Evaluating Soil Phosphorus and Surface Runoff Phosphorus ...

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Evaluating Soil Phosphorus and Surface Runoff Phosphorus ...

Evaluating Soil Phosphorus and

Surface Runoff Phosphorus

Relationships at the Plot and

Watershed Scale

David R. German

Dr. Ronald H. Gelderman

James R. Gerwing

South Dakota State University

Dr. Frank V. Schindler

Southwest Minnesota State University


Sources of N and P to Watersheds

in Central United States

(1995 GAO report to U.S. Congress)

Atmosphere Fertilizer Manure Point Source

Nitrogen

Phosphorus


Manure applications based on the N needs of a

crop results in application of P in excess of what

the crop can use


In Agricultural Phosphorus and Eutropication. USDA-ARS, ARS-149. July

1999. A.N. Sharpley, T. Daniel, T. Sims, J. Lemunyon, R. Stevens, and R. Parry


In Agricultural Phosphorus and Eutropication. USDA-ARS, ARS-149. July 1999.

A.N. Sharpley, T. Daniel, T. Sims, J. Lemunyon, R. Stevens, and R. Parry


Objectives:

• Develop correlation between runoff P

and soil test P on select soils of South

Dakota using rainfall simulation.

• Relate field runoff to indoor runoff.


Procedures:

• Identify Field Sites

• Select Sites ranging

from low to high STP

• Use National P

protocol (SERA-17)

• Outdoor Rainfall

Simulation

• Indoor Rainfall

Simulation


210

285

100

34

6


Field TDP runoff versus STP

1.6

1.4

1.2

Moody: Y = 0.0035STP + 0.0687; R 2 = 0.93

Vienna: Y = 0.0027STP + 0.0772; R 2 = 0.94

Poinsett: Y = 0.0035STP + 0.1156; R 2 = 0.76

Kranzburg: Y = 0.0038STP + 0.0055; R 2 = 0.77

Barnes: Y = 0.0032STP + 0.1155 R 2 = 0.76

A

TDP (ppm)

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Olsen P (ppm)

Vienna Moody Poinsett Kranzburg Barnes


Indoor TDP runoff versus STP

1.60

1.40

1.20

Barnes: TDP = 0.0039STP + 0.03; R 2 = 0.91

Poinsett: TDP = 0.0046STP + 0.039; R 2 = 0.97

Kranzburg: TDP = 0.0059STP - 0.0725; R 2 = 0.97

Vienna: TDP = 0.0025STP + 0.0695;R 2 = 0.96

A

TDP (ppm)

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Olsen-P (ppm)

Kranzburg Poinsett Vienna Barnes


Conclusions:

• As STP increases, the amount of

phosphorus dissolved P in runoff also

increases.

• The increase is linear over the ranges

tested.

• Field runoff highly correlated to indoor

runoff.


P Loss on a Watershed Scale

Soil test P vs. Runoff P Relationships

on a Watershed Scale.

• Can data from field plots predict P in

runoff at the watershed scale?


Watershed size:

• South = 5.17 acres.

• Middle = 5.53 acres.

• North = 5.6 acres.


Olsen STP: .5 acre grid

• South = 112 ppm.

• Middle = 83 ppm.

• North = 72 ppm.


Middle Watershed

35

30

Liters/Second

25

20

15

10

5

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Stage (ft)


North Watershed

35

30

25

20

5

0

5

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Stage (ft)


South Watershed

Liters/Second

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Stage (ft)


Middle Watershed

y = 78.767x 2 - 4.8367x + 0.2818

R 2 = 0.9984

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Stage (ft)


10:45:00 AM

11:15:00 AM

11:45:00 AM

12:15:00 PM

12:45:00 PM

1:15:00 PM

1:45:00 PM

2:15:00 PM

2:45:00 PM

3:15:00 PM

3:45:00 PM

4:15:00 PM

4:45:00 PM

5:15:00 PM

0.18

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

South Watershed

8/13/06 Event

3:45:00 AM

4:15:00 AM

4:45:00 AM

5:15:00 AM

5:45:00 AM

6:15:00 AM

6:45:00 AM

7:15:00 AM

7:45:00 AM

8:15:00 AM

8:45:00 AM

9:15:00 AM

9:45:00 AM

10:15:00 AM

Sample Date

2:15:00 AM

2:45:00 AM

3:15:00 AM

Stage


Watershed P

Rainfall Events

Rainfall Amount (inches)

6.5

6

5.5

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1.71 1.78

0.77

3/1/2006 4/1/2006 5/1/2006 6/1/2006 7/1/2006 8/1/2006 9/1/2006

2.74

6.16

1.07

1.17

Rainfall Date


Watershed Runoff vs. Seedbed Plot vs. Mature Corn

All 2006 Events

ppm

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

0.2

0.3 0.3

0.4

0.2

0.2

North Middle South

Watershed Runoff

All 2006 Events

Seedbed Plot

Runoff 6/28-29/06

Mature Corn Plot

Runoff 8/22-23/06


Watershed Runoff vs. Seedbed Plot vs. Mature Corn Plot

Runoff Event April 28-30, 2006

ppm

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

2.1

1.4

1.1

0.3

0.2

0.2 0.3 0.4

0.2

North Middle South

Watershed Runoff

April 28-30, 2006

Seedbed Plot

Runoff 6/28-29/06

Mature Corn Plot

Runoff 8/28-29/06


Watershed Runoff vs. Seedbed Plot vs. Mature Corn Plot

Runoff Event August 13, 2007

ppm

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.6

2.0

0.3

0.2

0.2

1.2

0.3 0.4

0.2

Watershed Runoff

August 13, 2006

Seedbed Plot

Runoff 6/28-29/06

Mature Corn Plot

Runoff 8/22-23/06

North Middle South


Watershed Runoff vs. Seedbed Plot vs. Mature Corn

Runoff Event September 1-3, 2006

ppm

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

1.6 1.7

1.4

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

North Middle South

Watershed Runoff

September 1-3, 2006

Seedbed Plot Runoff

6/28-29/06

Mature Corn Plot

Runoff 8/28-29/06


Watershed Runoff vs. Seedbed Plot vs. Mature Corn

Runoff Event September 16, 2006

ppm

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

2.0

1.0

0.2

0.3 0.3 0.2

0.2

0.2

0.0

North Middle South

Watershed Runoff

September 16, 2006

Seedbed Plot Runoff

6/28-29/06

Mature Corn Plot

Runoff 8/28-29/06


12:00 PM

10:33 AM

9:07 AM

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Total Rainfall

12:00 AM

1:26 AM

2:52 AM

4:19 AM

5:45 AM

7:12 AM

8:38 AM

10:04 AM

11:31 AM

12:57 PM

2:24 PM

3:50 PM

5:16 PM

6:43 PM

8:09 PM

9:36 PM

11:02 PM

12:28 AM

1:55 AM

3:21 AM

6:14 AM

7:40 AM

4:48 AM

Total Rainfall: 6.16 Inches

9/1/06

9/2/06

Inches


12:00 PM

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

Rainfall Intensity

9/1/06 to 9/2/06

3.47 Inches

Total Rainfall: 6.16 Inches

1.49 Inches

1.20 Inches

12:00 AM

1:26 AM

2:52 AM

4:19 AM

5:45 AM

7:12 AM

10:33 AM

8:38 AM

10:04 AM

11:31 AM

12:57 PM

2:24 PM

3:50 PM

5:16 PM

6:43 PM

8:09 PM

9:36 PM

11:02 PM

12:28 AM

1:55 AM

3:21 AM

4:48 AM

6:14 AM

7:40 AM

9:07 AM

9/1/06 9/2/06

Inches per Hour


Watershed size (acres) and discharge

9/1/06 to 9/7/06

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

5.17

5.53 5.60

2.25

2.53

1.09

South Middle North

acres

inches of runoff


5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1

1.5

0.5

0

South Watershed 9/1-3/06 Runoff Event

Tot Dissolved Phos mg/L (ppm) Total Phosphorus mg/L (ppm) Stage

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

ppm

9/1/06 3:36

AM

9/1/06 7:12

AM

9/1/06 10:48

AM

9/1/06 2:24

PM

9/1/06 6:00

PM

9/1/06 9:36

PM

9/2/06 1:12

AM

9/2/06 4:48

AM

9/2/06 8:24

AM

9/2/06 12:00

PM

9/2/06 3:36

PM

9/2/06 7:12

PM

9/2/06 10:48

PM

9/3/06 2:24

AM

9/3/06 6:00

AM

9/3/06 9:36

AM

9/3/06 1:12

PM

9/3/06 4:48

PM

feet


North Watershed

9/1-3/06 Runoff Event

Tot Dissolved Phos mg/L (ppm) Total Phosphorus mg/L (ppm) Stage

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

ppm

9/1/06 3:36 AM

9/1/06 7:12 AM

9/1/06 10:48 AM

9/1/06 2:24 PM

9/1/06 6:00 PM

9/1/06 9:36 PM

9/2/06 1:12 AM

9/2/06 4:48 AM

9/2/06 8:24 AM

9/2/06 12:00 PM

9/2/06 3:36 PM

9/2/06 7:12 PM

9/2/06 10:48 PM

9/3/06 2:24 AM

9/3/06 6:00 AM

9/3/06 9:36 AM

9/3/06 1:12 PM

feet


TDP flow weighted concentration (ppm)

9/1/06 to 9-5/06

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1.90

1.46

1.64

0.23

0.33

0.15

South Middle North

watershed runoff

plot runoff


TDP flow weighted concentration (ppm)

9/1/06 first 30 min of runoff

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1.18

0.86

0.61

0.33

0.23

0.15

South Middle North

watershed runoff

plot runoff


Olsen P vs. TDP

TDP

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

Middle

South

North

Vienna

R 2 = 0.9175

0 50 100 150 200 250

Olsen P


Partners:

• SD Agricultural Experiment Station

• SD Dept. Environment and Natural Resources

• Water Resources Institute

• SD Extension Service

• SD Beef Industry Council

• SD Corn Utilization Council

• SD Soybean Utilization Council

• East Dakota Water Development District

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