Sydney is a particularly good example - a<br />

global city with an attractive natural setting <strong>and</strong> recreation<br />

choices to attract talent from all over the world.<br />

However, public transport is a problem area. Buses<br />

<strong>and</strong> trains have substantial overcrowding issues at<br />

peak hours <strong>of</strong> the day <strong>and</strong> road traffic grinds to a halt<br />

in places. Life for the pedestrian is no better; traffic<br />

lights serve the movement <strong>of</strong> vehicles rather than that<br />

<strong>of</strong> people, pavements are crowded, <strong>and</strong> public transport<br />

hubs are overloaded.<br />

1<br />

<strong>The</strong> Australian, “Five tribes that shape our modern nation” June 23, 2012<br />

Interestingly, according to the 2011 census, the dynamics<br />

<strong>of</strong> Australian cities are changing too. Whilst suburbia<br />

still accounts for the largest proportion <strong>of</strong> Australian<br />

residents, there is a fast rising inner-city elite; a<br />

group that lives within a 5km radius <strong>of</strong> the city centre<br />

<strong>and</strong> tends to be better educated, more likely to have<br />

been born overseas, <strong>and</strong> apt to earn a higher than average<br />

income. This group has increased by 24 percent<br />

over the last decade 1 <strong>and</strong> includes the more mobile<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essionals that global cities seek to attract. Yet being<br />

so proximal to the city centre, they will experience<br />

both the best <strong>and</strong> worst <strong>of</strong> the city; the vibrant culture<br />

<strong>and</strong> the gridlocked roads, the social interactions, <strong>and</strong><br />

the frustrating crowds.<br />

Information technology makes it possible for educated<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essionals to work on a much larger scale; they are<br />

connected to colleagues all over the world. Given the<br />

fluidity <strong>of</strong> workers <strong>and</strong> locations, global cities - key cities<br />

with an international focus - are competing to attract<br />

the best talent. However, with gridlocked streets<br />

<strong>and</strong> heaving pavements, retaining <strong>and</strong> improving amenity<br />

in the face <strong>of</strong> transport dem<strong>and</strong>s is becoming a key<br />

component <strong>of</strong> competition between cities. City dwellers<br />

value pleasant urban environments, combining open<br />

spaces with accessibility where there is the ability to<br />

maintain an active, mobile lifestyle, <strong>and</strong> cities are focusing<br />

more on the needs <strong>of</strong> the pedestrian rather than<br />

the needs <strong>of</strong> the vehicle.<br />

Sydney CBD (Central Business District)<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f was contracted by Transport for<br />

NSW (New South Wales) to undertake a study on access<br />

to <strong>and</strong> within Sydney’s central business district<br />

(CBD). <strong>The</strong> impact <strong>of</strong> transport on Sydney CBD is a<br />

major issue, with the need to provide access to approximately<br />

300,000 employees each working day<br />

from all over the greater Sydney metropolitan area to<br />

perform administrative, legal, government, finance,<br />

<strong>and</strong> business functions for Sydney <strong>and</strong> NSW. Managing<br />

this inflow <strong>of</strong> people (even though 75 percent commute<br />

on public transport) affects the capacity to travel<br />

within the CBD. <strong>The</strong>re are significant congestion points<br />

around the major rail stations <strong>and</strong> interchanges. <strong>The</strong><br />

pedestrian trips (walking) associated with both public<br />

transport <strong>and</strong> internal movement within the CBD are<br />

40


growing faster than any other trip type. <strong>The</strong>re is a conflict<br />

between access to the CBD <strong>and</strong> the amenity <strong>of</strong><br />

the CBD as a place for people to work, live, <strong>and</strong> visit.<br />

Achieving a balance will be critical for the success <strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney CBD (see Figure 1).<br />

NETWORK<br />

• Move through-traffic flow to the edges <strong>of</strong> the CBD;<br />

• Realign public transport routes to allow for more efficient<br />

movement, for example, rather than having buses<br />

terminate at the CBD, they continue on to other<br />

destinations. This will reduce empty buses on the<br />

return journey <strong>and</strong> the layover <strong>of</strong> vehicles on CBD<br />

streets; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Introduce transport interchanges for multiple transport<br />

modes <strong>and</strong> routes.<br />

Transportation <strong>and</strong> Mobility<br />

<strong>The</strong>se are just some <strong>of</strong> the planning changes applicable<br />

to Sydney CBD that can also be applied to other<br />

major cities <strong>of</strong> the world where public transport forms<br />

a substantial part <strong>of</strong> city access. For our cities to compete<br />

globally in the future, the balance between access<br />

<strong>and</strong> amenity needs to be preserved <strong>and</strong> enhanced <strong>and</strong><br />

this will require innovative solutions.<br />

A change in thinking is occurring about how we plan for<br />

future cities as much as global connectivity is changing<br />

the way we work in these cities. <strong>The</strong>re will be more<br />

focus on providing safe, human scale city centres that<br />

encourage walking <strong>and</strong> activity. Changing habits is difficult,<br />

but with a combination <strong>of</strong> engineering <strong>and</strong> behavioural<br />

incentives, the well-being <strong>of</strong> city populations can<br />

be enhanced with benefits for the greater environment<br />

<strong>and</strong> the health <strong>of</strong> individuals.<br />

Figure 1 – Buses line up to enter Sydney CBD (photograph taken from<br />

the author’s desk)<br />

To achieve such a balance, the following could be considered:<br />

• Reduce parking accommodation within the CBD to<br />

discourage private vehicles;<br />

• Convert core areas into pedestrian walkways or malls<br />

(e.g., shopping <strong>and</strong> entertainment precincts);<br />

George Pund is a Strategic Transport Planner with a doctorate in<br />

environmental planning. His experience with integrating l<strong>and</strong> use<br />

<strong>and</strong> transport includes such varied contexts as strategic regional<br />

transport studies, the development <strong>of</strong> busways, <strong>and</strong> the planning <strong>of</strong><br />

bus services in fringe metropolitan areas.<br />

Andrew Pope is a Knowledge Manager within the Australia Pacific<br />

region, <strong>and</strong> he has previously worked with <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s environment<br />

<strong>and</strong> transport teams as a project manager <strong>and</strong> commercial<br />

manager. He experiences the best <strong>and</strong> worst <strong>of</strong> Sydney on his<br />

way to work each day, using harbour ferries, trains, <strong>and</strong> pavement.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

41


<strong>Urban</strong> Tunneling<br />

NETWORK<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Tunnelling: An Innovative Tool to<br />

Establish Risk Baseline for Buildings<br />

Along the Alignment<br />

by Nagen Loganathan, Sydney, AUS, +61 2 92725434, nloganathan@pb.com.au; <strong>and</strong><br />

Richard Flanagan, Newark, NJ, 1-973-565-4870, flanaganr@pbworld.com<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> tunnels are <strong>of</strong>ten excavated adjacent to<br />

high-rise buildings, beneath highways <strong>and</strong> bridge<br />

structures, <strong>and</strong> over or under other tunnels serving<br />

transportation or private <strong>and</strong> public utilities. <strong>The</strong> increasing<br />

need for urban tunnelling in such densely developed<br />

underground areas <strong>and</strong> the associated risks<br />

are leading clients to seek consultants equipped with<br />

innovative yet proven methods for assessing these<br />

risks <strong>and</strong> for mitigating them through design before<br />

construction begins. Key to developing such designs<br />

is an underst<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>of</strong> tunnelling-induced ground loss<br />

mechanisms <strong>and</strong> the associated displacements, <strong>and</strong><br />

the risks they pose to adjacent buildings, structures,<br />

<strong>and</strong> utilities (see Figure 1).<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

During construction, tunnelling-induced damage to adjacent<br />

structures can be highly publicised by the media<br />

<strong>and</strong> has negative consequences for the engineering industry<br />

as a whole. Owners, lending institutions, insurers,<br />

contractors, <strong>and</strong> many national <strong>and</strong> international<br />

tunnelling associations share a common goal: reduce<br />

the cost <strong>and</strong> risk associated with tunnelling <strong>and</strong> improve<br />

public perception <strong>of</strong> the tunnelling industry. To<br />

achieve this goal, the International Tunnelling Insurance<br />

Group (TIG) has instituted a Code <strong>of</strong> Practice<br />

(2006) with the objective <strong>of</strong> ensuring tunnel projects<br />

are designed to both minimise <strong>and</strong> effectively manage<br />

risks from the outset.<br />

Innovative Risk Assessment Tool<br />

This article discusses a new methodology for assessing<br />

the tunnelling-induced impacts to adjacent structures, especially<br />

at the early stages <strong>of</strong> project development, such<br />

as route selection <strong>and</strong> concept design. Author Nagen<br />

Loganathan was awarded the William Barclay <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Fellowship in 2009 for this research. <strong>The</strong> new impact assessment<br />

tool comprises:<br />

Figure 1 – Tunnelling-Induced Risk to Adjacent Buildings Founded on<br />

Piles.<br />

• A method for accessing the various components <strong>of</strong><br />

the ground loss associated with tunnel boring machine<br />

(TBM) excavation in s<strong>of</strong>t ground;<br />

• A closed-form solution for predicting tunnelling-induced<br />

settlements;<br />

• Design charts for predicting tunnelling-induced effects<br />

on adjacent pile foundations; <strong>and</strong><br />

• A risk assessment flow chart that includes shallow <strong>and</strong><br />

pile foundations.<br />

42


This innovative risk assessment tool is an important step<br />

forward in assessing tunnelling-induced risk to adjacent<br />

buildings founded on piles <strong>and</strong> rectifies current deficiencies.<br />

It enables tunnel owners to set a building risk<br />

baseline during the early stages <strong>of</strong> the project <strong>and</strong> will<br />

minimise the project cost overrun during construction.<br />

Establishing realistic assessments <strong>of</strong> building damage<br />

risk during the route selection study will also enable the<br />

owner to reduce the project insurance premium. Figure 2<br />

illustrates how the project cost can be reduced by adopting<br />

this innovative method during the tender or reference<br />

design stage prior to contract award.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Figure 2 - Proposed Method Enables Accurate Building Risk Baseline During Tender/<br />

Reference Design Stage<br />

TBM Excavation Induced Ground Loss<br />

<strong>The</strong> accurate assessment <strong>of</strong> tunnelling-induced effects<br />

on adjacent structures depends on the accuracy <strong>of</strong> the<br />

predicted tunnelling-induced ground loss values <strong>and</strong><br />

ground deformation. At present, ground loss values are<br />

assumed based on past experience <strong>and</strong> the outcomes<br />

<strong>of</strong> previous tunnelling projects under similar conditions.<br />

In reality, ground loss values are likely to vary depending<br />

on tunnelling method, tunnel configuration, soil types<br />

<strong>and</strong> other factors. <strong>The</strong> fact that such<br />

variation in empirical observations exists<br />

suggests the need for more logical<br />

approach to estimate ground loss due<br />

to tunnelling. Figure 3 shows various<br />

ground loss components.<br />

Figure 3 - Ground Loss Components<br />

It is important to assess various<br />

ground loss components, such as<br />

face loss, shield loss, <strong>and</strong> tail loss,<br />

with attention to TBM geometry, geotechnical<br />

conditions, <strong>and</strong> the tunnel configurations.<br />

<strong>The</strong> ground loss components at various stages <strong>of</strong> the<br />

tunnel excavation are estimated to help designers underst<strong>and</strong><br />

the ground movement patterns <strong>and</strong> induced<br />

effects on adjacent structures. With this information,<br />

they will be better able to determine appropriate methods<br />

for controlling ground loss <strong>and</strong> to recommend the<br />

appropriate face pressure <strong>and</strong> TBM configuration for<br />

minimising the physical gap.<br />

Details <strong>of</strong> predicting various ground loss components are<br />

provided in the William Barclay <strong>Parsons</strong> Fellowship Monograph<br />

25, written by the author (Loganathan,<br />

2011).<br />

Ground Movements<br />

Current “rules” to estimate ground<br />

settlement from tunnelling operation<br />

have been derived generally from empirical<br />

correlations between various<br />

parameters <strong>and</strong> the observed settlements<br />

in actual tunnels. <strong>The</strong>se rules<br />

account for only a few <strong>of</strong> the significant<br />

factors, <strong>and</strong> extrapolation to other<br />

cases is questionable. Hence, a<br />

method is needed to predict surface,<br />

subsurface, <strong>and</strong> lateral ground movements<br />

so that designers can better<br />

assess the effects that tunnelling-induced<br />

ground movements will have on<br />

adjacent foundations <strong>and</strong> utilities.<br />

In order to rectify uncertainties in using empirical methods<br />

to predict tunnelling-induced ground movements,<br />

Loganathan <strong>and</strong> Poulos (1998) have presented a<br />

closed-form solution based on deformation behaviour<br />

<strong>of</strong> the ground around a tunnel. This method has been<br />

tested for accuracy using case histories, centrifuge<br />

model test results, <strong>and</strong> three dimensional numerical<br />

modelling.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Tunneling<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

43


<strong>Urban</strong> Tunneling<br />

NETWORK<br />

Tunnelling-Induced Effects on Adjacent Piles<br />

Tunnelling-induced ground movements may cause bending<br />

moments <strong>and</strong> down-drag forces on piles. In current<br />

practice, the induced effects are estimated using numerical<br />

analysis. <strong>The</strong>se methods provide a comprehensive<br />

picture <strong>of</strong> ground movements around the tunnel<br />

<strong>and</strong> the adjacent structures; however, they rely on appropriate<br />

ground models that include soil parameters.<br />

In addition, numerical analysis is time consuming <strong>and</strong><br />

a high level <strong>of</strong> expertise is required to perform the analysis.<br />

Such detail is rarely available at<br />

the early stages <strong>of</strong> the project, stages<br />

such as route selection <strong>and</strong> conceptual<br />

design. Yet, at these stages, it<br />

has become equally important to be<br />

able to determine with reasonable accuracy<br />

what the tunnelling-induced effects<br />

on adjacent piles will be.<br />

A set <strong>of</strong> design charts has been developed<br />

by the author for estimating<br />

tunnelling-induced movements, bending<br />

moments, <strong>and</strong> down-drag forces<br />

on adjacent piles <strong>and</strong> these are presented<br />

in the Monograph 25 (Loganathan,<br />

2011).<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 4 - Equations 1, 2, <strong>and</strong> 3<br />

Equations 1, 2 <strong>and</strong> 3 (Figure 4) show closed-form solutions<br />

proposed by Loganathan <strong>and</strong> Poulos (1998)<br />

which have been adopted in this study to predict surface,<br />

sub-surface <strong>and</strong> lateral ground movements.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se equations allow a rapid estimation <strong>of</strong> ground deformation<br />

<strong>and</strong> require only an estimate <strong>of</strong> the Poisson’s<br />

ratio (v) <strong>of</strong> the soil. Poisson’s ratio indirectly represents<br />

the characteristics <strong>of</strong> coefficient <strong>of</strong> lateral earth pressure<br />

(k 0<br />

) value <strong>of</strong> the ground where k 0<br />

= v/(1-v). Although they<br />

appear long, equations 1, 2, <strong>and</strong> 3 are easy to work with<br />

using a simple worksheet. In addition, these close-form<br />

solutions can be incorporated into numerical modelling<br />

programmes in order to impose ground movements external<br />

to model soil-structure interaction problems to predict<br />

induced effects on adjacent piles.<br />

Building Foundation Impact<br />

Assessment<br />

<strong>The</strong> successful completion <strong>of</strong> an urban<br />

tunnelling project with respect to risk<br />

depends on two critical factors:<br />

• A reliable <strong>and</strong> accurate tunnelling-induced<br />

impact assessment method,<br />

<strong>and</strong><br />

• An efficient risk-management procedure during construction.<br />

In most cases, foundations <strong>of</strong> buildings are a mix <strong>of</strong> both<br />

shallow foundations (pad <strong>and</strong> strip footings) <strong>and</strong> deep<br />

foundations (short <strong>and</strong> long piles), so it is also important<br />

to underst<strong>and</strong> building impact assessment for shallow<br />

foundations. Figure 5 shows a new flow chart for the<br />

impact assessment <strong>of</strong> buildings with mixed foundations.<br />

With the introduction <strong>of</strong> the design charts (developed by<br />

the author <strong>and</strong> included in Monograph 25) to assess tunnelling<br />

induced effects, the impact assessment procedure<br />

shown in Figure 5 can be used at very early stages<br />

<strong>of</strong> the project to assess the building risk baseline for selected<br />

tunnel alignments.<br />

Summary<br />

Ground movements around a tunnel excavation are always<br />

critical, particularly when the tunnel alignment is in<br />

an urban area <strong>and</strong> adjacent to high-rise buildings. Underst<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

tunnelling-induced ground loss mechanisms <strong>and</strong><br />

the associated displacements is the key to successfully<br />

addressing the risks that tunnel excavation can impose<br />

on nearby buildings. A new method for assessing s<strong>of</strong>t<br />

ground tunnelling-induced impacts on adjacent buildings<br />

can be used at very early stages <strong>of</strong> the project. This<br />

44


NETWORK<br />

will enable the tunnel owner to establish<br />

very realistic risk baselines for buildings<br />

located along the alignment during early<br />

stages <strong>of</strong> the project <strong>and</strong> ultimately it reduces<br />

the project cost <strong>and</strong> mitigates construction<br />

risk.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Tunneling<br />

References<br />

• Loganathan N (2011), An Innovative<br />

Method For Assessing Tunnelling-Induced<br />

Risks to Adjacent Structures,<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f 2009 William Barclay<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Fellowship Monograph 25,<br />

January 2011.<br />

• Loganathan N <strong>and</strong> Poulos H G (1998),<br />

“Analytical Predictions <strong>of</strong> Tunnelling Induced<br />

Ground Movements”, American<br />

Society <strong>of</strong> Civil Engineers Geotechnical<br />

Journal, Sept., 1998, Vol. 124, No. 9.<br />

Nagen Loganathan has 26 years <strong>of</strong> international<br />

<strong>and</strong> local experience in underground construction<br />

<strong>and</strong> geotechnical engineering. He is a Principal<br />

Pr<strong>of</strong>essional Associate (PPA) <strong>and</strong> currently<br />

working in Sydney, Australia.<br />

Figure 5 -- Building Impact Assessment Flow Chart<br />

Richard Flanagan has 40 years <strong>of</strong> international<br />

<strong>and</strong> local experience in underground construction<br />

<strong>and</strong> geotechnical engineering. He is a Principal<br />

Pr<strong>of</strong>essional Associate (PPA) <strong>and</strong> Vice President<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s Geotechnical &<br />

Tunnelling Technical Excellence Center, currently<br />

working at <strong>of</strong>fices in Newark <strong>and</strong> New York.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

45


<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NETWORK<br />

Sense <strong>of</strong> Home Found in Strong <strong>Urban</strong> Fabric<br />

by Suzanne Johnson, Herndon, VA, 1-703-742-5828, johnsonsuz@pbworld.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>The</strong> ability <strong>of</strong> an urban area to hold the endearment <strong>of</strong><br />

its residents is interesting to me. Considering the definition<br />

<strong>of</strong> an urban area to be a relatively densely occupied<br />

area in comparison to areas surrounding it, my range <strong>of</strong><br />

experience includes - living near a Kansas town <strong>of</strong> several<br />

hundred people which lured the farmers with their grain<br />

to be sold at the town’s grain elevator - to living at the<br />

construction site <strong>of</strong> the world’s largest private real estate<br />

development, Songdo International Business District<br />

(IBD), in Incheon, a neighboring city to Seoul in South<br />

Korea, with joined population <strong>of</strong> nearly 28 million people.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se urban extremes <strong>and</strong> other variations between have<br />

elements that can capture my heart.<br />

Small Town USA<br />

<strong>The</strong> little town <strong>of</strong> Benton, Kansas, located in the center<br />

<strong>of</strong> the US, was established in the late 1800’s, <strong>and</strong> is<br />

still alive in my memory - a hardware store with creaking<br />

wooden floors, the gas station providing a little<br />

shade near the gas pumps where the town’s dogs<br />

could rest, the post <strong>of</strong>fice, community building, <strong>and</strong> a<br />

grocery store. All the basic needs were met <strong>and</strong>, once<br />

within the town’s limits, all amenities were in walking<br />

distance. Eventually the competition <strong>of</strong> super stores<br />

in the nearby city put most <strong>of</strong> our local stores out <strong>of</strong><br />

business. Walking through town in present times,<br />

while enjoyable, seems a bit aimless. It does not fill<br />

the call for shopping, night life, or even a c<strong>of</strong>fee house.<br />

I remember a more livable community.<br />

Planned Community<br />

Reston Town Center, Virginia, near Washington DC., is currently<br />

my home. It is a planned town, designed in the<br />

1960s <strong>and</strong> its 460 acres finally completed in 2009. <strong>The</strong><br />

Town Center has a healthy combination <strong>of</strong> use, texture,<br />

<strong>and</strong> walkability. It does not have the historic charm <strong>of</strong><br />

slow-growth towns, but it is a lively place. With every shop<br />

leased <strong>and</strong> multiple restaurants with outdoor seating, it<br />

is a destination, proven by the weekend-visitors attending<br />

community events, concerts, <strong>and</strong> ice skating. Offices <strong>and</strong><br />

residential towers are flanked by 4-story condominiums<br />

<strong>and</strong> pocket parks. <strong>The</strong> architecture is interesting <strong>and</strong><br />

approachable, with various textures, shading devices,<br />

pedestrian-only side streets, <strong>and</strong> access to mass transit,<br />

making it comfortable <strong>and</strong> easy to call home. Being<br />

linked by the rails-to-trails path to work, one mile away,<br />

<strong>and</strong> to stellar mountain bike trails, also one mile away,<br />

adds to the charm.<br />

New Town<br />

On the other side <strong>of</strong> the world, on the reclaimed l<strong>and</strong><br />

along South Korea’s Incheon waterfront, the Songdo International<br />

Business District (IBD) reached the completion<br />

<strong>of</strong> the first <strong>of</strong> three phases <strong>of</strong> construction in August<br />

2009. Songdo IBD is the 1,500 acre central business<br />

development <strong>of</strong> Gale International <strong>and</strong> Posco E&C with<br />

a masterplan designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF). It<br />

includes the Sheraton Incheon Hotel, Chadwick International<br />

School, Convensia Convention Center, Central<br />

Park, <strong>and</strong> several mixed-use residential city-blocks.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has held several construction<br />

management <strong>and</strong> construction supervision contracts<br />

for Songdo IBD, including for the North East Asia Trade<br />

Tower, a 68-story class A <strong>of</strong>fice building which will be<br />

the tallest building in Korea when finished. Other work<br />

by <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f includes the 100-acre Central<br />

Park, a city-block <strong>of</strong> mixed-use construction called #<br />

Central Park I (see Figure 1), <strong>and</strong> the Chadwick International<br />

School (see Figures 2 & 3). <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

was also responsible for the introduction <strong>of</strong> the<br />

LEED program to the project team, instructing hundreds<br />

<strong>of</strong> architects, engineers, contractors, <strong>and</strong> managers to<br />

the process, with a current tally <strong>of</strong> nine LEED certified<br />

buildings. Songdo IBD started with a vision <strong>of</strong> incorporating<br />

sustainability into the city, shown by an integrated<br />

transportation system, city-wide energy management<br />

systems, telecommuting, centralized pneumatic waste<br />

systems, water-cooled HVAC systems, <strong>and</strong> district cogeneration<br />

heating <strong>and</strong> cooling. One hundred acres <strong>of</strong><br />

green space make this planned city a gem in a country<br />

with extremely dense cities bounded by rugged mountains.<br />

This development <strong>of</strong> 350 buildings will have<br />

22,500 housing units, several schools, nearly 50 million<br />

46


NETWORK<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

Figure 1 - # Central Park I - Jan. 2010<br />

(Gale International, LLC.)<br />

square feet <strong>of</strong> commercial space, a golf course, parks,<br />

hotels, museums, <strong>and</strong> a hospital.<br />

Songdo IBD is within New Songdo City. In its first<br />

phase <strong>of</strong> construction, Songdo IBD abutted an older<br />

section <strong>of</strong> the city, about five years older <strong>and</strong> already<br />

an established community <strong>of</strong> thous<strong>and</strong>s <strong>of</strong> people with<br />

<strong>of</strong>fice buildings, grocery stores, banks, a post <strong>of</strong>fice,<br />

<strong>and</strong> schools. When construction at Songdo IBD began,<br />

amenities were within walking distance in the smaller,<br />

older established area. Mass transit was readily<br />

available to over 80 identical 15-story occupied housing<br />

blocks. As the residents took ownership <strong>of</strong> their<br />

new apartments, the non-construction based international<br />

community started to arrive, bringing teachers,<br />

manufacturing engineers, <strong>and</strong> scientists to the town.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se new-comers typically rented homes. As other<br />

developments in New Songdo City were completed,<br />

the temporary renters had the opportunity to compare<br />

neighborhoods, <strong>and</strong> <strong>of</strong>ten relocated to areas with more<br />

developed amenities; areas that allowed them to go<br />

out <strong>of</strong> their apartments <strong>and</strong> see neighbors, walk to the<br />

grocery store <strong>and</strong> not feel isolated <strong>and</strong> on the edge<br />

<strong>of</strong> construction, overlooking a field <strong>of</strong> box culverts <strong>and</strong><br />

having to take a taxi through several blocks <strong>of</strong> undeveloped<br />

l<strong>and</strong>. Those not tied to a mortgage in the new<br />

areas on the edge <strong>of</strong> town converged on the older parts<br />

<strong>of</strong> town or to the new developments that had timed the<br />

move-in dates with the opening <strong>of</strong> the grocery store<br />

<strong>and</strong> operations <strong>of</strong> the exp<strong>and</strong>ed bus lines. <strong>The</strong>y eventually<br />

found new homes.<br />

Figure 2 - Chadwick International School - Sep 2010<br />

(Gale International, LLC.)<br />

Figure 3 - Chadwick International School - June. 2010<br />

(Gale International, LLC.)<br />

Songdo IBD started with a core that included a hotel,<br />

school, convention center, <strong>and</strong> a few blocks <strong>of</strong> residential<br />

mixed-use buildings. For the first several years, many<br />

<strong>of</strong> the retail shops were empty, giving it the feeling <strong>of</strong><br />

a new “ghost town.” Over time, Songdo IBD sprouted<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

47


<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

into life <strong>and</strong> the convenience store served as a meeting<br />

place with tables <strong>and</strong> chairs on the street under sun<br />

umbrellas. As families gathered regularly to share ice<br />

cream, or couples met with friends for beer <strong>and</strong> snacks,<br />

the adjoining spaces were leased for restaurants, pharmacies,<br />

<strong>and</strong> clothing stores. When I left in 2011, there<br />

were just a few vacant storefronts, but the development<br />

had a heart-beat. Areas that were once on the outskirts<br />

<strong>of</strong> the development are now embraced by newer construction<br />

<strong>and</strong> are thriving micro-communities, welcoming<br />

the newest residents with a sense <strong>of</strong> home. <strong>The</strong> vision<br />

