Stream Smart Road Crossings Workshop ... - Maine Audubon

maineaudubon.org

Stream Smart Road Crossings Workshop ... - Maine Audubon

The Value of

Stream-Smart Road Crossings

Welcome!


Stream-Smart Road Crossing

Workshop Partners


Road Map of Day

The Value of Stream-Smart Road

Crossings

Stream Model (Sand Table)

Legal Requirements

How to Create Stream-Smart Road

Crossings

Project Management for Stream-

Smart Road Crossings


Stream-Smart Crossings

Maintain fish and

wildlife habitat

while protecting roads

and public safety.


This is what we’re trying to avoid

Photo: WMTW


Free-flowing streams are valuable


Maine’s amazing fisheries:

Recreational and economic

benefits


Brook

Trout


Brook

Trout


Atlantic

Salmon


Fish need to move

ColdWaterRefuge

DeepWater

Refuge

SpawningHabitat

ForagingAreas

SeasonalHabitats

NurseryHabitat


It’s not just fish

Photo: NH Public TV


And…Altered Stream Processes

It’s also what the stream does

Regulates the flow of water


Altered Stream Processes

Moves organisms and material


Altered Stream Processes

Maintains water temperature


Even small streams are valuable.


OK, so free-flowing streams are

valuable.

What’s the problem?

Barriers!


Culverts are often barriers

% of crossings surveyed

Barriers Potential barriers

100

80

60

40

20

0

Kennebunk (n=58)

Casco Bay (n=937)

Penobscot (n=1,480)

Saco (n=632)

Sandy (n=316)

Kennebec (n=387)

Sheepscot (n=169)

Data sources: KELT, CBEP, KCSWD, USFWS, MFS, SRWC, TU, and partners


The problem is

widespread


Barriers limit fish passage and

disrupt what the stream does

Photo by Kandis Hovland VTF&W


HOW do culverts block

fish passage?

A) Flow too fast

–Undersized or

Too Steep

B) Flow too shallow

–Set too high

C) Physical barrier

–Outlet perched

–Inlet Blocked

–Thermal Barrier

A B C


Flow too fast


Flow too shallow


Physical barrier: Outlet perched


Physical barrier: Inlet blocked

Culvert


Physical barrier: Thermal dams


High water temperatures

stress trout and salmon

30

Water Temp (C)

25

20

15

10

5

6/19/2007

6/26/2007

7/3/2007

7/10/2007

7/17/2007

7/24/2007

7/31/2007

8/7/2007

8/14/2007

8/21/2007

8/28/2007

9/4/2007

9/11/2007

9/18/2007

9/25/2007

10/2/2007

Salmon feeding curtailed

Brook trout impaired


What about tidal streams?

S. Moore and J. Sowles


Tidal restrictions: Shrinking wetlands


Tidal restrictions: Impoundments


What failure looks like

Extended Video Of Freeport Road Collapse:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_uqPR4Ir5o


Photo: Scott Craig, USFWS

What failure looks like


Road washouts: Bad for budgets…

Tons of

Material Item Cost

400 Imported gravel and base material ($21 / ton) $8,400

50

2 employees/trucks (80/hrs @ $45) $3,600

1 employee/backhoe (60 hrs @ $75 / hr) $4,500

Road Work- Grader/excavator (40 hrs @ $100 /hr) $4,000

450 $20,500

The Undersized Culvert is Still There!

Photo: Scott Craig, USFWS


…also bad for habitat


Big storms will become

increasingly likely

43%

Extreme storms


Vermont – Hurricane Irene 2011


Machias River, Maine – December 2010


The Aftermath


Sea level rise will magnify

impact on tidal streams

Eastport, ME

~ 6.1” rise since 1929

Portland, ME

~ 6.8” rise since 1912

Predictions of rises

up to 6.5’ by 2100


Luckily, there are solutions.

Stream-smart crossings

maintain fish and wildlife habitat

while protecting roads and public safety.


What makes a solution stream-smart?

Pre-restoration

41

Photos by K. Mueller


A Wise Investment

Photo: Dan McKinley, GMNF

2010

After Tropical Storm Irene

September 2011


Stream-Smart Crossings

Maintain fish and

wildlife habitat while

protecting roads and

public safety.

Allow the stream to act

like a stream, passing fish

and wildlife as well as the

higher flows that come

with larger, more frequent

storms.

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines