Organic Molecules

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Organic Molecules

Organic

(Macro)Molecules

Carbon Compounds


What makes up a living cell?


Carbon Review

Forms 4 covalent bonds

C’s may connect in straight lines

• C-C-C-C-

5 or more C’s may form rings

N,O, and other atoms add variety


Kinds of Macromolecules

Carbohydrates

Lipids (fats)

Proteins

Nucleic Acids


Carbohydrates

Are sugars or “saccharides”

3 types:

• Monosaccharides

• Disaccharides

• Polysaccharides


Carbohydrates

As the name indicates:

Carbon

Hydrate = water

C x H y O z


Examples of Carbohydrates

Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6

Fructose: C 6 H 12 O 6

---------------------------------------------------------------------

(isomers = compounds with the same

molecular formula, but diff.

structural formulas)


Glucose v. Fructose


(CH 2 O) n

1:2:1 ratio in all carbs


Monosaccharides

Single sugar molecule (simplest)

One ring

Examples:

• Glucose

• Fructose

• Galactose


Disaccharides

2 sugar molecules linked together

2 rings

Examples:

• Sucrose (table sugar)

• Lactose

• Maltose


Dehydration Synthesis

The process that links two sugar

molecules by removing H 2 O

Glucose + fructose

sucrose


Disaccharides


Polysaccharides

A series of connected monosaccharides

Many rings


Polysacc. Examples

A) Starch = 1000 +

glucose molecules

• Used in plants for

energy storage

• Not branched

• Alpha glucose units

tend to coil


More Polysacc. Examples

B) Cellulose

• Major ingredient in wood

• Used in plants for structure and support

• Aids passage of food through digestive

system

• Not branched


Cellulose


Notice the Polymer!

Starch

Cellulose


More Polysacc. Examples

C) Glycogen

• Used in animals for energy storage

• Branched


Uses of Carbohydrates

ENERGY!!!!!

Your body essentially “burns” sugars and

starches for energy:

C x H y O z + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ENERGY


Typical Carbohydrates

Simple: Sugars

Complex: Bread & pasta

Athletes are often recommended to eat

spaghetti or other pasta before games

because it gives extended energy- not just

the quick fix of sugar!


Lipids

Made of C, H, and O

(but less O than a carb)

Building block: 1 glycerol

backbone + 3 fatty acids


A Fat (Lipid) Molecule


Fats are formed by Condensation

(Dehydration Synthesis)

Triglyceride


Fats

Fats store energy for us long term (also

impt. for insulation/protection of internal

organs)

Carbohydrates are very soluble in water

and break down easily in the body; fast

energy

Fats are insoluble in water and last a very

long time; stored energy


Compare

Glucose

Fat


Fats have a lot of bonds

A typical fat molecule might be something

like C 48 H 104 O 6

All those bonds contain a lot of energy

Some are bigger, some smaller


Saturation?

Some fats are considered “saturated” and

others are considered “unsaturated”

Saturated means only single bonds

Unsaturated means double bonds

Polyunsaturated means multiple double

bonds


Lipids


Effects of Saturation

Close packing

Solid

Far packing

Liquid


Health effects

Saturated fats are more closely packed

and unreactive. Thus they build up faster

in our bodies and cause heart disease.

Unsaturated fats are more loosely packed

and more reactive. Thus, our bodies can

process them faster and they don’t build

up in our arteries, etc.


Comparing Fats

Unhealthy

Healthy


Proteins

Made of C, H, O, N, S

Building block: amino acids


Proteins

Make up enzymes

Structure (muscles, hair, etc.)

Maintenance and repair


20 Natural Amino Acids


Proteins


Essential vs. Non-Essential

Of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids,

our bodies will naturally produce 12!

These are called Non-Essential

Where do the other 8 come from?

Extra 8 must come from our food sources!

These are called Essential


Which are Essential?


Proteins are condensation

(dehy. synthesis) Polymers


What’s a polymer?

A large macromolecule made up of

smaller repeating subunits

Monosaccharides = building blocks of carb

polymers

1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids = building blocks

for lipid polymers

Amino acids = building blocks of protein

polymers


Proteins are created at the

Ribosomes


Proteins—Primary Structure

Link amino acids together to form a

polypeptide (bond between a.a. called a

peptide bond)


Proteins—Secondary Structure


Proteins—Secondary Structure


Proteins—Tertiary Structure


Proteins—Quaternary Structure


Four Levels of Protein Structure


A Complete Protein


Examples of Proteins

Collagen – make up cartilage, tendons,

skin, and bone

Keratin = makes up hair, feathers, horns


Enzymes are Proteins


Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA

Made of C,H,O,N, and P

Building Blocks: nucleotides


What is a nucleotide?

A 5 carbon sugar

A phosphate group

A nitrogen base


Two types of sugars

What is the difference between these two?


5 types of nitrogen bases


Nucleotides Put Together


Facts on DNA

DNA-2 chains

Sugar = deoxyribose

Located in nucleus

Stores genetic info—unique order of

nucleotides for each living organism

Nucleotide order determines amino acid

order


DNA shape = Double Helix


CG & TA Match Up


Twist the ladder!


What about RNA?

Single stranded

Sugar = ribose

Located in nucleus and in cytoplasm

(where it helps build proteins)


How is DNA related to RNA?

DNA serves as

template (mold for)

RNA!

Double helix splits

open and proceeds to

construct a strand of

messenger RNA


RNA builds the proteins


What are these examples of?

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