- for Songdo to be the central business hub in Northeast<br />

Asia - is coming into focus.<br />

Guidance<br />

From small-town historic charm to planned town centers,<br />

there are components that give the feeling <strong>of</strong><br />

home <strong>and</strong> belonging. Small Is Beautiful: Economics<br />

As If People Mattered, a collection <strong>of</strong> essays by E. F.<br />

Schumacher first published in 1973, brought the importance<br />

<strong>of</strong> safe walking paths, proximity to libraries<br />

<strong>and</strong> parks, <strong>and</strong> humanistic attributes <strong>of</strong> a community<br />

to a wide audience. In 1977 Christopher Alex<strong>and</strong>er<br />

defined much <strong>of</strong> what makes our man-made surroundings<br />

enduring in A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings,<br />

Construction in an illustrative manner. Recent planning<br />

<strong>and</strong> design brings the crux <strong>of</strong> the messages <strong>of</strong> these<br />

two important works to life, but it seems difficult to<br />

find places that have it all, such as building patterns in<br />

response to the social needs <strong>of</strong> a community to supply<br />

users with the simple joy <strong>of</strong> grass between ones’ toes,<br />

fountains for play, c<strong>of</strong>fee shops for neighborly conversation,<br />

<strong>and</strong> access to institutions such as libraries <strong>and</strong><br />

clinics within walking distance.<br />

How do we identify successful urban fabrics <strong>and</strong>, better<br />

yet, how do we guide planners down that path? Exp<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

on the masters <strong>of</strong> the 1970’s, multiple groups have st<strong>and</strong>ards,<br />

codes, <strong>and</strong> programs to steer planners towards<br />

higher rates <strong>of</strong> success. Having simple amenities woven<br />

into an urban area makes a place I could call home. <strong>The</strong><br />

systems are available. We as designers can provide <strong>and</strong><br />

NETWORK<br />

we as consumers can choose to live in those places that<br />

have the fabric that provides a sense <strong>of</strong> home.<br />

References<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Institute, International Living <strong>Future</strong> Institute,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the International Code Council (ICC) are heading<br />

to new heights in providing st<strong>and</strong>ards to create places<br />

where people have a sense <strong>of</strong> belonging. <strong>Urban</strong> L<strong>and</strong> Institute’s<br />

priorities include creating resilient communities,<br />

promoting intelligent densification <strong>and</strong> urbanization, <strong>and</strong><br />

integrating energy, resources, <strong>and</strong> uses sustainably. High<br />

quality <strong>of</strong> life, thriving communities, best practice, <strong>and</strong><br />

adapting <strong>and</strong> reusing existing parcels are key elements<br />

<strong>of</strong> their research <strong>and</strong> knowledge sharing. <strong>The</strong> International<br />

Living <strong>Future</strong> Institute has the language <strong>of</strong> human<br />

scale, rights to nature, inspiration, urban agriculture, carfree<br />

living, education, <strong>and</strong> re-purposing <strong>and</strong> dismantling<br />

underutilized urban areas as food, habitat, <strong>and</strong> ecosystem<br />

service areas.<br />

<strong>The</strong> American Institute <strong>of</strong> Architects (AIA), American Society<br />

<strong>of</strong> Heating, Refrigeration <strong>and</strong> Air-Conditioning Engineers<br />

(ASHRAE), American Society <strong>of</strong> Testing Materials<br />

(ASTM), Illuminating Engineering Society (IES), <strong>and</strong> the<br />

US Green Building Council (USGBC) have worked together<br />

on the International Green Construction Code (IgCC) for<br />

buildings under the leadership <strong>of</strong> the International Code<br />

Council (ICC). <strong>The</strong> IgCC wraps the best <strong>of</strong> the team’s<br />

practices for sites, materials, energy, water, indoor environmental<br />

quality, <strong>and</strong> commissioning into m<strong>and</strong>atory<br />

language, building <strong>of</strong>f the USGBC’s LEED green building<br />

rating systems. This relatively new code is adopted in<br />

Florida, North Carolina, Delaware, Rhode Isl<strong>and</strong>, New<br />

Hampshire, Arizona, Colorado, Washington, <strong>and</strong> Oregon<br />

either statewide or at state <strong>and</strong> local levels. Healthy,<br />

high-efficient buildings are central to modern living <strong>and</strong><br />

the IgCC is an avenue to reach that goal.<br />

Suzanne Johnson is a registered architect with <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f.<br />

She is the Director <strong>of</strong> Sustainability for the US Federal team,<br />

bringing solutions to clients <strong>and</strong> colleagues, both in pursuit <strong>and</strong> in<br />

implementation.<br />

48


NETWORK<br />

New <strong>Cities</strong> - Sustainable <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

by Mark Chen, Heery International, Atlanta, GA, 1-404-946-2440, mchen@heery.com<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

What is the city but the people?<br />

— William Shakespeare<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> the greatest inventions <strong>of</strong> the 20 th century —<br />

air-conditioning, elevators, structural steel, automobiles<br />

— have proven to be some <strong>of</strong> the biggest obstacles for<br />

creating truly sustainable cities. Sociologists have long<br />

argued that the impact <strong>of</strong> each <strong>of</strong> these inventions on<br />

people <strong>and</strong> society has been to create an increasingly<br />

isolated populace, thrust together in tight quarters which<br />

can escalate tension <strong>and</strong> the incidence <strong>of</strong> depression. In<br />

addition, these inventions have led to the creation <strong>of</strong> cities<br />

that are not sustainable <strong>and</strong> do not make the highest<br />

<strong>and</strong> best use <strong>of</strong> resources.<br />

between buildings to accommodate open parking lots<br />

<strong>and</strong> no street life.<br />

<strong>The</strong> advent <strong>of</strong> new technologies has provided for greater<br />

design expression <strong>and</strong> occupancy options, but consider:<br />

What is the inherent benefit <strong>of</strong> these changes if, in fact,<br />

the city is less attractive <strong>and</strong> sustainable because <strong>of</strong><br />

them? Air conditioning, elevators or structural steel (in<br />

fabrication) each cost more to employ, <strong>and</strong> the car has<br />

had a significant impact not only in energy consumption,<br />

but on the design <strong>of</strong> cities that are not sustainable or very<br />

pleasant to live in.<br />

Ideally, urban living should be more environmentally sustainable<br />

than rural or suburban living. With people <strong>and</strong> resources<br />

located so close to one another, it is possible to save<br />

energy <strong>and</strong> resources on things such as food <strong>and</strong> transportation.<br />

<strong>The</strong> proximity <strong>of</strong> buildings should allow for more efficient<br />

distribution <strong>of</strong> infrastructure systems. <strong>Cities</strong> should<br />

benefit the economy by locating human capital in one relatively<br />

small geographic area where ideas can be generated.<br />

Figure 1 – Aerial View <strong>of</strong> Vienna<br />

If one is to look for examples <strong>of</strong> a sustainable city, then pre-<br />

20 th century cities provide the best models (see Figure 1):<br />

• Narrow streets provide shade from the sun as opposed<br />

to broad streets to allow for traffic flow;<br />

• Neighborhoods were defined by walking distance, not<br />

ease <strong>of</strong> access by car;<br />

• Buildings were predominantly masonry with high insulating<br />

values <strong>and</strong> naturally ventilated, as opposed to thinwall<br />

hermetically sealed conditioned environments; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Building height was up to seven stories, allowing for<br />

areas <strong>of</strong> the city to be richly filled in with street level<br />

amenities, as opposed to tall buildings with large gaps<br />

Unfortunately, cities whose primary growth was in the 20 th<br />

century were typically planned for cars. With an array<br />

<strong>of</strong> glass towers <strong>and</strong> broad streets, these cities are not<br />

walkable. Also, the towers are inherently more difficult to<br />

manage from an infrastructure st<strong>and</strong> point - greater utility<br />

distances, heavy power consumption, extensive paving<br />

<strong>and</strong> sidewalks to maintain, etc.<br />

According to author James Howard Kunstler, there are two<br />

basic templates for “dense urban design” today - the “Traditional<br />

City” <strong>and</strong> the “Radiant City.” <strong>The</strong> differences are:<br />

<strong>The</strong> “Traditional City”: Many small streets, suitable for<br />

walking but hard to drive. Buildings usually built right<br />

at the edge <strong>of</strong> the street/sidewalk. Streets are plentiful<br />

<strong>and</strong> “blocks” -- the area between the streets -- are small<br />

(though there are typically some big ones too). Buildings<br />

are usually side-by-side, almost touching, building<br />

height traditionally at the limits <strong>of</strong> stair-climbing, about<br />

seven stories maximum.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

49


<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

<strong>The</strong> “Radiant City”: Very large streets, suitable for several<br />

lanes <strong>of</strong> automobile traffic. Very large buildings,<br />

typically glass-walled high rises <strong>of</strong> ten to one-hundred<br />

stories tall. Buildings are widely spaced. Buildings typically<br />

not built to the edge <strong>of</strong> the sidewalk/roadway, but<br />

rather surrounded by some sort <strong>of</strong> “l<strong>and</strong>scaping,” either<br />

grass or a paved “plaza.” Streets are widely spaced, <strong>and</strong><br />

“blocks” are large.<br />

<strong>The</strong> really broad streets described in the radiant city are<br />

the equivalent <strong>of</strong> those found in modern Beijing. Beijing<br />

has spent the past 15 years renovating the city for improved<br />

access. Unfortunately, this includes cars. With a<br />

population that had primarily traveled by bicycle, the new<br />

affluence has made car ownership the desire <strong>of</strong> every<br />

successful person. <strong>The</strong>re are a lot <strong>of</strong> cars <strong>and</strong> the ring<br />

roads <strong>and</strong> avenues in Beijing have been designed to accommodate<br />

them, creating an inhospitable environment<br />

for pedestrians (see Figure 2).<br />

NETWORK<br />

buildings. <strong>The</strong> most successful cities <strong>of</strong> the past were<br />

those where people <strong>and</strong> buildings were in a certain<br />

balance with nature. But high-rise buildings work<br />

against nature . . . against the environment. High-rise<br />

buildings work against man himself, because they<br />

isolate him from others . . . High-rise buildings work<br />

against society because they prevent the units <strong>of</strong> social<br />

importance -- the family ... the neighborhood, etc.<br />

-- from functioning as naturally <strong>and</strong> as normally as<br />

before. High-rise buildings work against networks <strong>of</strong><br />

transportation, communication, <strong>and</strong> <strong>of</strong> utilities, since<br />

they lead to higher densities, to overloaded roads, to<br />

more extensive water supply systems -- <strong>and</strong>, more importantly,<br />

because they form vertical networks which<br />

create many additional problems.”<br />

So why not build cities that remain, for the most part, below<br />

75 feet tall, cities such as London? Nineteenth century<br />

London was broken into a series <strong>of</strong> smaller districts,<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 2 – Third Ring Road, Beijing<br />

Forty-story plus towers consume more electricity than an<br />

equivalent area laid out in horizontal five-story masonryclad<br />

buildings. <strong>The</strong> combination <strong>of</strong> high speed vertical<br />

transport <strong>and</strong> the use <strong>of</strong> unitized glazed curtain wall systems<br />

create a design basis that is more expensive to operate.<br />

In addition, due to air pressure changes, high rise<br />

buildings are hermetically sealed making natural ventilation<br />

a non-option. <strong>The</strong> tall building typically does not contribute<br />

to the social or civic life <strong>of</strong> a city, as it <strong>of</strong>ten does<br />

not incorporate conventional open spaces that engage<br />

l<strong>and</strong>scape <strong>and</strong> provide social space for people.<br />

Voices raised against the skyscraper include that <strong>of</strong> the<br />

architect <strong>and</strong> urbanist Constantine Doxiades (documented<br />

by Peter Blake in Form Follows Fiasco, 1974, page 82):<br />

“My greatest crime was the construction <strong>of</strong> high-rise<br />

Figure 3 – Aerial View <strong>of</strong> London<br />

formerly large l<strong>and</strong> holdings. London grew around commons<br />

spaces to form a low-scale city fabric laced with<br />

green spaces <strong>and</strong> tree lined streets that are the hallmark<br />

<strong>of</strong> the city (see Figure 3). <strong>The</strong> low density does not tax<br />

the infrastructure systems <strong>of</strong> the city while, in contrast,<br />

today’s city <strong>of</strong> London continues to be over burdened with<br />

the ever increasing presence <strong>of</strong> tall building construction.<br />

Why not advocate construction <strong>of</strong> an ideal city with a<br />

series <strong>of</strong> districts <strong>of</strong> 15,000 people as envisioned by<br />

architectural theorist <strong>and</strong> urban planner Leon Krier (Architecture<br />

& <strong>Urban</strong> Design, November 1977)?<br />

A city can only be reconstructed in the form <strong>of</strong> urban<br />

quarters. . . . Each quarter must have its own center,<br />

periphery <strong>and</strong> limit. Each quarter must be “a city within<br />

50


a city”. <strong>The</strong> quarter must integrate all daily functions <strong>of</strong><br />

urban life (dwelling, working, leisure) within a territory<br />

dimensioned on the basis <strong>of</strong> the comfort <strong>of</strong> a walking<br />

person; not exceeding 35 hectares (80 acres) in surface<br />

<strong>and</strong> 15,000 inhabitants. Tiredness sets a natural<br />

limit to what a human being is prepared to walk daily<br />

<strong>and</strong> this limit has taught mankind all through history<br />

the size <strong>of</strong> rural or urban communities.<br />

NETWORK<br />

a large network <strong>of</strong> green space can include places for<br />

local farming <strong>and</strong> local energy production (biomass, solar,<br />

green waste, co-generation). <strong>The</strong> success <strong>of</strong> the High Line<br />

in New York City is a testament to the benefits <strong>of</strong> using<br />

infrastructure to create a l<strong>and</strong>scaped amenity in a dense<br />

urban environment (see Figure 5).<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

<strong>The</strong>se smaller districts would support: a walking environment,<br />

less dependency on auto transport, <strong>and</strong> increased<br />

opportunity for civic spaces to create a more<br />

social environment. Furthermore, close proximity <strong>of</strong> residents<br />

<strong>and</strong> major l<strong>and</strong>marks allows for the creation <strong>of</strong> efficient<br />

public transportation by eliminating long sprawled<br />

out routes <strong>and</strong> reducing commute time. This reduction<br />

in commuting time in turn decreases the social cost to<br />

residents who choose to live in these cities by allowing<br />

them more time with family <strong>and</strong> friends.<br />

Figure 5 – <strong>The</strong> High Line, New York City<br />

Figure 4 – New Aktau City Expansion (Koetter Kim <strong>and</strong> Associates Inc.)<br />

<strong>The</strong> master plan in Figure 4 illustrates a 250 hectare<br />

city with a series <strong>of</strong> districts (cities within a city) that<br />

provide underst<strong>and</strong>able, cohesive neighborhoods woven<br />

together with l<strong>and</strong>scaped open spaces <strong>and</strong> streets. <strong>The</strong><br />

plan provides walkable streets with broad sidewalks <strong>and</strong><br />

street trees, with paving for buses <strong>and</strong> bicycles, <strong>and</strong> limited<br />

paving for car traffic.<br />

Civic infrastructure should be planned – along with a network<br />

<strong>of</strong> civic spaces, green parks, l<strong>and</strong>scaped alleys, <strong>and</strong><br />

tree lined streets – to form a lattice <strong>of</strong> green space that<br />

knits the city together. Utilities can be woven amongst<br />

this lattice. Storm water management can be mitigated<br />

through the greater presence <strong>of</strong> open green space. Consider<br />

food production <strong>and</strong> community gardens - in fact<br />

“Invest in people not in systems” - Enrique Penalosa,<br />

Mayor <strong>of</strong> Bogotá<br />

An accomplished public <strong>of</strong>ficial, economist, <strong>and</strong> administrator,<br />

Enrique Peñalosa is the former Mayor <strong>of</strong> Bogotá,<br />

Colombia. While mayor, Peñalosa was responsible for numerous<br />

radical improvements to the city <strong>and</strong> its citizens,<br />

he promoted a city model giving priority to children <strong>and</strong><br />

public spaces <strong>and</strong> restricting private car use, building<br />

hundreds <strong>of</strong> kilometers <strong>of</strong> sidewalks, bicycle paths, pedestrian<br />

streets, greenways, <strong>and</strong> parks.<br />

Lessons learned - in this case, the past <strong>of</strong>fers an ideal<br />

version <strong>of</strong> a city that is sustainable <strong>and</strong> hospitable to its<br />

inhabitants. Our goal as planners <strong>and</strong> designers is to<br />

provide a vision <strong>of</strong> the future that incorporates the benefits<br />

<strong>of</strong> our past experience with the opportunities created<br />

by new technologies. <strong>Cities</strong> <strong>of</strong> the future should have<br />

convenient transportation options in a low to medium<br />

density environment woven together with l<strong>and</strong>scaped<br />

open spaces, avenues, <strong>and</strong> parks, with active street life<br />

in recognizable mixed use districts that provide an identity<br />

<strong>and</strong> home for its inhabitants.<br />

Mark Chen is Director <strong>of</strong> Design for Heery International, based<br />

in Atlanta. A graduate <strong>of</strong> Harvard <strong>and</strong> Cornell Universities, he is<br />

recognized for his work in large scale planning for commercial <strong>and</strong><br />

institutional clients in the US <strong>and</strong> abroad.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

51


<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NETWORK<br />

Delivering <strong>Future</strong> <strong>Cities</strong><br />

by Kathryn Vowles, Balfour Beatty, Bristol, UK, +44 (0)7876 791151, Kathryn.Vowles@balfourbeatty.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>The</strong> UK’s Technology Strategy Board (UK government’s innovation<br />

agency) is currently running a competition to select<br />

a city to receive £25m for the <strong>Future</strong> <strong>Cities</strong> Demonstration<br />

Project. Balfour Beatty has worked with at least<br />

three UK cities to help develop their plans under this programme.<br />

But what do we mean by future cities, <strong>and</strong> what<br />

is the role <strong>of</strong> the engineer?<br />

<strong>Cities</strong> are the powerhouses <strong>of</strong> economic growth, innovation,<br />

<strong>and</strong> culture. As they grow, they become more efficient<br />

<strong>and</strong> more effective. For large cities to maximise this potential,<br />

they need to attract innovative people <strong>and</strong> investment<br />

to make the ideas happen. <strong>The</strong>y need to be competitive<br />

in a global market by ensuring they are vibrant, with a high<br />

quality <strong>of</strong> life <strong>and</strong> low environmental footprint. <strong>The</strong>y need<br />

to address a range <strong>of</strong> questions such as: How do you increase<br />

capacity <strong>and</strong> minimise congestion? How do you<br />

continually improve quality <strong>of</strong> life for a growing population?<br />

How do you maintain access to quality healthcare <strong>and</strong><br />

education? How do you manage the threats from climate<br />

change, resource constraints, <strong>and</strong> national security? In<br />

other words, how to leverage the benefits big cities bring,<br />

whilst managing the inevitable challenges they face.<br />

<strong>The</strong> demonstration project highlights the need to not<br />

just optimise individual systems (such as energy, waste,<br />

transport or healthcare) but to use a system-<strong>of</strong>-systems<br />

approach to integrate subsystems <strong>and</strong> identify new opportunities<br />

for efficiency <strong>and</strong> resilience. <strong>Cities</strong> are considering<br />

this integrated approach at a time <strong>of</strong> considerable<br />

economic challenge, as well as changes in demographics<br />

<strong>and</strong> migration. In 2010, 51.6 percent <strong>of</strong> the global population<br />

lived in urban areas, by 2050 it will be 67.2 percent 1 .<br />

This fact needs to be considered within the context <strong>of</strong> a<br />

global population (in July 2012) <strong>of</strong> 7.025 billion 2 , which is<br />

expected to grow to around 8.9 billion 3 by 2050.<br />

We are also living in a time <strong>of</strong> significant technology<br />

change. We have seen the consumerisation <strong>of</strong> information<br />

1<br />

United Nations http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/p2k0data.asp<br />

2<br />

United States Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/population/popclockworld.html<br />

3<br />

United Nations http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/longrange2/WorldPop2300final.pdf<br />

technology, cloud computing, <strong>and</strong> the ‘internet <strong>of</strong> things’<br />

(e.g., RFID - radio frequency identification - tagging, linking<br />

objects with computer systems to capture data creating a<br />

network <strong>of</strong> ‘things’). <strong>The</strong> computing power we are now able<br />

to carry around in our pockets is considerably more than<br />

we had available in the work environment even 10 years<br />

ago. We are also seeing the rise <strong>of</strong> ‘open data’, with data<br />

that was previously not used (or even accessible) being<br />

made available by public <strong>and</strong> private sector organisations<br />

to inform service provision within cities. Greater availability<br />

<strong>of</strong> data has given rise to ‘big data’, the large scale data<br />

analytics that can cope with both tabulated data <strong>and</strong> unstructured<br />

sources such as written documents, images,<br />

<strong>and</strong> video (as examples). Social <strong>and</strong> economic pressures,<br />

plus these technological opportunities, create challenges<br />

for cities that engineers, working in a multidisciplinary environment,<br />

are well placed to address.<br />

Firstly, <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f engineers underst<strong>and</strong> how infrastructure<br />

really works. Technology will be an important<br />

enabler within the cities <strong>of</strong> the future, but it is the enablement<br />

<strong>of</strong> physical infrastructure - the schools, hospitals,<br />

railways, roads, <strong>and</strong> power stations - that is key. Secondly,<br />

it is vital that the citizen is put at the centre <strong>of</strong> future city<br />

systems. <strong>The</strong>se systems will not work unless they operate<br />

for, <strong>and</strong> with, the people who use them. Underst<strong>and</strong>ing the<br />

connection between people, technology, <strong>and</strong> infrastructure,<br />

within a ‘systems thinking approach’, is a vital skill that a<br />

multidisciplinary engineering team can provide. To make<br />

this happen, planning <strong>and</strong> public engagement skills will be<br />

essential, as will consideration <strong>of</strong> the ‘people factors’ at<br />

early technical feasibility stages for technical solutions.<br />

From a finance perspective, new business models will be<br />

required, as will effective risk management, <strong>and</strong> a better<br />

underst<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>and</strong> application <strong>of</strong> lifecycle costs <strong>and</strong><br />

benefits. An integrated approach will require a multidisciplinary<br />

approach. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has specialists<br />

in buildings, waste, transport, <strong>and</strong> energy with extensive<br />

52


experience in feasibility studies, business case development,<br />

<strong>and</strong> design, making it capable <strong>of</strong> establishing a multidisciplinary<br />

team able to provide practical advice to cities.<br />

By linking experience <strong>of</strong> the complete project lifecycle for<br />

infrastructure - from feasibility to design, construct, <strong>and</strong> operate<br />

- the <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f <strong>and</strong> Balfour Beatty team<br />

is very well placed to underst<strong>and</strong> the lifecycle barriers to<br />

<strong>and</strong> opportunities for truly integrated city systems. <strong>The</strong>re<br />

are already such processes in action in relation to Intelligent<br />

Transport Systems, SmartGrid, <strong>and</strong> community scale<br />

energy projects which provide heating, cooling, <strong>and</strong> power.<br />

Involvement in integrated urban infrastructure<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s energy solutions team in London<br />

provides some excellent examples <strong>of</strong> addressing integrated<br />

city systems (currently outside the <strong>Future</strong> <strong>Cities</strong><br />

TSB competition). For example they are working with<br />

developers <strong>and</strong> local authorities to leverage new development<br />

opportunities to decarbonise existing social<br />

housing stock. <strong>The</strong> new developments need to deliver<br />

low carbon energy <strong>and</strong> heating in order to gain planning<br />

permission from the local authority. New construction<br />

st<strong>and</strong>ards require new developments to be very thermally<br />

efficient. A combined heat <strong>and</strong> power (CHP) plant<br />

will, therefore, tend to produce more heat than is necessary<br />

for that development. By providing this relatively<br />

low cost heat to neighbouring community buildings <strong>and</strong><br />

social housing, the developer can discharge some <strong>of</strong><br />

their planning requirements, with the additional benefit<br />

<strong>of</strong> reducing the carbon intensity <strong>of</strong> the older buildings,<br />

<strong>and</strong> addressing the challenge <strong>of</strong> fuel poverty. <strong>The</strong> team<br />

is currently looking at just such a development in the<br />

Victoria area <strong>of</strong> London which could potentially be linked<br />

with an existing district heating system in Pimlico <strong>and</strong><br />

service existing social housing. This is a great example<br />

<strong>of</strong> integrated thinking regarding heat, power, housing,<br />

community space, <strong>and</strong> new commercial development.<br />

<strong>The</strong> same team is working on a project in the Upper Lee<br />

Valley in London (the lower reaches are the primary location<br />

<strong>of</strong> the London 2012 Olympic <strong>and</strong> Paralympic Games).<br />

In this case the local authority has contracted the team<br />

to identify industrial sources <strong>of</strong> heat within the valley <strong>and</strong><br />

link potential suppliers <strong>and</strong> customers via a district energy<br />

network, thereby delivering ‘industrial symbiosis’. <strong>The</strong> benefits<br />

<strong>of</strong> one industry providing heat to another include a<br />

reduction in both the carbon intensity <strong>and</strong> the operational<br />

NETWORK<br />

costs. This helps attract new industries to a city region<br />

that is working to rebalance its economy - creating new<br />

jobs <strong>and</strong> long term economic resilience through sector diversity.<br />

Another example <strong>of</strong> a further step on the journey<br />

towards more integrated city systems.<br />

Across the pond, <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s virtual design<br />

<strong>and</strong> construction (VDC) group, based in New York City<br />

<strong>and</strong> several US <strong>of</strong>fice locations, has great examples <strong>of</strong><br />

how technology is changing the way we underst<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

plan for future city infrastructure. Through their 3D, BIM,<br />

<strong>and</strong> 4D modelling <strong>of</strong> both buildings <strong>and</strong> city infrastructure,<br />

they have built up detailed models <strong>of</strong> a number <strong>of</strong><br />

cities including Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, <strong>and</strong><br />

New York. Such models can enable decision making<br />

that considers the city as a complex integrated system,<br />

rather than a collection <strong>of</strong> discrete systems. By modelling<br />

changes in infrastructure <strong>and</strong> buildings, the implications<br />

for multiple city systems can be quickly understood.<br />

Models can also analyse multiple options, identifying the<br />

implications for cost, carbon emissions <strong>and</strong>, in the future,<br />

even quality <strong>of</strong> life. <strong>The</strong> VDC group is already modelling<br />

carbon emissions for current <strong>and</strong> future conditions, illustrating<br />

15 year horizons <strong>and</strong> actual emissions against<br />

state goals. <strong>The</strong>y also illustrate emissions via a real-time<br />

visual analysis portal; an important tool to support quick<br />

<strong>and</strong> evidence-based decision making – important when<br />

considering the complexity <strong>of</strong> city systems.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se are simple examples, now taking place, <strong>of</strong> city systems<br />

being made more efficient through an integrated approach<br />

<strong>and</strong> the use <strong>of</strong> technology as an enabler. <strong>The</strong> UK’s<br />

Technology Strategy Board believes there is a £200bn per<br />

annum global market realistically available for integrated<br />

city systems by 2030. This is a growing opportunity for the<br />

engineering community to work collaboratively <strong>and</strong> innovatively<br />

with technology partners to find real world solutions.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re are many practical barriers to face before we see a<br />

future <strong>of</strong> fully integrated city systems.<br />

(<strong>The</strong> author would like to thank Rupert Green <strong>of</strong> the energy<br />

solutions team in London, <strong>and</strong> Jay Mezher <strong>of</strong> the VDC team<br />

in New York for providing the evidence to support this article.)<br />

Kathryn Vowles worked for <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f for 11 years, latterly<br />

in the strategic consulting group. She is now the Balfour Beatty<br />

Innovation Lead for Europe, Africa <strong>and</strong> Middle East.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

53


<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NETWORK<br />

Valuing Biodiversity as<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

by Martin Predavec, Sydney, Australia, +61 2 9272 5253, mpredavec@pb.com.au<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Next time you walk down the street, look at trees: look past<br />

their beautiful form <strong>and</strong> see the many functions that trees<br />

play in an urban environment. Trees contribute to the temperature<br />

regulation <strong>of</strong> our cities, providing shade in summer<br />

<strong>and</strong> allowing warming sunlight to hit our buildings in winter;<br />

trees reduce the urban heat isl<strong>and</strong> effect <strong>and</strong> in turn<br />

reduce power usage;<br />

they can minimise <strong>and</strong><br />

control flooding <strong>and</strong> protect<br />

buildings from wind<br />

<strong>The</strong> 2008 value <strong>of</strong><br />

damage; they provide<br />

ecosystem services<br />

habitat for animals; they provided by trees in<br />

can filter noxious particles<br />

from the air; they<br />

Australia’s capital Canberra<br />

is estimated at $23.5 million<br />

can form part <strong>of</strong> the<br />

(Considine 2009)<br />

green belts <strong>of</strong> our cities,<br />

protecting <strong>and</strong> filtering<br />

vital water supplies; <strong>and</strong><br />

they absorb <strong>and</strong> store carbon dioxide, thereby reducing the<br />

impacts <strong>of</strong> climate change <strong>and</strong> building our cities’ resilience.<br />

If you think about all the functions that a tree can play in an<br />

urban environment, they make an amazing contribution to<br />

the infrastructure <strong>of</strong> our cities - <strong>and</strong> all solar powered.<br />

<strong>The</strong> idea <strong>of</strong> using biodiversity,<br />

particularly<br />

Trees provide $1.3 billion plants, to enhance our<br />

in stormwater benefits urban infrastructure<br />

is not new. This forms<br />

in Houston, Texas based<br />

part <strong>of</strong> what is now commonly<br />

known as ‘green<br />

on an estimate <strong>of</strong><br />

storage capacity<br />

(Foster et al. 2011)<br />

infrastructure’ <strong>and</strong> the<br />

role <strong>of</strong> biodiversity is<br />

recognised in many sustainable<br />

building <strong>and</strong><br />

infrastructure rating schemes around the globe (for example,<br />

the <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Sustainability Rating Tool <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Australian Green <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Council, includes ecology<br />

<strong>and</strong> ‘Biodiversity Enhancement’ as one <strong>of</strong> the highest rating<br />

components (AGIC 2012)). However, the imperative<br />

<strong>and</strong> urgency <strong>of</strong> addressing the issue <strong>of</strong> our dwindling biodiversity,<br />

while at the same time protecting our cities from<br />

increasing human-caused environmental impacts, means<br />

that we must consider more carefully the role that biodiversity<br />

can play in developing infrastructure <strong>and</strong> if indeed<br />

we can, <strong>and</strong> should, consider biodiversity as infrastructure.<br />

Biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the variety <strong>of</strong><br />

life forms: the different plants, animals, <strong>and</strong> microorganisms,<br />

the genes they contain, <strong>and</strong> the ecosystems they<br />

form. Humans are dependent on fundamental biological<br />

systems <strong>and</strong> processes for their sustenance, health, wellbeing,<br />

<strong>and</strong> lifestyle. We derive all <strong>of</strong> our food <strong>and</strong> many<br />

medicines <strong>and</strong> industrial products from the wild <strong>and</strong> domesticated<br />

components <strong>of</strong> biological diversity. Biological<br />

resources also serve recreation <strong>and</strong> tourism, <strong>and</strong> underpin<br />

the ecosystems that provide us with many services. <strong>The</strong>se<br />

are known as ecosystem services.<br />

Ecosystem services can be divided into four categories<br />

(Carpenter et al. 2005; TEEB 2010):<br />

• Provisioning services – including the goods or products<br />

obtained from ecosystems such as food, fresh water,<br />

timber, <strong>and</strong> fiber;<br />

• Regulating services – including benefits obtained<br />

from control <strong>of</strong> natural processes such as air quality,<br />

climate, water quality, erosion, <strong>and</strong> protection from<br />

natural hazards;<br />

• Cultural <strong>and</strong> amenity services – including non-material<br />

benefits such as recreation, aesthetics, <strong>and</strong> spiritual<br />

values; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Supporting services – including the natural processes<br />

that support lifecycles <strong>and</strong> other services, <strong>and</strong> the maintenance<br />

<strong>of</strong> genetic diversity.<br />

<strong>The</strong> ultimate health <strong>of</strong> the ecosystems in which we live are<br />

under threat due to the loss <strong>of</strong> biodiversity in our environment<br />

<strong>and</strong> subsequent disruption <strong>of</strong> their significant services.<br />

This loss <strong>of</strong> biodiversity has been brought about by ever<br />

exp<strong>and</strong>ing human settlement patterns. Climate change is<br />

54


predicted to further impact biodiversity <strong>and</strong> this is expected<br />

to radically alter the “balance <strong>and</strong> order” <strong>of</strong> ecosystem<br />

services (Garnaut 2008;<br />

Howden et al. 2002).<br />

<strong>Cities</strong> occupy 2% <strong>of</strong><br />

Biodiversity <strong>and</strong> ecosystem<br />

services are <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

the earth’s surface but<br />

consume three-quarters <strong>of</strong> viewed in terms <strong>of</strong> pristine<br />

natural areas (e.g.,<br />

the resources that are used<br />

in Australia biodiversity<br />

is largely protected<br />

each year<br />

(Pearce 2006) based on a reservation<br />

system), yet significant<br />

biodiversity values can<br />

occur in urban areas (Hassan et al. 2005). As the human<br />

population increases, the importance <strong>of</strong> biodiversity in urban<br />

areas <strong>and</strong> the services they can provide will increase.<br />

In 2007 the world reached the point where more people<br />

live in urban environments than in non-urban environments<br />

<strong>and</strong> this trend is predicted to continue (Pearce 2006). Our<br />

cities are increasingly becoming important refuges for biodiversity<br />

<strong>and</strong> in turn biodiversity plays an important role in<br />

the ecosystem services <strong>of</strong> cities.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is both a need to redress the reductions in biodiversity<br />

brought about by human settlement patterns <strong>and</strong><br />

behaviour, <strong>and</strong> to build resilience within our cities to the<br />

environmental changes including the expected climate<br />

change impacts <strong>of</strong> increasing temperatures. <strong>The</strong>se do not<br />

need to be achieved in isolation from each other – increasing<br />

biodiversity can at the same time provide significant<br />

ecosystem services.<br />

Through a program <strong>of</strong> truly “greening” our urban environment<br />

<strong>and</strong> redressing our biodiversity losses, an opportunity<br />

also exists to reduce our carbon footprint. This can<br />

be achieved through increasing sequestering opportunities<br />

via increased vegetation <strong>and</strong> reducing emissions associated<br />

with transportation <strong>of</strong> food supplies to our urban populations<br />

via urban farming techniques, for example, urban<br />

farming supplies China<br />

with greater than 85 per<br />

In Miami, summer<br />

cent <strong>of</strong> its vegetables<br />

(Hawken et al. 1999). electricity bills are 10%<br />

lower in neighbourhoods<br />

Additional economic with more than 20%<br />

benefits continue to<br />

tree cover than in<br />

accrue through significant<br />

reductions in “urban<br />

heat isl<strong>and</strong> effect”, (Alex<strong>and</strong>ri & Jones 2008)<br />

neighbourhoods with none<br />

which then facilitate<br />

NETWORK<br />

reductions in dem<strong>and</strong> for air-conditioning <strong>and</strong> therefore<br />

energy in buildings, further reducing our carbon footprint.<br />

With a changing climate, this heat reduction can potentially<br />

eliminate the requirement for building owners to upgrade<br />

building air-conditioning systems, with an as yet unknown<br />

cost (ABSEC 2008; Eren 2008; Foster et al. 2011)<br />

<strong>The</strong> benefits <strong>of</strong> increased<br />

<strong>and</strong> planned biodiversity If buildings in Saudi Arabia<br />

in our cities are multiple,<br />

with the economic<br />

were clad in vegetation,<br />

benefits starting to be the average temperature<br />

calculated <strong>and</strong> realised in the gaps between the<br />

(e.g., Foster et al. 2011). buildings would be 9°C<br />

<strong>The</strong> benefits can also<br />

cooler during the day<br />

appear in some unexpected<br />

places. While (Kumar & Kaushik 2005)<br />

native honey bees are<br />

declining in the European<br />

countryside, they are increasing in cities such as Paris. <strong>The</strong><br />

increase in floral diversity in cities, tied in with the general<br />

lack <strong>of</strong> insecticide use, means that the bees can flourish.<br />

Apiarists are taking advantage <strong>of</strong> this; a hive in an urban<br />

area can produce 30 per cent more than its counterpart in<br />

the countryside.<br />

We tend to view today’s cities in terms <strong>of</strong> their size, <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

quoted as a population, <strong>and</strong> <strong>of</strong>ten the iconic buildings in<br />

them – the tallest, the oldest, <strong>and</strong> the best design. However<br />

we are now at a point where the cities we design today will<br />

be viewed in the future in terms <strong>of</strong> their impacts (smallest<br />

footprint), their integration with the natural environment, <strong>and</strong><br />

for buildings that sit harmoniously with their environment.<br />

To achieve successful cities in the future we must consider<br />

biodiversity not only in terms <strong>of</strong> something to be protected<br />

because <strong>of</strong> its inherent values, but in terms <strong>of</strong> how it can be<br />

an integral <strong>and</strong> valued part <strong>of</strong> our future cities. So let’s not<br />

approach the design <strong>of</strong> our future cities with a view to controlling<br />

or clearing biodiversity to make way for our constructed<br />

infrastructure, or <strong>of</strong> using biodiversity to simply enhance<br />

the quality <strong>of</strong> our infrastructure – let’s view biodiversity as<br />

an important part <strong>of</strong> the infrastructure. In the future we will<br />

hopefully not see the cities for the trees.<br />

References<br />

• ABSEC 2008, <strong>The</strong> Second Plank - Building a low carbon<br />

economy with energy efficient buildings, Australian Sustainable<br />

Built Environment Council, Canberra.<br />

• AGIC 2012, Australian Green <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Council,<br />

2012, http://www.agic.net.au/.<br />

• Alex<strong>and</strong>ri, E & Jones, P 2008, ‘Temperature decreases<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

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<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NETWORK<br />

in an urban canyon due to green walls <strong>and</strong> green ro<strong>of</strong>s<br />

in diverse climates’, Building <strong>and</strong> Environment, vol. 43,<br />

no. 4, pp. 480-93.<br />

• Carpenter, SR, Pingali, PL, E.M., B & Zurek, MB (eds)<br />

2005, <strong>The</strong> Millennium Assessment. Ecosystems <strong>and</strong><br />

Human Well-being: Scenarios, Volume 2, Isl<strong>and</strong> Press,<br />

Washington.<br />

• Commonwealth Department <strong>of</strong> the Environment Sport<br />

<strong>and</strong> Territories 2004, Biodiversity <strong>and</strong> its value. Biodiversity<br />

Series, Paper No. 1, Commonwealth Department <strong>of</strong><br />

the Environment, Sport <strong>and</strong> Territories Canberra.<br />

• Considine, ML 2009, ‘’Working trees’ key to urban resilience?’,<br />

Ecos, vol. 2009, no. 151, pp. 34-.<br />

• Foster, J, Lowe, A & Winkelman, S 2011, ‘<strong>The</strong> value <strong>of</strong><br />

green infrastructure for urban climate adaptation’, <strong>The</strong><br />

Center for Clean Air Policy.<br />

• Eren, C 2008, Commercial Property <strong>and</strong> Climate Change.<br />

Exposures, opportunities, <strong>and</strong> the crucial role <strong>of</strong> existing<br />

buildings., Total Environment Centre, Melbourne.<br />

• Foster, J., A. Lowe, et al. 2011. “<strong>The</strong> value <strong>of</strong> green infrastructure<br />

for urban climate adaptation.” <strong>The</strong> Center<br />

for Clean Air Policy.<br />

• Garnaut, R 2008, Garnaut Climate Change Review, Commonwealth<br />

<strong>of</strong> Australia, Canberra.<br />

• Hassan, R, Scholes, R & Ash, N (eds) 2005, <strong>The</strong> Millennium<br />

Assessment. Ecosystems <strong>and</strong> Human Well-being:<br />

Current State <strong>and</strong> Trends, Volume 1, Isl<strong>and</strong> Press,<br />

Washington.<br />

• Hawken, P, Lovins, AB & Lovins, LH 1999, Natural Capitalism:<br />

Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, Little, Brown<br />

• Howden, M, Hughes, L, Dunlop, M, Zethoven, I, Hilbert,<br />

D & Chilcott, C (eds) 2002, Climate change impacts on<br />

biodiversity in Australia, CSIRO, Canberra.<br />

• Kumar, R & Kaushik, SC 2005, ‘Performance evaluation<br />

<strong>of</strong> green ro<strong>of</strong> <strong>and</strong> shading for thermal protection <strong>of</strong><br />

buildings’, Building <strong>and</strong> Environment, vol. 40, no. 11, pp.<br />

1505-11.<br />

• Pearce, F 2006, ‘Ecopolis Now’, New Scientist, vol.<br />

2556.<br />

• TEEB. 2010. Integrating the ecological <strong>and</strong> economic<br />

dimensions in biodiversity <strong>and</strong> ecosystem service valuation.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Economics <strong>of</strong> Ecosystems <strong>and</strong> Biodiversity.<br />

http://www.teebweb.org/Ecological<strong>and</strong>EconomicFoundations/tabid/1018/Default.aspx.<br />

Dr. Martin Predavec is the Environment Capability Executive within<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s AP region. He has over 22 years’ experience<br />

in terrestrial <strong>and</strong> wildlife ecology <strong>and</strong> environmental assessment<br />

<strong>and</strong> his field experience covers a wide range <strong>of</strong> projects <strong>and</strong><br />

habitats throughout Australia, Europe, Asia, <strong>and</strong> North America.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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NETWORK<br />

<strong>The</strong> Transforming <strong>Cities</strong> Project:<br />

How <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f is Shaping<br />

<strong>Infrastructure</strong> for the <strong>Future</strong> <strong>of</strong> Our <strong>Cities</strong><br />

by Thomas Jost, New York, NY, 1-212-465-5137, jost@pbworld.com<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f is a primary sponsor <strong>of</strong> the Transforming<br />

<strong>Cities</strong> Project, a series <strong>of</strong> conferences designed<br />

to analyze the systems that support cities <strong>and</strong> the<br />

strategies being envisioned <strong>and</strong> undertaken to adapt<br />

infrastructure to shape cities <strong>of</strong> the future. Together<br />

with Bio<strong>Cities</strong>, the Harvard Z<strong>of</strong>nass Program for Sustainable<br />

<strong>Infrastructure</strong>, the Regional Plan Association, <strong>and</strong><br />

a team <strong>of</strong> sponsors <strong>and</strong> co-organizers, the conference<br />

series will investigate the transformative impacts <strong>of</strong> new<br />

technologies <strong>and</strong> practices on food, transportation, water,<br />

waste, <strong>and</strong> energy.<br />

<strong>The</strong> inaugural event, held on May 2 nd , 2012, focused on<br />

food <strong>and</strong> its fundamental importance to the growth <strong>of</strong> the<br />

21 st century city.<br />

How Food Systems Shape <strong>Cities</strong><br />

Over the past century, in response to the massive upswing<br />

in global population, industrialized food production has<br />

largely replaced the family farm. In America in 1900, farmers<br />

represented 40% <strong>of</strong> the employed population; by 1990,<br />

that number was less than 1%. In recent years there has<br />

been a renaissance <strong>of</strong> the local farm, <strong>and</strong> increasingly<br />

urban dwellers are dem<strong>and</strong>ing locally-sourced products.<br />

While growing in popularity, is dem<strong>and</strong> alone going to be<br />

sufficient to spark a rapid growth in local food production?<br />

Regional <strong>and</strong> local food represents a fraction <strong>of</strong> what we<br />

eat as a country, <strong>and</strong> our small <strong>and</strong> mid-sized farmers continue<br />

to struggle to compete against global food manufacturers<br />

in an increasingly competitive marketplace.<br />

<strong>The</strong> conference discussion focused on how to increase<br />

the scale <strong>and</strong> impact <strong>of</strong> local <strong>and</strong> regional food production<br />

while maintaining a sustainable operational model<br />

<strong>and</strong> included some <strong>of</strong> the topics below:<br />

• <strong>The</strong> business models for local food – community supported<br />

agriculture, co-ops, not-for-pr<strong>of</strong>its – that focus on<br />

sustainable growth models, as opposed to the maximization<br />

<strong>of</strong> pr<strong>of</strong>it, were examined;<br />

• <strong>The</strong> infrastructure needed to support this industry – processing,<br />

slaughtering, ripening, storage, <strong>and</strong> distribution<br />

- <strong>and</strong> the opportunities for farmers, business, <strong>and</strong><br />

government to partner to connect to cities to “grow”<br />

this new sustainable economic model were examined<br />

in order to underst<strong>and</strong> gaps <strong>and</strong> the challenges in generating<br />

the requisite capital to fill those gaps; <strong>and</strong><br />

• <strong>The</strong> implications <strong>of</strong> regional food in terms <strong>of</strong> capacity,<br />

l<strong>and</strong> use, employment, <strong>and</strong> ecological opportunity in<br />

cities, <strong>and</strong> also in suburban <strong>and</strong> rural areas with a<br />

focus on the question: Can regional food create better<br />

communities?<br />

<strong>The</strong> second event, scheduled for winter 2012/2013, will<br />

focus on the transportation sector <strong>and</strong> upon the issues<br />

that impact livability in cities.<br />

How Transportation Systems Shape <strong>Cities</strong><br />

Dramatic changes are taking place that will affect the future<br />

growth <strong>of</strong> cities. Global population is purported to<br />

rise to 10 billion inhabitants by 2050, with mass migration<br />

from rural areas to cities. <strong>The</strong> stress on urban infrastructure<br />

will be significant <strong>and</strong> changes in the transportation<br />

infrastructure will be dramatic. As cities continue<br />

to grow, the shift from automobile dependence is affording<br />

new public realm strategies, <strong>and</strong> significant changes<br />

to the urban fabric are taking place on urban streets.<br />

<strong>The</strong> conference will investigate the implications <strong>of</strong> these<br />

strategies, the benefits <strong>and</strong> costs, <strong>and</strong> the impact upon urban<br />

lifestyles <strong>and</strong> local economies. Key points will include:<br />

• As the cost <strong>of</strong> new infrastructure makes major investments<br />

more difficult, new technologies are driving the<br />

operational characteristics <strong>of</strong> the transportation system.<br />

• <strong>The</strong> role <strong>of</strong> the automobile in cities <strong>of</strong> the future will be<br />

reviewed. Will the electric automobile become a fixture<br />

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<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

in our cities <strong>and</strong> how will it impact the fabric <strong>of</strong> the city?<br />

• <strong>The</strong> changing role <strong>of</strong> urban streets <strong>and</strong> the ability to<br />

transform the relationship between people <strong>and</strong> their urban<br />

environment through this key element <strong>of</strong> the public<br />

realm will be examined.<br />

• We will discuss the notion <strong>of</strong> transit-supportive development<br />

– studying the six livability principles <strong>of</strong> the Partnership<br />

for Sustainable Communities 1 <strong>and</strong> applying them to<br />

the urban condition to help us underst<strong>and</strong> how transportation,<br />

economy, affordability, environment, <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> use<br />

must be tied together to create livable urban communities.<br />

<strong>Future</strong> conference topics include:<br />

• Logistics - <strong>The</strong> issue <strong>of</strong> logistics within cities will be<br />

discussed. In a global society, cities like New York are<br />

competing with the entire planet for goods, <strong>and</strong> the efficiency<br />

<strong>and</strong> effectiveness <strong>of</strong> delivery <strong>and</strong> movement will<br />

be critical to economic sustainability. We will analyze<br />

the ability to move freight in the region, the impacts <strong>of</strong><br />

freight on the environment, <strong>and</strong> the steps being taken<br />

to continue to exp<strong>and</strong> capacity while reducing the carbon<br />

footprint. <strong>Cities</strong> must also plan for daily events<br />

<strong>and</strong> incidents <strong>and</strong> large-scale single-day <strong>and</strong> multi-day<br />

events that can significantly stress the infrastructure<br />

<strong>and</strong> operations <strong>of</strong> the city. How is the modern city<br />

equipped to manage its daily operations <strong>and</strong> what tools<br />

can it make available to optimize efficiency?<br />

• Waste <strong>and</strong> food - <strong>The</strong>re is an inseparable link between<br />

food <strong>and</strong> waste within the urban environment. And while<br />

the issue <strong>of</strong> connecting the urban dweller with food in a<br />

sustainable manner is complex, the issue <strong>of</strong> tying food<br />

to waste <strong>and</strong> connecting this cycle when planning for infrastructure<br />

improvements is <strong>of</strong>ten left “<strong>of</strong>f the table”.<br />

What is the relationship between food <strong>and</strong> waste? As<br />

we develop new technologies for processing our waste<br />

more effectively <strong>and</strong> new policies for reducing our creation<br />

<strong>of</strong> waste, how can the modern city make use <strong>of</strong> its<br />

waste stream, turning a significant cost into an asset?<br />

• Energy – Energy production from fossil fuels (coal, oil,<br />

natural gas) remains the single largest contributor to<br />

greenhouse gas emissions. New strategies for energy<br />

production <strong>and</strong> use could dramatically impact future urban<br />

development <strong>and</strong> social behavior. How will new energy<br />

strategies be coordinated with urban development<br />

<strong>and</strong> will new energy policies <strong>and</strong> technologies impact<br />

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the nature <strong>of</strong> growth in cities?<br />

• Water – Although blessed with the Hudson River watershed,<br />

New York City has embarked upon an ambitious<br />

directive to decrease its impervious surface area by 10<br />

percent by 2030. Rolling out such an ambitious effort<br />

will impact existing <strong>and</strong> new building construction <strong>and</strong><br />

dramatically influence public realm development. Can<br />

water conservation strategies be effectively integrated<br />

into urban development practice?<br />

Conclusion<br />

As we analyze the systems that support our cities <strong>and</strong> the<br />

strategies being envisioned <strong>and</strong> undertaken to adapt our<br />

infrastructure to shape our cities <strong>of</strong> the future, we must<br />

acknowledge our dependence on fossil fuels to support<br />

our economic engine, <strong>and</strong> the detrimental consequences<br />

<strong>of</strong> this reliance to the natural environment. While the industrial<br />

revolution brought forth tremendous wealth <strong>and</strong><br />

technological progress, we are entering an age <strong>of</strong> resource<br />

scarcity that will force us to evolve new infrastructure<br />

strategies to support growth through the careful use<br />

<strong>of</strong> limited natural resources.<br />

Formal recognition <strong>of</strong> the friction between economic<br />

growth <strong>and</strong> environmental responsibility can be traced<br />

back to 1987, when the Brundtl<strong>and</strong> Commission report,<br />

Our Common <strong>Future</strong>, identified that the needs <strong>of</strong> our economy<br />

must be balanced with those <strong>of</strong> the environment <strong>and</strong><br />

society. In the intervening decades, despite increased<br />

awareness that continued growth is coming at the expense<br />

<strong>of</strong> the resources <strong>of</strong> the planet, use <strong>of</strong> fossil fuels<br />

has increased dramatically, bringing into sharper focus<br />

the need to structure a new economic “path” towards a<br />

sustainable future. <strong>The</strong> answer lies in our ability to shape<br />

an economy where growth enhances our environment, a<br />

fundamental transformation that will only come about as<br />

people make changes to their lifestyle.<br />

Tom Jost, a Senior <strong>Urban</strong> Strategist with <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

PlaceMaking Group, has spent his career exploring the drivers that<br />

influence urban development <strong>and</strong> sustainable solutions, with a focus<br />

on solving the challenges faced by cities in adapting to climate<br />

change <strong>and</strong> a carbon-free economy. His projects include the plan<br />

for Fresh Kills Park, which converts America’s largest l<strong>and</strong>fill into<br />

NYC’s largest ecological habitat, <strong>and</strong> the design <strong>and</strong> construction<br />

<strong>of</strong> NYC’s High Line.<br />

1<br />

In 2009, U.S. Department <strong>of</strong> Housing <strong>and</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> Development (HUD), U.S. Department <strong>of</strong> Transportation (DOT), <strong>and</strong> the U.S. Environmental Protection<br />

Agency (EPA) joined together to form the Partnership for Sustainable Communities to help communities nationwide improve access to affordable housing,<br />

increase transportation options, <strong>and</strong> lower transportation costs while protecting the environment. http://www.sustainablecommunities.gov/aboutUs.html#2<br />

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NETWORK<br />

Opportunities <strong>and</strong> Practices for <strong>Urban</strong><br />

Planning in Emerging Market Countries<br />

by Henry Wu, Shanghai, China, +86 21 6113 3183, wu.henry@pbworld.com<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

In the new era <strong>of</strong> globalization, cities are attracting a<br />

greater development impetus than ever before, thus allowing<br />

humankind to enjoy the rich material goods <strong>and</strong><br />

spiritual wealth generated by urban civilization. <strong>The</strong> world<br />

is advancing from the “urbanizing century” to the “urbanized<br />

century”. At the same time, however, this process<br />

is causing the life supporting system <strong>of</strong> planet earth to<br />

undergo the most severe ecological degradation <strong>and</strong><br />

l<strong>and</strong>scape fragmentation since the beginning <strong>of</strong> the human<br />

history. <strong>The</strong> speed, the scale, <strong>and</strong> the shape <strong>of</strong> such<br />

transformations will entirely depend on how urban planning<br />

<strong>and</strong> design as a discipline is practiced 1 .<br />

Statistics <strong>of</strong> China, by the end <strong>of</strong> 2010, there were more<br />

than 110 Chinese cities with populations <strong>of</strong> over one million<br />

people. This rapid development trend remains unabated.<br />

In addition, during the urbanization process, the urban<br />

economy, culture, <strong>and</strong> life styles also proliferate into the<br />

rural areas. This is actually the transformation process <strong>of</strong><br />

an entire society where institutional reform <strong>and</strong> economic<br />

restructuring are intertwined.<br />

At the starting point <strong>of</strong> the post-industrial civilization, several<br />

critical issues are apparent to the urban planning pr<strong>of</strong>ession,<br />

for example, how to integrate tradition <strong>and</strong> modernity<br />

as well as nature <strong>and</strong> humanity into global trends <strong>and</strong><br />

local contexts; how to unite the separation <strong>of</strong> functions in<br />

the modern cities; <strong>and</strong> how to prevent cities from becoming<br />

submerged in an infrastructure complex <strong>of</strong> cars—highways—urban<br />

sprawl—petroleum.<br />

With the broadening <strong>of</strong> international economic integration,<br />

the urbanization process <strong>of</strong> developing countries continues<br />

to accelerate. This is particularly evident in emerging market<br />

economies that are driven by high-speed economic <strong>and</strong><br />

industrial development, such as in China (see Figure 1).<br />

With the development <strong>of</strong> emerging urban industries, there<br />

is a transfer <strong>of</strong> surplus agricultural labor from rural areas<br />

to the cities. This leads to the continuous expansion <strong>of</strong><br />

urban industries <strong>and</strong> a shrinking <strong>of</strong> the agricultural population.<br />

Emerging industries multiply in proximity to the exp<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

urban labor force.<br />

Also, with the natural evolution <strong>and</strong> transfer <strong>of</strong> industries<br />

within one country, the number <strong>and</strong> the size <strong>of</strong> cities also<br />

exp<strong>and</strong>. For example, according to the National Bureau <strong>of</strong><br />

Figure 1 - <strong>The</strong> urbanization process <strong>of</strong> China<br />

(Data Source: National Bureau <strong>of</strong> Statistics <strong>of</strong> China, 2011.)<br />

1<br />

Register, R. (2006), Eco<strong>Cities</strong>: Rebuilding <strong>Cities</strong> in Balance with Nature, Gabriola, BC: New Society Publishers.<br />

Economic globalization <strong>and</strong> urbanization in emerging market<br />

countries has paralleled the rise <strong>of</strong> economic strength,<br />

the enhancement <strong>of</strong> the local governments’ role, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

changes to the social structure on a macro scale. As a<br />

result, this has led to an urbanization process <strong>and</strong> pattern<br />

that is largely different from that experienced by developed<br />

countries <strong>and</strong> newly industrialized countries. This unique<br />

<strong>and</strong> continuously improving level <strong>of</strong> urbanization has generated<br />

an unprecedented dem<strong>and</strong> for the construction<br />

<strong>of</strong> urban facilities, such as new residential communities,<br />

business centers, new industrial areas, new towns, cultural<br />

facilities, shopping malls, hotels, parks, etc. It has also<br />

placed more pressure on the urban planning pr<strong>of</strong>ession<br />

to ensure that local culture is respected, local economies<br />

grow, <strong>and</strong> society flourishes in a sustainable manner. This<br />

increased urban complexity has placed greater emphasis<br />

on the need for a multi-disciplinary planning process which<br />

provides a multi-dimensional, comprehensive review.<br />

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<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Although emerging market countries have different urban<br />

planning issues than those <strong>of</strong> western developed countries,<br />

use can be made <strong>of</strong> western experience <strong>and</strong> the<br />

advanced technical means available to solve current <strong>and</strong><br />

imminent urban development problems such as l<strong>and</strong> use,<br />

transport, urban design, l<strong>and</strong>scape, <strong>and</strong> architecture, as<br />

well as the more s<strong>of</strong>t disciplines such as regional economics,<br />

sociology, geography, <strong>and</strong> environmental sustainability.<br />

Inclusion <strong>of</strong> such disciplines is becoming more<br />

imperative to solving increasingly complex urban development<br />

<strong>and</strong> construction problems.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f, with over 127-years <strong>of</strong> technological<br />

development expertise, has responded to this challenge<br />

with the establishment <strong>of</strong> a multi-disciplinary integrated<br />

planning service. In response to the market dem<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

to fully leverage <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s internal resources,<br />

a business model has been developed (see Figure 2).<br />

Multi-Discipline Platform<br />

Figure 2 - Planning <strong>and</strong> Consultancy Business Model for Emerging<br />

Market Countries<br />

Experts from different fields are deployed to form the project<br />

team, which is tailored to meet the specific needs <strong>of</strong><br />

the client <strong>and</strong> each project. This ensures a comprehensive<br />

solution to the core problems in a holistic manner.<br />

Experience has shown that such integrated planning<br />

(i.e., international, multi-disciplinary, <strong>and</strong> focusing on<br />

the emerging markets) has substantial technical <strong>and</strong><br />

competitive advantages. At present, China is in a period<br />

<strong>of</strong> rapid urbanization <strong>and</strong> there is massive investment<br />

<strong>and</strong> construction taking place. Utilizing the concepts<br />

<strong>and</strong> methods <strong>of</strong> our integrated planning model,<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has successfully completed a<br />

number <strong>of</strong> urban projects for leading agencies in China<br />

which include: comprehensive transport consulting<br />

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services for the Beijing Olympic Games; comprehensive<br />

consulting services for the Shanghai World Expo;<br />

comprehensive transport planning for the eastward expansion<br />

<strong>of</strong> Beijing Central Business District; <strong>and</strong> a thematic<br />

study on the future city <strong>of</strong> Gu’an (see text box).<br />

<strong>The</strong>se projects, <strong>and</strong> many others completed over the<br />

past few years, provide excellent examples <strong>of</strong> how an<br />

integrated urban planning model can be successfully<br />

applied in emerging market regions.<br />

“Gu’an <strong>Future</strong> City”<br />

Gu’an is a rapidly urbanizing county in Hebei Province,<br />

known as the “southern gateway” to Beijing<br />

metropolitan area because <strong>of</strong> its close proximity to<br />

the capital. Currently, the national government is<br />

seeking sustainable mechanisms to deliver polycentric<br />

urban growth. As Beijing repositions itself<br />

as a world city, the Hebei Province has committed to<br />

building an economic circle <strong>of</strong> urban centers around<br />

the capital (“capital economic circle”) to boost regional<br />

development. It is through this that the concept<br />

<strong>of</strong> “Gu’an <strong>Future</strong> City” has been put forward.<br />

Gu’an <strong>Future</strong> City is envisioned as a new urban territory<br />

which makes full use <strong>of</strong> advanced technology to<br />

integrate planning concerns (transportation, energy,<br />

logistics, ecology, etc.) in a more intelligent manner<br />

<strong>and</strong>, at the same time, explore synergies within the<br />

“capital economic circle”. Gu’an <strong>Future</strong> City will be<br />

driven by strategic emerging industries, intelligent<br />

service industries, <strong>and</strong> green technology industries.<br />

A vision <strong>of</strong> four integrated <strong>and</strong> symbiotic thematic<br />

‘layers’ is set out as a basis for urban development:<br />

city <strong>of</strong> wisdom, city <strong>of</strong> ecology, city <strong>of</strong> happiness,<br />

<strong>and</strong> city <strong>of</strong> culture. A spatial structure will then be<br />

developed with a rational layout <strong>and</strong> organization <strong>of</strong><br />

functional areas including industry (urban strength),<br />

lifestyle/mixed-use (urban quality), <strong>and</strong> urban living.<br />

Through its successful implementation, Gu’an <strong>Future</strong><br />

City will set a benchmark <strong>and</strong> be a model for<br />

the emergence <strong>of</strong> similar sized satellite cities that<br />

are at once sustainable, desirable, <strong>and</strong> feasible.<br />

Henry Wu is an <strong>Urban</strong> Planner who has worked on projects in<br />

mainl<strong>and</strong> China <strong>and</strong> in other countries. His extensive experience<br />

includes regional development strategies, urban development, urban<br />

renewal, tourism development, master planning, <strong>and</strong> real estate<br />

development.<br />

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<strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong>: Meeting the<br />

Challenges <strong>of</strong> Rapid <strong>Urban</strong>ization in India<br />

by Milind Nirmal, Bangalore, India, +91 9740087218, nirmal.milind@pbworld.com<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

India has witnessed phenomenal growth recently – boosted<br />

primarily by the service sector <strong>and</strong> a growing population<br />

in the working age bracket. <strong>The</strong> growth <strong>of</strong> India’s<br />

gross domestic product (GDP) works out to a compound<br />

annual growth rate (CAGR) <strong>of</strong> 7.4% (compared to UK’s<br />

1.2%). Currently almost 30% <strong>of</strong> India’s population lives in<br />

cities (up from 17% in 1950). This is close to 360 million<br />

people <strong>and</strong> projected to be close to 600 million in 2030.<br />

Funding India’s <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

<strong>The</strong> anticipated spending per capita required to meet the<br />

shortfall in funding for capital expenditure (CAPEX) for<br />

urban infrastructure is close to USD 134 per person per<br />

year, which is a 7-fold increase in the current allocation.<br />

<strong>The</strong> operations <strong>and</strong> maintenance <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure<br />

would require a further USD 116 per capita per annum,<br />

to be generated primarily through existing tax contributions<br />

<strong>and</strong> direct user charges. McKinsey <strong>and</strong> Company<br />

estimates that tier 1 <strong>and</strong> tier 2 1 cities would be able<br />

to meet up to 80% <strong>of</strong> the funding requirements from<br />

internal sources such as collection <strong>of</strong> property taxes,<br />

other revenue sources such as leases, advertisement<br />

revenues, <strong>and</strong> permitting <strong>and</strong> approvals – provided the<br />

planning, delivery, <strong>and</strong> maintenance are efficient <strong>and</strong><br />

there are governance reforms.<br />

With urban centers providing the thrust to India’s GDP<br />

growth – over 60% <strong>of</strong> India’s GDP is generated from urban<br />

areas - cities will be the engines <strong>of</strong> India’s economic<br />

growth <strong>and</strong> will therefore face a heavy dem<strong>and</strong> for infrastructure<br />

<strong>and</strong> facilities. <strong>The</strong> ”Report on Indian <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> Services” by Dr. Isher Ahluwalia (March<br />

2011) recognizes that urbanization is not an option, but<br />

is an inevitable outcome <strong>of</strong> the faster rates <strong>of</strong> growth.<br />

Rapid urbanization <strong>of</strong> India, coupled with rural-urban migration,<br />

places existing poor quality infrastructure under<br />

further stress, to the point <strong>of</strong> collapse.<br />

Drawing from the McKinsey Report: “India’s urban awakening:<br />

Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic<br />

growth” (April 2010), it is clear that the infrastructure<br />

gap <strong>and</strong> the resulting required investment are staggering.<br />

<strong>The</strong> dem<strong>and</strong> for capital to improve infrastructure in<br />

India’s cities over the next two decades is estimated by<br />

McKinsey to be approximately USD 1.2 trillion.<br />

With rapid urbanization, it is imperative to ensure a radical<br />

shift in governance <strong>and</strong> financing <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure<br />

towards more <strong>and</strong> more efficient delivery - which<br />

seems to indicate a lower level <strong>of</strong> subsidies <strong>and</strong> higher<br />

costs to users. Yet this must be viewed with attention<br />

to the social context <strong>of</strong> Indian cities <strong>and</strong> the necessary<br />

inclusion <strong>of</strong> the urban poor as recipients <strong>of</strong> the delivery<br />

<strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Role <strong>of</strong> Local Government<br />

<strong>The</strong> provision <strong>and</strong> maintenance <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure is<br />

primarily the responsibility <strong>of</strong> the local government <strong>and</strong><br />

therein lies the challenge. <strong>Urban</strong> Local Bodies (ULB) are<br />

typically structured into different departments dealing<br />

with different aspects <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

management <strong>of</strong> these bodies is typically with staff from<br />

the Public Administration Services. <strong>The</strong> work <strong>of</strong> a ULB is<br />

overseen by a council, with representatives from the political<br />

party which has the majority vote in local elections.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Local Bodies in India are typified by a high fragmentation<br />

in the way they deliver <strong>and</strong> manage urban infrastructure,<br />

<strong>and</strong> face high levels <strong>of</strong> challenges in delivering<br />

efficiency in urban services. <strong>The</strong>se jobs are <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

underpaid <strong>and</strong> therefore do not always attract the best<br />

talent. Governance, regulatory frameworks, <strong>and</strong> financial<br />

management in cities in India today are not up to the<br />

challenges <strong>of</strong> growing cities.<br />

1<br />

For the purpose <strong>of</strong> the McKinsey report, tier 1 cities have been considered as those with a population <strong>of</strong> greater than 4 million, tier 2 between<br />

1 <strong>and</strong> 4 million, <strong>and</strong> tier 3 cities are those with a population <strong>of</strong> less than a million.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Meeting the Challenges<br />

Moving forward, a multi-layered <strong>and</strong> multi-vector approach<br />

is required to meet the challenges <strong>of</strong> rapid urban<br />

growth <strong>and</strong> the associated delivery <strong>of</strong> infrastructure. <strong>Cities</strong><br />

need to be empowered further <strong>and</strong> organizational<br />

changes initiated in institutions; governance frameworks<br />

<strong>and</strong> financing methods are some <strong>of</strong> the key aspects that<br />

need a greater degree <strong>of</strong> attention.<br />

While there are a plethora <strong>of</strong> models available - from<br />

success stories in the west, <strong>and</strong> more recently in the<br />

east in China - in the delivery <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure, it<br />

is important to ensure that the developmental paradigm<br />

for cities in India will cater to the unique societal, political<br />

conditions <strong>and</strong> realities <strong>of</strong> the local context.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Local Bodies need a paradigm shift from a constant<br />

struggle to manage existing, degraded infrastructure<br />

against enormous growing dem<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> limited<br />

funds, to more efficient delivery models which will allow<br />

the provision <strong>of</strong> quality infrastructure.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the key drivers would be to move ULB institutional<br />

philosophy from the dual role <strong>of</strong> building <strong>and</strong> managing<br />

urban infrastructure, towards being service providers<br />

<strong>and</strong> managers. This fundamental shift would allow for<br />

an appropriate management skill base to be built up<br />

institutionally – which would necessitate a change in the<br />

way ULB’s are traditionally staffed.<br />

Leaner <strong>and</strong> more efficient organizations, with a corresponding<br />

reduction in operating overheads, will allow for<br />

bringing in higher levels <strong>of</strong> appropriate external expertise<br />

in the form <strong>of</strong> consultants <strong>and</strong> technology partners. Financial<br />

<strong>and</strong> accounting management, technical managerial<br />

skills <strong>and</strong> business management skills would greatly<br />

enhance the ULB’s capability to take on challenges to<br />

finance <strong>and</strong> manage the building <strong>and</strong> maintenance <strong>of</strong> urban<br />

infrastructure. It is essential that Indian cities move<br />

away from the current model <strong>of</strong> management <strong>of</strong> urban<br />

infrastructure towards ensuring corporate efficiencies<br />

meet the unique requirements <strong>of</strong> running a city.<br />

Along with a shift in operational philosophy, ULB’s should<br />

examine their financial performance <strong>and</strong> take steps to<br />

ensure transparency, accountability, <strong>and</strong> the curbing <strong>of</strong><br />

unnecessary expenditure. Use <strong>of</strong> Generally Accepted Auditing<br />

Principles (GAAP) to enable a full underst<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>of</strong><br />

the state <strong>of</strong> the ULB’s finances, <strong>and</strong> computerization <strong>of</strong><br />

accounting systems would help in better underst<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

how the dollar is earned <strong>and</strong> utilized to aid prudent fiscal<br />

NETWORK<br />

planning. Major streams <strong>of</strong> revenue such as property tax<br />

need to be streamlined in order to ensure a full coverage,<br />

on-time collections <strong>and</strong> at specified rates, backed up by robust<br />

IT systems such as geographic information systems.<br />

Although a greater thrust on recovery <strong>of</strong> cost from use<br />

<strong>of</strong> services by consumers will go a long way to ensuring<br />

quality delivery <strong>of</strong> infrastructure across cities, recovery <strong>of</strong><br />

costs per se is not the complete problem. It is ensuring<br />

that the intended recipients <strong>of</strong> a service get the services<br />

they are paying for. A classical example would be in water<br />

distribution – the current charges being levied by the<br />

local water supply bodies cover 50-60% <strong>of</strong> UafW losses<br />

(unaccounted for water losses) due to aging distribution<br />

networks <strong>and</strong> leakage. On a micro level, this has already<br />

proven successful, with large residential development<br />

projects collecting funds <strong>and</strong> managing infrastructure<br />

within these developments – efficiently <strong>and</strong> successfully.<br />

This step needs to be accompanied by looking at various<br />

funding <strong>and</strong> financing mechanisms for building <strong>and</strong><br />

enhancing urban infrastructure. It is estimated in the<br />

McKinsey Report that 80-85% <strong>of</strong> funding needs for <strong>Urban</strong><br />

Local Bodies can be funded through internal revenue<br />

generation. <strong>Urban</strong> Local Bodies typically hold large l<strong>and</strong><br />

banks across cities – most <strong>of</strong> which are underutilized or<br />

in various states <strong>of</strong> disrepair or disuse. <strong>The</strong>se large l<strong>and</strong><br />

banks are potential sources <strong>of</strong> raising large funds through<br />

leasing <strong>and</strong> other development mechanisms which would<br />

help finance the provision <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure. Large<br />

capital expenditure infrastructure programs must look at<br />

external sources <strong>of</strong> funding, leveraging debt/equity, privatization<br />

or loan mechanisms.<br />

Conclusion<br />

On a technical level, cities must achieve long range, integrated,<br />

<strong>and</strong> sustainable master plans – not only for l<strong>and</strong><br />

use, but for urban infrastructure <strong>and</strong> its extension – from<br />

roads <strong>and</strong> electricity to water <strong>and</strong> public transportation<br />

that meet the cities societal needs. City managers must<br />

recognize the value <strong>of</strong> leveraging technology through the<br />

use <strong>of</strong> quality services from consultants, contractors, <strong>and</strong><br />

other service providers to make an integrated approach<br />

to running a city easier <strong>and</strong> more impactful.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f <strong>and</strong> Balfour Beatty have a unique<br />

opportunity to partner in driving change in the way cities<br />

are managed – with an unparalleled combination <strong>of</strong> experience,<br />

we are in a position to lead Indian cities into the<br />

future - if policy framework <strong>and</strong> the regulatory <strong>and</strong> transparency<br />

environment are conducive. Innovative mea-<br />

62


sures implemented by city governments - allowing private<br />

sector participation in financing, managing, <strong>and</strong> maintaining<br />

infrastructure - would be a good start. <strong>The</strong>re are many<br />

areas where this could work, for example in the operation<br />

<strong>and</strong> maintenance <strong>of</strong> traffic signals <strong>and</strong> networks; road<br />

infrastructure <strong>and</strong> street furniture; effective solid waste<br />

management, disposal, <strong>and</strong> processing, to name a few.<br />

It is inevitable <strong>and</strong> a foregone conclusion that Indian<br />

cities in future will be run much smarter. A better use <strong>of</strong><br />

NETWORK<br />

scarce water resources, recycling, water harvesting, energy<br />

efficient buildings, <strong>and</strong> public transport, smarter <strong>of</strong>fices<br />

<strong>and</strong> urban planning to reduce transport needs are<br />

the important features necessary for India to meet the<br />

challenge <strong>of</strong> providing urban infrastructure sustainably.<br />

Milind Nirmal is Development Director <strong>and</strong> has a masters degree<br />

in infrastructure planning from University <strong>of</strong> Stuttgart <strong>and</strong> a masters<br />

programme in GIS. He has close to two decades <strong>of</strong> experience<br />

in various aspects <strong>of</strong> urban infrastructure.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

63


<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NETWORK<br />

Songdo International Business District<br />

by Henning Kuehn, Seoul, Republic <strong>of</strong> Korea, 82-2-2017-5674, kuehn.henning@pbworld.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

As one <strong>of</strong> the largest private developments in the world,<br />

Songdo International Business District (IBD) has the<br />

qualifications to be a prototype for 21 st century urban<br />

development - combining sustainability, high quality living<br />

conditions, <strong>and</strong> economic development. Extensive parks,<br />

various work opportunities, cultural facilities, <strong>and</strong> abovest<strong>and</strong>ard<br />

residential units are part <strong>of</strong> this accomplishment.<br />

LEED st<strong>and</strong>ards have been applied to the construction <strong>and</strong><br />

design <strong>of</strong> the development. This certification program includes<br />

a rigorous third party commissioning process that<br />

guarantees the sustainability <strong>of</strong> the development. <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has been involved in the Songdo IBD in various<br />

roles, including construction management <strong>and</strong> construction<br />

supervision <strong>of</strong> the tallest building <strong>of</strong> the development,<br />

the North East Asia Trade Tower.<br />

Incheon Free Economic Zone<br />

Over the past years, South Korea has developed six free<br />

economic zones, each with a different focus <strong>and</strong> construction<br />

schedule. <strong>The</strong>se zones<br />

are national initiatives <strong>of</strong> the federal<br />

government, in cooperation<br />

with regional <strong>and</strong> municipal governments,<br />

to establish attractive<br />

locations for both local <strong>and</strong> foreign<br />

investments. Special conditions<br />

for companies investing in these<br />

zones are thought to increase the<br />

competitiveness <strong>of</strong> South Korea<br />

with overseas locations.<br />

<strong>The</strong> first <strong>and</strong> most developed <strong>of</strong><br />

these free economic zones (development<br />

start in 2003) is the<br />

Incheon Free Economic Zone (IFEZ).<br />

It is located on the outskirts <strong>of</strong> the<br />

city <strong>of</strong> Incheon, the historical <strong>and</strong><br />

current port <strong>of</strong> Seoul, on the coast<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Yellow Sea, south <strong>of</strong> the Han<br />

River estuary. <strong>The</strong> goal <strong>of</strong> the IFEZ<br />

is to establish a 21 st century international<br />

city, a logistics hub, <strong>and</strong> an<br />

international leisure city. IFEZ (see Figure 1) consists <strong>of</strong><br />

three areas:<br />

• Yeongjong Area (138.33 km 2 ), an isl<strong>and</strong> on which the<br />

new Incheon Airport was developed<br />

• Cheongna Area (17.78 km 2 ), a former l<strong>and</strong>fill area<br />

which is currently being re-developed<br />

• Songdo Area (53.26 km 2 ), a l<strong>and</strong> reclamation project<br />

which is an extension <strong>of</strong> the existing Songdo district<br />

<strong>of</strong> Incheon city<br />

A number <strong>of</strong> IFEZ projects have already been completed,<br />

while others are under construction <strong>and</strong> some are yet<br />

to be planned, the final stage <strong>of</strong> IFEZ is targeted for<br />

completion in 2020.<br />

Songdo International Business District (IBD)<br />

As part <strong>of</strong> the IFEZ Songdo Area, the Songdo International<br />

Business District (Songdo IBD) was developed in a joint<br />

venture between the Korean conglomerate POSCO <strong>and</strong><br />

Gale International as a private development. It extends<br />

Figure 1 - Map <strong>of</strong> the three areas that make up the Incheon Free Economic Zone (IFEZ)<br />

(Source: Korea Free Economic Zone website http://www.fez.go.kr/en/fezs/incheon-freeeconomic-zone.jsp)<br />

64


over 6 km 2 <strong>and</strong> has more than 350 residential, cultural,<br />

<strong>and</strong> commercial buildings.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the project targets was to implement an attractive<br />

master plan, designed by KPF Architects <strong>of</strong> New<br />

York, in order to differentiate Songdo IBD from other<br />

Korean developments. <strong>The</strong> new city was to provide its<br />

residents with a quality environment, <strong>and</strong> adequate<br />

space to attract employees <strong>of</strong> foreign investment ventures<br />

to the area.<br />

<strong>The</strong> facilities <strong>of</strong> the Songdo IBD, such as the convention<br />

center, the international school, the extensive park<br />

areas <strong>and</strong> the 5-star hotel, all meet international st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

<strong>of</strong> quality <strong>and</strong> approximately 80% <strong>of</strong> the buildings<br />

in the development were built to LEED st<strong>and</strong>ards, most<br />

<strong>of</strong> which applied the LEED for New Constructions v2.2<br />

rating system.<br />

NETWORK<br />

required construction supervisor (whose responsibilities<br />

include confirming compliance with the local code).<br />

By assuming both roles, <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f was able<br />

to organize the work force <strong>and</strong> contribute to the projects<br />

on all relevant levels including quality, schedule,<br />

cost, <strong>and</strong> safety. Most remarkable was the construction<br />

management work on the North East Asian Trade Tower<br />

(NEATT) a 68-story high-rise mixed-use building which is<br />

the dominant structure <strong>of</strong> the development (see Figure<br />

3) <strong>and</strong> will be Korea’s tallest building when complete.<br />

<strong>The</strong> experience <strong>of</strong> working on NEATT enabled <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f to develop capabilities as CM for tall <strong>and</strong><br />

super-tall buildings which can also be applied to projects<br />

outside <strong>of</strong> Songdo.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s Role<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f was involved in various projects <strong>of</strong><br />

Songdo IBD <strong>and</strong> IFEZ, <strong>and</strong> in various roles which included:<br />

• CM/CS (construction management / construction supervision)<br />

for the North East Asian Trade Tower (NEATT)<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Chadwick International School;<br />

• Independent engineering services for sections <strong>of</strong> the<br />

2nd Incheon Bridge.<br />

• LEED consulting services for 14 projects, approximately<br />

30 buildings.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f was a vital part <strong>of</strong> the project team,<br />

which at peak times had up to 33 local engineers <strong>and</strong> up<br />

to 5 expatriates. (See Figure 2 - Project List)<br />

Figure 2 - Project List<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f acted as both construction manager<br />

on behalf <strong>of</strong> the joint venture as well as the legally<br />

Figure 3 - Central Park <strong>and</strong> the North East Asian Trade Tower (NEATT)<br />

(Courtesy <strong>of</strong> Gale International Korea)<br />

<strong>The</strong> LEED consulting work involved different tasks, depending<br />

on the organization <strong>of</strong> each project. While the<br />

first projects were executed in support <strong>of</strong> third party<br />

LEED consultants in the US, <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f assumed<br />

more comprehensive <strong>and</strong> responsible roles in<br />

the later projects. <strong>The</strong> Songdo International Business<br />

Square (see Figure 4) project, which achieved LEED-CS<br />

v2.0 gold certification, was h<strong>and</strong>led entirely by <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f (with the exception <strong>of</strong> the energy simulation),<br />

including the system commissioning <strong>of</strong> the project.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

65


<strong>Urban</strong> Planning<br />

NETWORK<br />

Status & Outlook<br />

At this time, all <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s CM/CS work is<br />

complete, with the exception <strong>of</strong> the North East Asian<br />

Trade Tower (NEATT) <strong>and</strong> the Jack Nicklaus Golf Club<br />

House. Nine buildings have received LEED certification,<br />

one <strong>of</strong> which achieved gold certification, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Incheon Bridge has been in operation since October<br />

2009. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has earned a great reputation<br />

for their work in Songdo <strong>and</strong> is closely connected in<br />

the public perception to the quality achieved. In 2010,<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f was given an award as the Most<br />

Sustainable CM Company in South Korea (see Figure 6).<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 4 - Songdo International Business Square (Gale International<br />

Korea)<br />

<strong>The</strong> Incheon 2 nd Bridge (see Figure 5) is more than 12 kilometers<br />

long <strong>and</strong> connects the Songdo IBD with Yeongjong<br />

Isl<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> Incheon Airport. <strong>The</strong> project was developed<br />

as a Public Private Partnership (PPP) project with<br />

an investment from the Korean Kookmin Bank. <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f acted as Independent Engineer on behalf<br />

<strong>of</strong> the investor, <strong>and</strong> the work included the review <strong>and</strong><br />

monitoring <strong>of</strong>: design; program management policies,<br />

procedures, <strong>and</strong> processes; schedules; costs, original<br />

budget, cost overruns, <strong>and</strong> yearly plans; contracts in<br />

place between the concessionaire <strong>and</strong> the various parties<br />

involved on the project; construction methodology,<br />

progress, safety control, <strong>and</strong> procedures; quality control;<br />

operation <strong>and</strong> maintenance; concessionaire annual<br />

plans; monthly statements; <strong>and</strong> contract changes.<br />

Figure 5 - Incheon 2nd Bridge<br />

Figure 6 - Award for the Most<br />

Sustainable CM Company<br />

(Courtesy <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f)<br />

With Songdo IBD nearing<br />

completion, the next<br />

area <strong>of</strong> focus will be the<br />

Songdo L<strong>and</strong>mark City,<br />

a separate development<br />

just north <strong>of</strong> the IBD,<br />

where the l<strong>and</strong> reclamation<br />

is fairly advanced.<br />

<strong>The</strong> development will include<br />

a large scale l<strong>and</strong>mark<br />

tower which shall<br />

become the symbol <strong>of</strong><br />

the entire Incheon Free<br />

Economic Zone.<br />

Henning Kuehn is an Architect in <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s Seoul <strong>of</strong>fice.<br />

He participated in the establishment <strong>of</strong> a sustainable development<br />

team <strong>and</strong> has worked as project manager <strong>and</strong> assistant<br />

project manager on various projects.<br />

66


NETWORK<br />

NETWORK<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Future</strong> <strong>of</strong> Water <strong>and</strong> <strong>Urban</strong><br />

<strong>Infrastructure</strong> in US <strong>Cities</strong><br />

by Brian Van Weele, San Francisco, CA, 1-415-243-4610, vanweele@pbworld.com; David MacIntyre, Orl<strong>and</strong>o, FL, 1-407-<br />

587-7818, Macintyre@pbworld.com; Mary Fickert Thomas, Orl<strong>and</strong>o, FL, 1-407-587-7837, thomasmf@pbworld.com<br />

Water<br />

Water is critical to the health <strong>and</strong> growth <strong>of</strong> cities around<br />

the world. <strong>Urban</strong> infrastructure for water is heavily influenced<br />

by public policy, which is influenced in part by changes<br />

in the political climate <strong>and</strong> the current concerns <strong>of</strong> citizens.<br />

During times <strong>of</strong> drought, infrastructure is conceived<br />

to provide a reliable future supply <strong>of</strong> water. After hurricanes<br />

<strong>and</strong> typhoons, attention is turned to coastal <strong>and</strong> river flooding.<br />

Adding to these weather conditions are the elements<br />

<strong>of</strong> sea level rise, aging infrastructure, population growth,<br />

<strong>and</strong> more stringent water quality regulations. <strong>The</strong>se factors<br />

<strong>and</strong> many others provide increasing challenges for water<br />

supply <strong>and</strong> wastewater planners <strong>and</strong> engineers.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has worked on water supply <strong>and</strong><br />

wastewater projects around the world, but for this article we<br />

will concentrate on the future <strong>of</strong> cities in the United States.<br />

Water Supply<br />

<strong>The</strong>re are nearly 170,000 public drinking water systems in<br />

the United States with 54,000 water systems collectively<br />

serving more than 264 million people. <strong>The</strong> US Environmental<br />

Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that there is an annual<br />

shortfall <strong>of</strong> $11 billion to replace aging infrastructure<br />

<strong>and</strong> to comply with future federal water regulations.<br />

California <strong>and</strong> Florida are undertaking major improvements<br />

to water supply systems to serve their growing<br />

cities <strong>and</strong> urban areas today <strong>and</strong> into the future.<br />

California<br />

In California, the city <strong>of</strong> San Francisco <strong>and</strong> the city <strong>of</strong> Los<br />

Angeles have made water supply one <strong>of</strong> their top priorities.<br />

San Francisco is ahead <strong>of</strong> the curve with their Water System<br />

Improvement Program (WSIP). WSIP involves a broad<br />

range <strong>of</strong> projects, varying in size <strong>and</strong> complexity, covering all<br />

aspects <strong>of</strong> the water system – from dams, reservoirs, pipelines,<br />

<strong>and</strong> tunnels to treatment facilities, pump stations,<br />

<strong>and</strong> water storage tanks. Specific projects include the Bay<br />

Division Tunnel which replaces two aging pipelines under<br />

the San Francisco Bay, the New Irvington Tunnel which will<br />

improve seismic reliability <strong>and</strong> operational flexibility, <strong>and</strong><br />

seismic upgrades to the reservoir at Hetch Hechy.<br />

<strong>The</strong> city <strong>of</strong> Los Angeles is dealing with its local distribution<br />

issues <strong>and</strong> is heavily involved in the Delta Conveyance<br />

project which will assure a continued reliable<br />

water supply for Southern California <strong>and</strong> the Central<br />

Valley agricultural needs while also providing ecosystem<br />

restoration. <strong>The</strong> Sacramento River <strong>and</strong> the San<br />

Joaquin River converge in the delta, which is mostly<br />

comprised <strong>of</strong> agricultural isl<strong>and</strong>s. <strong>The</strong> Sacramento<br />

River continues to flow to the Pacific Ocean but some<br />

water is diverted to existing canal systems that provide<br />

water for agricultural use <strong>and</strong> Southern California<br />

municipal use.<br />

<strong>The</strong> state is developing the Bay Delta Conservation<br />

Plan (BDCP) with co-equal goals <strong>of</strong> ecosystem restoration<br />

<strong>and</strong> improved water system reliability. <strong>The</strong> proposed<br />

project will provide habitat restoration <strong>and</strong> other<br />

environmental actions to improve the Delta’s ecosystem,<br />

<strong>and</strong> will enhance water system reliability through<br />

the construction <strong>of</strong> a new, isolated water conveyance<br />

facility through or around the Delta (see Figure 1). This<br />

proposed isolated conveyance facility, referred to as<br />

the Delta Conveyance project, will consist <strong>of</strong> either an<br />

isolated canal or tunnels that will divert water directly<br />

from the Sacramento River just south <strong>of</strong> Sacramento<br />

to the south Delta pumping plants which export water<br />

to the Central Valley <strong>and</strong> Southern California. This<br />

‘mega’ project, developed by the California Department<br />

<strong>of</strong> Water Resources (DWR) acting jointly with the State<br />

Water Contractors <strong>and</strong> the Water Management District<br />

(WMD), will be one <strong>of</strong> the largest infrastructure projects<br />

in the world with a current construction cost estimate<br />

<strong>of</strong> at least $14 billion. <strong>The</strong> latest information suggests<br />

it will be split into multiple contracts.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

67


Water<br />

NETWORK<br />

water source. However, the Water Management<br />

Districts (WMDs) that control the<br />

allocation <strong>of</strong> water resources in the region<br />

have determined that the availability<br />

<strong>of</strong> groundwater from the Floridan Aquifer,<br />

the main supplier <strong>of</strong> groundwater, is limited.<br />

In fact, in 2006, the WMDs began<br />

to limit all water use permits, required to<br />

withdraw groundwater, to 2013 dem<strong>and</strong><br />

projections. This meant that all water use<br />

required beyond 2013 projections would<br />

need to be obtained by alternative water<br />

supplies, such as surface water or brackish<br />

water sources.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 1 – Location <strong>of</strong> the proposed water intakes for the Delta Conveyance project<br />

Florida<br />

In Florida, until the last decade, most cities have relied<br />

almost exclusively on groundwater as the source for<br />

public water supply. In recent times, many urban areas<br />

have struggled with permitting requirements for new<br />

or increased groundwater allocations for future supply.<br />

<strong>The</strong> primary constraints are environmental: reductions<br />

in spring-flows to spring-fed rivers, reduced water levels<br />

in lakes <strong>and</strong> wetl<strong>and</strong>s, <strong>and</strong> saltwater intrusion into some<br />

parts <strong>of</strong> the state’s aquifer systems. <strong>The</strong> first major<br />

constraints on groundwater supplies for urban centers<br />

were felt in the southwest coastal areas below Tampa.<br />

Starting in 1992, the Water Management District (WMD)<br />

responsible for this area developed a regional plan to<br />

curtail allocations <strong>of</strong> groundwater for urban supply. As<br />

a result, multiple projects were developed to reduce<br />

fresh groundwater withdrawals <strong>and</strong> substitute fresh<br />

water from rivers, <strong>and</strong> desalinated water from brackish<br />

groundwater <strong>and</strong> seawater sources. During the 1990s<br />

<strong>and</strong> 2000s, communities in this area invested over half<br />

a billion dollars in development <strong>of</strong> new alternative water<br />

supply (AWS) infrastructure to integrate the new water<br />

sources into their systems. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f provided<br />

assistance to Tampa Bay Water, a regional wholesale<br />

water utility, for acquisition <strong>of</strong> its 25 million gallons per<br />

day (MGD) DBOOT (design-build-own-operate-transfer)<br />

seawater desalination facility, for preliminary design <strong>of</strong><br />

a second 25 MGD seawater desalination plant, <strong>and</strong> for<br />

construction management <strong>of</strong> a 15.5 billion gallon surface<br />

water reservoir.<br />

Similar constraints are now being experienced in central<br />

Florida. Central Florida has historically relied upon high<br />

quality but low-cost groundwater as its primary drinking<br />

This led to plans for development <strong>of</strong> up to<br />

54 MGD <strong>of</strong> water to be supplied from the<br />

St. Johns River <strong>and</strong> Taylor Creek (SJR/<br />

TCR) <strong>and</strong> shared between six water supply utilities. A<br />

joint venture team <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f <strong>and</strong> CH2M<br />

Hill prepared an environmental impact document <strong>and</strong><br />

preliminary design report for the project. While the<br />

project was demonstrated to be technically feasible,<br />

it faced major institutional challenges due to the complexity<br />

<strong>of</strong> developing mutually acceptable plans for ownership<br />

<strong>and</strong> phasing <strong>of</strong> the infrastructure. <strong>The</strong> recent<br />

recession greatly reduced the expected rate <strong>of</strong> population<br />

growth, <strong>and</strong> this has provided additional time for<br />

development <strong>of</strong> alternate water supply projects. Terms<br />

for development <strong>of</strong> the SJR/TCR project are still being<br />

discussed amongst the participating utilities.<br />

Another response to the water supply challenges in<br />

the east central Florida area is a multi-agency process<br />

known as the Central Florida Water Initiative (CFWI).<br />

This initiative is a cooperative effort among the Florida<br />

Department <strong>of</strong> Environmental Protection, the Florida<br />

Department <strong>of</strong> Agriculture <strong>and</strong> Consumer Services,<br />

three WMDs responsible for this area, <strong>and</strong> seven <strong>of</strong><br />

the public water supply utilities most affected by the<br />

groundwater allocation constraints. A multi-year, multistakeholder<br />

process, the consensus-based CFWI is expected<br />

to result not only in revised water policy that<br />

will provide the region with a uniform set <strong>of</strong> rules that<br />

govern the availability <strong>and</strong> use <strong>of</strong> water resources, but<br />

it will also result in a number <strong>of</strong> technical tools that<br />

are expected to lead the state in water availability estimation<br />

<strong>and</strong> environmental management, providing new<br />

paradigms for the rest <strong>of</strong> the state. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

is the lead consultant for the water utilities that<br />

are participating in the CFWI.<br />

68


Wastewater<br />

<strong>The</strong> EPA estimates that the US must invest $390 billion<br />

over the next twenty years to upgrade existing wastewater<br />

facilities <strong>and</strong> build new ones to meet growing dem<strong>and</strong>.<br />

NETWORK<br />

Wastewater Reuse<br />

Reuse <strong>of</strong> reclaimed wastewater has become widespread<br />

in Florida <strong>and</strong> the southwestern states. Using<br />

reclaimed water for industrial purposes, agricultural<br />

<strong>and</strong> urban irrigation, <strong>and</strong> even for potable water supplies,<br />

has two major benefits: it reduces the amount<br />

<strong>of</strong> water withdrawn from natural water systems, <strong>and</strong> it<br />

also reduces the discharge <strong>of</strong> nutrients <strong>and</strong> other contaminants<br />

into natural water systems.<br />

Water<br />

Portl<strong>and</strong>, Oregon’s new wastewater system is a shining example.<br />

It was developed to control the combined sewer<br />

overflows (CSOs) into the Willamette River <strong>and</strong> the Columbia<br />

Slough. Portl<strong>and</strong>’s Bureau <strong>of</strong> Environmental Services<br />

was tasked with reducing CSOs by a minimum <strong>of</strong> 94 percent<br />

<strong>and</strong> embarked on the CSO program.<br />

Portl<strong>and</strong>’s West Side CSO is comprised <strong>of</strong> five projects<br />

bundled together for cost-efficiency <strong>and</strong> schedule<br />

requirements. <strong>The</strong> tunnel is 4 miles long, 14 feet<br />

in diameter <strong>and</strong> runs 120 feet underneath downtown<br />

Portl<strong>and</strong>, along the Willamette waterfront, <strong>and</strong> below<br />

the Willamette River. <strong>The</strong> East Side CSO is a 20-foot<br />

diameter 6-mile long tunnel project. <strong>The</strong><br />

design for both tunnels included hydraulic<br />

modeling, sediment management, transients,<br />

hydraulic relief, air relief, odor control,<br />

drop shaft hydraulics, <strong>and</strong> pump-out<br />

facilities. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f was the<br />

design manager for the city <strong>of</strong> Portl<strong>and</strong>,<br />

Bureau <strong>of</strong> Environmental Services.<br />

Florida <strong>and</strong> California lead the country in development <strong>of</strong><br />

st<strong>and</strong>ards <strong>and</strong> projects for reuse <strong>of</strong> reclaimed water. <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f is known for its work on reuse projects<br />

in Florida over the last 20 years, in particular as the engineering<br />

consultant to the Water Conserv II project since<br />

1992. This project is jointly owned by Orange County <strong>and</strong><br />

the city <strong>of</strong> Orl<strong>and</strong>o, <strong>and</strong> it uses over 30 MGD <strong>of</strong> reclaimed<br />

water for industrial use; for irrigation <strong>of</strong> golf courses, agricultural<br />

crops, <strong>and</strong> urban areas; <strong>and</strong> for recharge to the<br />

main water supply aquifer in Florida. <strong>The</strong> facilities served<br />

by Water Conserv II are distributed across an area <strong>of</strong> approximately<br />

40 square miles (see Figure 2).<br />

<strong>The</strong> New York State Department <strong>of</strong> Environmental<br />

Conservation <strong>and</strong> the New York City<br />

Department <strong>of</strong> Environmental Protection<br />

have just signed an agreement that initiates<br />

$3.8 billion in funding over the next 18<br />

years to address combined sewer overflows<br />

(CSOs). <strong>The</strong> program includes $11.4 billion<br />

in gray infrastructure (pipes, mechanical Figure 2 - Water Conserv II Facility in Orange <strong>and</strong> Lake Counties, Florida.<br />

systems, tunnels) projects to improve performance<br />

<strong>of</strong> the city’s collection system <strong>and</strong><br />

$2.4 billion for green infrastructure facilities, such as porous<br />

pavements, green streets, green ro<strong>of</strong>s, swales, <strong>and</strong><br />

Orange County, Florida is the sixth-largest user <strong>of</strong> reclaimed<br />

water, with 87.5 MGD <strong>of</strong> recorded reclaimed water<br />

street trees, for capturing <strong>and</strong> absorbing stormwater before<br />

flow in 2010. Orange County Utilities has been a<br />

it enters the CSO system.<br />

zero-discharge municipality for decades, meaning that it<br />

beneficially used 100% <strong>of</strong> its treated wastewater to avoid<br />

Other major US cities with substantial wastewater programs<br />

are: Seattle, Miami, Washington DC, San Diego,<br />

Nashville, Atlanta, St. Louis, <strong>and</strong> Pittsburg.<br />

discharges to surface water bodies. Orange County<br />

<strong>and</strong> other central Florida utilities have led the state in<br />

reclaimed water use to <strong>of</strong>fset the impacts <strong>of</strong> their fresh<br />

groundwater sources. As limitation on groundwater allocations<br />

increase, utilities are increasingly finding ways to<br />

optimize the uses <strong>of</strong> reclaimed water.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s other reclaimed water projects in<br />

Florida include multiple facilities that recharge the pri-<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

69


Water<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

mary drinking water aquifer through infiltration basins;<br />

systems that provide additional nutrient removal through<br />

artificial treatment wetl<strong>and</strong>s before using reclaimed water<br />

to augment natural lakes; <strong>and</strong> an extensive pilot<br />

study <strong>of</strong> membrane treatment processes to remove<br />

trace contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals <strong>and</strong> other<br />

endocrine disrupting compounds, so that the water can<br />

be treated to meet drinking water st<strong>and</strong>ards <strong>and</strong> then<br />

be directly injected into our main drinking water aquifer.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Watershed Management<br />

(San Francisco, Atlanta, Philadelphia, New York)<br />

Many cities are looking at their wastewater issues from a<br />

total watershed perspective. Instead <strong>of</strong> solving individual<br />

water related problems independently, today the total watershed<br />

is studied for the best integrated solutions.<br />

<strong>The</strong> solutions to neighborhood flooding <strong>and</strong>/or CSOs during<br />

significant storms must now include the traditional<br />

gray solutions with the complimentary green solutions.<br />

Detailed mathematical surface water <strong>and</strong> groundwater<br />

modeling will be required as well as future evaluations<br />

on the effectiveness, <strong>and</strong> operation <strong>and</strong> maintenance<br />

aspects, <strong>of</strong> the green designs.<br />

Flood Control<br />

River <strong>and</strong> coastal flooding has been <strong>and</strong> will continue to<br />

be a major concern in the US. It has been reported that<br />

floods kill an average <strong>of</strong> 127 Americans a year <strong>and</strong> cause<br />

more than $2 billion <strong>of</strong> property damage annually 1 .<br />

<strong>The</strong> 2005 Hurricane Katrina that hit New Orleans killed<br />

over 1800 people <strong>and</strong> the property damage was estimated<br />

at $81 billion (2005 USD). As <strong>of</strong> 2012, the US<br />

Army Corps <strong>of</strong> Engineers have invested over a billion dollars<br />

to bring the protection level to 1 in 100 floods by<br />

re-building the levees, pump stations, <strong>and</strong> flood gates.<br />

Sacramento is now considered the most flood-prone city<br />

in the nation. Two events could destroy levees <strong>and</strong> cause<br />

flooding - an earthquake <strong>and</strong> a super-storm <strong>of</strong>f the Pacific.<br />

Robert Bea, Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> Engineering at the University<br />

<strong>of</strong> California, Berkeley, warns: “In terms <strong>of</strong> damage,<br />

deaths <strong>and</strong> long-term cost, a rupture in the delta levees<br />

would be far more destructive than what happened in<br />

NETWORK<br />

1<br />

New York Times, California’s Next Nightmare, Alex Prud’homme, July 1, 2011<br />

Hurricane Katrina.” In addition, a levee disaster would<br />

cut <strong>of</strong>f water supply for 25 million Californians <strong>and</strong> Sacramento’s<br />

Natomas area, where <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

<strong>of</strong>fice is located, would be under 22 feet <strong>of</strong> water.<br />

Conclusion<br />

For all communities that inhabit this planet, reliable <strong>and</strong><br />

safe water supply is critical to the continuing development<br />

<strong>of</strong> a sustainable living <strong>and</strong> working environment.<br />

We continue to improve our ability to plan, engineer, <strong>and</strong><br />

construct water facilities that help communities avoid<br />

the extremes <strong>of</strong> drought <strong>and</strong> flood. However, improved<br />

synergy between technology, economics, administrative<br />

government, <strong>and</strong> local community planning is critical to<br />

sustaining progress. In California, the Bay Delta Conservation<br />

Plan is being developed with the goal <strong>of</strong> “providing<br />

a more reliable water supply for California <strong>and</strong> protecting,<br />

restoring, <strong>and</strong> enhancing the Delta ecosystem”<br />

(Delta Reform Act <strong>of</strong> 2009). In Florida, regional water<br />

<strong>and</strong> reclaimed water programs utilize specific technical<br />

tools to identify sustainable sources <strong>and</strong> distribution<br />

for water supplies to support communities across the<br />

state. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f continues to lead the industry<br />

by applying our technical expertise <strong>and</strong> underst<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

<strong>of</strong> unique municipal challenges to these projects.<br />

Brian Van Weele, a Senior Vice President <strong>and</strong> Principal Project<br />

Manager, is a prominent expert in the water field <strong>and</strong> has directed<br />

such complex projects as the $4 billion Deep Tunnel Sewerage<br />

System in Singapore; the Govalle Wastewater Interceptor <strong>and</strong> Diversion<br />

System in Austin, Texas; the Boston Harbor Effluent Outfall<br />

Tunnel; <strong>and</strong> San Francisco’s 4.5-mile-long Southwest Ocean Outfall<br />

Project.<br />

David MacIntyre is a Water Resources Engineer with a broad-based<br />

background in hydrology, contaminant transport, hydrogeology <strong>and</strong><br />

computer modeling <strong>of</strong> groundwater <strong>and</strong> surface water systems. He<br />

is senior technical specialist in desalination, reuse <strong>of</strong> reclaimed<br />

water, hydrogeology, groundwater modeling, aquifer management,<br />

<strong>and</strong> assessment <strong>of</strong> groundwater/surface water interactions.<br />

Mary Fickert Thomas is a Lead Engineer in <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

Orl<strong>and</strong>o, Florida <strong>of</strong>fice. She is the project manager <strong>of</strong> a number <strong>of</strong><br />

regional projects, including the development <strong>of</strong> a regional monitoring<br />

program for five different utilities, <strong>and</strong> the CFWI project.<br />

70


NETWORK<br />

Sustainable Water Management for<br />

the <strong>Cities</strong> <strong>of</strong> India<br />

by Allen J. Gale, New Delhi, India, +91-11-41506162, gale.allen@pbworld.com<br />

Water<br />

<strong>The</strong> transformation <strong>of</strong> cities in India over the next 25 years<br />

will be incredible. India is emerging as a world power <strong>and</strong><br />

the dem<strong>and</strong>s <strong>of</strong> a burgeoning middle class concentrated<br />

in cities will drive tremendous development. <strong>The</strong> urban<br />

population is growing rapidly as millions move from villages<br />

to major cities <strong>and</strong> this will require a quantum leap in the<br />

quality <strong>of</strong> infrastructure <strong>and</strong> in the quality <strong>of</strong> services.<br />

A clear driver in western cities is sustainable development<br />

<strong>and</strong> making marginal improvements in well structured<br />

<strong>and</strong> managed infrastructure, albeit that infrastructure<br />

may be old. <strong>The</strong> focus tends to be more on asset<br />

management <strong>and</strong> not necessarily on wholesale provision<br />

<strong>of</strong> new infrastructure. On the other h<strong>and</strong>, in India there is<br />

so much infrastructure that needs to be built <strong>and</strong> in some<br />

<strong>of</strong> the most challenging conditions in the world.<br />

Challenges<br />

A most significant challenge for cities in India is the availability<br />

<strong>of</strong> high quality water supply <strong>and</strong> wastewater management<br />

facilities. Water resources are rapidly depleting<br />

across the country. On recent occasions the Times <strong>of</strong> India<br />

has reported that water for major parts <strong>of</strong> Delhi, a city <strong>of</strong> 16<br />

million people, would not be available during that day due to<br />

“a shortage <strong>of</strong> raw water” for a major water treatment plant.<br />

It was also reported in the Times that the Yamuna River,<br />

which passes through Delhi, is polluted for 600 km. This is<br />

an increase <strong>of</strong> 100 km over the last 18 years despite the<br />

spending <strong>of</strong> $300M to improve water quality.<br />

Most <strong>of</strong> India is extremely reliant on groundwater, but<br />

this resource is being rapidly overdrawn. For instance,<br />

groundwater levels in Gurgaon, the burgeoning “Millennium<br />

City” adjoining Delhi, have been decreasing at a<br />

rate <strong>of</strong> 2m per year <strong>and</strong> the Times <strong>of</strong> India reported in<br />

2010 that there will be “no water by 2017”. Shallow<br />

wells around Gujarat on the west coast that were only<br />

10-15m deep in the 1960’s are now 400m deep <strong>and</strong><br />

continuing to get deeper.<br />

Water is available for short periods each day in major<br />

cities, necessitating each property to have its own storage<br />

tank <strong>and</strong> re-pressurisation to ensure water on dem<strong>and</strong>.<br />

About 30% <strong>of</strong> the Delhi community has grossly<br />

inadequate water supply <strong>and</strong> water runs only 4-6 hours<br />

per day throughout the city. And the water supplied<br />

does not meet international quality st<strong>and</strong>ards to be<br />

considered potable.<br />

Primary responsibility for water management rests with<br />

the states, with further delegation to local utilities in most<br />

<strong>of</strong> the larger cities. Responsibility is diffuse, with a lack <strong>of</strong><br />

acceptance <strong>of</strong> responsibility for water management <strong>and</strong>,<br />

consequently, a lack <strong>of</strong> positive action in both capital<br />

works <strong>and</strong> operations & maintenance.<br />

<strong>The</strong> challenge <strong>of</strong> providing sustainable water management<br />

is not restricted to India – it is a major challenge for<br />

many cities <strong>of</strong> the world. In Australia, the water industry<br />

has developed a comprehensive strategy for sustainable<br />

water management <strong>and</strong> it is resulting in many changes in<br />

urban development, including the way buildings are designed<br />

so as to maximise on the capture <strong>and</strong> storage <strong>of</strong><br />

stormwater, the development <strong>of</strong> indigenous gardens <strong>and</strong><br />

ab<strong>and</strong>onment <strong>of</strong> vast grassed areas, the reuse <strong>of</strong> wastewater<br />

<strong>and</strong>, significantly, the education <strong>of</strong> the community<br />

on the need to conserve water. Water utility companies<br />

are making a great effort to minimise system losses in<br />

order to optimise the use <strong>of</strong> every litre <strong>of</strong> water.<br />

India too must consider such a transition if it is to satisfy<br />

the growing expectations for quality <strong>of</strong> urban life. In India,<br />

there is the expectation that water should be free or at<br />

least affordable to all, including the very poor. Consequently<br />

the price for water is subsidized by the government <strong>and</strong><br />

is far below the production cost, which means that water<br />

is not truly valued. <strong>The</strong> perception <strong>of</strong> the public is that water<br />

is a free commodity, without recognition <strong>of</strong> the cost to<br />

source, treat, <strong>and</strong> convey water <strong>and</strong> wastewater.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

71


Water<br />

NETWORK<br />

Water resources for much <strong>of</strong> India are already limited <strong>and</strong> it<br />

is projected that there will be further scarcity in the next 25<br />

years as the dem<strong>and</strong> for both agricultural <strong>and</strong> urban purposes<br />

grows. With 2.5% <strong>of</strong> the world’s l<strong>and</strong>mass, India has 4%<br />

<strong>of</strong> the world’s water resources for 16% <strong>of</strong> the world’s population<br />

(by comparison, another “dry” country – Australia, has<br />

5% <strong>of</strong> the world’s l<strong>and</strong>mass, <strong>and</strong> 1% <strong>of</strong> the water resources<br />

for only 0.3% <strong>of</strong> the world’s population). Per capita availability<br />

has decreased from 5180m3 /yr in 1951 to 1820m3<br />

/yr in 2001 <strong>and</strong> is projected to reduce to 1400m3 /yr by<br />

2025. By comparison, Australia’s per capita availability in<br />

2005 was on the order <strong>of</strong> 12,500 m3 /yr, about 7 times<br />

that <strong>of</strong> India.<br />

Solutions<br />

What to do? A multi-pronged approach is required for<br />

both the supply <strong>and</strong> the dem<strong>and</strong> sides.<br />

<strong>The</strong> fourth action is to raise systems management to provide<br />

an acceptable level <strong>of</strong> service <strong>and</strong> reliability in both<br />

supply <strong>and</strong> quality. Although desirable it is not essential<br />

to provide potable water, at least in the short term as this<br />

is not the current expectation <strong>and</strong> the costs <strong>and</strong> management<br />

systems to achieve reliable potable st<strong>and</strong>ards are<br />

significantly higher. In communities where it is accepted<br />

that drinking water will come from a bottle or from an inhouse<br />

treatment system, the need is to provide a quality<br />

suitable for personal hygiene <strong>and</strong> general household use.<br />

<strong>The</strong> fifth action is to clean up major waterways, all <strong>of</strong><br />

which are heavily polluted. <strong>The</strong> community has the right<br />

to expect that the river or stream passing through their<br />

city be visually appealing <strong>and</strong> safe for contact, rather<br />

than a receptacle for human <strong>and</strong> industrial wastewater<br />

that separates rather than integrates the city. <strong>The</strong>re is<br />

a positive impact on quality <strong>of</strong> life when a waterway is<br />

integrated into the city, <strong>and</strong> this is a goal that India should<br />

seek to attain. <strong>The</strong> high costs <strong>of</strong> collection <strong>and</strong> treatment<br />

<strong>of</strong> human <strong>and</strong> industrial wastewater for discharging<br />

to waterways will be <strong>of</strong>fset by the social, environmental,<br />

<strong>and</strong> economic benefits. Also by reusing <strong>and</strong> recycling<br />

the wastewater generated by cities, the dem<strong>and</strong> on water<br />

from the waterways will be reduced.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>The</strong> first action is to consider water in an integrated manner<br />

<strong>and</strong> manage the total water cycle rather than considering<br />

water from different sources <strong>and</strong> for different uses<br />

in isolation. Integrated water management <strong>of</strong> stormwater,<br />

surface water, groundwater, potable water, <strong>and</strong> wastewater<br />

on a catchment basin basis will result in much more<br />

effective use <strong>of</strong> water – recognising that it is “one water”<br />

travelling around in a continuous cycle.<br />

<strong>The</strong> second action is to get maximum use out <strong>of</strong> the current<br />

water supply <strong>and</strong> distribution systems. For example, unaccounted<br />

water (water that is produced <strong>and</strong> “lost” before it<br />

reaches the consumers) in Indian cities is in the range <strong>of</strong><br />

40-50% compared to the norm in Australia <strong>of</strong> 10-12%. Reducing<br />

these losses to 20% will provide up to 60% more<br />

available water from exactly the same volume <strong>of</strong> raw water.<br />

<strong>The</strong> third action is to make water available to a much<br />

greater proportion <strong>of</strong> the community. It could be that not<br />

all areas <strong>of</strong> all cities will have a piped supply to every<br />

building, but societal pressure will force this to be the<br />

norm. However, retr<strong>of</strong>itting water distribution systems in<br />

heavily built up areas will be expensive, the challenge being<br />

the ability to pay for what is required.<br />

Achievement <strong>of</strong> sustainable water management will require<br />

significant investment. For example, Australia <strong>and</strong><br />

the USA invest about $100 per person per year for water<br />

<strong>and</strong> wastewater infrastructure; India invests less than<br />

$10. India needs a much more significant investment,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the investment needs to be used effectively.<br />

Conclusion<br />

<strong>The</strong> vision for Indian cities in the 21 st century is for enormous<br />

change as societal expectations are raised. <strong>The</strong><br />

challenge is to effectively plan <strong>and</strong> fund an integrated water<br />

management system to ensure that the evolving cities<br />

meet expectations for sustainable water management.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f can make significant contributions in a<br />

number <strong>of</strong> ways to help India achieve this vision. Our strategic<br />

planning skills can guide <strong>and</strong> support India in developing<br />

a comprehensive sustainable water plan <strong>and</strong> in educating<br />

communities on the true value <strong>of</strong> water <strong>and</strong> water management<br />

systems. We can provide the technical expertise for<br />

the design <strong>and</strong> construction <strong>of</strong> collection, treatment, <strong>and</strong><br />

distribution systems for water <strong>and</strong> wastewater. However,<br />

the most significant <strong>and</strong> the most challenging contribution<br />

for the longer term is to assist in development <strong>of</strong> the appropriate<br />

operations <strong>and</strong> management systems <strong>and</strong> asset<br />

management systems to ensure that the cities <strong>of</strong> India can<br />

rely on the availability <strong>and</strong> quality <strong>of</strong> water.<br />

Allen Gale is Managing Director <strong>of</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f in India<br />

<strong>and</strong> has over 40 years <strong>of</strong> international consulting <strong>and</strong> public sector<br />

experience in water <strong>and</strong> wastewater management. He is a<br />

former National President <strong>of</strong> the Australian Water Association <strong>and</strong><br />

was Director for Australia <strong>of</strong> the Water Environment Federation.<br />

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NETWORK<br />

Managed Aquifer Recharge- An Australian<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Experience<br />

by Sarah Bish, Sydney, Australia, +61 2 9272 5142, sbish@pb.com.au; Stuart Brown, Sydney, Australia, +61 2 9272<br />

5406, sbrown@pb.com.au; <strong>and</strong> Liz Webb, Sydney, Australia, +61 2 9272 5136, lwebb@pb.com.au<br />

Water<br />

As the world’s driest inhabited continent, water security in<br />

Australia has become a limiting issue for future development<br />

<strong>and</strong> environmental protection. Increased dem<strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> climate change all affect the availability <strong>of</strong> water. Australia<br />

has one <strong>of</strong> the highest per capita water consumption<br />

rates in the world; at 1.31 ML/person/year, most<br />

<strong>of</strong> it is used in agriculture 1 . Over 20% <strong>of</strong> water used in<br />

Australia is sourced from groundwater.<br />

Groundwater is a precious resource in Australia, one upon<br />

which many communities, the environment, <strong>and</strong> industries<br />

depend for survival. Innovative <strong>and</strong> practical approaches<br />

are being explored to better utilise groundwater resources<br />

<strong>and</strong> ensure development opportunity is maximised.<br />

water to be available as a more constant supply source<br />

by utilising the subsurface as a storage facility unaffected<br />

by evaporative effects (see Figure 1).<br />

MAR can maximise the use <strong>of</strong> limited groundwater resources,<br />

however it may not be feasible on all sites due<br />

to hydrogeological, seasonal, environmental or cost limitations.<br />

Effective implementation <strong>of</strong> MAR requires integrated<br />

water resources management, because recharge<br />

involves managing the quantity <strong>and</strong> quality <strong>of</strong> both surface<br />

water <strong>and</strong> groundwater.<br />

One such innovative approach that is being supported by<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f is managed aquifer recharge (MAR),<br />

also known as: aquifer storage <strong>and</strong> recovery (ASR), enhanced<br />

recharge, water banking, <strong>and</strong> sustainable underground<br />

storage.<br />

MAR concept <strong>and</strong> design<br />

Managed aquifer recharge is the ‘purposeful recharge <strong>of</strong><br />

water to aquifers for subsequent recovery or environmental<br />

benefit. It is not a method for waste disposal.’ 2 Potential<br />

sources <strong>of</strong> recharge water include, but are not limited<br />

to, treated wastewater, urban stormwater, <strong>and</strong> groundwater<br />

drawn from other aquifers. Some level <strong>of</strong> pre-treatment<br />

<strong>of</strong> the source water will generally be required prior<br />

to recharging the aquifer, depending on the outcome <strong>of</strong><br />

environmental <strong>and</strong> health risk assessments. In theory,<br />

water is recharged into the subsurface through infiltration<br />

ponds or injection wells in periods <strong>of</strong> available supply,<br />

<strong>and</strong> stored in aquifers until needed for use, whereby it is<br />

extracted through wells <strong>and</strong> bores. <strong>The</strong> process allows<br />

Figure 1 - Schematic <strong>of</strong> MAR process (www.water.wa.gov.au)<br />

Benefits to urban environments<br />

In recent years, the urban areas in Australia have had an<br />

increased focus on the use <strong>of</strong> alternative water supply<br />

systems to supplement or partially replace piped/reticulated<br />

supply. This is due to a number <strong>of</strong> complementary<br />

factors including: increased dem<strong>and</strong> from population<br />

growth; prolonged drought conditions <strong>and</strong> associated water<br />

restrictions; improved awareness <strong>of</strong> the environmental<br />

value <strong>of</strong> our water resources; government programs such<br />

as rebates for storage tanks; <strong>and</strong> the direct relationship<br />

between water usage <strong>and</strong> water rates/fees.<br />

1<br />

http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/water/allocation/index.html<br />

2<br />

NRMC,2009. Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling Managed Aquifer Recharge. National Water Quality Management Strategy Document No<br />

24, July 2009. Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Environment Protection <strong>and</strong> Heritage Council, <strong>and</strong> National Health <strong>and</strong> Medical<br />

Research Council<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

73


Water<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>The</strong> potential uses for water recovered from an MAR project in<br />

an urban environment are primarily for non-contact purposes<br />

<strong>and</strong> include: irrigation <strong>of</strong> recreational or parkl<strong>and</strong> areas; laundry<br />

troughs; washing machines; outdoor use (washing cars,<br />

recreation, ornamental water features); toilet flushing; l<strong>and</strong>scape<br />

irrigation; fire protection; heating/cooling systems; industrial<br />

processes; construction; <strong>and</strong> dust suppression.<br />

Blacktown – an urban Australian example<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f has been contracted as the client’s<br />

representative to Blacktown City to support the field feasibility<br />

investigation for an innovative MAR project at the<br />

Blacktown International Sports Centre, a s<strong>of</strong>tball venue<br />

for the 2000 Sydney Olympics. <strong>The</strong> primary driver for this<br />

project is to provide Blacktown, as the largest population<br />

based council area in Australia, with an alternative ‘fit-forpurpose’,<br />

secure <strong>and</strong> sustainable water source, to meet<br />

future irrigation <strong>and</strong> industrial dem<strong>and</strong>s 3 . This project is<br />

leading the way in exploring the use <strong>of</strong> MAR as a viable<br />

approach to support larger, higher capacity projects to<br />

meet the increasing water dem<strong>and</strong>s <strong>of</strong> the ever exp<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

population in the western Sydney region.<br />

<strong>The</strong> project will harvest stormwater during high flow events<br />

from the Angus Creek catchment, a tributary to the Eastern<br />

Creek catchment. <strong>The</strong> harvested stormwater will be treated<br />

through a constructed wetl<strong>and</strong> before being recharged<br />

into the dual porosity Hawkesbury S<strong>and</strong>stone aquifer for<br />

storage <strong>and</strong> later recovery. Upon recovery from the aquifer,<br />

water will be further treated <strong>and</strong> delivered to end users<br />

for the purposes <strong>of</strong> irrigating recreational areas. <strong>The</strong> project<br />

includes: gaining the appropriate environmental <strong>and</strong><br />

water planning approvals; consulting closely with relevant<br />

water authorities <strong>and</strong> local communities; constructing injection<br />

<strong>and</strong> abstraction wells (bores); modelling flow <strong>and</strong><br />

discharge capabilities; <strong>and</strong> designing <strong>and</strong> constructing appropriate<br />

treatment <strong>and</strong> delivery systems.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Hawkesbury S<strong>and</strong>stone is a Triassic sedimentary<br />

quartzose s<strong>and</strong>stone with a smaller proportion <strong>of</strong> feldspar,<br />

clay, <strong>and</strong> iron compounds such as siderite (FeCO 3<br />

).<br />

It was formed from the s<strong>and</strong>s which came from Antarctica<br />

about 200 million years ago, carried by a vast river<br />

system. Over millions <strong>of</strong> years these s<strong>and</strong>s were consolidated<br />

into s<strong>and</strong>stone up to 300 metres thick, extending<br />

across the Sydney Basin from the Blue Mountains, forming<br />

the western margin <strong>of</strong> the Sydney Basin to rocky outcrops<br />

along the coast. <strong>The</strong> Hawkesbury S<strong>and</strong>stone also<br />

contains minor shale beds rich in fossils, <strong>and</strong> forms the<br />

NETWORK<br />

s<strong>and</strong>s on the beaches that Sydney is famous for.<br />

Groundwater flow within the Hawkesbury S<strong>and</strong>stone is primarily<br />

controlled by vertical <strong>and</strong> minor bedding plan fractures,<br />

capable <strong>of</strong> yielding up to 40 Litres/second (L/s).<br />

Primary porosity is low to moderate, yielding up to 5 L/s.<br />

A large yielding fracture is the target <strong>of</strong> the MAR project<br />

at Blacktown.<br />

<strong>Future</strong> Opportunities<br />

MAR is projected to be an innovative, sustainable solution<br />

to the increasing insecurity <strong>of</strong> water supply experienced<br />

in many urban centres. MAR as an alternative<br />

water supply source may be considered in the following<br />

situations where:<br />

• Water dem<strong>and</strong> exceeds supply, both groundwater <strong>and</strong>/<br />

or surface water;<br />

• Water quality excludes the use <strong>of</strong> untreated surface water;<br />

• Embargoes <strong>and</strong> water restriction limit access to surface water<br />

<strong>and</strong> groundwater resources for additional development;<br />

• Excess surface water supply during seasonal or periodic<br />

events leads to flooding, erosion, <strong>and</strong> habitat impact; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Water availability is imbalanced over annual or seasonal<br />

periods.<br />

In addition to supporting <strong>and</strong> developing innovative water<br />

supply options, the <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f groundwater team<br />

in Australia supports a wide range <strong>of</strong> projects which include:<br />

feasibility <strong>and</strong> environmental studies associated with mining<br />

<strong>and</strong> transport infrastructure development; review <strong>and</strong> client<br />

support <strong>of</strong> water legislation, planning, <strong>and</strong> compliance; <strong>and</strong><br />

assessment <strong>and</strong> development <strong>of</strong> water supply to utilities,<br />

local government <strong>and</strong> for the private industry.<br />

Sarah Bish is a Principal Hydrogeologist in the <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

Sydney <strong>of</strong>fice. She has over 23 years’ experience in hydrogeology<br />

working in government, the private sector <strong>and</strong> humanitarian<br />

sector throughout Australia <strong>and</strong> globally, specialising in resource,<br />

risk <strong>and</strong> environmental management<br />

Stuart Brown is a Principal Hydrogeologist in the <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

Sydney <strong>of</strong>fice. He has 20 years’ experience in hydrogeology<br />

with particular emphasis on assessment <strong>of</strong> groundwater resources<br />

<strong>and</strong> impacts due to mining <strong>and</strong> coal seam gas extraction throughout<br />

Australia, New Zeal<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> the United Kingdom.<br />

Liz Webb is the Groundwater Team Manager for <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f in the Sydney <strong>of</strong>fice. She has over 19 years <strong>of</strong><br />

experience in hydrogeology in Australia particularly relating to<br />

groundwater management.<br />

3<br />

SKM, 2010. Blacktown <strong>and</strong> Penrith LGA Stormwater Harvesting <strong>and</strong> Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Concept Study<br />

74


NETWORK<br />

Water Footprinting<br />

by Michael Hardisty, London, UK, +44 (0)20 7337 1878, michael.hardisty@pbworld.com; <strong>and</strong><br />

Lynne Ceeney, London, UK, +44 (0)20 7337 1869, ceeneyl@pbworld.com<br />

Water<br />

Increasing water scarcity<br />

In a recent research paper, J. P. Morgan 1 identified three<br />

factors behind the “worsening [water] supply/dem<strong>and</strong><br />

imbalance in many parts <strong>of</strong> the world”. <strong>The</strong>se were:<br />

population growth; urbanization <strong>and</strong> rising incomes; <strong>and</strong><br />

climate change. “<strong>Urban</strong>ization,” it noted, “tends to be<br />

accompanied by industrialization, which has its own water<br />

dem<strong>and</strong>s. However... it is higher incomes <strong>and</strong> changing<br />

consumption patterns that mostly account for the increase<br />

in water use per capita.”<br />

modelled scenarios. <strong>The</strong> full list <strong>of</strong> expected impacts on<br />

buildings <strong>and</strong> infrastructure are shown in Table 1.<br />

Increasing water scarcity means that water consumption is<br />

becoming an important matter. In the UK, the southeast<br />

<strong>of</strong> the country is now severely water stressed, similar to<br />

southern Spain <strong>and</strong> southern Italy (see Figure 1).<br />

Figure 1 - European Water Scarcity (Source: European Environment<br />

Agency)<br />

Recent projections by the UK government (UK Climate<br />

Change Risk Assessment 2012) predict that the country’s<br />

general water surplus will turn to a general water deficit<br />

by the 2020s – this is the prediction in all three <strong>of</strong> their<br />

1<br />

‘Watching water: A guide to evaluating corporate risks in a thirsty world’, 2008, p.7<br />

Table 1: Likely impacts <strong>of</strong> climate change on buildings <strong>and</strong><br />

infrastructure (Source: UK Government)<br />

Balfour Beatty’s response<br />

For this reason, Balfour Beatty’s 2009 sustainability roadmap<br />

requires all its divisions to monitor <strong>and</strong> reduce their<br />

direct water use. It also requires them to underst<strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> measure their “indirect” water use – that is, the embodied<br />

water associated with purchased construction<br />

materials used on their projects. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

UK sustainability team were engaged by Balfour Beatty to<br />

provide tools to help.<br />

Developments<br />

Having looked at publicly available tools <strong>and</strong> methodologies,<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f undertook research into the<br />

methodologies <strong>and</strong> experiences <strong>of</strong> other companies in<br />

the water footprinting field. <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s work<br />

identified the Water Footprint Network (WFN) as having<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

75


Water<br />

NETWORK<br />

developed the leading methodology for water footprinting.<br />

<strong>The</strong> WFN approach, which is compatible with ISO<br />

14040 (Life Cycle Assessment), not only considers the<br />

volume <strong>of</strong> water used but also the scarcity <strong>of</strong> water in<br />

the area from which it is taken; these two measures<br />

combine to form an estimate <strong>of</strong> the overall impact (the<br />

“impact index”) <strong>of</strong> that water use.<br />

Water Footprint Impact Index (m 3 ) = Volume (m 3 ) x Scarcity (%)<br />

<strong>The</strong> WFN approach was therefore adopted for this project.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s work was conducted collaboratively<br />

with water experts from the World Wildlife Fund; Balfour<br />

Beatty environment managers; <strong>and</strong> a major supplier, Marshalls<br />

plc. In the end, a suite <strong>of</strong> five water footprinting<br />

tools were developed; these are shown in Figure 2.<br />

Beatty Rail, Balfour Beatty Major Civil Engineering, <strong>and</strong><br />

Balfour Beatty Construction Northern.<br />

Tool 2 allows project managers to estimate the “embodied”<br />

water associated with the materials in the project’s<br />

bill <strong>of</strong> quantities (BOQ), as well as the direct water used<br />

on site for batching concrete. It also allows the local water<br />

stress <strong>of</strong> the material’s source (if known) to be selected,<br />

thus helping to identify those materials with the largest<br />

impact index. This tool was developed using publicly<br />

available environmental product declarations 2 (EPDs); an<br />

example output is shown in Figure 3.<br />

Tools 3a <strong>and</strong> 3b allow construction suppliers to estimate<br />

the water footprint <strong>of</strong> their quarried <strong>and</strong> manufactured<br />

products. <strong>The</strong>ir results can then be used to supplement<br />

the database <strong>of</strong> underlying water footprint figures in the<br />

materials tool (tool 2). <strong>The</strong>se two tools were developed<br />

with the support <strong>and</strong> assistance<br />

<strong>of</strong> Marshalls plc, one <strong>of</strong> Balfour<br />

Beatty’s main suppliers <strong>of</strong> construction<br />

products.<br />

All tools were trialled “in the<br />

field” <strong>and</strong> feedback used to<br />

guide modifications <strong>and</strong> improvements.<br />

Training on the<br />

final toolset was <strong>of</strong>fered to all<br />

Balfour Beatty environmental<br />

managers via a web conference.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Figure 2: Five tools developed<br />

Tool 1a allows facilities managers to track the monthly<br />

or quarterly water use <strong>of</strong> each <strong>of</strong> their buildings (<strong>and</strong><br />

compare these with national benchmarks); it also allows<br />

the local water stress <strong>of</strong> each building to be selected,<br />

thus helping to prioritise improvements in those buildings<br />

with the largest impact index. Similarly, tool 1b allows<br />

project managers to track the monthly or quarterly<br />

water use <strong>of</strong> each <strong>of</strong> their construction sites (<strong>and</strong> compare<br />

these with national benchmarks); it also allows the<br />

local water stress <strong>of</strong> each site to be selected, thus helping<br />

identify those sites with the largest impact index.<br />

<strong>The</strong>se tools were developed in consultation with Balfour<br />

Challenges<br />

Carbon footprinting is becoming<br />

a reasonably well understood<br />

concept, with agreed st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

(e.g., PAS 2050). In the construction industry, many materials<br />

suppliers have estimated the carbon footprint <strong>of</strong><br />

their products. This is not the case for water footprinting:<br />

there is, as yet, no generally accepted approach (or<br />

scope) to water footprints, though the ISO is developing<br />

their st<strong>and</strong>ard (ISO 14046), which is expected to be published<br />

in 2013-2014. Similarly, few construction suppliers<br />

have undertaken product water footprints <strong>and</strong> therefore<br />

limited data is available (hence the materials tool<br />

has a limited selection <strong>of</strong> materials, <strong>and</strong> the EPD water<br />

data on which it is based may not be as robust as we<br />

would like).<br />

2<br />

An EPD “...provides quantified environmental information for a construction product or service on a harmonized <strong>and</strong> scientific basis... <strong>The</strong><br />

purpose <strong>of</strong> an EPD in the construction sector is to provide the basis for assessing buildings <strong>and</strong> other construction works, <strong>and</strong> identifying those<br />

which cause less stress to the environment.” BS EN 15804-2012, p.12<br />

76


Figure 3 - Example output <strong>of</strong> Materials Tool<br />

NETWORK<br />

Water vs. carbon<br />

Whilst some consider water to be<br />

“the new carbon”, they differ in many<br />

ways. Firstly, the impact <strong>of</strong> water use<br />

will, for a given volume, depend on the<br />

scarcity <strong>of</strong> water in the region (normally<br />

a water basin); the impact <strong>of</strong> releasing<br />

a tonne <strong>of</strong> CO 2<br />

is essentially the<br />

same wherever the release occurs.<br />

Water scarcity itself will vary throughout<br />

the year: water may be plentiful<br />

at some times <strong>of</strong> year <strong>and</strong> scarce at<br />

others. Secondly, a lack <strong>of</strong> water may<br />

cause construction activities to shut<br />

down; an excess <strong>of</strong> CO 2<br />

is unlikely to<br />

have such a drastic effect.<br />

Water<br />

Whilst a web search <strong>of</strong> “water stress” or “water scarcity”<br />

will reveal a multitude <strong>of</strong> maps, getting to the base data<br />

behind these maps has <strong>of</strong>ten proven impossible. Also,<br />

there appears to be no st<strong>and</strong>ard, agreed way <strong>of</strong> measuring<br />

