Competent Teachers -Competent Students

Competent Teachers -Competent Students

Competent Teachers -

Competent Students

A Model for Designing Daily

Literacy Lessons

Anita L. Archer, Ph.D.

Oregon Literacy Conference

Foundation - Engagement of

all Students

Variety of responses

• Say answer - As a group (choral)

• Say answer - To a partner

• Say answer - To cooperative team

• Say answer - As an individual

Foundation - Engagement of

all Students

Variety of responses

• Write answers - Write on paper, white

boards, post-its, journals

• Act it out

• Display response cards

• Utilize “appropriate” hand signals

Competent Student

• Can pronounce the difficult words in

the text both accurately and quickly.

This allows the student to focus on

comprehension and aides in vocabulary


Competent Teacher

Before Passage Reading

– Determines difficult to pronounce words.

– Tells students the pronunciation of the

entire word OR

– Guides students in reading the decodable

chunks of the word.

– Incorporates pronunciation instruction with

instruction on word meanings.

Competent Student

• Understands critical vocabulary terms

found in the text or can use wordlearning

strategies (context, glossary,

word parts) to determine the meaning of

unknown words.

Competent Teacher

Before Passage Reading

• Determines critical vocabulary necessary for

passage comprehension.

• Selects content area terms as well as

“academic vocabulary” for explicit instruction.

• Provides systematic, engaging instruction on

selected words.

• Reinforces use of word-learning strategies.

• Has students maintain a record/log of critical


Competent Student

• Brings a wealth of background

knowledge to passage reading

promoting passage comprehension and

allowing connections between the text,

past experiences, and previously

acquired knowledge.

Competent Teacher

Before Passage Reading

• Determines background knowledge needed

for full understanding of the passage.

• Directly teaches critical background


• Activates student’s background knowledge.

– KWL (What do you know/What do you want to

learn/What did you learn)

– Brainstorming topics that might be covered (War -

Causes? Who? When? Where? How? Outcomes)

– Anticipation guides

Competent Student

• Previews the selection attending to the

introduction, headings, subheadings,

graphics, summary, and questions. As the

student previews, he/she discovers the topics

to be covered, the information that will be

emphasized, and how the material is

organized. In addition, background

knowledge will be activated.

Competent Teacher

Before Passage Reading

• Guides students in previewing the chapter

and formulating a topical outline using the

title, headings, and subheadings.

• Guides students previewing by examining the

visual representations and graphics in the


• Has students preview the selection

independently, with his/her partner or team


Competent Student

• Establish a purpose or purposes for

reading the selection.

Competent Teacher

Before Passage Reading

• Suggests reading purposes to students.

• Guides students in determining reading


• Has students record their purposes.

• Asks students to communicate reading

purposes to their partner or team


Competent Student

During Passage Reading

• Actively reads the text material constantly

monitoring comprehension, adjusting reading

rate, and connecting information to other

experiences and knowledge.

• As the student reads, he/she utilizes

strategies to support comprehension and


Competent Teacher

During Passage Reading

• Guides students in passage reading using

choral reading, cloze reading, augmented

silent reading, and/or partner reading.

• Asks questions to monitor comprehension,

maintain on-task behavior, and to

communicate importance of ideas.

• Has students generate questions to ask


Competent Teacher

During Passage Reading

• Has students read selection and complete a

study guide independently, with a partner, or

team members.

• Teaches students strategies that can be used

during passage reading: verbal rehearsal,

note-taking, and mapping.

Competent Student

After reading the passage, the

student organizes the critical

information using a graphic

organizer or develops his/her own

visual representation of the


Competent Teacher

After Passage Reading

• Provides students with a graphic organizer

that reflects the structure of the text material

(e.g., categorization, problem/solution,

cause/effect, sequence flow chart).

• Teaches students how to select or formulate

their own graphic organizers (e.g., Thinking


• Asks students to independently or

collaboratively with a partner or a team

develop a graphic organizer.

Competent Student

Retains vocabulary from the passage

and incorporates “academic vocabulary”

into written products and oral


Competent Teacher

After Passage Reading

• Provides engaging practice activities such as:

Yes/No/Why and Comprehension Activities.

• Utilizes vocabulary when communicating to

students and encourages students to use

vocabulary terms.

• Provides time for individual, partner, or team

vocabulary study.

Competent Student

Strategically completes assignments

that accompany passage reading

including: answering questions,

studying for examples, completing

written products.

Competent Teacher

After Passage Reading

• The teacher teaches strategies for

completing assignments.

– Answering questions.

– Studying for exams.

– Writing extended responses.

• The teacher guides students in strategy


Competent Student

• Summarizes critical information from

the selection verbally or in writing.

Competent Teacher

After Passage Reading

• Has students retell the passage content

using their topical outline, notes, or

graphic organizer.

• Teaches students how to write a

summary using a strategy.

• Has students formulate and share

passage summaries.

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