Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan - Technische Universität ...

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Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan - Technische Universität ...

Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

Restoration ecology: Brief history, classical

and novel concepts – a European perspective

Johannes Kollmann

Restoration Ecology, Technische Universität München

Brazilian-German Workshop Scientific basis for grassland restoration in southern Brazil, 16.–18.7.2012, Freising


Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

Why restoration ecology?

Motivation, concepts, targets


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… because of changes in land use

Orchard at Lake Constance, 03.08.07: Replacing calcareous grassland


Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

… because of habitat fragmentation

Motorway in Copenhagen, 16.12.09: Isolation of peri-urban wetlands


Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

… because of invasive alien species

Camp site near Kiel, 10.04.09: Replacement of coastal vegetation


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… because of urban-industrial transformation

Demolished buildings Weihenstephan, 22.08.10: Removal of ruderal vegetation


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(Süddeutsche Zeitung 2010)

… because of pollution and eutrophication

Aluminium factory in western Hungary, 04.10.10: Toxic industrial sewage


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… because of climate change

Wind-thrown forest in eastern Denmark, 09.01.08: Disturbance of a wetland


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(van Andel & Aronson 2006)

Interdisciplinary approach of restoration ecology


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Targets of restoration projects

1) Restoring historical natural ecosystems

[spruce forest, Bavarian Forest National Park]

2) Restoring historical anthropogenic ecosystems

[calcareous fenland, Brandenburg]

3) Creating novel natural ecosystems

[disused quarry, Regensburg]

4) Creating novel anthropogenic ecosystems

[biodiversity fassade, Copenhagen]

Reference systems, indicator processes,

target species?


Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(modified after Temperton et al. 2004)

Ecosystem function

(biomass, nutrient dynamics)

Principles of ecosystem restoration

ORIGINAL

ECOSYSTEM

Restoration

Natural recovery

1. Ecosystem degradation

and restoration

Degradation

DEGRADED

ECOSYSTEM

Ecosystem structure

(species and complexity)


Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

Ecosystem function

(biomass, nutrient dynamics)

Principles of ecosystem restoration

ORIGINAL

ECOSYSTEM

3. Re-?

1. Restoration

2. Re-?

1. nm

2. Four basic cases of

ecosystem restoration

4. Re-?

DEGRADED

ECOSYSTEM

Ecosystem structure

(species and complexity)


Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

Ecosystem function

(biomass, nutrient dynamics)

Principles of ecosystem restoration

ORIGINAL

ECOSYSTEM

Reclamation

Restoration

Rehabilitation

Regeneration

Reconstruction

Revitalization

1. Nm

2. vbv

3. Current terms of

ecosystem restoration

DEGRADED

ECOSYSTEM

Ecosystem structure

(species and complexity)


Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(after Zerbe & Wiegleb 2009)

Restoration categories: Degree of naturalness, and

time period and technical efforts needed

1. Reclamation creates suitable sites for agriculture, forestry and recreation

2. Reconstruction … construction of certain landforms

3. Rehabilitation … specific ecosystem functions

4. Revitalization … conditions for site-specific ecological communities

5. Regeneration … a more natural stage based on historical examples

6. Restoration … a well-defined historical stage


Reclamation


Center of Wissenschaftszentrum Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(Rheinische Braunkohlewerke AG 1966)

Historic: New farmland follows open cast mining


www.ipg-bitterfeld.de/wasserfront.html

www.bund.net

Center of Wissenschaftszentrum Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

Today: Conservation & recreation follow open cast mining

www.my-sci.com


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(Student project Restoration Ecology 2012)

Example: Establishment of a bee pasture in a quarry

Innovative combinations of conservation and recreation needed


Reconstruction


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Planning of reconstruction for River Isar in Munich


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(Gurnell, Kollmann et al. 2000a,b, 2001)

Reference: Islands and dead wood in the Tagliamento

Site A B C D E F G H

Islands (%) 6 17 7 0 6 31 9 5

Wood storage (t ha -1 ) 2 29 9 6 27 21 24 89


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(Koch & Kollmann 2012)

Introducing floodplain specialists: Using cuttings of

Myricaria germanica

Cutting size

Burial depth

Water table

Site conditions need to match the community to be restored


Revitalisation


www.hr-schweizer.ch

www.galegge.ch

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www.vogelwarte.ch

Protect agrobiodiversity in field margins & flower strips

?

?

Frankenhausen, Hessen

?

(Vestergaard 2007)


Keimrate

Center of Wissenschaftszentrum Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(Keller & Kollmann 1999)

Reduced germination of European provenances under

Swiss field conditions

ANOVA, Tukey-test: ***, P < 0.001; *, P < 0.05

Centaurea

cyanus

Cichorium

intybus

Daucus

carota

Leucanthemum

vulgare

Silene

alba


Center of Wissenschaftszentrum Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(Kollmann & Keller 2001)

Negative effects of using distant provenances

(1) Seeds mixed with exotic weeds

(2) Lack of local adaptation

(3) Over-successful genotypes

(4) Changed biotic interactions

Low establishment of

target species, deviating

community composiiton

Weed problems

(5) Genetic differences

Geneflow

Effects within

restoration site

Associated

organisms

affected

Effects outside

restoration site

Environmental and epistatic outbreeding

depression in local populations

Recommendations on seed sources need to include local adaptation


Rehabilitation


(Kollmann et al. 20109)

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(Kollmann et al. 2009)

The case of the invasive alien Rosa rugosa in Denmark

National mapping

Local mapping


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(Kollmann et al. 2011)

A new method of control of Rosa rugosa? Uprooting

and burial in coastal dunes

February 2007 September 2008

September 2007

Rhizome


Species number

Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(Thiele, Kollmann et al. 2010)

Control of R. rugosa for biodiversity and dune dynamics

Hippophaë Yellow dunes scrub

Salix Grey scrub dunes

Empetrum Hippophaë heath scrub

15 15

15 15

15 15

total

small

tall

15

10 10

10 10

10 10

10

55

55

55

5

n.s.

n.s.

n.s.

n.s.

00

00

00

0

0 100 00 20 20 40 40 60 60 80 80 100

00 20 20 40 40 60 60 80 80 100

00 20 20 40 40 60 60 80 80 100

0

Rosa cover

Rosa cover

Rosa cover

Cover of the invasive alien plant should be reduce to


Regeneration


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(Kollmann & Rasmussen 2012)

Long-term monitoring of a regenerating bog in Denmark


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(Kollmann & Rasmussen 2012)

Changes in bog profile


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(Kollmann & Rasmussen 2012)

Changes in community

composition of the bog

Restoration takes time, takes time, takes time ...


Restoration


Center of Wissenschaftszentrum Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(Pfadenhauer & Kiehl 2003)

Loss of calcareous grassland due to fragmentation

XX


Center of Wissenschaftszentrum Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(Kollmann & Staub 1995)

Loss of calcareous grassland due to shrub encroachment

NSG Scheibenbuck,

Kaiserstuhl (1968–1985)

1968

1985

Restoration mowing

1975


Species numbers

Center of Wissenschaftszentrum Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(Pfadenhauer & Kiehl 2003)

Re-establishing of calcarous grasslands after

topsoil removal and hay seeding

Spp. per 4 m 2

Spp. per 20 m 2

Without seedling With seeding Without seedling With seeding

Without soil removal

With soil removal

Grassland restoration limited by nutrient conditions and seed dispersal


Open questions

Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan


Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan

(van Andel & Aronson 2006)

Time scale of restoration and natural succession?

Monitoring and (maybe) modification of plans needed


Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan

(van Andel & Aronson 2006)

Filters of species colonisation in restoration projects?

Experiments needed on seed vs. site limitation of restoration


Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan

(Hermann, Kollmann et al., submitted)

Restoration, conservation and novel ecosystems?

Classical restoration approach

H

N

R

R

Novel restoration approach

N

H

H

R

Changes in abiotic

and biotic conditions

Restoration measures

Time

R

Reference ecosystem

H

Hybrid ecosystem

N

Novel ecosystem

Site-specific concepts and approaches (legal implementation?)


Acknowledgements

Questions?

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