“water scarcity”!<br />

Finally, whilst electricity <strong>and</strong> gas metering <strong>and</strong> sub-metering<br />

is commonplace throughout most organisations, the<br />

same is not yet true for water, so basic data gathering can<br />

be problematic.<br />

In practice<br />

Early results <strong>of</strong> using these tools on two construction projects<br />

in the UK suggest that indirect water use on a project<br />

is far higher than the direct water use – a similar pattern<br />

to that seen with carbon emissions. For example, on<br />

the Heathrow Terminal 2B project, direct water use (e.g.,<br />

for dust suppression, washing) was estimated at around<br />

16,000 m 3 per year while indirect water use (associated<br />

with materials) was approximately 650,000 m 3 per year.<br />

Further analysis showed that while metals have the highest<br />

volumetric water footprint, it was flooring that had<br />

the greatest impact when water scarcity was considered.<br />

(This interesting insight is also illustrated by Figure 3 which<br />

shows that an analysis <strong>of</strong> water volume alone would lead<br />

to one ranking <strong>of</strong> “impact”, whilst a consideration <strong>of</strong> water<br />

scarcity too could lead to a very different ranking.)<br />

As the materials tool matures <strong>and</strong> the underlying data<br />

(<strong>of</strong> materials’ water footprints) becomes more robust, it<br />

should be possible for designers to include the water impact<br />

<strong>of</strong> materials in their choices. Clearly, other factors<br />

(such as performance, cost, <strong>and</strong> embodied carbon) will<br />

continue to play a significant part in the decision.<br />

Another difference is cost. Whilst rising energy costs <strong>and</strong><br />

the introduction <strong>of</strong> carbon taxes make the implementation<br />

<strong>of</strong> energy-saving initiatives increasingly attractive from a<br />

financial payback perspective, the same is not true for water.<br />

Water costs (for <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f in the UK) are<br />

around one tenth <strong>of</strong> energy costs, so developing a business<br />

case based on water savings is much harder; clearly,<br />

in other sectors (such as agriculture), the business case<br />

may look very different.<br />

Wider implications for the built environment<br />

<strong>The</strong> UK Environment Agency recently considered halting<br />

work on infrastructure construction sites in London because<br />

the direct consumption <strong>of</strong> water in the construction<br />

process was too high given the available water reserves<br />

at a time <strong>of</strong> drought. So there are clear operational risks<br />

for companies working in areas <strong>of</strong> short or longer term<br />

drought, <strong>and</strong> benefits to underst<strong>and</strong>ing, managing, <strong>and</strong><br />

minimising direct water use on sites.<br />

Indirect water also presents supply chain risk. Although a<br />

different sort <strong>of</strong> natural event, automobile <strong>and</strong> technology<br />

manufactures across the globe were impacted when the<br />

Japanese tsunami interrupted component supply chains.<br />

In the context <strong>of</strong> water, products requiring high inputs <strong>of</strong><br />

water in their extraction, processing or manufacture are<br />

likely to become difficult to source when produced in areas<br />

<strong>of</strong> water stress. Mapping indirect water in the supply<br />

chain is one way that the construction industry can better<br />

underst<strong>and</strong> the risk, <strong>and</strong> mitigate it through choosing<br />

suppliers with an active responsible water management<br />

strategy, specifying products with a lower embedded water<br />

content, or working with the supply chain to reduce<br />

water consumption.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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NETWORK<br />

<strong>The</strong>re is also a regulatory interest in managing water<br />

dem<strong>and</strong> in buildings. Work published in July 2012 by<br />

the UK Local Housing Delivery Group (a partnership <strong>of</strong><br />

developers, statutory bodies <strong>and</strong> local government) recognises<br />

the need for water efficiency st<strong>and</strong>ards in new<br />

buildings. It posits the idea <strong>of</strong> “allowable solutions” to<br />

reduce water consumption in an area. Essentially this<br />

allows new homes to be built to efficient (rather than<br />

very low) economically feasible st<strong>and</strong>ards <strong>of</strong> water consumption,<br />

but with the proviso that water consumption<br />

must be reduced in existing building stock to provide a<br />

greater reduction in dem<strong>and</strong>.<br />

Conclusions<br />

As urbanization, population growth, <strong>and</strong> climate change<br />

puts greater stress on water resources, our ability to build<br />

<strong>and</strong> operate cities in the future will increasingly depend on<br />

our ability to manage water sustainably.<br />

This development <strong>of</strong> the water footprinting toolset allows<br />

Balfour Beatty to underst<strong>and</strong> the full water impact <strong>of</strong> its operations<br />

<strong>and</strong> projects for the first time. As the world’s fresh<br />

water comes under greater pressure, reducing the volume<br />

<strong>of</strong> water used, changing the location <strong>of</strong> its use or even the<br />

timing <strong>of</strong> its use will become <strong>of</strong> ever greater importance.<br />

<strong>The</strong> toolset described here begins to provide the information<br />

to make such decisions.<br />

Michael Hardisty is Principal Sustainability Consultant <strong>and</strong> he currently<br />

leads <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s carbon <strong>and</strong> water footprinting<br />

services <strong>and</strong> corporate sustainability reporting in the UK. His experience<br />

includes helping to establish IBM UK’s Climate Change Centre<br />

<strong>of</strong> Excellence, specialising in work-related travel CO 2<br />

emissions.<br />

Lynne Ceeney is Director <strong>of</strong> Corporate Sustainability for <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s EuMENA region <strong>and</strong> a member <strong>of</strong> the EuMENA<br />

technical leadership team (TLT). Her particular interest is designing<br />

sustainable communities <strong>and</strong> she has led specialist consultancy<br />

teams working with urban designers, the community,<br />

developers <strong>and</strong> statutory bodies to create site-specific sustainability<br />

frameworks.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

78


NETWORK<br />

City-Shaping <strong>Infrastructure</strong> Requires<br />

Us to Be Bold, Visionary, <strong>and</strong> Willing<br />

to Communicate<br />

by Leisa Prowse, Brisbane, Australia, +61 7 3854 6250, lprowse@pb.com.au; <strong>and</strong><br />

Stephanie Luyks, Adelaide, Australia, +61 8 84054511, sluyks@pb.com.au<br />

Water<br />

<strong>The</strong> challenge<br />

<strong>Cities</strong> that embrace the future need bold <strong>and</strong> visionary<br />

leaders that deliver city-shaping infrastructure. <strong>Infrastructure</strong><br />

that helps to shape our cities <strong>and</strong> urban<br />

environments <strong>of</strong>ten needs to be planned <strong>and</strong> delivered<br />

before the community realises that it is necessary. Delivery<br />

<strong>of</strong> this necessary infrastructure can be resisted<br />

by the communities it is intended to serve because<br />

the broader vision is not understood. Many a good infrastructure<br />

project has not been built because <strong>of</strong> real<br />

or perceived community <strong>and</strong> stakeholder sentiment.<br />

Robust community <strong>and</strong> stakeholder engagement processes<br />

can transform this resistance to underst<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

<strong>and</strong> acceptance. <strong>The</strong>se engagement processes allow<br />

stakeholders <strong>and</strong> the community to underst<strong>and</strong> the impacts<br />

<strong>and</strong> benefits <strong>of</strong> infrastructure projects <strong>and</strong> to help<br />

shape the outcomes <strong>of</strong> these projects. <strong>The</strong>se processes<br />

also enable the community to place genuine issues <strong>and</strong><br />

concerns on the table <strong>and</strong> have these addressed during<br />

the planning <strong>and</strong> design phases. In time stakeholders<br />

<strong>and</strong> community members can come to accept the need<br />

for a project, even though in some cases it affects them<br />

personally or they do not support the concept.<br />

<strong>The</strong> solution<br />

A robust <strong>and</strong> proactive stakeholder <strong>and</strong> community engagement<br />

process can also help leaders <strong>and</strong> decisionmakers<br />

manage the issues <strong>and</strong> risks that surround<br />

designing <strong>and</strong> delivering city-shaping infrastructure projects.<br />

Community feedback can add value <strong>and</strong> create<br />

sustainable outcomes. Better decisions can be made,<br />

<strong>and</strong> better relationships can be built with community<br />

members <strong>and</strong> stakeholders. A process that captures<br />

<strong>and</strong> responds to community <strong>and</strong> stakeholder input will<br />

also enable people to have some degree <strong>of</strong> ownership<br />

<strong>of</strong> a project’s outcomes.<br />

People are interested in what is happening in their neighbourhood<br />

<strong>and</strong> city <strong>and</strong> want to voice their opinion. At <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f we believe that community <strong>and</strong> stakeholder<br />

engagement is critical to sensitive <strong>and</strong> thorough<br />

project outcomes <strong>and</strong> that it should be upfront <strong>and</strong> integral<br />

to a project. Our engagement approach is based on<br />

early identification <strong>of</strong> stakeholder <strong>and</strong> community issues,<br />

<strong>and</strong> ongoing proactive management <strong>of</strong> these issues <strong>and</strong><br />

risks to a project. We tailor our processes to consider communication<br />

needs, <strong>and</strong> to reflect social, political, cultural,<br />

economic, <strong>and</strong> environmental factors that could potentially<br />

influence a community <strong>and</strong> stakeholders <strong>and</strong> impact a<br />

project. We listen to the community’s concerns, build relationships,<br />

<strong>and</strong> help the decision-makers harness support<br />

for a project in the community. This is achieved through a<br />

strong commitment to two-way information flow, collaborative<br />

problem-solving, <strong>and</strong> listening with empathy.<br />

People receive factual information about a project from the<br />

project team <strong>and</strong> have the opportunity to discuss issues<br />

<strong>and</strong> concerns about the project early on. This also informs<br />

the project team about potential conflict <strong>and</strong> potential support.<br />

Often we have seen the positive impact on infrastructure<br />

projects that comes about through the contributions<br />

made by community members <strong>and</strong> stakeholders during<br />

planning, design, <strong>and</strong> delivery processes.<br />

<strong>The</strong> evidence: engagement in action<br />

To ensure the long-term security <strong>of</strong> water supply in Adelaide,<br />

Australia, South Australia Water (SA Water) has<br />

implemented key infrastructure projects to “future-pro<strong>of</strong>”<br />

water supply for the city. One <strong>of</strong> the projects currently under<br />

construction is the North South Interconnection System<br />

Project (NSISP) that connects Adelaide’s water distribution<br />

network to enable the transfer <strong>of</strong> bulk water supplies<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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Water<br />

NETWORK<br />

from the southern system to the northern system. Adelaide’s<br />

water supply system is roughly split at the River<br />

Torrens into a northern system (supplied through the<br />

Hope Valley <strong>and</strong> Anstey Hill Water Treatment Plants) <strong>and</strong><br />

a southern system (supplied through the Happy Valley<br />

Water Treatment Plant). When complete, these works<br />

will allow SA Water to move water across one connected<br />

system - improving water reliability for Adelaide. Water<br />

from the Adelaide Desalination Plant will also be distributed<br />

throughout the whole water supply network system<br />

from 2012. This project affects a significant number <strong>of</strong><br />

stakeholders <strong>and</strong> traverses ten local government areas<br />

in metropolitan Adelaide.<br />

Initially, community concerns were raised about the location<br />

<strong>and</strong> design <strong>of</strong> the above-ground infrastructure, such as<br />

pumping stations <strong>and</strong> pressure reducing valve stations. Our<br />

client, SA Water, sought to establish<br />

an integrated approach<br />

to stakeholder engagement to<br />

ensure stakeholder sentiments<br />

<strong>and</strong> issues were taken into consideration.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

stakeholder engagement<br />

team provided support to SA<br />

Water in identifying community<br />

issues <strong>and</strong> concerns.<br />

environmental, engineering, <strong>and</strong> economic considerations<br />

<strong>of</strong> the project <strong>and</strong> were provided with a platform<br />

to share their vision for the site. It resulted in community<br />

acceptance <strong>of</strong> the outcomes <strong>and</strong> it also challenged<br />

the design team to incorporate community sentiments<br />

<strong>and</strong> manage social impacts in the final design. Project<br />

managers, designers, <strong>and</strong> engineers were all proactively<br />

involved in the engagement process. This approach<br />

facilitated a sense <strong>of</strong> community ownership.<br />

Below is one example <strong>of</strong> the outcome from SA Water’s<br />

successful stakeholder engagement process, the pressure<br />

reducing valve station in Adelaide, South Australia<br />

(see Figure 1). This building was designed <strong>and</strong> constructed<br />

partially below-grade <strong>and</strong> a new community<br />

‘open space’ was created.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

During the design phase,<br />

our stakeholder engagement<br />

team helped to implement<br />

a multi-criteria analysis process<br />

with community groups ‘open space’.<br />

on the design <strong>and</strong> location <strong>of</strong><br />

some above-ground infrastructure elements. <strong>The</strong> process<br />

involved asking specific questions to identify community<br />

values in order to develop the social criteria.<br />

<strong>The</strong> group was then asked to rank the criteria most<br />

important to them (when selecting a site) with the use<br />

<strong>of</strong> h<strong>and</strong>-held devices connected to a central computer.<br />

This tool, called Quizdom, instantly gauged opinions<br />

<strong>and</strong> the group was able to see their inputs instantly on<br />

‘live graphs’. <strong>The</strong> community was made aware <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Figure 1 - South Australia Water’s northern pressure reducing valve station with a new community<br />

Leisa Prowse has more than 20 years experience in stakeholder<br />

engagement <strong>and</strong> has contributed to over 150 projects across Australia,<br />

managing sensitive <strong>and</strong> complex issues for a range <strong>of</strong> clients.<br />

Stephanie Luyks has 14 years experience in stakeholder engagement<br />

<strong>and</strong> has delivered stakeholder engagement services to the<br />

mining, transport, energy, water, <strong>and</strong> community development sectors<br />

across Australia.<br />

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NETWORK<br />

Power Generation for <strong>Future</strong> <strong>Cities</strong><br />

by Bill Hatfield, Godalming, UK, +44 (0) 1483-52-8569, hatfieldb@pbworld.com;<br />

<strong>and</strong> Dominic Bowers, London, UK, +44 (0) 207 337 1700, bowersd@pbworld.com<br />

Energy<br />

With dense residential <strong>and</strong> business populations, cities<br />

<strong>of</strong> the future are likely to have high dem<strong>and</strong>s for energy,<br />

whether for IT (as electricity), for environment conditioning<br />

(as heating or cooling) or for transport (as electricity<br />

or fossil fuels). This continues to be a major challenge<br />

for engineers. <strong>The</strong> equally worthy objectives for power<br />

generation are low carbon emissions, security <strong>of</strong> supply,<br />

<strong>and</strong> low cost. Unfortunately, these are mutually exclusive.<br />

But to counter global warming, low carbon is increasingly<br />

treated as the priority in society, albeit at higher cost.<br />

Sources <strong>of</strong> electricity generation are increasingly being<br />

thought <strong>of</strong> in a ‘carbon merit order’. As new lower carbon<br />

technologies are more widely adopted, their costs are expected<br />

to reduce. Low carbon schemes will also become<br />

more favourable as policy-based carbon taxes are applied<br />

to fossil fuelled plants.<br />

Part <strong>of</strong> the current challenge is that governments, regulators,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the energy industries continue to adopt a silo<br />

mentality with respect to energy provision. As a consequence,<br />

opportunities for more integrated, more energy efficient,<br />

<strong>and</strong> more environmentally responsible approaches<br />

are overlooked. Surely future cities will be forced, by the<br />

pressing need for resource efficiency, by cost considerations,<br />

<strong>and</strong> increasingly by legislation (e.g., the London<br />

Plan 1 ), to adopt a more holistic approach – we can see examples<br />

<strong>of</strong> this approach in many Sc<strong>and</strong>inavian cities which<br />

are already well on the way to carbon neutrality. This is<br />

largely the result <strong>of</strong> prudent, long term planning, a consistent<br />

regulatory framework, <strong>and</strong> the development <strong>of</strong> flexible<br />

energy infrastructure, i.e., district energy networks with local<br />

generation (<strong>of</strong> power <strong>and</strong> heat <strong>and</strong> cooling).<br />

<strong>The</strong> best solution, <strong>of</strong> course, is to reduce energy dem<strong>and</strong><br />

by efficiency or wiser use. This can <strong>of</strong>ten lead to<br />

reduced energy use, which translates into a good return<br />

on invested capital.<br />

Dimensions <strong>of</strong> Power Generation<br />

Power generation to cities, as to any consumer group, must<br />

be considered in three related but separate dimensions.<br />

• Power capacity<br />

• Energy dem<strong>and</strong><br />

• Heat dem<strong>and</strong><br />

Power capacity<br />

<strong>The</strong> first dimension is ‘power capacity’ measured in kW.<br />

This represents the instantaneous power needed to satisfy<br />

consumer dem<strong>and</strong> at any time. Enough generation,<br />

locally or from an interconnected grid, must be available<br />

to meet the peak dem<strong>and</strong> with a reasonable reserve to<br />

cover plant failures. In Europe, the peak dem<strong>and</strong> is normally<br />

in winter evenings. In warmer climate cities with<br />

more air conditioning, it is likely to be in summer midday.<br />

Power from solar schemes, which is greatest at midday,<br />

can contribute significantly to peak dem<strong>and</strong> when this<br />

results from air conditioning, as in a recent example <strong>of</strong><br />

Germany <strong>and</strong> Austria shown in Figure 1.<br />

Power from pumped-storage hydroelectric schemes or innovative<br />

energy storage devices, such as cryogenic air storage,<br />

can contribute to peak power, but voluntary dem<strong>and</strong> reduction<br />

at peak times is also one <strong>of</strong> the lowest cost alternatives<br />

to avoid the requirement for extra generation. Dem<strong>and</strong><br />

reduction will increasingly be facilitated by intelligent switching,<br />

occupation detectors, low frequency relays, all <strong>of</strong> which<br />

exist already but need extensive deployment.<br />

Electric cars, using large capacity batteries, <strong>of</strong>fer the possibility<br />

<strong>of</strong> re-injecting stored energy to the grid at times <strong>of</strong> peak<br />

dem<strong>and</strong>, but they need to be connected at the time <strong>of</strong> the<br />

peak <strong>and</strong> not travelling or needed with full charge for immediate<br />

travel. Of course electric vehicles are only as ‘clean’ as<br />

the electricity source they use. This will generally be a mix <strong>of</strong><br />

wind, other renewables, nuclear power, <strong>and</strong> gas.<br />

1<br />

<strong>The</strong> London Plan is the overall strategic plan for London, <strong>and</strong> it sets out a fully integrated economic, environmental, transport, <strong>and</strong> social framework<br />

for the development <strong>of</strong> the capital to 2031. http://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/planning/londonplan.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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Energy<br />

NETWORK<br />

generation can also provide<br />

capacity during the day but regrettably<br />

not after sundown.<br />

Figure 1 - Wind <strong>and</strong> Solar Power, Germany <strong>and</strong> Austria<br />

Generally, because they need<br />

open space away from populations,<br />

renewable <strong>and</strong> large scale<br />

nuclear <strong>and</strong> fuelled electricity<br />

will come from outside the city:<br />

• Solar PV can be integrated in<br />

city ro<strong>of</strong>s;<br />

• Wind needs open spaces;<br />

• Fuelled generation needs<br />

heat sink cooling whether by<br />

sea, rivers or air; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Smaller fuelled power sources,<br />

whether using biomass<br />

or natural gas, can be located<br />

near to or within the city<br />

if the emissions to air <strong>and</strong><br />

noise are carefully managed.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

Energy dem<strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>The</strong> second dimension to power generation is ‘energy dem<strong>and</strong>’<br />

in kilowatt hour (kWh) over a period, which must<br />

also be satisfied. Renewable sources from outside the<br />

city, such as wind, can <strong>of</strong>fer good supplies <strong>of</strong> energy but,<br />

during still wind conditions, they may not provide power<br />

capacity when needed. For this reason, a mix <strong>of</strong> both<br />

renewable <strong>and</strong> fuelled generators is required. Interconnection<br />

<strong>of</strong> electricity grids<br />

over a wide intercontinental<br />

area may <strong>of</strong>fer benefits <strong>of</strong><br />

‘pooled’ back-up generation,<br />

but not without the inevitable<br />

price discussion with a<br />

traded import.<br />

<strong>The</strong> variation <strong>of</strong> electricity<br />

dem<strong>and</strong> in the UK with<br />

typical contributions from<br />

wind <strong>and</strong> non-wind sources,<br />

as extrapolated to the year<br />

2020 <strong>and</strong> based on actual<br />

data from 2011, is illustrated<br />

in Figure 2. This dem<strong>and</strong><br />

shape is also typical <strong>of</strong> a<br />

city <strong>and</strong> illustrates the challenge<br />

<strong>of</strong> satisfying dem<strong>and</strong><br />

with increasing energy from<br />

variable wind power. Solar<br />

When fuelled power generation is located within the city,<br />

their exhaust heat can also be used to meet heat dem<strong>and</strong>s,<br />

but another dilemma arises in that fuelled generators<br />

may only operate when renewable energy is low,<br />

whereas heat dem<strong>and</strong>s are generally seasonal <strong>and</strong> steady.<br />

Heat storage can solve some <strong>of</strong> the short term variations<br />

but excess heat in summer is not useful, unless used to<br />

drive evaporative chillers for air conditioning.<br />

Figure 2 - Typical UK Electricity Source in 2020 (Based on actual wind pr<strong>of</strong>ile 2011, factored for<br />

committed additional wind capacity)<br />

82


Heat dem<strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>The</strong> third dimension is ‘heat dem<strong>and</strong>’. In countries with<br />

severe winters, city heating has <strong>of</strong>ten been combined with<br />

electricity generation. <strong>Future</strong> cities will generally be ones<br />

that exist already, but they will be bigger. In these cases,<br />

the heat dem<strong>and</strong>s <strong>of</strong> the existing stock <strong>of</strong> buildings in<br />

those cities must also be considered since it is this load<br />

that is available to district heating networks. Progressive<br />

tightening <strong>of</strong> building regulations is driving down building<br />

heat dem<strong>and</strong> in new-build but in the UK, 80% <strong>of</strong> the buildings<br />

that will be st<strong>and</strong>ing in 2050 are already built.<br />

However, the challenge <strong>of</strong> matching the scale <strong>of</strong> city ‘heat<br />

dem<strong>and</strong>s’ was made clear during our environmental assessment<br />

<strong>of</strong> a 1000 MW gas-fired power station located<br />

in the south east <strong>of</strong> the UK, but outside the city. <strong>The</strong> combined<br />

heat <strong>and</strong> power (CHP) study revealed that a new development<br />

<strong>of</strong> some 5,000 homes was planned, together<br />

with schools <strong>and</strong> community facilities, to be built 6km<br />

from the power station. Considering the latest st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

for building insulation, the heat dem<strong>and</strong> would be around<br />

25 MW peak heat. Since the peak heat requirement represents<br />

the heat load in the extreme, but rare, winter<br />

condition, it is usual to size the hot water circulation <strong>of</strong><br />

a district heating scheme at 30% <strong>of</strong> the peak heat, with<br />

local heat storage or backup gas-fired condensing boilers<br />

to service the peak dem<strong>and</strong>s. In this case, a district<br />

heating scheme <strong>of</strong> around 7.5 megawatt thermal (MWth)<br />

could be considered, <strong>of</strong> course requiring almost no heat<br />

during five summer months. This heat load would be too<br />

small to justify the district<br />

heating investment.<br />

As a guide, the scale <strong>of</strong><br />

heat required for various<br />

European consumers is illustrated<br />

in Table 1.<br />

<strong>The</strong> efficiency <strong>of</strong> the gasfired<br />

generating station is<br />

such that the heat rejected<br />

to the atmosphere is <strong>of</strong> low<br />

grade <strong>and</strong> not generally<br />

suitable for district heating.<br />

<strong>The</strong> exhaust steam flow to<br />

the condenser is typically<br />

36°C <strong>and</strong> the exhaust gases<br />

at the stack outlet are<br />

typically 90°C. In order to<br />

supply hot water to a district<br />

heating scheme with a<br />

NETWORK<br />

flow temperature <strong>of</strong> 90°C, it is possible to extract low pressure<br />

steam from the cycle <strong>and</strong> condense this in a heat exchanger<br />

to heat an independent water circuit. Evaluation<br />

<strong>of</strong> the scheme, according to the UK government’s CHPQA<br />

St<strong>and</strong>ard, revealed that the heat use should be more than<br />

300 MW to qualify as ‘good quality’ CHP in order to gain investment<br />

support. Referring back to our recent 1000 MW<br />

CHP study, this would require a supply to around 40 such<br />

developments, or 200,000 homes if they were located<br />

close to the power station site. With the rapid growth <strong>of</strong><br />

intermittent wind <strong>and</strong> solar generation in many countries,<br />

the role <strong>of</strong> gas fired plant is also increasingly intermittent<br />

with many generators operating only during lower wind or<br />

sun conditions <strong>and</strong> <strong>of</strong>ten shut down at night. This is another<br />

challenge to effective use <strong>of</strong> combined heat <strong>and</strong> power<br />

schemes which prefer a steady dem<strong>and</strong> for both.<br />

Integrated Power <strong>and</strong> Heat Solutions<br />

A recent example <strong>of</strong> an integrated solution where loads<br />

were matched is the ‘Trigen’ scheme engineered by <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f for the energy centres which serve the<br />

London 2012 Olympic Park <strong>and</strong> the adjacent Stratford City<br />

shopping complex. Both energy centres use reciprocating<br />

gas engines to generate power with exhaust heat being<br />

recovered <strong>and</strong> used to supply district heating networks in<br />

the winter <strong>and</strong> district cooling networks in the summer via<br />

absorption chillers. <strong>The</strong> district energy networks (heating<br />

<strong>and</strong> cooling) make extensive use <strong>of</strong> thermal storage to allow<br />

electricity generation to be optimised against diurnal<br />

dem<strong>and</strong> patterns <strong>and</strong> prices. Resilience to the networks<br />

Typical Industry Heat Fluid Flow P T Duration<br />

Required kg/s barg °C hours/year<br />

MWth<br />

Large Oil Refinery 230 Steam 90 18 280 8200<br />

Small Oil Refinery 100 Steam 45 18 280 8200<br />

Chemical Works(120 t/h) 85 Steam 33 18 280 8200<br />

Sugar Refinery 75 Steam 28 5 152 8200<br />

County Teaching Hospital 60 Water 23 16 120 8200<br />

Cement Refining Works 42 Steam 15 10 180 8200<br />

Community Heating 3500 homes 30 Water 360 16 120 4400<br />

University 12 Water 140 7 140 6000<br />

Large Warehouse 5000M 2 2 Water 24 1 75 4400<br />

Horticultural Glass House Complex 2 Water 24 1 75 6000<br />

Olympic Swimming Pool 50 x 21 m 1 Water 12 1 75 4400<br />

Pr<strong>of</strong>essional Office for 300 staff 0.9 Water 10 1 75 1560<br />

3 bedroom detached house 0.022 Water 0.26 1 75 4400<br />

Table 1 – Typical heat loads <strong>of</strong> industry/consumer types<br />

Energy<br />

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Energy<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

is provided by biomass boilers, <strong>and</strong> conventionally fuelled<br />

boiler <strong>and</strong> electric chillers.<br />

On a larger scale, the Avedøre unit 2, a 495MWe <strong>and</strong><br />

575MJ/s heat multifuel CHP station on the outskirts <strong>of</strong><br />

Copenhagen 2 , is one <strong>of</strong> the most energy efficient generation<br />

units in the world. This combined heat <strong>and</strong> power<br />

plant was commissioned in 2001 <strong>and</strong> supplies part <strong>of</strong> the<br />

greater Copenhagen heat network, serving approximately<br />

130,000 homes, <strong>and</strong> supplying power to approximately 1<br />

million households.<br />

Conclusion<br />

A priority for cities over the next 10 to 25 years is to reduce<br />

the overall energy dem<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> especially the peak power<br />

required. Highly insulated buildings <strong>and</strong> air energy recovery<br />

can reduce heating <strong>and</strong> cooling dem<strong>and</strong>. Low energy local<br />

task lighting <strong>and</strong> light pipes can be adopted for homes,<br />

<strong>of</strong>fices, <strong>and</strong> circulation areas where general high levels <strong>of</strong><br />

light are not required. Local power generation from solar PV<br />

systems can be integrated into buildings with local fuelled<br />

backup where heat dem<strong>and</strong> can be integrated.<br />

City transport - metros, trams, trolley buses - presents a<br />

particular dem<strong>and</strong> for power generation, with high <strong>and</strong> cycling<br />

loads to be satisfied. Strong connections to grid generation<br />

will still be required, so that fluctuating dem<strong>and</strong> can<br />

be met from a portfolio <strong>of</strong> generation types.<br />

Overall, cities need intelligent solutions to electricity generation<br />

<strong>and</strong> supply, such that quality <strong>of</strong> life is balanced with<br />

NETWORK<br />

2<br />

http://ipapercms.dk/DONENERGY/Internet/UK/<strong>The</strong>rmaPower/AVVbrochure2012UK/<br />

3<br />

Sustainable Energy - without the hot air, UIT Cambridge, 2008; www.withouthotair.com<br />

reduced <strong>and</strong> focused energy use. <strong>The</strong> ‘challenge’ is entirely<br />

driven by the way the electricity market is structured. Genuine<br />

future cities will be ones where long-term resource efficiency<br />

arguments are not trumped by the short-term mentality<br />

<strong>of</strong> the free market. <strong>The</strong> challenge is not a technical<br />

one – it’s perfectly possible to engineer large scale power<br />

stations able to satisfy the capacity (MW) problem which<br />

also address the energy (MWh) problem. This is not an<br />

engineering problem, but essentially a political <strong>and</strong> social<br />

one; more engineers in politics will be part <strong>of</strong> the solution.<br />

As David J C MacKay, Pr<strong>of</strong>essor in the Department <strong>of</strong> Physics<br />

at Cambridge University has written, “Don’t be distracted<br />

by the myth that ‘every little helps.’ If everyone does a<br />

little, we’ll achieve only a little. We must do a lot. What’s required<br />

are big changes in dem<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> in supply. 3 ” <strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f remains at the forefront <strong>of</strong> these technologies<br />

to contribute to this balance.<br />

Bill Hatfield is a Technical Director with <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

generation consulting group <strong>and</strong> has spent 37 years developing<br />

energy generation solutions for clients in many countries. He is a<br />

member <strong>of</strong> the EuMENA technical leadership team (TLT).<br />

Dominic Bowers leads <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s EuMENA energy solutions<br />

team <strong>and</strong> has worked extensively in the field <strong>of</strong> low <strong>and</strong><br />

zero carbon energy supply solutions for the built environment. He<br />

specializes in cogeneration <strong>and</strong> community energy <strong>and</strong> served as<br />

Chairman <strong>of</strong> the Combined Heat <strong>and</strong> Power Association (CHPA)<br />

which represents the interests <strong>of</strong> district heating, district cooling,<br />

<strong>and</strong> private wire businesses.<br />

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NETWORK<br />

Looking at the <strong>Future</strong> Through the Lens<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Past – New York City by 2030<br />

Should Have Cleaner Air, Lower<br />

Greenhouse Gas Emissions, <strong>and</strong> More<br />

Energy Efficiency<br />

by Guido Schattanek, New York, NY, 1-212-465-5118, schattanek@pbworld.com<br />

Energy<br />

Predicting the future <strong>of</strong> cities is always grounded on the<br />

experiences <strong>of</strong> the past. <strong>Urban</strong> growth during the 20 th<br />

century has been associated with traffic congestion <strong>and</strong><br />

pollution. <strong>Urban</strong> areas have the highest pollution levels,<br />

with the associated human health concerns, <strong>and</strong> they<br />

account for close to 80 percent <strong>of</strong> anthropogenic (manmade)<br />

greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. However,<br />

for the majority <strong>of</strong> cities in the US, this trend has<br />

started to be reversed during the last 20 years.<br />

Looking at New York City (NYC) as an example, a combination<br />

<strong>of</strong> federal regulations implementing cleaner st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

for vehicles <strong>and</strong> fuels, local regulations affecting<br />

the energy efficiency <strong>of</strong> building design <strong>and</strong> transit systems,<br />

a cleaner Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) bus<br />

fleet, <strong>and</strong> local requirements for cleaner construction,<br />

have all contributed to a significant reduction in air pollutant<br />

levels <strong>and</strong> per capita GHG emissions.<br />

In 2007, PlaNYC 1 set a goal to reduce GHG emissions by<br />

more than 30 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.<br />

Looking at the trends <strong>of</strong> the last two decades <strong>and</strong> the programs<br />

implemented, there is a chance that this very ambitious<br />

goal could be achieved.<br />

Air pollution trends<br />

Over the past two decades, as federal, state, <strong>and</strong> local<br />

regulations have strengthened the National Ambient Air<br />

Quality St<strong>and</strong>ards (NAAQS), NYC’s air quality has dramatically<br />

improved. Major pollutants have decreased by<br />

more than half since 1990. Based on data collected by<br />

the air monitoring stations operated by NY State Department<br />

<strong>of</strong> Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), between<br />

1990 <strong>and</strong> 2010, annual average carbon monoxide levels<br />

decreased by 75 percent, sulfur dioxide by 53 percent,<br />

nitrogen dioxide by 28 percent, coarse respirable<br />

particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10) by<br />

31 percent, <strong>and</strong> fine particulate matter (PM2.5 - measured<br />

during the last decade) by 35 percent.<br />

Today NYC complies with NAAQS for all major pollutants<br />

with the exception <strong>of</strong> ozone (O 3<br />

), which is a regional<br />

transport pollutant originating not only from local sources,<br />

but also from the coal burning power plants in the<br />

Midwest. NYC has recently achieved compliance with<br />

PM2.5, <strong>and</strong> is making significant efforts toward further<br />

reductions. PM2.5 is mostly the product <strong>of</strong> fuel combustion<br />

<strong>and</strong> is responsible for significant health risks. According<br />

to the New York City Department <strong>of</strong> Health <strong>and</strong><br />

Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) projections, a 20 percent reduction<br />

could prevent more than 750 premature deaths<br />

<strong>and</strong> almost 2,000 hospital admissions <strong>and</strong> emergency<br />

room visits per year.<br />

Among the measures implemented by NYC to reduce<br />

air pollution, the following can be listed: a reduction <strong>of</strong><br />

1<br />

Released in 2007, PlaNYC is an effort undertaken by the NYC mayor to prepare the city for one million more residents, strengthen the economy,<br />

combat climate change, <strong>and</strong> enhance the quality <strong>of</strong> life for all New Yorkers. <strong>The</strong> Plan brings together over 25 city agencies to work toward<br />

the vision <strong>of</strong> a greener, greater New York. www.nyc.gov/planyc<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

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Energy<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

the sulfur content <strong>of</strong> No. 2 heating oil by over 90 percent;<br />

promotion <strong>of</strong> the use <strong>of</strong> biodiesel; investments <strong>of</strong><br />

hundreds <strong>of</strong> millions <strong>of</strong> dollars to convert school boilers<br />

to cleaner fuels; retirement <strong>of</strong> <strong>and</strong>/or retr<strong>of</strong>it <strong>of</strong> school<br />

buses with emission control devices; facilitation <strong>of</strong> the<br />

adoption <strong>of</strong> electric vehicles for most city owned fleets;<br />

<strong>and</strong> requirement <strong>of</strong> cleaner fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel)<br />

for construction equipment. <strong>The</strong>se <strong>and</strong> many other<br />

clean vehicle measures are making the ‘black smoke’<br />

trucks, buses, <strong>and</strong> cars something <strong>of</strong> the past.<br />

Climate change <strong>and</strong> GHG trends<br />

Climate change poses acute risks to NYC. By 2030, average<br />

temperatures could rise by as much as three to<br />

five degrees Fahrenheit ( o F) in the city. Hotter temperatures<br />

will increase public health risks, doubling the number<br />

<strong>of</strong> days above 90 o F, <strong>and</strong> placing further strain on the<br />

city infrastructure. Since urban infrastructure absorbs<br />

<strong>and</strong> retains heat, this phenomenon, known as the “urban<br />

heat isl<strong>and</strong> effect,” can cause temperatures in NYC<br />

to be several degrees warmer than the surrounding suburbs.<br />

NYC, with 520 miles <strong>of</strong> coastline, faces increased<br />

flood risk as sea levels rise <strong>and</strong> storms become more<br />

intense. Sea levels around NYC have already risen a<br />

foot in the last 100 years <strong>and</strong> are projected to rise by up<br />

to 10 inches more in the next two decades.<br />

<strong>The</strong> challenge to NYC regarding climate change is tw<strong>of</strong>old:<br />

reduce the city’s contribution to global warming<br />

(GHG), <strong>and</strong> prepare for the inevitable effects <strong>of</strong> climate<br />

change. New York City already has one <strong>of</strong> the lowest per<br />

capita GHG emissions levels among major global cities,<br />

<strong>and</strong> one-third <strong>of</strong> the U.S. average. This is mostly due<br />

to its population density, reliance on mass transit, <strong>and</strong><br />

cleaner than national average electrical supply (due to<br />

nuclear <strong>and</strong> hydropower components <strong>of</strong> energy sources).<br />

<strong>The</strong> development <strong>of</strong> PlaNYC (2007), a bold agenda for a<br />

“greener <strong>and</strong> greater New York,” with its push to reduce<br />

GHG emissions <strong>and</strong> increase energy efficiency through<br />

green buildings, a cleaner transit fleet, <strong>and</strong> a vast increase<br />

in bicycle lanes, is contributing to a faster reduction<br />

in air pollutants <strong>and</strong> future energy efficiency, which<br />

will lead to lower GHG emissions.<br />

NETWORK<br />

PlaNYC goals for reducing GHG emissions<br />

from buildings <strong>and</strong> transportation<br />

PlaNYC is an unprecedented effort to prepare for one<br />

million more residents (forecast population <strong>of</strong> 9 million<br />

by 2030), strengthen NYC economy, reduce GHG emissions,<br />

<strong>and</strong> enhance the quality <strong>of</strong> life for all New Yorkers.<br />

<strong>The</strong> plan brought together over 25 city agencies to<br />

work toward the vision <strong>of</strong> a greener, greater New York.<br />

In 2008, the mayor’s <strong>of</strong>fice convened the NYC Panel on<br />

Climate Change (NPCC) to ensure that NYC’s climate<br />

resilience efforts were based on state-<strong>of</strong>-the-science information.<br />

Modeled on the Intergovernmental Panel on<br />

Climate Change (IPCC), the NPCC consists <strong>of</strong> leading<br />

climate <strong>and</strong> impact scientists, academics, economists,<br />

<strong>and</strong> experts in risk management, insurance, <strong>and</strong> law.<br />

NYC’s GHG emissions are largely the result <strong>of</strong> fossil<br />

fuel energy consumed by buildings <strong>and</strong> transportation.<br />

Since GHG emissions contribute to global warming,<br />

the emissions from the energy sources (electricity<br />

generation) must be accounted for even if not generated<br />

within the city limits. Roughly 75 percent <strong>of</strong> NYC’s GHG<br />

emissions are related to heating, cooling, powering, <strong>and</strong><br />

lighting buildings; 20 percent are related to transportation;<br />

<strong>and</strong> the other 5 percent to solid waste, wastewater<br />

treatment, <strong>and</strong> other sources. <strong>The</strong> small share <strong>of</strong> the<br />

transportation sector is due to modes <strong>of</strong> travel. Approximately<br />

one-third <strong>of</strong> all trips made in the city are by public<br />

transit, one-third by foot <strong>and</strong> bicycle, <strong>and</strong> one-third by car<br />

(only 54 percent <strong>of</strong> NYC households own cars). However,<br />

if comparing trips between home <strong>and</strong> work, then transit<br />

has an even larger share; most <strong>of</strong> the growth in<br />

intra-city travel since 1999 has been accommodated by<br />

transit, leading to the highest levels <strong>of</strong> subway ridership<br />

in fifty years.<br />

In 2009, New York City emitted approximately 51 million<br />

metric tons <strong>of</strong> carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e), a<br />

13 percent reduction from 2005 levels. This decrease<br />

was mostly attributed to less carbon-intensive electricity<br />

generation (increased importation <strong>of</strong> renewable power<br />

due to new transmission power lines) <strong>and</strong> reduced per<br />

capita energy consumption.<br />

In 2010, the NYC Metropolitan Transit Authority’s (MTA’s)<br />

overall GHG emissions per passenger-mile travelled were<br />

0.23 pounds <strong>of</strong> carbon dioxide equivalent. That is about<br />

25 percent <strong>of</strong> the national average <strong>of</strong> 0.91 pounds per<br />

passenger-mile in a typical light-duty vehicle in the same<br />

year. This fact goes a long way toward showing the low<br />

NYC per capita GHG emissions. Figure 1 provides a<br />

distribution <strong>of</strong> GHG emission by sector.<br />

NYC’s nearly one million buildings cover over half <strong>of</strong> the<br />

urban area, use over 80 percent <strong>of</strong> the city’s energy <strong>and</strong><br />

water, <strong>and</strong> produce nearly half <strong>of</strong> the solid waste in the<br />

form <strong>of</strong> construction <strong>and</strong> demolition debris.<br />

86


NETWORK<br />

Implementing green building practices<br />

requires a strong commitment from the<br />

public <strong>and</strong> private sectors. <strong>The</strong> development<br />

<strong>of</strong> strong strategic relationships<br />

between property owners, consumers,<br />

regulators, financial institutions, funding<br />

authorities, <strong>and</strong> other stakeholders<br />

will be the key to success.<br />

Energy<br />

Figure 1 – Citywide GHG Emissions in 2009<br />

In 2010, NYC Green Building Law (NYC Energy Conservation<br />

Code) was passed, <strong>and</strong> it affects both existing<br />

<strong>and</strong> new buildings. Green building practices improve the<br />

relationship between buildings <strong>and</strong> their surroundings,<br />

thereby reducing the impact <strong>of</strong> buildings on municipal<br />

infrastructure. Initiatives for h<strong>and</strong>ling storm water,<br />

increasing recycling, improving indoor <strong>and</strong> outdoor air<br />

quality, accommodating more active transportation, <strong>and</strong><br />

exp<strong>and</strong>ing the city’s vegetative cover, all align with<br />

various green building techniques.<br />

Other efforts to reduce air pollution <strong>and</strong> GHG include<br />

building a citywide network <strong>of</strong> greenways, on-street bicycle<br />

lanes, <strong>and</strong> signed bicycle routes. Since 2000, commuter<br />

cycling has more than tripled, <strong>and</strong> since 2007<br />

NYC planted over 400,000 trees. <strong>The</strong> new buildings,<br />

bicycle lanes, pedestrian <strong>and</strong> green spaces generated<br />

during the past five years make the direction <strong>of</strong> the future<br />

look very encouraging.<br />

Can PlaNYC meet its GHG emission reduction<br />

goals for 2030?<br />

PlaNYC’s ambitious goal, to dramatically reduce energy<br />

consumption <strong>and</strong> GHG emissions in a city <strong>of</strong> more than<br />

8 million people during the next 20 years, is an unprecedented<br />

enterprise that will require persistence <strong>and</strong><br />

strong political commitment. Energy systems are owned<br />

<strong>and</strong> operated by a variety <strong>of</strong> corporate <strong>and</strong> public entities,<br />

<strong>and</strong> regulated by a variety <strong>of</strong> state <strong>and</strong> federal agencies.<br />

If the city’s current direction continues<br />

over the next two decades, New Yorkers<br />

may find themselves living in a cleaner,<br />

greener, <strong>and</strong> more energy efficient city<br />

with policies that could be a model for<br />

other cities; <strong>and</strong> <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f<br />

may feel its contributions on many projects<br />

have helped make it happen.<br />

References<br />

• <strong>The</strong> City <strong>of</strong> New York, “PlaNYC - A bold agenda for a<br />

Greener <strong>and</strong> Greater New York”, Updated April 2011<br />

• Mayor’s Office <strong>of</strong> Operations – Office <strong>of</strong> Long-term Planning<br />

<strong>and</strong> Sustainability, “Inventory <strong>of</strong> New York City<br />

Greenhouse Gas Emissions”, April 2007<br />

• Anair, D <strong>and</strong> Mahmassani, “A State <strong>of</strong> Charge – Electric<br />

Vehicles’ Global Warming Emissions <strong>and</strong> Fuel-Cost<br />

Savings across the US”, Union <strong>of</strong> Concerned Scientists,<br />

April 2012<br />

• New York State Department <strong>of</strong> Environmental Conservation,<br />

“2000 Annual New York State Air Quality Report –<br />

Ambient Air Monitoring System”, January 2002<br />

• New York State Department <strong>of</strong> Environmental Conservation,<br />

“2010 Annual New York State Air Quality Report –<br />

Ambient Air Monitoring System”, January 2012<br />

• Metropolitan Transit Authority, “An average MTA trip saves<br />

over 10 pounds <strong>of</strong> GHG emissions”, April 2012<br />

• New York City Department <strong>of</strong> Health <strong>and</strong> Mental Hygiene,<br />

”New York City Community Air Survey”, December 2009<br />

• NYC Buildings, “New York City Energy Conservation<br />

Code”, July 2010<br />

Guido Schattanek is a Senior Environmental Engineer with extensive<br />

international experience in environmental assessment,<br />

monitoring <strong>and</strong> mitigation <strong>of</strong> the environmental effects <strong>of</strong> major<br />

infrastructure projects in the US <strong>and</strong> overseas. He has written over<br />

thirty papers on transportation <strong>and</strong> environmental pollution, <strong>and</strong><br />

has been bicycling to work at One Penn Plaza for the past 29 years.<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

87


Energy<br />

NETWORK<br />

Getting to Zero: Is <strong>The</strong>re a Viable<br />

Strategy for Achieving a Zero-Carbon<br />

Energy System?<br />

by Doug Webber, Halsall Associates, Toronto, Canada, +1 (416) 644 4925, dwebber@halsall.com<br />

NOVEMBER 2012 http://www.pbworld.com/news/publications.aspx<br />

<strong>Future</strong> cities will have to find ways to provide their citizens<br />

with cost effective alternatives to carbon-based energy.<br />

Part <strong>of</strong> this is in preparation for increasing pressure from<br />

regulators to limit carbon emissions as climate change impacts<br />

become more severe. Citizens are also looking to be<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the solution with their buying decisions. <strong>The</strong> cities<br />

<strong>of</strong> the future that will thrive will be those that develop infrastructure<br />

that best responds to these issues.<br />

This raises the question: How does a city or region achieve<br />

a zero-carbon energy system? Many suggestions for<br />

achieving zero-carbon <strong>of</strong>fer plenty <strong>of</strong> hope but little genuine<br />

strategy. In the world <strong>of</strong> green buildings where Halsall (<strong>Parsons</strong><br />

Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s Canadian building engineering group)<br />

spends a lot <strong>of</strong> time, the message has been repeated<br />

for years that an integrated design process is required<br />

for successfully creating cost-effective, high performance<br />

buildings. This means ensuring that all decisions, by all<br />

members <strong>of</strong> a project team, are aligned. <strong>The</strong> result <strong>of</strong> this<br />

approach is a building with systems that aren’t in conflict,<br />

which means that one individual building system isn’t expending<br />

unnecessary energy to compensate for weakness<br />

or misalignment in another building system.<br />

This integrated design process applies to overall energy<br />

systems as well. <strong>The</strong> American economist Jeremy Rifkin<br />

has radically rethought <strong>and</strong> redefined the initiatives necessary<br />

to achieve a zero-carbon energy system, <strong>and</strong> he<br />

believes that taking an integrated approach to our entire<br />

energy system is the only way to achieve this <strong>and</strong> avoid<br />

wasting billions <strong>of</strong> dollars along the way.<br />

Green Energy Integration<br />

Rifkin states that it is counter-productive to work in isolation<br />

on issues such as green buildings, electric vehicles,<br />

<strong>and</strong> renewable energy; <strong>and</strong> that achieving zero-carbon will<br />

require simultaneous progress on his “five pillars <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Third Industrial Revolution 1 ”:<br />

1. Implementation <strong>of</strong> renewable energy production;<br />

2. Conversion <strong>of</strong> all buildings into micro-power plants;<br />

3. Development <strong>of</strong> energy storage systems;<br />

4. Conversion <strong>of</strong> the grid into an “energy internet”; <strong>and</strong><br />

5. Transition to electric vehicles that can buy <strong>and</strong> sell<br />

electricity.<br />

This list highlights some <strong>of</strong> the weaknesses in most <strong>of</strong><br />

the current piecemeal approaches to energy strategy. In<br />

Ontario, Canada, for example, the power grid was not designed<br />

to accommodate distributed micro-generators that<br />

produce intermittent power. It was designed to deliver<br />

power in one direction —from large centralized generation<br />

plants to utility customers —<strong>and</strong> not to receive power from<br />

houses with photovoltaic solar panels on the ro<strong>of</strong> when the<br />

sun is shining, <strong>and</strong> deliver power to the same houses when<br />

it is cloudy. This deficiency (or perhaps better defined as<br />

an original design condition) <strong>of</strong> the grid is causing significant<br />

obstacles for the feed-in tariff (FIT) program launched<br />

by the provincial government in 2009 under the Green Energy<br />

Act. <strong>The</strong> act is intended to accelerate the development<br />

<strong>of</strong> solar, wind, <strong>and</strong> other renewable energy projects<br />

across the province. Unfortunately, inflexibility <strong>of</strong> the grid is<br />

delaying, <strong>and</strong> sometimes preventing, the implementation<br />

<strong>of</strong> otherwise viable projects.<br />

Decentralization <strong>and</strong> ‘Progress”<br />

Rifkin recommends moving away from central energy generation,<br />

recognizing that there is a choice with renewable<br />

1<br />

<strong>The</strong> Third Industrial Revolution is a concept <strong>and</strong> vision outlined by Jeremy Rifkin; the conjoining <strong>of</strong> internet communication technology <strong>and</strong><br />

renewable energies in the 21st century is giving rise to the Third Industrial Revolution.<br />

88


systems (i.e., both distributed <strong>and</strong> centralized systems<br />

work), <strong>and</strong> that much <strong>of</strong> the renewable energy coming on<br />

line today is from large scale, “centralized” installations.<br />

He uses the ‘information technology (IT) revolution’ as an<br />

analogy to predict the success <strong>of</strong> a distributed system -<br />

just as millions <strong>of</strong> interconnected desktop computers now<br />

outperform supercomputers, a distributed energy system<br />

can surpass the generation <strong>of</strong> central systems.<br />

As the ‘IT revolution’ continues to unfold, the power <strong>of</strong> the<br />

internet is changing both our perceptions about the need<br />

for central control, <strong>and</strong> the ability <strong>of</strong> the grid to manage a<br />

more dynamic <strong>and</strong> distributed generation mix. With this,<br />

Rifkin’s integrated strategy seems increasingly viable.<br />

How <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f Can Contribute<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f is uniquely positioned to develop<br />

solutions that de-carbonize our energy infrastructure following<br />

the model outlined above. We have global experts<br />

in power generation, renewables, building design, <strong>and</strong><br />

transportation. We also have experts in the critical piece<br />

that is unstated, but underlying Rifkin’s list, econometrics<br />

2 . Economics will ultimately drive this transition to<br />

zero carbon energy. <strong>The</strong> first to provide the economic<br />

story that CFO’s <strong>and</strong> finance ministers can believe in will<br />

generate a giant pipeline <strong>of</strong> green work. <strong>The</strong> “story” has<br />

to be about more than first cost economics; econometrics<br />

provides a more complete financial narrative, including<br />

an initial proposition <strong>and</strong> an implementation plan that<br />

leads to a believable outcome.<br />

In Canada, with help from <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f experts<br />

in the US <strong>and</strong> UK, we are working to create new opportunities<br />

by presenting an integrated approach to energy<br />

planning. This approach is supported by <strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s<br />

Carbon FIT tool, which calculates <strong>and</strong> presents<br />

the carbon impacts <strong>of</strong> l<strong>and</strong> use planning decisions. This<br />

helped us to win work as sustainability consultant for the<br />

developer (Cadillac Fairview) for a 140 acre mixed-use,<br />

24 hour new urban centre with a total <strong>of</strong> approximately<br />

NETWORK<br />

8M square feet <strong>of</strong> space. Cadillac Fairview wants to know<br />

how to achieve a carbon neutral community, <strong>and</strong> what impact<br />

transportation has on the community’s carbon footprint.<br />

We are beginning to answer those questions using<br />

analysis similar to Carbon FIT.<br />

<strong>Parsons</strong> Brinckerh<strong>of</strong>f’s London <strong>of</strong>fice in the UK has helped<br />

us to underst<strong>and</strong> their district energy planning tool BER-<br />

THA. This enabled Halsall to win work with ENMAX, one<br />

<strong>of</strong> the largest energy companies in Alberta; ENMAX provides<br />

power generation/distribution <strong>and</strong> natural gas. We<br />

are helping ENMAX plan <strong>and</strong> market their recently completed<br />

downtown district energy plant, beginning with the<br />

preparation <strong>of</strong> a third party review <strong>of</strong> the economic <strong>and</strong> environmental<br />

benefits that will accrue to commercial building<br />

owners who choose to purchase heating <strong>and</strong> cooling<br />

from the plant. Our underst<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>of</strong> both their business<br />

(designing <strong>and</strong> operating district energy plants) <strong>and</strong> their<br />

clients’ business (managing buildings) prompted our client<br />

at ENMAX to c