to download PowerPoint presentation - iapmo

iapmo.org

to download PowerPoint presentation - iapmo

Legionella and

Waterborne Pathogens:

What’s in Your

Reclaimed Water?

Janet Stout, PhD

Microbiologist, Director

Special Pathogens Laboratory

Research Associate Professor

University of Pittsburgh

Special Pathogens Laboratory − The Legionella Experts


© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Annual Water Usage

from 15 to 67 Million Gallons

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Don’t Waste It – Reuse It!

Collection and reuse of

greywater/rainwater/wastewater

for

toilet flushing, irrigation and

washing clothes could replace 7%

of drinking water production

H.-J.

Albrechtsen Water Sci and Technol 2002: 46: 311-6

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Water by Any Other Name?

• Reused

• Recycled

• Reclaimed

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Reused

Treatment of used water

(reclamation) and subsequent

ent

use of it (any water by any entity)

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Recycled

Previously used water whether

treated or not prior to

subsequent use

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Reclaimed

Recycled water that has been

reclaimed from municipal

wastewater (sewage)

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Sources / Uses of Water Reuse

• Sources

• Uses

• Rainwater • Toilets

• Rainwater collected from

roofs

• “Greywater” drained from

baths, showers, washing

machines and sinks

• Cooling towers

• Irrigation

• Cleaning/spray

washers

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


When Going

Green…

Be Careful

What You

Wish for

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Bacteria Breeding Grounds

Shower & Bath Water

Water Down the Drain

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Many Pathogens in Water

E. coli & GI

Pathogens

Acinetobacter

Amoeba Resistant

Microorganisms ( Legionella )

Pseudomonas

aeruginosa

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Culture Shows Pathogens

Klebsiella oxytoca and

Enterobacter cloacae

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Hospital MICU Faucet!

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


“That’s disgusting!

Think of the bacteria in that water!”

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Q&A

Which bacteria is

A. Pseudomonas

the single most

B. E. coli

common respiratory

C. Legionella

disease-causing

agent associated

with outbreaks

involving drinking

water?

Report by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and

the Committee on Public Water Supply Distribution Systems

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Organisms Oga s Found in Greywater,

Gey

ate,

Rainwater or Rainwater from Roofs

Organism

E. coli GI Tract/ Diarrhea

Pseudomonas

aeruginosa

Legionella spp.

Site and Type of Infection

Blood, lungs, urinary tract, skin/

septicemia, pneumonia, rash

g pp Lung/ pneumonia

Aeromonas spp.

Faecal enterococci

Giardia

Cryptosporidium

p

Campylobacter jejuni

GI Tract/ Diarrhea

GI Tract/ Diarrhea

GI Tract/ Diarrhea

GI Tract/ Diarrhea

GI Tract/ Diarrhea

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


What Is the

Microbiological Quality

of Reuse Water?

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Is There a

Health Risk

Associated with

Water Reuse?

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Let’s Review Some Data

H.‐J. Albrechtsen Water Sci and Technol 2002: 46: 311‐6

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Study Design

• 7 rainwater systems investigated vs.

treated potable water (control)

• Sampled toilets (2-4 per system) and

rainwater storage tanks

• Sampled October 1996 to May 1997

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Results

• E. coli in all systems (conc.


Conclusions

Rainwater with pathogens will,

if introduced into the drinking

water distribution system,

increase the level of risk

in the drinking water supply.

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Water Reuse

and

Bacterial

Contamination

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Raining Bugs

Not Cats and Dogs?

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Example of Rainwater

Harvesting System

© Special Pathogens Laboratory

Tahir and Han. Water Science and Technology 2009


Tank or Incubator?

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Pathogens in Reclaimed Water

Site Effluent Storage DS1 DS2 DS3

Mycobacterium spp. (CFU/100 ml)

CA 1 ± 1 5 ± 17 22 ± 15 35 ± 46 30 ± 120

FL 11 ± 20 65 ± 220 55 ± 390 73 ± 600 107 ± 800

MA 170 ± 190 2 ± 1 c 57 ± 25 320 ± 130 120 ± 80

NY 6 ± 15 50 ± 80 42 ± 110 16 ± 14 31 ± 29

Legionella spp (10 3 CFU/100 ml)

CA


Untreated Roof-Collected

Rainwater

and Legionnaires’ Disease

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Investigation

• Fatal case of LD in an 80-year-old

man

• Community of 1,400 households

supplied with drinking water from

roof-collected rain water systems

• Legionella pneumophila serogroup

1 from water tank, shower, kitchen

tap 3.0 to 8.0 x 10 5 cfu/L

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Conclusion

Roof-collected rainwater systems

can provide a suitable reservoir for

the survival and proliferation of

Legionella and may have caused

cases of Legionnaires’ disease.

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Lessons Learned:

Millennium Dome in London

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Study at Thames

Water Recycling Plant

Birks et al 2004. Water Sci and Technol 50:165-72

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Methods

• Greywater, rainwater and groundwater were

collected and reclaimed for toilet flushing

• Greywater from washbasins inside the dome

was treated using biological aerated filter (BAF)

• Rainwater off the roof was treated using natural

reed beds

• Groundwater was treated using peroxide and

granular activated charcoal (GAC)

• Mixed feed to ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis

(RO) membranes and chlorine

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Results

• Raw greywater - Total coliform count

median 6.5 x 10 5 cfu/100mL

• Legionella detected in 3 samples,

Cryptosporidium and Giardia detected in 2/3

samples

• Reed bed and lagoon system failed to

completely rid rainwater of coliforms

• Ultrafiltration and RO effectively removed

>99% of coliforms

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Conclusions

Presence of Legionella in

greywater samples shows

potential for stored greywater

to serve as a source of this

pathogen

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Conclusions

Treatment

to the

level of ultrafiltration

produced d a water quality

that met worldwide

reclaimed water guidelines

for toilet flushing

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Guidelines for Water Reuse

• In the United States, there are no federal

standards controlling the quality of

reclaimed water

• The Environmental Protection Agency

(EPA) issued a guideline in 2004 listing

the various state requirements

www.epa.gov/ord/NRMRL/

/NRMRL/pubs625r04108/625r04108.htm

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Microbial Indicators of

Water Quality

Escherichia, hi Klebsiella, lbill Enterobacter, Serratia, and

Citrobacter are collectively called the coliform bacilli

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Culture of Greywater

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Drinking Water Standards

• Drinking water standards were

developed d for treated t water and

natural ground water

• May not be adequate for identifying

potential ti pathogens in reclaimed

water.

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Unfit for Drinking ....

and Other Uses?

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Irrigation Warnings

Signs on property:

• No drinking from irrigation system

• Do not use directly on fruits or

vegetables

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Reclaimed Water Regulations

• Regulated by the states not EPA

• Recent information shows serious

public health concerns about pathogens

in water*

• Many pathogens cannot be detected by

current tests. **

* Timothy LaPara, Sara Firl, 206, The Importance of Municipal Sewage Treatment in the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance, , 106 th General Meeting of

the American Society for Microbiology

** James D. Oliver, 2005, The Viable but Nonculturable State in Bacteria, J of Microbiology. Page 93-100.

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


A Few States with Water

Reuse Guidelines

• California • Oregon

• Florida • Virginia

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Water Reuse Foundation

www.wateruse.org

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Is There a

Health Risk

Associated with

Water Reuse?

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Spraying Pathogens – Bad Idea

Open-air Biologic Simulation Test Used Serratia

marcescens in the Public Domain: Serratia was

released from ships at sea or at anchor, at least

two infections (one deadly) were linked

• Location Date of Test :

• Washington, D.C. Aug. 1949, Dec. 1949, March 1980

• Hampton Roads, Va.* April 1959

• San Francisco, Calif.* Sept. 1950

• Key West, Fla.1952

• Panama City, Fla. March to May 1952

• Hawaii, HI Jan. to March 1968

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Open-Air

Biologic Simulant

Testing Using Serratia

Publications

• Gaughran ERL. From superstition to science: the

history of a bacterium. Trans NY Acad Sci 1969; 31:3-

24.

• Yu VL. Serratia marcescens: historical perspective

p

and clinical review. N Engl J Med 1979; 300:887-893.

893.

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Reclaimed Water: Safe if

Properly Managed/Treated

Type of

System

Water

Treatment

Sample

Location

Organisms Isolated

Rainwater* Chlorine +

Bag Filter

Pre-treatment

Post-treatment treatment

Legionella, Pseudo, Steno

Negative

Greywater** UV + Sand Filter Pre-treatment Pseudo, Klebsiella,

Serratia, Steno, Citrobacter

Post-treatment

Steno

Microorganisms found in water harvesting systems

*Sampled May and July 2010; ** Samples May and June 2010

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Optimum Performance Parameters

• Proper design • Periodic testing of water

quality

• Appropriate materials

• Education regarding

regulatory issues for use of

systems

• Proper water treatment / • Consistent maintenance

disinfection materials and

procedures

and operation of the system

and treatment processes

• Appropriate use of water

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


WATER SAFETY PLAN

System

Assessment

Monitoring

Management/

Communication

Surveillance (Validation)

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


New ASHRAE

Legionella Standard

in 2012…

Ready or Not!

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


What Is ASHRAE Standard 188?

Risk management

approach for the

prevention of

legionellosis associated

with centralized

industrial and

commercial building

water systems.

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Common Industrial Reuse

• Cooling water application

• Boiler-feed water

• Process water

• Irrigation of plant grounds

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Responsibility

ASHRAE Standard d 188:Prevention

of Legionellosis Associated

with Building Water Systems will

require facility managers to

implement stronger safeguards to

protect against Legionellosis.

© Special Pathogens Laboratory


© Special Pathogens Laboratory


Contact

info@specialpathogenslab.com

• Legionella in reclaimed water

• Guidelines: ASHRAE 188P

• Legionella Testing, Risk

Assessment, Consulting

Janet E. Stout, PhD

877-775-7284 775 7284 | 412-281-5335281 www.specialpathogenslab.com

© Special Pathogens Laboratory

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines