University of Aberdeen - Human intervention study ... - Seafish

University of Aberdeen - Human intervention study ... - Seafish

Health effects of consuming 2 portions

per week of Scottish farmed salmon

raised on different feeding regimes

Baukje de Roos

‘Sustainable sources of fish as food’ PROGRAMME

Aquaculture has the potential to take the pressure off wild fish stocks whilst

meeting the dietary needs of the population for omega 3 fatty acids and other key

nutrients such as vitamin D.

Reductions in fish stocks and catch quotas, in addition to sustainability

considerations, mean that farmed fish may have to be raised on vegetable oils for

example but this may reduce the omega 3 content and may affect the content of

other nutrients.

Fish are an important component of the diet and there is a need to understand

the effect of pressures from sustainability on methods of production and the

health giving properties of fish.

We have now been commissioned by the Scottish Government’s Rural and

Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) to do research on

the health effects of Scottish farmed fish fed different feeding regimes in the

Scottish population, and assess how differential effects in measured health

outcomes could be related to fish composition.

Health properties of fish

Omega-3 fatty acids


Vitamin D

Other micronutrients

(selenium, zinc, iron)

Protects against stroke

and lowers the risk of

mortality from coronary

heart disease

Essential for the growth

and maintenance of

healthy bones

Various functions

Cardiovascular disease

• Cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of premature death worldwide (in

Europe accounting for 48% of all deaths)

• Associated health care ramifications from cardiovascular disease cost the EU

economy 192 billion euros a year.

• Moreover, the observed decline in cardiovascular disease since the 1980s has

slowed due to the increasing incidence of major risk factors like obesity,

hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus.

• Improving diet and lifestyle is a critical component of the strategy for

cardiovascular disease risk reduction in the population.

Allender S et al. European cardiovascular disease statistics. 2008

Main preventable causes of ‘death’

Danaei G et al. PLoS Med 2009; 28;6:e1000058

Beneficial effects from fish intake on cardiovascular disease

Mozaffarian D and Rimm EB JAMA. 2006;296:1885-1899

Current dietary recommendations


1994: UK Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA)

2004: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN)

People are recommended to eat at least two portions (with a portion being

140 g) of fish per week, one of which should be oily fish

Two portions of fish per week, one white and one oily, provide approximately

0.45 grams per day of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA)


• Status quo:

0.1-0.2 grams per day

• Prevention of cardiovascular disease:

0.4 – 0.6 grams per day

• Treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease: 1 gram per day

• Treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia:

2-4 grams per day

Commonly consumed oily and white fish

Type of fish








Fresh salmon 1.2 1.3 2.70

Pickled, smoked/canned sardines and pilchard 1.17 1.20 2.60

Kipper 1.15 1.34 2.49

Fresh mackerel 0.71 1.10 1.93

Canned sardines 0.55 0.86 1.57

Canned and smoked salmon 0.55 0.85 1.54

Fresh tuna 0.3 1.1 1.50

Herring 0.51 0.69 1.31

Fresh trout 0.23 0.83 1.15


Canned tuna 0.06 0.27 0.37

Fresh plaid and whiting 0.16 0.10 0.30

Fresh cod 0.08 0.16 0.25

Fresh haddock 0.05 0.10 0.16

Fresh sole 0.00 0.00 0.10

2004. London, Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition

Fish: an important dietary source of vitamin D


Vitamin D

(mg/100 gram)

Raw Herring 19.0

Canned sardines in brine 4.6

Canned sardines in oil 5.0

Raw Salmon 5.9

Canned Salmon 9.2

Raw Mackerel 8.2

Smoked Mackerel 8.0


Vitamin D

(mg/100 gram)

Salmon - fresh and wild caught 15 - 25

Salmon - fresh farmed 2.5 - 6.3

The Composition of Food. London: Food Standards Agency, 2002 Food rich in vitamin D [online]. Nature Systems. 2010. 7-5-2012


FIsh for a Sustainable Healthy Diet In Scottish

Households (FISH DISH) Study

In a human intervention study we will investigate the health effects of consuming

two portions of oily fish (Scottish farmed salmon) per week (current UK

recommendation) using fish raised on different feeding regimes.

Dietary interventions - farmed salmon

For the study they will grow two different types of salmon between April 2012 and

January 2013 on feeds that differ in their omega-3 levels:

• HPUFA: high EPA/DHA levels in feed and in salmon fillets

~15% of total feed fatty acids, equal to wild salmon

• SPUFA: ‘sustainable’ levels of EPA/DHA in feed and in salmon fillets

~6-8% of total feed fatty acids, similar to most Norwegian farmed salmon

Dietary interventions - provision of LC n-3 PUFA

Salmon diet

Salmon fillet fat




(% of total fat)

(% of total fat)

(per 150g portion)



25% EPA/DHA ~28% EPA/DHA 6.30 g 12.60 g 1.80 g

20% EPA/DHA ~22% EPA/DHA 4.95 g 9.90 g 1.47 g



15% EPA/DHA 17% EPA/DHA 3.83 g 7.66 g 1.09 g

10% EPA/DHA 12% EPA/DHA 2.70 g 5.40 g 0.77 g

5% EPA/DHA 6% EPA/DHA 1.35 g 2.70 g 0.39 g

Recommendation: 0.5 g EPA+DHA per day


October 2012:

• Start volunteer recruitment

February 2013:

• Start human intervention study

November 2013:

• Finish human intervention study

• Start sample analysis

Summer 2014:

• Publication of results

Main health outcomes

• Omega-3 Index

• Cardiovascular risk markers (blood lipids, blood pressure, bleeding time)

• Markers of insulin sensitivity

• Markers of inflammation and oxidative stress

• Markers of micronutrient availability (vitamin D, selenium, iodine)

• Markers of gut health

• Markers of genetic health


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