Planning back better, urgent and important - SCUPAD

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Planning back better, urgent and important - SCUPAD

Planning back better,

urgent and important

Claudia González Muzzio

Architect

Msc Environment, science and Society UCL

Project Director Ambito Consultores Ltd.


CHILE, A COUNTRY OF HAZARDS

Source: Smith and Petley 2009:107


OUTLINE OF THE PROBLEM DISCUSSED

Planning is IMPORTANT in reducing

people’s vulnerability (or increasing it!)

Planning is URGENT as influences

people’s resilience to face disaster

consequences

PLANNING MUST BE HGHLY PRIORITISED


CHILEAN URBAN PLANNING FRAMEWORK

LGUC (General Law of Urbanisation and

Construction) and its Ordinance (OGUC)

4 hierarchical planning instruments

• Regional Urban Development Plan

• Intercommunal Plan

• Communal plan

• Plans for specific sectors of cities

14 norms, managed by building permits

• Land use

• Minimum plot size

• Total sqm allowed

• Percentage of plot occupation

• Maximun high of building

Establishes risky areas (hazardous areas) where

construction is restricted (but not prohibited)


CHAITÉN VOLCANO ERUPTION – MAY 2008

Chaitén is the capital of Palena’s province in Los Lagos region.

Chaitén town had about 4,000 inhabitants in 2002.

It was evacuated during the eruption.


Proposed relocation plan for Chaitén in Santa Bárbara


EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI – 27 FEBRUARY 2010


EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI – 27 FEBRUARY 2010


PRE-DISASTER PLANNING

• Chaitén plan did not consider volcanic hazard

• Tsunamis were not considered by the general law

• Plans already in force consider hazards partially or

not at all, especially the oldest ones.

• Not always norms are defined according to hazards

recognised (politics, public participation, etc.)

• Preassure from private developers

• Misunderstanding about what risks are (vulnerability

is not considered).

• No Risk management, only Emergency

management


POST-DISASTER PLANNING AND CHALLENGES

1. Reconstruction or relocation?

• Last resource

• It must be timely

• The issue of land tenure

• Not always possible

2. Timely planning v/s bucreaucracy

• Existing special law was not applied after 2010

earthquake (legality vs common sense)

• Some new risks studies consider vulnerability (not

clear how it could influence planning)

• Public participation is considered an obstacle but it is

necessary

3. Reactivation of local economies (state or private leaded)

• State slower than private companies

• Market must not do everything


Some initiatives being developed in Constitución,

one of the most affected cities.


FINAL COMMENTS

Disasters provide a unique opportunity for planning back better, for not

repeating past mistakes and to analyse how people live, build and make

cities grow. However, post disaster planning should be timely to allow

but not hinder population and activities recovery. Current framework

must be reconsidered to anticipate and accompany urban dynamics.

Recently announced projects of law aimed to modify both urban

planning framework and construction permits requirements for postdisaster

situations will simplify and relax requirements and regulations

to facilitate reconstruction and planning updating. It is necessary to

ponder if this proposals are on time to promote regional development,

or these are oriented to allow exceptions be the rule.

Disasters are a good companion for urban developers that have argued

that de-regulating land use is the best way to allow markets to

efficiently assign resources. Maybe they consider planning as an urgent

and important matter, although it will be seen in the future if it will be

useful to reduce people’s vulnerability.

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