OneEurope 1/93 East-West Magazine HOW TO BUILD THE ...

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OneEurope 1/93

East-West Magazine

HOW TO BUILD THE COMMON HOUSE

page 2 --------------------------------------------------

Dear friends,

to work on the common house of Europe proves to be one of the most challenging and most

important tasks for the future of the continent in which we live.

We will not even attempt to number all the problems and the hurdles, we are facing, but do we

have another choice than to work for an increasing co-operation between the countries all across

Europe in order to survive in peace and freedom?

Many of you may know the East West Quarterly. The EWQ was established by the East West

Working Group in November 1991. Up to now four editions have been made by us. During the

last year, we realized that the best way to edit an international magazine is a regional working

group, which is working on an European level. The editorial staff can meet much more often

and information flow is easier to realize. So we took the decision to continue, and publish a new

fashioned magazine. In our opinion the division between East and West is strongly linked in our

heads. We think one of the most important tasks now and in future is the integration towards ONE

EUROPE, first in our heads, but in middle- and long-term also politically and economically.

We want to inform you, we want to offer a platform for different opinions and for interesting

reports on European, and especially East-West European themes.

If YOU have articles, reports, ideas, opinions to state, interviews, photos, AEGEE internal

information, announcements of events or whatever- please contact us. Our aim is to realize an

international students' journal. We are dependent on you and we need your support!!!

As this magazine is the first we made in this style, you may forgive us the numerous mistakes we

probably overlooked.

Best wishes

Lorenz, Michael, Sebastian

Aachen, 19th April

CONTENTS

Dear friends, 2

Who wants to study in the WEST? 3

OneEurope Lexicon 3

Europe '93 - View from Prague 4

A Postcard from Croatia 6

Inflated expectations towards democracy 7

Freedom of the press in Eastern Europe 8

Mass Media in Hungary today 9

OneEurope Periscope: Hungary 10

AEGEE in Hungary 10

Sheep and wolves 12

EWWG-Meeting in Kaunas 25.-28.03.1993 13

The OneEurope Tip 14

AEGEE-Europrofile: Zsuzsa 15

OneEurope Presentation: TEMPUS WG 16

Language without barriers 17


AEGEE- Meeting in Sofia 17

Rumours, gossips, hoaxes 18

Latest News 19

Calendar of Events 20

IMPRINT

Circulation:

1500

Editors:

Michael Waibel

Lorenz Spillner

Sebastian Huebner

Layout:

Clemens von Willich and his miraculous computer (whose tea and classical cds helped to calm

the altogether 50 hours layout sessions)

ass. by Philipp von Klitzing, Sebastian Huebner, Michael Waibel, Lorenz Spillner

Special Thanks to:

The BIOST -Koeln

AEGGE Bonn

AEGEE Aachen

Zsuza Joerres (for translation of the speech of Dienstbier)

Pavel Miladinovic (for mailing the speech of Jiri Dienstbier)

Marc Coumans

Authors:

Zsuzsa Kigyos - Budapest, Rainer Emschermann - Bonn, Gregorij Savelyev - Moskva, Carlo

Grossi - Milano, Albena Mihaylova - Sofia, Petya Jordanova - Sofia, David von der Lingen -

Freiburg, Andrea Feld - Debrecen, AEGEE Pecs, Otto Laszlo - Budapest, Tamara Krstelj-Zagreb

and Zoran Mrklic-Zagreb

page 3 -------------------------------------------------

Who wants to study in the WEST?

by Gregorij Savelyev

Do you come from Spain or from Germany and you want to study in Russia? No problem! Just

write to the university, pay a little fee and take the next train. But what to do if you come from

Russia and want to study in Germany? Read the true story of a 23 year old student of computersciences

from Moskva:

This is the way I came to Germany:

There are some things never meant to go together. These are ordinary USSR nationality and

foreign studies (Never say, that the USSR do not exist any more, because they do!). On the 20th

of January 1992 I recieved the invitation from the university of Cologne to take part in a german

language course. At that time I studied at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI) and

immediately I asked the officials of our university to make the papers proper. The papers are:

leaving permit, normally issued by the KGB, and a visa which is normally made by the German

embassy. I contacted Mrs A, the chief of the department of international connections (DIC) of the

MPEI. Mrs A said that I looked like leaving the USSR forever and that she doesn't want to help

me. The things were running out of time and I failed to process the documents. I applied for the

next term and at the 5th of July I recieved the notification of admission again. Experienced I went


directly to the OVIR, the towns office which was supposed to make my p

apers ready. Mrs B, the chief of the OVIR said, that they only handle invitations, which were sent

in a privat way, from one person to another person, and that I should go to the ministry of foreign

affairs. Mr C from the ministry of foreign affairs said to me, that they only handle invitations sent

from one organisation to another organisation. But the university of Cologne (organisation) invites

me (personally) and there is no institution in the USSR authorized to handle this case. I had to

return to the DIC of the MPEI. This time they said, that it'll take at least two month and the first

thing I have to bring is a paper from the KGB which says, that I never worked on secret projects.

Mr D at the KGB said that they do not issue such papers and the only thing they can do is to say

that somebody worked on a secret project. By lucky chance I got an advice from the former

MPEI's KOMOMSOL leaders who now deal with international student exchange. They directed

me to newspapers in which I found several offers to

process papers for foreign trips. I asked about the documents I need and Mr E said that I need no

passport, no KGB permit, no invitation from Cologne. Nothing. Only 100$ (quite a lot in Russia

t.e.) Not more. No roubles, please! Mr E made my papers ready in one week- leaving permit,

passport, visa from the German embassy, all I needed. And so I came to the international airport

in Moskva the 4th of September 1992 with a ticket to Düsseldorf in my pocket, and I was glad

when the plane landed the 5th of September in Frankfurt.

This is a true story. Unfortunately after three months Gregorij had to return to Moskva, because

his tourist-visa had expired and it is impossible to make a tourist visa valid longer than three

months. We have seen him last time in January, ready to leave to Moscow and to come back two

weeks later, but probably we won't see him any more in Germany.

OneEurope Lexicon

One of the most frequently words used in discussions about different organisation forms of

Europe is the expression INTEGRATION. But what does integration actually mean ? The

following rubric intends to clear up the sense and significance of this and similiar important words

now and in next editions.

(The explanations below were taken from the book "Europe 2000" published by Omnia edition

house)

Integration

The joining together of European states within the EC is commonly referred to as integration - a

complicated word for a meaningful event. Usually integration stands for establishing a unity out of

different pieces. [...]

Sovereign states (nation-states) can associate themselves on the basis of international law in

different ways: for example through a contractual co-operation in the political area where common

interests are to be put forward (e.g. in the cultural field or in supporting the economy). Such an

international co-operation underlies the work of the European Council, while a similar example is

represented by the EFTA. Although the states are collaborating they still maintain their unlimited

national sovereignty; that complies with the common belief that a nations sovereignty is

indivisible and must remain untouched.

Exactly this view is overcome in the integration of the EC states. Up to now integration is an

unique form of international union in which national sovereign powers are being abandoned or

restricted; they are transferred to newly created supranational ("integrated") institutions.

Integration can, but must not lead to nation-states losing their entire sovereignty, dissolving

completely and establishing a larger state together.

page 4 -------------------------------------------------


Europe '93 - View from Prague

by Jiri Dienstbier

A speech held by Jiri Dienstbier, former foreign secretary of the CSFR, at a journalist-meeting in

Berlin.

Translation by Zsuzsa Joerres and Philipp von Klitzing

Ladies and Gentlemen,

should I be asked the question how Europe looks to me from Prague I am tempted to remind you

that I come form the city of Joseph K. and the brave soldier Svejk.To me doing so appears to be

appropriate again.

One might smile at this, but in December 1989 or during the year of 1990 I did surely not have

such associations. That time had been a time of euphoria and of enthusiasm about the fall of

communism and the Berlin wall, a time of dreams about new democracies and joining the unified

Europe together with the reunited Germany. Jaroslav Hasek and Franz Kafka, however, weren't

carriers of euphoria; they were witnesses of a reality whose complicated relations were difficult to

understand. And exactly such a period of time we have entered. There is no point in asking

whether this is good or bad.

In the post communistic world there has been very little success up to now, if one doesn't regard

the decline of communism itself as a success. But this already belongs to the past. Of course we

were happy about it at that time. Surely, because we thought the fall to be indispensable but we

did not dare to believe in ever living to see it, not to speak of such a quick and definite fall.

In east and west we all underestimated the extent of rottenness in our system. To overcome the

system there was neither a need for an external force nor the power of the internal opposition.

Doubtless these forces existed and without them nothing would have happened. But they entered

the final fight when the system had already ladled out its own substance and collapsed. The

Berlin wall went down only after the Hungarian minister had opened the border to Austria. The

inability in preventing this was the last proof of the communist superpower's total exhaustion itself.

Janaevs putsch in August 1991 remained but a ridiculous comma in the shadow of the formerly

so famous power of Stalin.

Communism didn't fall in a duel with the better combatant and in full possession of its strength. It

fell for it had exhausted not just its political, economical and psychological sources but also its

society. The most significant differences among the communistic countries are not results of a

course of development but of the situation the countries were in when communism seized on

them. The Czech Republic is better off than most of the other countries since it possessed 65% of

the Austrian-Hungarian industry before World War I, while already one hundred years ago less

than 2% of the citizens were found to be illiterates. During that time - as well as between the wars

- not only Bohemian beer, but also tiles from Rakovnik, steel, machines and Skoda-automobiles

travelled throughout the world.

In the work of our great-grandfathers and grandfathers lies our relative success of the present.

Under great difficulties we now try to adopt to their capabilities. We still have to go a long way in

order to be as proud as they were once of a work well done. The cultural and democratic

traditions contributed in a positive way to the division of Czechoslovakia, itself a failure, as there

was not a single moment in which we were tempted to solve the problem by violent means. As all

of us know, the situation in other countries is worse. Despite that there are significant differences

among them, too.

Altogether one can say that nobody was prepared, not for the end of communism and not for the

extent of devastation its ruin left behind. You in Berlin also only realised after bitter experience

that the price for an economical and mental reunification will be much higher than anyone ever

expected after the fall of the wall and during the euphoria about the suddenly fulfilled dreams.

In Western Europe, too, the decline of communism led to consequences no one had ever thought

of. In Italy, for example, I was told about the connection to the present political crisis. But I see a

basic danger in the fact that the West tends to think he has won the cold war. This might have

consequences. The Atlantic Alliance and the European integration represented an important


support in the fight against communism by holding up a mirror to it and hindering all attempts to

increase its power behind the iron curtain. That way it was seen in this part of the world, too. For

this reason the people respected the foreign as well as the domestic policy of your countries.

But now we see this psychology changed by the fall of communism. The difficulties in Maastricht

are a consequence of the end of bipolarity. The people suddenly wish to pay more attention to

their own affairs, often at the expenses of the international holding-together of the democratic

countries. They are much less prepared to tolerate the necessary compromises of their

governments. And they don't understand that the east needs as much as attention as in the past.

The iron curtain has not just been a prison wall for those who lived east of it. At the same this

barrier of barbed wire and nuclear warheads protected the democratic world from communism.

And it was even more. The concrete hood clapped on communism kept the real problems in this

part of the world from being solved. Those problems on which the West had worked for half a

century lay quick-frozen on this side, waiting to emerge immediately in its full size after sudden

defrosting. And this ice had already contained highly corrupted pieces at the very beginning.

Today it is evident to see how the iron curtain protected the west from the results of a blow up as

we experience it today with bated breath. For this reason many yearn for the simply bipolarity of

the world in which stability would be guaranteed on the expenses of the eastern half of the

continent.

Fortunately for us east of Elbe and Sumava this balance cannot be reobtained. On the other hand

it doesn't mean that we were to let things run freely and not find for a new equilibrium. Sometimes

I hear talk about denationalisation of security policy, the return of the times before the Versailles

Treaty, before World War I or even the battle at Mohacs. [...]

Recently, during a visit in Scandinavia the question of Königsberg (Kaliningrad) arose. One

speaks of the extent of American units leaving Europe, GATT in Uruguay has come to a halt. A

large question mark pose Russia and the Ukraine concerning their position in the European

system. Throughout the post communistic world numerous latent ethnic conflicts exist close to

break out. The war in Yugoslavia is not just a tragedy for the local peoples and a demonstration

of the world community's impotence, but a dangerous growth which - without proper surgery -

could spread out easily.

Yugoslavia represents the typical example for which neither our thinking of crushing the Jalta

system nor our international organisations were prepared. A hypothetical decomposition had

already been spoken of during Tito's lifetime. The question sounded like this: What will be after

Tito? But until the break down of the bipolar world nothing was possible. When the slumbering

disease finally found its way the world approached it by stiffened means. Day by day the screens

told of horrible crimes against children and whole cities, and when the demonstrators took to the

streets the politicians lost patience. Right at the beginning I warned that the Balkan, or the

Yugoslav problem must be solved homogeneously. Yet the winner was the salami-tactics.

In futile attempts I and others well acquainted with the subject matter like Lawrence Eagleburger

tried to make clear that an untimely recognition of Croatia would result in an explosion in Bosnia

Hercegovina if there was no pressure put on the remaining Yugoslavia by the international

community. And, should there be a change on the Balkan or parts of it, bringing in the Islamic

world would rise the danger of a great Lebanon. Should the later not take place then we must be

prepared to take the Vietnamese risk in order to prevent former Yugoslavia to turn into a second

Lebanon. But if we act consequently then there will be hope for a way out that excludes both

other options as mentioned above. This will be impossible without homogeneous decisive action

of the world community and the determination to make use of all opportunities in the worst case.

In order to counteract future crises we have to look into the priorities of today's world and learn to

understand them. The modern world, symbolised by the computer, is based on two apparently

contradictory tendencies: On the one hand the longing for greater integration and universality, on

the other hand the drive for more individuality and authority of the individual. This contradiction is

just ostensible since true universality can only be build by independent individuals that are freed

of a believe of a particular placed over idea. It has no meaning whatsoever, whether that

particular idea leans onto a religion, a nation, a wish to expand ones territory or an ideology of

any kind. This doesn't go along with uniformity.

Our perspective lies in the acceptance of our individual, personal, ethnic and religious differences

and various opinions, which are not to be understood as hurdles but as creative parts of


European plurality. In a political or economical sense it is of no interest whether we are German,

Czech, Catholic or Protestant, Serb or Croat. Important is how we contribute to the future

development of human society. Our humankind is not abstract. We can serve our society only

with our explicit individuality, with our German-being, Czech-being, believe or non believe, with

our opinion and our work that characterises us.

Concerning the political area the question arises whether the European culture expands towards

the east or whether the post communistic crisis penetrates Western Europe in return. Refugees

for example don't just represent a humanitarian problem. Their arrival in West-German towns

and villages changes structures lived for hundreds of years, they evoke a fear of foreigners,

racism, hatred of all kinds and hereby endanger the seemingly settled democracy. The danger

was recently named this way: Will the east be bruxellised or will the West be balkanised? This

sentence puts it in the point: In my opinion the entire strategy of European security depends on

what extent the democratic zone and the potential prosperity are able to spread.

If we recall how many horrible events have taken place in the Soviet Union, where besides

communism the last of the colonial empires fell apart, then I come to the conclusion that the

present unstable conditions are in truth better than one could expect. I am convinced that

investing in a growing democracy is worth it as well as supporting the propositions of its possible

offspring wherever necessary. That includes the economy in particular, but also further

development in communication, telecommunication and education to put the people in the post

communistic countries quickly onto their own feet - not demoralising donations but offering hope

to those who want to reach for it is required.

For the taxpayer this comes a thousand times cheaper than forty years of cold war. It is an

impossible task to calculate the costs for a defence against the consequences of a new downfall,

which would not necessarily lead to communism, but at least to one sort or the other of

authoritarian dictatorship, not to speak of a new economical disaster of which the west would

protect itself by lowering a curtain once again. If we want to avoid new curtains and dangerous

separations then it must be the interest of the progressive countries to dedicate themselves to the

arising problems with the same intensity as formerly invested into the long and middle ranged

missiles. We would save more than by the American retreat. And there would not be any profit if

one insisted for nostalgic reasons on the return of areas and possessions.[...]

Starting form the moment I was sworn into office I set my main goal in tying our country as quickly

as possible to the sphere of European culture to which it had belonged for thousands of years. I

advocated the Pentagonale which linked in 1990 for the first time the NATO, the still existing

Warsaw Pact and the neutral countries of middle and southern Europe. The tragic events in

Yugoslavia dimmed its activities. I supported the building of a middle European troika as a

stabilising factor and I hope the segregation of Czechoslovakia will not cause it to weaken but to

give even more reason for co-operation of the four. I brought myself in on building a system of cooperation

between old and new institutions including a certain partition of roles.

The charter of Paris towards a new Europe has been a success for all of us. Now it is to be

materialised and pushed forward. I believe that after some confusion the process of European

integration, which represents the main force in the overall European unification - not just in

economic terms - will awake again. Possibly the citizens of the community of the twelve don't

realize their positive effect on conflicts in the post communistic world. I take the freedom to

postulate the thesis that besides other influences the desire for integration into the European

society has led to a peaceful separation of the former CSFR. No politician in these countries can

allow himself to overstep certain borders and hence destroy the perspective of taking part in the

integration process.

The year of 1992 has been a year of superpessimism. Nevertheless I regard the saying "doomed

to success by desperation" as distorted. The consciousness of a necessity for success shows an

awareness for responsibility. Clinton's victory in America displays the need of the people to have

a "new frontier". We in Europe are in necessity of it, too. Those huge territories in Europe's centre

and its east pose a great challenge for the European civilisation. For the first time in history

Europe has got the chance to unify not by expansionism and the demand for hegemony of a

religion, a people or an ideology but in a democracy to everyone's benefit. But: this is only a

chance. A chance can only be made real through inventiveness, courage and the will to take

action. Europe never lacked any of these qualities. This is why I remain an optimist.


page 6 b -----------------------------------------------

A Postcard from Croatia

by Tamara Krstelj and Zoran Mrklic, Zagreb

What is Croatia today? Croatia is a huge refugee camp. Our towns are hostages of Serbian

bandits, our schools, churches, universities are targets of their canons. We are not allowed to

stop them, and the world don't want to do so! In the beginning we thought that the world didn't

know whats going on here. Now we know, that those who could do something didn't want to do it.

Thanks to all wonderful people all over the world who did everything for us, thanks for

humanitarian help, thanks for moral support, but they only made easier the consequences. What

we need is to remove the cause!

After all, alltrough many wanted to devide us, we are still as one, and we are holding on. And we

will do so as long as we can. And what is most important we didn't lose our spirit and our hope!

But we are not wizards and we need all the help we can get! We don't need charity, we also have

much to offer and one day we'll be able to pay our debts, and to find the ways to thank all our

friends. But if something isn't done quite soon, the price will be extremely high.

Largest and most difficult to cure, will be scarfes on souls of our people. People with burnt houses,

with lost lives of their families and loved ones. Raped women, people handicaped for life time.

Only a strong people could remain together as one, free in their spirits and full of hope for a better

future. Because of that I know we will survive!

Of course you wonder where is a place of Croatian students in all that. Many Croatian students

gave their lifes for Croatian freedom and independence, and we will never forget that. Of course

here for most people ist't easy to live and is even harder to study. It is hard to get money even for

food, not to speak about books. In many towns students study under granates, they have exams

under general alert but still our university manages to keep the high quality of education, and high

quality of student knowledge, what our students prove all over the world. Except we live in a

country under agression, we are still the same like all young people all over the world, we have

same wishes, same dreams, same needs and same ordinary problems. We hope that students

from all world will soon come to Croatian cities to meet and have fun together, like we are lucky to

do in many european and other towns.

See you soon in Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, Osisek, Dubrovnik...

page 7 b -----------------------------------------------

Inflated expectations towards democracy

By Rainer Emschermann, Bonn

Western Europe is suffering from a lack of political orientation. This was shown, when the

dramatic developments in Eastern Europe took place: First the political class in the West was

neither able to understand nor to support the right side, e.g. when the coup in Moskva took place.

Instead the status quo was supported: With Gorbatchev instead of Yeltzin, with the USSR instead

of a smooth secession and with the failure to understand that secession was the way to abolish

the conservative side in Beograd. Second, it has not yet developed a realistic perspective about

what to do with the new situation. Still we do not have a realistic concept for an all-European

integration after the tumbling of the wall. Finally, and most tragic so far, by admitting the

massacres of fascist Serbs to the Bosnian and Croatian population, the first holocaust after Hitler

and Stalin is taking place on European soil and again we are just watching, or, even worse,

pretending to help.


Obviously, western Europe is facing a political credibility crisis: Heaps of corruption scandals from

Italy to Germany are contributing to this impression. We are witnessing a fading political interest

and initiative of the economically satisfied brave-new-world-main-stream-citizen. The best quality

which journalists find about the German chancellor Kohl is his affinity for power (which says a lot

about the journalists, too). More or less, the democratic system is valued for its economic output,

not for its idea. In the case of economic stagnation this inflation of economic expectations towards

democracy will become a danger to the system itself. Especially eastern Germany and other

parts of central Europe might soon make this experience.

The emancipation from traditional moral values has pushed the political class into the spotlight of

expectations for moral leadership, but, of course it has provoked disappointment, since it is the

nature of the western type of democracy that politicians tend to reflect only their social

environment. On the top of this, the cycle of elections makes politicians short term oriented and

thus they are losing their long term credibility. Furthermore, the increasingly professionalism of

politics has contributed to this seeming dependency of politicians on the perceived short term

public opinion. We are dealing with an important default of the democratic system here,

originating from exaggerated expectations towards the state and government. [...]

I want to advertise a sceptic approach towards not just the socialist but also to the western

democratic systems, although for entirely different reasons and to a different degree. The reason

for this is, that a sceptic distance to the institution of the state is a fundamental precondition for

the democratic system of pluralism to work: the democratic system does not generate its

purposes itself. It demands inputs from the outside. Our problem seems to be that the democratic

system itself is in return shaping the society, encouraging mainly the genesis of majority relevant

opinions, which tend to be, of course, short term oriented.

More generally, the western societies, who have -fortunately- left the conflict between oppressors

and oppressed behind, do not generate the tension between the individual and the public which

seems to be necessary for providing strong counterpoise to society. The (only in this indirect

sense positive) distance between the public life and the individual is naturally missing, because

everyone is much more, directly or indirectly through opinion polls part of the political process.

Alternative political approaches usually become part of the political process. [...]

Democracy needs pluralism. Pluralism needs both, deflation of expectations towards the state

and tolerant political activities. It does not need criticism of the political class as a whole.

page 8 --------------------------------------------------

Freedom of the press in Eastern Europe

by Sebastian Huebner, Bonn

In the former communist countries, in spite of many common political tendencies, big differences

in the freedom of press, the indicator of freedom and democracy do exist. In some states media

are almost free (Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Baltic states), others are faced with clear

restrictions (Russia, Ukraine, Moldavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia) and unfortunately in several

countries freedom of press in not existent (White Russia, Armenia, Georgia).

In the years 1988/89 hundreds, in the USSR thousands, of new newspapers were created,

because there was a great interest in uncensored papers and the political intelligence had a

deep need for publishing their opinions. Low costs of paper and distribution made it easy to

publish a paper. Most of these papers disappeared after some months, and only about 10% of

them survived. Today, nearly all papers, the former communistic and the new ones are fighting

with economical problems, many of them against bankruptcy. Reasons for this are various:

subsidies were shortened or completely erased, the communist party stopped financing, organs

of the party were expropriated and privatized or, like in Russia after the coup in August 1991,

even forbidden. Expenditures for paper, printing, salaries etc. raised extremely. Papers became

more and more expensive. Rivalries, high prices, a decreasing interest in politics and a low

standard of living caused a stagnation of trade and the papers had to reduce the circulations.


In Russia the circulations of the most important newspapers were reduced since December 1991

from four to nine times, prices increased up to 90 times (9000%). It is expected that this tendency

will continue in the years 1993/94.

Print media are trying to survive by publishing advertising, finding sponsors, specialization and

even by printing yellow and porno press. Another strategy to overcome the crisis is to incorporate

investors from the west. In Hungary western publishing houses (Maxwell, R. Murdoch,

Bertelsmann, Springer) are shareholders of the twenty biggest newspapers. In Poland the French

group Hersant seized the opportunity, when the communistic media empire RSW was liquidated.

In the Czech and in the Slovak republic investors from the west are also well liked, though share

is set to not more than 30%. In Russia and in the other CIS states foreign investors are mostly

reserved, but it is to be said that the formerly most influential communist newspaper "Pravda" was

saved from bankruptcy by a Greek businessman who made the "Pravda international company"

out of it.

Some people say, that economic censorship is even worse than the former political censorship.

Indeed, the misery of certain papers is occasionally used to put these papers under political

pressure. In White Russia and in the Ukraine loyal, former communistic, papers receive subsidies

from the government, but independent papers do not. In Russia "social important" newspapers

are supported, as ordered Yeltsin, with "enough" paper. Suspicious people say that this also

could be misused as a method of intervention in the freedom of press.

Electronic media (EM)

Still more important than print media are Radio and TV.

Electronic media are gaining influence, while the press is losing influence. This gives rise to

reflection, because in contrast to the print media, the EM are usually, state owned or at least

controlled by the government, a relic of the past.

In the last years of communism the press gained a lot of freedom, but the legislation concerning

EM was not changed, so that we find today in all the post communistic countries a more or less

free press, but the EM are structured the same way as ten years before.

Only in a few countries, after strong discussions about how independent the EM are allowed to be,

a new EM legislation has been made. It goes without saying that the new governments were

anxious to secure their influence. In Romania the so called "audiovisual council", an instrument to

manage media, is controlled by the government in a way, that critics were already reminded of

the time, when Ceausescu was the great benefactor of the country. In Poland the independent

but powerful "national council of radio and TV", is supposed to supervise the freedom of opinion

and independence as well as religious and moral questions. The president of this council is

appointed by the president of Poland.

A liberal treatment of this important question can be found in the Czech Republic, in which an

independent body secures the independence of TV, and private TV stations can hold a licence.

In most of the former communistic countries, due to incongruities in the parliaments, there is up to

now no new legislation concerned with EM (Bulgaria, Hungary, the Baltic states, the Ukraine,

Russia etc.).

In the Ukraine and in Armenia (Europe!) has changed almost nothing. TV and radio remain under

the strong control of the government. In Russia in view of the still continuing struggles between

Yeltsin and the parliament no solution is in sight. The parliaments president Khasbulatov was

trying to put the EM in charge of the supreme council of Russia, whereas Yeltsin was trying to

establish an EM empire which is loyal to the government. To support this plan the "federal

information centre", conducted by the former secretary of state for press and information,

M.Poltoranin, was created. Even democrats who trust in Yeltsin say, that this information centre is

against the constitution and a ministry of propaganda and truth.

The monopoly of the state usually is strong. In Russia 99% of TV and about 85% of radio

transmissions are state-run but one can say that this monopoly is diminishing more and more, a

process which already started in the communist times, when liberal TV editors started to make

their own programs. This process is continuing but even more important is that many of the TV

companies are confronted with economical problems and difficulties in content so that they have

to incorporate productions from private TV studios. The private TV studio produces a programme,

the programme is transmitted by the TV station and the studio receives instead of money


oadcasting time, which can be sold to other companies.

Another way out of the dilemma is to send foreign programs, so that the surprised visitor can

watch in the Baltic states SAT1, RTL-Plus or CNN and in Russia bad synchronized dull programs

from all over the world, but the most remarkable phenomenon is that people all over Eastern

Europe, wherever it is possible, watch with enthusiasm the flying video clips of MTV, a clear

rejection of the politicized or over-politicized media.

This report refers to a still unpublished study, which was made by the German States Institute of

International and East European studies in Cologne in March 1993. The study was made about

all post communist countries, except Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia & Hercegovina and Albania.

page 9 b -----------------------------------------------

Mass Media in Hungary today

(Battle fields of the "media front")

Otto Laszlo, Budapest

Talking about mass media always means talking about fights between ruling parties and

opposition in Hungary today. Why and how the political struggle has focused on the mass media

extending its traditional battle field, the parliament?

The two national TV channels are still owned by the state. TV and radio have always been a state

monopoly and have been an organ of the ruling powers. This tendency has been deeply rooted in

the Hungarian political structure. The common understanding of the mass media's role must be

changed if Hungarians want to live in an open society.

Cable channel networks cover more than 200 thousand homes which means that this medium

may reach almost 1 million people (10% of the whole population of Hungary) and they are owned

by private firms or local communities and not by the state.

Although the so called 'media war' is over it is worth mentioning its main issues and conclusions.

According to the contradictory interpretation of the parties the logic of the events have been:

From the government's point of view: Mr. Elemér Hankiss, the former president of the Hungarian

Television, who is a well-known sociologist, exceeded his competence by exerting political

influence excluding the ruling parties' voices from TV programs. He was forced to resign for this

reason by the present government.

From Mr. Elemér Hankiss's point of view: He has always been politically neutral not allowing any

of the political powers to dominate the broadcasting time (neither ruling nor opposite parties). He

was forced to resign for this reason and he also emphasises the danger of an overpoliticized TV

under control of the present ruling parties.

All this calls for a liberalization in the field of the most influential medium, the television, knowing

that a Hungarian TV channel (Duna TV) already exits, available only by satellite and only 5-8

hours a day. Once more than 2-3 (maybe more) independent Hungarian channels have been set

up (most of the population only speak Hungarian!!) the average viewer has a wide range of

choice whether he or she wants to watch the government's news or to enjoy a commercially

based programme just entertaining himself or herself.

Another important segment of the mass media is the press. Fortunately, it has been more

pluralistic than TV and radio (hundreds of local and national issues) and the number of today's

privately owned ones is increasing ('Magyar Hírlap', 'Profit'... etc.).

The elections, coming ever closer may bring some hope that direct political influence on mass

media will be reduced.

'Democracy is a bad system but there is not a better one.' said Churchill and we believe he was

right.

page 10 ------------------------------------------------


OneEurope Periscope:

HUNGARY

Though there are (luckily) no national levels existing within AEGEE, we think it is urgently

necessary to know a bit more about the countries of the so-called East. Hungary itself is a

classical country of Central Europe.

In March we contacted some Hungarian antennae in order to get informations about their regions,

their towns, their local organisations and their present situation by themselves.

Where we were lacking information it was taken from German books and journals. This is one

reason for the "old-fashioned" national part in this rubric. It's still much easier to get statistical

informations about countries than about regions or areas.

For the Antennae in the eastern parts of Europe the Geographical Periscope offers the possibility

to make publicity for themselves, to spread information all across Europe and to mention

problems of communication or any other kind .

We are planning this as a permanent rubric and hope we'll get your support in future.

In the next edition we will try to give you some more information about Romania and Bulgaria.

STATISTICAL CHECK-UP: HUNGARIAN REPUBLIC

Area: 93033 square kilometres

Portugal

approx. the size of

Population: 10.375.3000 = 111 per square km

plus approx. 5 million Hungarians living abroad

GNP per head 1990: 2780 $ Greece in comparison

(1990): 5990$

National rate of unemployment (Feb 93): 13,6% with big

differences among the regions!

Inflation (1991): 35% Greece in comparison

(1991): 19,5%

Current exchange rate: 1 ECU= 101 Forint

Prime Minister: Jozsef Antall (Hungarian Democratic

Forum)

President of the Republik: Arpad Goencz (Alliance of

Free Democrats)

AEGEE in Hungary

Budapest

Budapest is the capital of this beautiful little country. The towns area measures 526.6 sq km. With


its 2 million inhabitants, 7 universities and 15 colleges, it's a true megalopolis.

No question that there is also a real active AEGEE antenna, which was established not before

October 1990. This Antenna has today about 275 members and is one of the best organized in

Central Europe (Maybe even the very best). Only one year after the original presentation of

AEGEE, which was organised from the EWWG, there was a real excellent Agora in the main

building of the university of economics. We still like to remember this great event. Not very much

more remains to say, maybe just that there are three brand new contacts in Hungary:

Szombathley, Szeged and Baja, in which a Summer University is going to be organized this year.

Thanks to Andrea, Zsuzsa, Otto and .... for sending us their faxes.

page 11 ------------------------------------------------

Debrecen

By Andrea Feld

Debrecen is situated in the eastern part of Hungary. With a population of 214.000 , Debrecen is

the second biggest town of the country. There are quite a lot of tourists attracted by the "Puszta"

and the thermal baths in Debrecen.

In the town we find the university of Agricultural Sciences, a College of Music, an academy of arts,

the polytechnical institute and the Medecine College.

The history of AEGEE Debrecen started in 1991. The antenna was established with the help of

AEGEE Budapest. In October 1991 we successfully organized an EAST-WEST Academy. Just

before the AGORA in Prague our "Wild East Weekend" took place.

At the moment AEGEE Debrecen is formed by a small but very enthusiastic group of people

which do their best to succeed. We have no real working groups only contact persons with the

working groups at the European level: TEMPUS, East-West and Environmental WGs. We try to

increase the number of members in the future and to establish Working Groups.

Pecs

by AEGEE Pecs

Pécs is one of the most beautiful towns of Hungary. Lying at the foot of Mecsek mountains, with a

2000 year-old history and a Mediterranean climate. From the historical relics some ancient

Turkish minarets and baths which were built during the 150 year Turkish occupation catch the

visitor's eye. The mountains and a nearby lake invite for taking a rest or doing sports. The area of

Pécs is famous for its vine which is worth to know in some cases !.

At the JANKS PANNONIKS University you can study at different faculties such as economics, law,

Art and other sciences. There are also a Medical University and a Technical College. The list of

universities suggests you a vivid students' nightlife, too.

Well though we are of a real students's entertaining centre, students can pick from numerous

programs according to their preferences. And of course, there is the challenging choice of

AEGEE.

AEGEE Pécs was founded in 1991. So far, we have organized two Summer Universities/ a

Russian language course and a course dealing with astronomy. Both were very successful and

instructive for us. We also organized a colourful programme for our antennae-members, such as

a week-end at Lake Balaton and one in Pécs. At the same time we encourage our members to

participate in international events.

Last year we managed to get a private office for AEGEE of which we are very proud. We have

around 60 members from which unfortunately only 8-12 are active.

Our biggest problems are usually how to involve others in cooperation and of course money. Now,

we are busy looking for sponsors for our next Summer University. We organize it together with

AEGEE Veszprém on the subject "The East European Changes after the Second World War"

between August, 2nd. - 15th. DON'T MISS IT !

Also we started to pick up connections with the EWWG and theTempus WG.


page 12 ------------------------------------------------

Sheep and wolves - AEGEE in danger?

A rainy day in Bonn, (still) the capital of Germany, in November 1990. Inside the town hall the

Agora is rght in the middle of the action. After a fiery discussion a far reaching decision was taken:

Contacts in the (still) communistic countries can become full antenna, with all rights and duties.

Since that day we are witnessing an astonishing growth of AEGEE: Dozens of antennae were

founded all over eastern Europe from the GDR to the Ural, from the Baltic states to Bulgaria. After

so many years of separation students from the east and the west could, for the first time in history,

come together and build up their own independent students association.

This building up process is still continuing and hundreds of people are working with passion and

much fun on it.

Unfortunately in some cities in the east, but not only in the east, the idea of AEGEE was

misunderstood. Certain people used the facilities, given by the association, to make business and

money. Most of the members and even the representatives of AEGEE Europe didn't realize what

was going on, and they only woke up, when the situation proved to be disastrous. As you can

imagine, the facilities of the AEGEE-network can be used not only for making money, but also for

the goals of political organisations, which are acting, for example, under the name of some liberal

youth movement. This can happen at a local, regional or even at the European level. In any case

this would be a catastrophe and in the worst case the whole organisation could degenerate to a

just a mere tool in the somebody's hands.

You don't believe that ? An exaggeration, just? So read our examples:

In spring 1991, a letter, coming from Russia, from the firm INTERSERVICE, reached the Comité

Directeur of AEGEE Europe. The letter read:

"Dear..., ... we began to organize AEGEE in Ekaterinenburg. We ask you to help us in

registration of our antenna in E. We can organize any travelling in the USSR. Thanks...., yours

sincerely. A. Bogolmov." Now a presentation of the firm followed:" You have dealt with

INTERSERVICE and know us well? Our firm was founded by the Ural ... Institute and the Union

of Youth organisation. Our activities include: Inter work gangs organisation, ... to help you ... in

working at the plants. Teams of specialists ..., jewellers, programmers... . Setting up tours in the

USSR ... . 15-20% from the earning of the teams make up the income of our firm and their foreign

partner."

After half a year, two gentlemen, aged about 30, turned up at the Agora in Budapest. Without any

objections, apparently even without any questions their firm was accepted immediately as

Contact Antenna, the convention d'adhésion was signed, and they promised to organize a

Summer University in August 1992.

One of the participants of this SU, Carlo G. from Milano, was so kind to send us a report about

this event. He wrote:

"About AEGEE Ekaterinburg: It is quite difficult for a western European to give a reliable opinion

about Russia. ... The board: ..., they didn't look like being to interested about the guests, except

when there was some problem concerning money. ... They started to be terribly interested in us,

as soon as they understood, that some of the western guests weren't willing to pay the fee,

because they said ... it was too much. ... Apart from this, the only impression everybody had from

the board was that of a group of people, sitting apart, ..., and giving orders to the other people of

their antenna. ... It is quite possible, that most of the members moved altogether from the former

COMSOMOL to AEGEE. ... The antenna gave the impression not to be self sufficient, but rather

to rely upon unknown people hidden behind the board. ...

The university staff, ..., has been very badly paid ... . Anyway the level of the lessons, in the class

of architecture, ..., was quite good. ..., in fact my Russian experience was absolutely fantastic, ...,

and I think to go back to Russia as soon as possible. I simply think that Russian reality is very

different from ours. ... If I could give a suggestion, I would say that it can be safer to arrange the

contact through university staff, rather than through normal students, because there is the risk to


let everything be organized by a gang of businessman. ... a direct contact with the university

could maybe guarantee a minimal control. Carlo Grossi . Milano."

As you can see, we have the businessmen on the one side, who are expecting tourists, and on

the other side AEGEE people, who are disappointed because of not having found a genuine

AEGEE antenna. A similar situation we experienced in Moscow one year ago. A group of four

clever people made quite a good deal with "their" AEGEE antenna by organizing language

courses. They became an antenna with all rights, but after a while, participants of the language

courses as well as their own subordinated members accused them of embezzlement. It was

spoken of 5 to 10000$. After a hard fight and a lot of extremely annoying arguments the four have

been excluded officially from the network by decision of the members commission, and

consequently AEGEE in Moscow died. Who is to blame? The Russians? So, what did AEGEE

Europe do to prevent these bad situations? In fact, AEGEE Europe proved to be unable to treat

these two contacts in a proper way! Only two contacts? If you risk a closer look, you may find

some similar antennae.

Harmless, you might think, - maybe, but what will happen if a more professional, commercial or

political organisation tries to get systematically, at a local or international level, into the network?

We ask AEGEE Europe: What are YOU going to do to prevent this, and to secure democracy

within our students' association?

page 13 b ----------------------------------------------

EWWG-Meeting in Kaunas 25.-28.03.1993

David von Lingen, Freiburg

The meeting of this working group - if one can speak of a working group concerning the vast

dimensions - takes place in the Baltic states, the crucial point between Western- and Middle

Europe and the Russian Imperium.

Kaunas, the second biggest city of Lithuania with half a million inhabitants including 15.000

students, was chosen for this EWWG meeting in march; the local AEGEE Antenna has been

existing for about one year.

Thinking of Lithuania one surely remembers Vilnius rather then Kaunas. The incidents of January

1991 left their imprint on our memories: the occupied TV-station, the victims of the fight for

immediate independence. And still 3.5 million of the total of 8 millions inhabitants of the Baltic

states are Russians. A soviet encyclopaedia reads on Lithuania:

"A class society is forming in the 5.-8. century already, and in 1240 the Lithuanian Kingdom is

founded. Lithuania is under Russian control for long periods of its history and is finally taken

under soviet rule in 1940."

Now there is a memorial statue of liberty replacing the numerous monuments of Lenin. The

search for a new identity makes itself heard by a doubtful though understandable nationalistic

politicy towards the Russians, the so long yearned for independence is threatened by several

obstacles. While Lenin's monuments are lifted from their pillars, the sword of Damocles of the

soviet troops is still present. And may be some of our Lithuanian hosts got slightly worried

watching the discussion in the assembly of the supreme soviet at those threatening days of

March our meeting took place.

The participants from Western Europe gather in Warsaw, find out the location of the newly

established Lithuanian embassy and take the overnight bus to Vilnius. It is packed with Russians

with the new Lithuanian passports but the bus saves us form obtaining an additional visa for

Belarus the train trip would have required. The trip to Kaunas takes us only two hours by train,

tickets are to be paid in the sympathetic new Lithuanian currency, introduced only half a year ago.

In a cave near the university the meeting is already presenting apicture of lively intereuropean

exchange. The morning was filled by a lecture on the situation of Lithuania and a meeting with

professors and journalists. After lunch we went on a short sight seeing trip, afterwards I am

lodged with a student of informatics.


A first an improvised meeting of all participants is held in the AEGEE office in the university. We

are 15 guests from 5 antennae, mainly from Eastern Europe, being favoured by the choice of the

place. 3 students from Prague, 5 from Lviv (Ukraine), one who is originally from Switzerland, one

from Warsaw, originating from Prague, 3 from St. Petersburg and 4 from Freiburg. As the

Russian language is closer to the major part of the participants present, the official language is

changed to Russian at 15 p.m. local time, probably for the first time in all the history of Europeanlevel

AEGEE-meetings. As the organizational part of the meeting is just scheduled for the next

day only, we can move to the European night with a good conscience.

A disco-cellar in the suburbs of Kaunas forms the European 'common house', often cited by

Michail Sergevich Gorbachev. Dancing and sitting, the feeling of European togetherness is easily

created - for me the first acquaintance with the participants. Russian jokes and Russian Vodka

join up to an explosive mixture - the remmants of occupation create an East-European version

of European feeling on the basis of the common language. The evening lasts long and the

Lithuanians are hospitable, so getting up next morning is no easy job.

In consequence the generally meeting starts at 12.30 p.m. instead of 11p.m. with the arrival of

our speaker Pavel Miladinovic.

The retention of Russian as official language is agreed about unanimously and the agenda is

being discussed.

Central themes are the statutes of the EWWG as a quasi Antenna with corresponding legal

structures, and the statutes of the contacts Lviv and St. Petersburg. Working groups for this

project are formed. The new format of the EWWG has an information centre in Rotterdam. (Ferri

Luitwieler, Fax ++31-10-4.52.61.43). Furthermore it has its bank account in Munich with the

treasurer Georg Portenkirchner, and is to going be registered there.

The membership fees caused a controversial discussion because it is hard to estimate the

relationship of costs of living in Eastern and Western Europe. The board will be elected in

Prague because not all participants of the EWWG could take part in the meeting.

Finding a new identity of the EWWG is another crucial point, in so far as the historical

development in the East raises the question whether the building up of new Antennae should be

the exceptional aim of the working group or whether its engagement in other fields is needed.

The discussion on the question of AEGEE in the Baltic states did not really take place since

Lithuanian members were not present all the time.

In the afternoon we met again to work out the statutes in two groups: One group translated

without any dictionary at hand a sample statute into Russian for Lviv and St. Petersburg. The

others discuss the format of the further EWWG and the statutes were confirmed.

On the last day the people from Prague left early in the morning while we were awaited by the

retranslating of the Russian statutes into English.

page 14 b ----------------------------------------------

The OneEurope Tip

For our German Antennae:

Die Robert Bosch Stiftung bezahlt Reise-, Unterbringungs- und Verpflegungungskosten für Polen

und Polinnen, die zu von deutschen Antennen organisierten Kongressen, Seminare etc., reisen.

Anträge mit einer Präsentation des geplanten Programms und der Zahl der erwarteten polnischen

Studierenden können von den den organisierenden Antennen an folgende Adresse geschickt

werden.

Robert Bosch Stiftung

Postfach 100628

7000 Stuttgart 10

Weitere Fragen beantwortet (gerne) Julia Gellner, Freiburg.

page 15 ------------------------------------------------


AEGEE-Europrofile:

Zsuzsa

Birth date/ birth place:

9th July 1971 / Budapest

Studies:

Economics (Marketing, European studies)

AEGEE activities:

member since 1990, board-member Budapest as secretary

and PR responsible, CD member since Nov. 92, TEMPUS -

Student mobility

Organisation:

AGORA Budapest, SU92 Bp, TEMPUS ACADEMY, CHAMP 93

Present shape of mind?

Awaiting spring

Your biggest fault?

My attitude is never positive to such questionnaires

What faults you excuse mostly?

Arrogance, untidiness

What's your favourite personality/ies in history?

???

What characteristics do you prefer as for men?

Many-sidedness, open-mindedness, generosity,

creativity, sense of humour, intelligence,...

What characteristics do you prefer as for women?

Feminity, kindness, tidiness, creativity, sense of

humour, intelligence,...

What characteristics you hate mostly?

Unreliability, stupidity, lies, unnaturalness

Your personal dream of "happiness"?

Bounty Coconut Island

Your favourite music/ composers?

Bowie, Lou Reed, Sting, some Hungarians, Mussorskij,

Ravel

Your favourite meals?

Fishes, pogacsa (special Hungarian)

Drink/s?

Gin-tonic

Your favourite country/ies?

I'm not able to decide...

Your most courageous act?

to get in touch with AEGEE

Your visions/ ideas for AEGEE?

Even more co-operation between members and between

antennae. Everybody could realize that all AEGEE

members could receive from and give something to each

other.

Yours, Zsuzsa Kigyos

page 16 ------------------------------------------------


OneEurope Presentation

TEMPUS WG

GOALS:

1.) Spreading information to promote students and professors mobility

2.) Evaluation of the programme by expressing our experiences concerning the TEMPUS Bureau:

- assisting in organization of events supported by TEMPUS

- to create an information network about social and academic conditions in the other universities

3.) Support for social integration and realizing the mentor-programme (by giving advice about

lodging, assistance, tutorship etc.)

STRUCTURE:

- European Level: the board of the TEMPUS WG (consists of three coordinators):

- coordinates the groups

- keeps in contact with the TEMPUS Bureau in Brussels and the TEMPUS coordinators

- collects the applications and contracts the application of AEGEE Europe

- Local Level: the antennae

- organize local activities

- take care of the mentor-programme

- help the students in social integration

- and inform their members about the possibilities in the TEMPUS scheme

ACTIVITIES:

- The first TEMPUS ACADEMY in Budapest from 19th -22nd Nov. 92. There were about 80

participants. The EC TEMPUS Office and the following national TEMPUS Offices presented

themselves at the ACADEMY:

Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and Romania

- First TEMPUS WG MEETING from 20th to 21st March 93 in Gliwice

PLANS OF THE WG:

1.) To collect and publish the TEMPUS responsible list at the antennae

2.) To prepare the brochure about the first Tempus Academy

3.) To co-operate with the ERASMUS WG at the Mobility letter and at the mentor-programme

4.)To realize a list of the Universities who participate in JEP's (Joint European Project)

Next Meeting:

Sat., 24th April at the Agora in Prahate meals?

page 17 ------------------------------------------------

Language without barriers

by Albena Milhaylova, Sofia

During the AGORA in Delft a new activity was started and a new position was established in the

Comité Directeur: CULTURE.

For a couple of years a group of people already worked in a Culture Working Group within

AEGEE. In comparison to other existing Working Groups, this one did not function that well due

to insufficient support of the CD. With the proposal for this activity and with my election for the


position I did not have an idea of the risk I was taking. My only wish was that AEGEE gets

involved in this, what makes the rest of the world look towards EUROPE for more than 20

centuries.

With the establishment of the cultural function within the CD the basis of enormous and serious

work was installed.

What is Culture actually? Many times I have been asked what my understanding for this word is.

If somebody wants the exact answer, he may find the exact answer, the precise expositive in the

dictionary. I do not want to find any particular answer or definition. Many spheres of our lives can

be classified as "cultural", and all of them will be part of culture. As for me, this word has a very

broad meaning and I don't want to particularise it. Culture is everywhere around us and most of

all within us. As for me, this is the personal view for life and our chance to enrich it. Culture is our

spirit.

These are my guidelines for the position which I have. My aim is to work in the cultural field not

like in the other ones. Culture has to be free, with a different structure, programme and plan

because it should not be restrained by any limits.

I would like that people within AEGEE interested in culture, no matter what their understanding for

the word is, have the chance to work in the way they want and feel like. The major idea is the

escape from centralisation and formalization of activities.

The wealth is in our different opinions, different sensations. They are our national culture with

which are entering a common EUROPE - and they make our integration and communication

easier.

CULTURE IS A LANGUAGE WITHOUT BARRIERS!

AEGEE- Meeting in Sofia

by Petya Jordanova, AEGEE SOFIA

At the first Balkan meeting which took place in Sofia in the period 26th - 28th February 1993. In

comparison to previous Regional Meetings held until now, this was the first to gather people from

all antennae. The representatives from Athina, Blagoevgrad, Bucuresti, Groningen, Istanbul, Cluj-

Napoca, Skopje, Thessaloniki, Tirgu Mures and Sofia were discussing various topics, related to

cooperation, Balkan integration and possibilities for joint work in the future.

Some Albanian students were invited to participate. But they couldn't attend the meeting. Still the

idea for an Albanian trip during summer was discussed. A lot of people were enthusiastic to go

there. Special attention was paid to the suggestion to assist for the establishment of new

antennae, and also the specific problems of the existing antennae.

AEGEE Athina came forward with the so called "Statement of Principles". After the discussion,

some antennae joined the statement and their main idea was that it will be presented at the

AGORA in Praha as a proposal from the South-East Region. Also, the different antennae

presented their future plans and projects.

A part of the event was the Sightseeing around Sofia and the three marvellous evenings spent

together.

Many contacts were made, and they marked the beginning of real friendships. The students

showed that they can talk, think and live together despite their national and political differences.

Though the late February days were wintery cold, the impressions that everybody took home

from the meeting and Sofia were marked by the sensation of the coming spring.

page 18 ------------------------------------------------

Rumours - Gossip - Hoaxes


AEGEE Bari is going to organize the biggest event in the history of our Association. The

congress-motto will be "Help Albania". Since more than 10.000 participants are expected, the

local antenna is negotiating to rent the football stadium for the month of August. Over and above,

they were able to receive a big sponsorship by "United Colours of Balderdash"...

Apparently, there are also some demands coming from the south which aim at some dutch

antennae to organize S.U. courses in "Gardening" or "How to grow the best seeds". As for this:

Never forget: "AEGEE is No Fun Association"...

There's still a Moral Report which has been forgotten unluckily in the official Agora-Brochure.

Let's just call the author Coy Marksman, responsible for intimate education: The second part of

my CD-time I have been very busy, especially in Delft, Wroclaw, Berlin, Ljubljana and Madrid.

Five, well, ... meetings have taken place over Europe. I helped to work out the programmes,

established new techniques and supported them with quality equipment. Furthermore I

participated in two group meetings: ... helped to set up my connections in Berlin, you know ...

After all, all antennae are awaiting passionately the official honoration for the winner of willycontest.

There are some rumours from Aalborg the event will take place on the last day of the

AGORA. The special price winner, some responsible for fundraising, was requested to ask

enterprises for the final addition to our AEGEE-fashion line: AEGEE-condoms (spread for free

before each event) in blue with yellow stars and the logo on the top...

That's it very briefly.

page 19 ------------------------------------------------

Latest News

++ New contact ++ traffic conference ++ Póznan ++ UN answer ++ Zagreb ++

+There's a new still inofficial contact in JAROSLAVL, an old Russian town about 100 km north of

Moskva, which was made by David v. Lingen. They will probably organize a SU not mentioned in

the official S.U. booklet. For further information contact David v. Lingen, Freiburg.

+ The Traffic Conference in Konstanz was a success.The chosen topic is one of the most

important and most controversially-discussed in Europe. The lectures, the workshops and the

organisation were on a high level. Unfortunately only 17 people attended the meeting, although

about fifty people had applied for participation.

+ The Congress about Eastern and Western Regionalism in Poznan was postponed to October,

14th-17th.

+ Zagreb (s. declaration, signed at the PM in Aachen):There are still two different groups even

though elections were held for the first time since the contact had been made almost two years

ago. The election, at Sat.,17th April, was attended by 16 people. Srinka Lebo was elected

unanimously. Doubts about the legitimacy may arise by the fact that the election was held wihout

the group around Tamara. We are of the opinion, that new contacts generally should be made

official via the universities. The CD should organize and attend the inaugural meetings and

elections. (see also our article "sheep and wolves" p. 12).

+ Marc Coumans' letter to the UN requesting about how to behave concerning requests from

Serbian universities was answered insufficiently. The UN Security Council Committee, pursuant


to resolution 724 (1991) replied by sending a letter which read: "Dear sir, (...) The Committee has

requested me to advise you that your query should be routed to the Committee through the

government of the country under whose jurisdiction your organisation is established." (By the way,

did you know that the official sponsor of the UN's environmental programme is Mc.Donalds?)

page 20 ------------------------------------------------

Calendar of Events

Calendrier des Evenements

APRIL 1993

Date Topic (Place) Organisers

--------------------------------------------------------

23 Apr 1993 Europe The New Generation Prague

24-25 Apr l993 AGORA Prague/ Europe

27-29 Apr 1993 Financial Consequences of

Merging Europe & Work 93 Rotterdam

30-2 May 1993 Queensday Amsterdam

02-04 May 1993 CHAMP '93 Finals (London) London

05-06 May 1993 Journee de l'Europe 1993 Fribourg

06-08 May 1993 ECU- Currency of Europe Muenchen

13-16 May 1993 Creative Congress Muenster

19-23 May 1993 Europe and the Islamic Culture Koeln

27-30 May 1993 European Art United Maastricht

18-20 Jun 1993 Anti-Semitism in Europe today

Heidelberg

08 Jul 1993 Europe blocked?

An Economic Perspective Leiden

19-25 Jul 1993 European School Valladolid

Summer 1993 Environmental Work Camps Athens

Summer 1993 Summer Universities All over Europe

06-12 Sep 1993 European School Salerno

8-17 Sep 1993 Summer Course AQUA Utrecht

24-26 Sep 1993 Presidents' Meeting

Santander/ Europe

4-10 Oct 1993 Winterschool Safetech Delft

14-17 Oct 1993 Eastern and Western Regionalism

Poznan

20-23 Oct 1993 Japanese Companies in Europe

Groningen

28-30 Oct 1993 Ecological Congress Gliwice

03-05 Nov 1993 The Future of European Coperation

Utrecht

06-07 Nov 1993 AGORA Utrecht/Europe

10-14 Nov 1993 Communication Conference Geneve

18-21 Nov 1993 The Mediterranean Area Barcelona

24-28 Nov 1993 Xenophobia! Are you a racist?

Freiburg

02-04 Dec 1993 Is Leisure a Pleasure? Saarbruecken10-12 Dec 1993 Europe and Latin

America

Mainz- Wiesbaden

21-24 Jan 1994 New Europe- New Law Krakow

17-20 Feb 1994 Ethnic Minorities Coference Budapest


23-25 Mar 1994 Mass Media in Europe Hamburg

03-09 Apr 1994 Spring University:

The Bridging of Cultural Differences

Maastricht

15-17 Apr 1994 Environmental Conference Palermo

27-29 Apr 1994 The Potential for Clean Energy Delft

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