Nick_Otter's presentation (819KB) - Royal Academy of Engineering

raeng.org.uk

Nick_Otter's presentation (819KB) - Royal Academy of Engineering

Royal Academy of Engineering

Fossil Energy Seminar

London

20 th April 2005

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE AND STORAGE

Planning the Transition towards Zero Emission Power

Fossil Power Generation

Nick Otter

Director of Technology and External Affairs, ALSTOM Power Ltd


Viewpoint

• Energy Equipment/Systems Supply Company

- ALSTOM Power : world-wide supplier of power generation plant,

components and services

• Advanced Power Generation Sector

- UK Advanced Power Generation Technology Forum (APGTF)

- UK DTI Advisory Committee on Carbon Abatement Technologies

• European Context

- European Industry : EPPSA/ EUnitedTurbines

- Advisor to EC : DG Research/Energy

- EC Thematic networks : CO2NET, CAME-GT, POWERCLEAN

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 2


Contents of Presentation

• AN OVERALL POSITION

• A FORWARD LOOK IN THE UK

• A CARBON ABATEMENT STRATEGY FOR

ZERO EMISSION FOSSIL FUEL POWER

GENERATION

• A CONCLUDING SET OF REMARKS

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 3


AN OVERALL POSITION

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 4


Overall Message

All measures will be required

– different solutions in different parts of the world

No one single winning technology

– complementary actions

Broad portfolio approach necessary

– energy efficiency, REN, fossil, nuclear

Development of energy technology will be essential

Clean use of fossil fuels : a critical

transition for decades yet in getting to a

sustainable energy future

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 5


A FORWARD LOOK IN THE UK

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 6


UK Carbon Abatement Activity

• DTI working to establish a Carbon Abatement

Technology (CAT) Programme for Fossil Fuels

– Alongside and complementary to other measures

– Power Generation but also Industrial Processes

– Efficiency through to Carbon Capture and Storage

– Link to Fuel Cell/Hydrogen/Sustainable Issues

• DTI commissioned activity to position the UK

– Initiated a special bridging call of CCT R&D Programme

– Review of CCT R&D Programmes

– Feasibility of CO 2 Capture and Storage and EOR-CO 2 in UK

– Supported Missions to US/Canada/Australia

– major input through recommendations from Advanced Power

Generation Technology Forum [APGTF] strategy work

Aim to produce a Carbon Abatement Strategy by Spring 2005

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 7


International Strategic Fit

• Part of an overall strategic framework addressing

clean fossil fuels as a key element of a sustainable

energy portfolio

Clean Fossil

Fuel

Initiatives

Improve Efficiency

Zero Emission

including CO 2

Capture

Fuels Cells

Hydrogen

Fuel Cell and

Hydrogen

Initiatives

Transport

and storage

of CO 2

CO 2

Protocol and

related issues

CSLF

Use of CO 2

eg EOR

IPHE

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 8


A CARBON ABATEMENT STRATEGY FOR ZERO

EMISSION FOSSIL FUEL POWER GENERATION

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 9


APGTF Strategy for UK

• Provision of affordable, acceptable and available low

emissions power plant

• Provide UK industry with global market opportunities out

to 2030

• Contribute to UK wealth creation/quality of life

• Help achieve CO 2 goals while providing security of

supply : on the way to 60% reduction by 2050

Power Plant Types : Pf + fgd/IGCC/GTs/Fuel Cells

CO 2 Capture : Post combustion/Pre-combustion/Oxyfueling

Fuels : Coal, Gas and Biomass

In context of Energy White Paper ……including global aspects

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 10


Strategic Trajectories

Flexible but integrated strategy to cover uncertain future

Carbon

Reduction

Capture ready concept

`Zero Emissions`

Trajectory

Value of CO 2

?

`Increased

Efficiency`

Trajectory

High efficiency plant, a basis for

near emission power generation

Near-term Mid-term Long-term

Time

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 11


Carbon Abatement Strategy for

Zero Emission Power Generation

• Must be developed with the following in mind

– Long term time frame : out to 2030 and beyond

– Technology needs to be `in-tune` with market to engage investors

– Needs of different markets and countries

• Must contain the overall approach of

– Increased efficiency, fuel flexibility and re-powering

– Near-zero emission with CO 2 capture and storage

– Link to a long term sustainable `vision`

• Must include aspects of

– Research and technology development

– Component and system validation

– Demonstration/`Lighthouse` Projects

– Deployment mechanism

Must embrace non-technical

issues as well as technical

Technology

Lighthouse

Projects

Non technical

issues

Research and Technology

Validation of Technology

2010 2020 2030

Increasing complexity in-tune with market development

CO 2 Protocol, Legal, Health, Safety, Perception,..

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 12


UK Carbon Abatement Activity

Current Position as of April05

• Major DTI consultation exercise completed end/Oct04

• Draft CAT Strategy status reviewed by Advisory CAT Committee

Jan/05 and now doing the rounds of Whitehall

• Opportunity in 2005 recognised

– UK has Presidency of EU in 2005

– UK has lead of G8 in 2005

– Global Climate Change identified as key priority

– Engagement of Emerging Market Economies as essential

• importance of China and India

• importance of fossil fuels

• deployment of clean technologies

• Increasing awareness by senior politicians/government officials

• Planned to be launched by Mike O`Brien in April05

but ……... a May Election!!

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 13


CAT TECHNOLOGY ISSUES

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 14


CCT CO 2 Mitigation

1200

1100

100% coal

CO2 emission (g/kWh)

1000

900

800

700

600

10% biomass

20% biomass

◄ Average Europe

◄ Reference plant

◄ Thermie SR

◄ Thermie Ultimo

500

400

% biomass on LHV

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Net efficiency (lhv, %)

Impact of Efficiency Improvement on CO 2 Reduction

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 15


Retrofit Technology

Figure 8

Test results of earlier retrofit to modernise 660MW

units (HHH sister units at Hinkley, Hartlepool and

Sustained increase in plant output/efficiency improvement

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 16


Gas Turbine Technology

Gas Turbine will be a key prime mover for 21st Century

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 17


CO 2 Capture Options

• Post-combustion capture

adsorption/stripping process using

MEA, physical absorbents, etc

CO 2

ab-/desorbing

coating

Heat

insulating

material

Flue Gas

from

gas

turbine

CO 2

depleted

flue gas to

heat recovery unit

• Oxygen combustion

Rotor

core

material

Element structure

internal (membrane) or external

(ASU) oxygen supply

CO 2

cycle gas

out

CO 2

cycle gas

in

• Pre-combustion capture

decarbonisation of fuel

IGCC and link to Hydrogen production

• Other options

Circulating

Fuel Fluidized Bed Boiler

• Pet. Coke

• Coal

• Biomass

Air

Steam

carbonate capture

chemical looping

O

2

Recirculation

Towards Zero Emissions at the right

Steam

CO 2

EO R

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 18

N 2


CO 2 Transmission

• CO 2 tanker:

– Long distance shipping

could be done by tanker

– Construction similar to LPG

tanker

Photo: Dakota Gasification

• CO 2 pipeline:

– 3100 km in use today

– Capacity > 110 Mt/y

Courtesy of IEA GHG R&D Programme

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 19


CO 2 Storage Requirements

• Storage of CO 2 must be

– Safe and secure

– Verifiable

– Environmentally acceptable

– Of sufficient capacity to make a difference

• Natural reservoirs have the capacity

– Deep saline reservoirs

– Depleted oil and gas fields

– Unminable coal measures

– Deep ocean

• Potential for saleable products

– EOR, EGT, ECBM

– Possible early applications as a `stepping stone`

Potential Window of Opportunity in North Sea


CO 2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

CO 2 Injection

Recycled CO 2

Production

Well

CO 2

Oil

Courtesy of IEA GHG R&D Programme

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 21


Geological Storage Potential

Courtesy of IEA GHG R&D Programme

920 Gt CO 2

45% of Emissions to 2050

40 Gt CO 2


Some Concluding Remarks

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 23


Final Concluding Thoughts

• `Uncertainty and Change` will continue

– difficult to forecast future; no one single winning technology;

broad balanced portfolio approach

– fossil fuels will continue to play a major role for decades yet

– clean use of fossil will be a key transitional issue

– impact of a real value for CO 2 - Emission Trading/Tax

implications; market could change dramatically

• 2005 - a Year of Opportunity

– UK will have leadership of G8 and the EU

– real chance to influence on the European and world arena

– importance of Global Climate Change

– engagement of Emerging Market Economies

– UK needs to be in a position to take a significant role

Innovation and continued technology development will be

essential to meet complex demands of the future

RAE Fossile Energy Seminar London 20April05 24


www.alstom.com

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines