Annual Agriculture Review 2008 - Government of Grenada

gov.gd

Annual Agriculture Review 2008 - Government of Grenada

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

Mission Statement

A professional and highly motivated staff providing efficient, effective, quality services to

the agricultural community (farming, fishing, forestry) to stimulate maximum production

for local consumption, export and increased incomes through the sustainable use of

natural resources.

Vision Statement

An agricultural sector that is globally competitive, ensures food security and sustainable

livelihoods for the Nation and the conservation of our natural environment.

Guiding Principles

To Facilitate Agricultural Development through the following values:

Efficiency, Impartiality, Transparency, Responsiveness, Professionalism.

Key Activities

• Provide technical advice (support) to key stakeholders - farmers, fisherfolks and

forestry, agro-processors

• Provide policy advice for the further development of the sector

• Provide training for all those involved in the sector (including youth and existing

agriculturalists)

• Data & Information (marketing, technical GIS) to stakeholders

• Develop and maintain public infrastructure (access roads, drains, fishing centers,

maritime monitoring)

• Provide support services, such as plants (propagation), pest and disease control,

irrigation advice

• Represent the sector locally and internationally

• Undertake research and development

• Provide technology support for the sector –crops; livestock; fisheries; forestry

• Manage Government estates, forest reserves and protected areas , fishing assets and

resources

• Develop and maintain linkages with stakeholders

• Promote marketing and investment opportunities, including seeking financing for

sector development

• Public awareness

• Administrative support for the work of the Ministry

Published November 2009

Editor/Information Specialist/

Planning Officer: Kimberly M.

Thomas

Co-Editor/Senior Planning Officer:

Daniel Lewis

Ministry of Agriculture

Botanical Gardens, Tanteen, St.

George’s, Grenada W.I.

Tel: 473-440-2708

Fax: 473-440-4191

Email: agriculture@gov.gd

Website: www.gov.gd/ministries/

agriculture.html


This Review has been produced by the

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

with assistance from Food and Agriculture

Organization (FAO) with financing from the

European Union’s (EU’s) Special Framework of

Assistance (GCP/RLA/167/EC SFA2006).

1


Table of Contents

Foreword 4

Permanent Secretary Remarks 6

Introduction 7

Ministry of Agriculture’s Impact 9

on Grenada’s Agriculture Industry

Performance of Fruits, Vegetables

and Root Crop Subsectors and

Assessment of the Impact by

Supporting Ministerial Divisions

11

Fruit Subsector 11

Vegetable Subsector 12

Tubers and Root Crop 12

Subsector

Agronomy Division 13

Biotechnology Division 15

Extension Division 17

Pest Management Unit 19

Engineering Division 21

Performance of the Livestock 25

Subsector and Assessment and

Impact of Supporting Ministerial

Division

Livestock Subsectors 25

Poultry Sub-Sector 26

Veterinary and Livestock 26

Division

Performance of the Fisheries

Subsector and Assessment and

Impact of Supporting Ministerial

Division

29

Fisheries Subsector 29

Fisheries Division 29

Performance of the Forestry 33

Subsector and Assessment and

Impact of Supporting Ministerial

Division

Forestry Subsector 33

Forestry Division 33

Performance of the Agro-

Processing Subsector and

Assessment and Impact of

Supporting Ministerial Division

36

Agro-Processing Subsector 36

Produce Chemist Laboratory 36

Performance of the Spice Subsector 39

and Assessment and Impact of

Supporting Statutory Association

Spice Subsector 39

Minor Spice Cooperative 39

Marketing Society

Performance of the Cocoa

Subsector and Assessment and

Impact of Supporting Statutory

Association

41

Cocoa Subsector 41

Grenada Cocoa Association 41

Performance of the Nutmeg

Subsector and Assessment and

Impact of Supporting Statutory

Association

44

Nutmeg Subsector 44

Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg 44

Association

Ministry of Agriculture’s 4H

Movement

Ministry of Agriculture’s Projects

and Programmes to Support

Agriculture Development

48

49

Projects & Finance Division 49

Support Received From 51

Collaborating Institutions and /or

Donor Community

Food and Agriculture

Organization

51

The European Union 51

The Chinese Agricultural 52

Mission

The University of the West

Indies

Caribbean Agriculture

Research and Development

Institute

Inter-American Institute for

Cooperation on Agriculture

52

52

53

Articles 55

Grenada’s Agrarian Economy 56

– Exploiting the Niche of Agro-

Tourism - By Shadel Nyack

Compton, Proprietor, Belmont

Estate

Why the Development of

a Scientifically Sound and

Sustainable Food Security Strategy,

Programme and Policy Can No

Longer Be Left on the Fringes of

Agricultural Priorities in Grenada?

- By Daniel Lewis, Senior Planning

Officer, Ministry of Agriculture

Agricultural Production Data

– Pivotal for Promoting the

Commercialization of Agriculture

in Grenada - By Jude Houston,

Consultant, FAO

Meteorological Observation for

2008

60

64

67

List of Tables 68

List of Figures 68

References 69

Contacts 70

Notes 71

Websites 72

Annex 72

Annex 1: Food and Live 72

Animals Imports 01/2008

06/2008

Annex 2: Food and Live 72

Animals Exports 01/2008

06/2008

2


Acronyms

AHFS

Agricultural Health and

Food Security

GDBS

Grenada Bureau of

Standards

NMTPF

National Medium Term

Priority Framework

CABA

CANARI

CAP

CARDI

CARIWIN

CIDA

CFIA

CTA

EU

FAO

GAB

GAFY

GAP

GASAP

GCA

GCFL

Caribbean Agri Business

Association

Caribbean Natural

Resource Institute

Conservation Action Plan

Caribbean Agriculture

Research and

Development Institute

Caribbean Water

Initiative

Canadian International

Development Agency

Canadian Food

Inspection Agency

Technical Centre for

Agricultural and Rural

Cooperation (ACP-EU)

European Union

Food and Agriculture

Organization

Grenada Association of

Beekeepers

Grenada Agriculture

Forum for Youths

Good Agricultural

Practices

Grenada Association of

Small Agro Processors

Grenada Cocoa

Association

Grenada Commercial

Fisheries Limited

GDP

GFFF

GCNA

GFNC

GRENROP

HACCP

ICCAT

IICA

IMU

ISO

MNIB

MOA

NADMA

NAWASA

NDFG

NGO

Gross Domestic Product

Grenada Fish Friday

Festival

Grenada Cooperative

Nutmeg Association

Grenada Food and

Nutrition Council

Grenada Network of

Rural Women Producers

Hazard Analysis Critical

Control Point

International

Commission of the

Conservation of Atlantic

Tunas

Inter-American Institute

for Cooperation on

Agriculture

Irrigation Management

Unit

International

Organization for

Standardization

Marketing and National

Importing Board

Ministry of Agriculture

National Disaster

Management Authority

National Water and

Sewage Authority

National Development

Foundation of Grenada

Non-Governmental

Organization

OECS

OECS-

ESDU

SSOP

TCP

TNC

UNDP

UNFF

USAID

UWI

VHF/SSB

WIBDECO

WTO/SPS

Organization of the

Eastern Caribbean States

Organization of the

Eastern Caribbean States/

Environmental and

Sustainable Development

Unit

Sanitation Standard

Operating Procedures

Technical Cooperation

Programme

The Nature Conservancy

United Nations

Development Programme

United Nations Forum

on Forest

United States Agency

for International

Development

University of the West

Indies

Very High Frequency/

Single Side Band

Windward Islands

Banana Development

and Exporting Company

World Trade

Organization/Sanitary

and Phyto Sanitary

NOTE: All prices/values are quoted in Eastern Caribbean Dollars. Exchange rate EC$1 = US$0.37

3


Foreword

Hon. Michael Denis Lett

The Minister for Agriculture

Our Government has a very clear and

unambiguous vision for the agriculture sector

in Grenada. The vision is for an agriculture

sector that is globally competitive, ensuring

food security and sustainable livelihoods for

the entire nation and the maintenance of a

quality natural environment.

As Minister with responsibility for

Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries,

it gives me immense pleasure and an

exceedingly profound sense of gratification

to be associated with the first publication

of this Annual Agriculture Review which,

essentially, highlights the performance of

the industry in 2008.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and

Fisheries attaches enormous importance

to the annual review of the sector which

is intended to provide a summary of the

achievements of this pivotal industry in

2008. This review will provide details on

progress made thus far in the revitalization

efforts following the devastation of the

sector by Hurricanes Ivan and Emily

in 2004 and 2005 respectively. It will

also address problems confronting the

sector’s development, its impact on rural

communities and on the island’s food

security and its contribution to GDP.

As Minister of Agriculture and someone

who has been intimately associated with

the sector over many years, I am painfully

aware of the problems that exist for many

stakeholders who are interested in assessing

up to date information on the sector and are

not able to do so because of the absence of

a comprehensive document where reliable

and credible information can be obtained.

The publication of the agriculture review,

no doubt, will address this anomaly.

I have always held the view that a prosperous

and dynamic agriculture industry is

critically needed to ensure a buoyant and

healthy economy in Grenada. In other

words, the fortune of the island’s economy

is intrinsically intertwined with that of the

agriculture industry. It is not by accident

therefore that Government has placed such

a high priority on the development of the

sector.

The Ministry of Agriculture has prioritized

food security as a major thrust as it endeavors

to revitalize the agriculture sector. What

has transpired over the last year or so, in

relation to the escalation of food prices and

the scarcity that resulted as a consequence

of the restrictions that have been placed on

food exports by some countries, have made

us more conscious of the need to place

greater emphasis on enhancing the island’s

capability to produce, in a more sustainable

manner, food production.

A food security programme is presently

being implemented which has been

supported, in an admirable way, by the

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),

who has provided financial, material and

technical support and by the Government

of Grenada.

Another area that will be given high priority

is food quality and safety. Not only must

food be made affordable and available to

the population but the quality and safety

of foods must meet the basic standards.

Assistance in that area will be solicited

from the FAO. Farmers will be encouraged

to implement Good Agricultural Practices

(GAP) and a farmers’ certification

programme will be implemented by the

Ministry of Agriculture.

While a lot of effort is placed currently

in boosting agriculture production,

Government will pursue vigorously efforts

to protect the environment and to preserve

the island’s natural resources. As a small

island developing state, with very fragile

ecosystems, we cannot afford to make the

colossal blunder that others have made in

the past where environmental degradation

has been carried out in the name of progress.

Several Departments in the Ministry such

4


Foreword ...continued

as Forestry, Land Use, Fisheries, etc. which

are all charged with natural resources

management, will be called upon to

strengthen their surveillance and capability

to deal with the environmental challenges

that lay ahead.

One area that enormous attention will be

given to is that of disaster management.

Given the fact that the farming community

is always at risk of natural calamities and

mindful of the fact that the industry was

decimated in recent times by hurricanes,

steps will be taken to mitigate the risks in

agriculture against all forms of these natural

phenomena. The Ministry will put systems

in place to work very closely with the

National Disaster Management Authority

(NADMA) and will endeavor to establish a

disaster management unit.

Serious agriculture development cannot

take place in the absence of effective policy

framework and therefore, Government

will assess from time to time the prevailing

objective conditions and will put in place

policies that will have a positive impact

on the development of the

industry, the

natural environment and on the prosperity

of all stakeholders who are associated with

the agri- food sector.

On behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, I

am obliged to acknowledge and recognize

the tremendous support the Ministry has

received during 2008 from collaborating

institutions such as FAO, IICA, CARDI,

the University of the West Indies, the

Chinese Agricultural Mission, the European

Union, the Caribbean Development Bank,

the International Trade Centre, the UNDP,

the CTA and other Local, Regional and

International organizations. The Ministry

wishes to place on record its immense

appreciation to all those institutions and

I sincerely hope that such support and

collaboration will be enhanced during the

upcoming years.

Finally, let me take this

opportunity to express

a special gratitude

to the EU,

FAO and the staff of the Ministry of

Agriculture who, collaboratively, have made

the production of this Annual Agriculture

Review possible. It is my sincerest hope

that persons reading this review will

find it informative, interesting and very

rewarding.

5


Permanent Secretary Remarks

Mrs. Gemma Bain-Thomas

Permanent Secretary 2008

Agriculture has long been regarded as

the mainstay of Grenada’s economy.

Our traditional crops of cocoa,

nutmeg and banana have played significant

and meaningful roles in the development of

the country economically, socially, politically

and culturally. However, over the past two

decades, the economy has shifted from one

being agriculture dominated into a services

dominated economy with Tourism being

the leading foreign exchange earner.

The agriculture sector now accounts for

approximately 6% of GDP and employs

about 8% of the total labour force.

Agriculture exports in 2008 amounted to

approximately EC $20M. The principal

export crops being cocoa, nutmeg and

mace, spices, citrus and other fruits and

vegetables.

The agriculture sector suffered significant

losses during the passage of Hurricanes Ivan

and Emily in 2004 and 2005 respectively.

Whilst the sector has enjoyed a notable

measure of recovery; the conditions in the

sector still remain difficult.

The global economic meltdown has

provided an opportunity for the agriculture

sector to once again regain its’ prominence

and play a defining role in nation building.

For this to happen though, certain prerequisites

must take place such as a careful

analysis of the state of the sector, careful

planning to drive capital injection into the

sector, development and implementation

of supporting policies and legislation,

development of human resource capacity

and the ability to attract young persons

into the sector. There must be a focus on

value added and a radical transformation of

the agricultural industry.

This annual agricultural review must

therefore be seen in the above context. It is a

welcomed move that should be seen as a rare

opportunity being provided to undertake

a careful analysis of where we are in the

stream of time and to enable policy makers

to arrive at the most timely interventions

that would result in a transformation of the

sector.

My hope as Permanent Secretary in the

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and

Fisheries is that the compilation and

publication of this annual agricultural

review will serve as the catalyst for the

total resuscitation of the agri – business

sector, the improvement of the standard of

living of the farming community and the

revitalization of the rural economy.

6


Introduction

Agriculture remains one of the

most critical sectors of Grenada’s

economy. The sector continues to

play a significant role in the livelihoods

of rural communities often as their

lone source of income. The Food and

Agriculture Organization (FAO) heralds

the agriculture industry as one that provides

the prospect for progress towards food

security, trade subsequently sustainable

development (Bruinsma 2003). Agriculture

development has the potential to provide

an opportunity for wealth distribution and

economic growth necessary for poverty

eradication and rural development. The

exigency for agriculture development and

diversification has intensified in recent

years considering the negative social and

economic impacts inherited from trade

liberalization and globalization. The loss

of preferential treatment of once lucrative

exported commodities has resulted in

direct and significant reduction in rural

economic activities. Notwithstanding these

impediments, the industry is laden with

tremendous potential.

Despite the agriculture industry’s inherent

potential for national economic progress

in Grenada, economic development rather,

a myriad of challenges associated with the

sector has forestalled it’s preeminence over

other economic sectors. Some of these

underlining challenges are: industry wide

devastation caused by natural disasters

(two hurricanes within less than one year),

insufficient existence and enforcement

of agriculture policies, obsolete farming

systems, limited or more often total

deficiency in the use of technology, paucity

in agricultural research and development,

inadequate farm labourers or labour systems,

aging farming community (average age of

farmers as high as 54) which, inevitably,

has affected productivity in the industry,

thereby threatening future sustenance

of the sector. The problem of an aging

farming community hinges on the inability

of the sector to attract the youths, possibly

because of failure of stakeholders to change

face of the agriculture from an industry

of ‘last resort’ and disdain to one that is

extremely scientific and utilizes modernized

technologies with the outcome of viable

business ventures. Many other intractable

problems exist, including inadequate credit

facilities, unattractive prices for agriculture

produce, disorganized markets, lack of

production planning and limited agroprocessing.

As the global economies continue in

instability and emit adverse impacts to

10.00%

9.00%

8.00%

7.00%

6.00%

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00%

8.65% 8.51%

vulnerable developing countries such as

exorbitant food prices, the urgency to

focus on local agriculture development has

become even more essential. The Ministry

of Agriculture continues to advocate the

sustainable development of the sector.

Previous successes from many of its strategies

and programmes employed have been

generally short-lived, a consequence of the

devastation of Hurricane Ivan in 2004. The

Grenada’s Agriculture Sector Contribution to GDP by Economic Activity

Percentage

Contribution

to GDP

4.50%

4.60%

5.75%

6.25%

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Year

Grenada’s Agriculture Sector Contribution to National Export Earnings

Export

Earnings in

Millions

$35

$30

$25

$20

$15

$10

$5

$0

2005 2006 2007 2008

Year

Figure

1

Figure

2

7


Introduction ...continued

agriculture sector suffered losses amounting

to EC$118.9 million inclusive of tree crops,

livestock, bees, fisheries, forestry, farm

roads and other agricultural infrastructure

(FAO, IICA, OECS Secretariat 2004).

Subsequent years reflected the rehabilitation

and revitalization efforts of the Ministry

to resuscitate the sector. Even though the

sector is yet to be completely restored

(especially as it relates to traditional crops

such as nutmeg and cocoa with longer

gestation periods) it may be contended that

the sector has made significant strides.

In 2008, as projected by the Central

Statistics Office, Agriculture contributed

6.25% to Gross Domestic Product by

economic activity whilst preliminary and

actual figures for the previous years indicated

marginal increases signaling restoration of

the sector post Hurricanes Ivan and Emily.

An estimate from Central Statistics Office

on agricultural exports earnings, exclusive of

agro-processing exports in 2008, amounted

to EC$22.5 million, 30.4% of total export.

Agricultural exports earnings represents

a 29.1% (EC$9.3 million) decrease in

2008 when compared with activities in

2005. Central Statistics Office’s estimates

for 2008, food importation inclusive of

meats, amounted to EC$175.1 million.

Statistics for Agriculture’s contribution

to employment in Grenada for the year

2008 is unavailable since Grenada’s Central

Statistics Office conducted its latest Labour

Force Survey since 2005, however, in that

year, the agriculture industry provided

employment for 8.8% of the rural

communities, 8.3% represented as the rural

poor. Ministry of Agriculture statistics from

the extension division records a total of

approximately 10,000 part-time and full

time farmers that is a significant 10% of

Grenada’s national population.

Whilst the actual economic and social

impacts on rural development and rural

economic diversification are difficult to

assess due to the lack of impact studies for

decades, the evidence of rural economies

dependence are often visible when various

sub-sectors collapse. For instance, the

decline of the banana industry which

accelerated in the mid nineties resulted in

increase unemployment and poverty in

the rural banana community of Clozier,

St. John. Similarly, the devastation of the

nutmeg industry during Hurricanes Ivan

and Emily continues to have detrimental

impacts on rural communities especially

more vulnerable agrarian communities

such as those in St. Mark and St. Andrew.

These indicators provide fundamental

insights on the national dependence of the

Agriculture Industry for the transformation

of rural economies, poverty alleviation,

food security and sustainable economic

development.

The 2008 annual review is mandated to

formally assess the overall performance

of the agriculture sector from both an

institutional and production perspective.

Departments and sub-sectors performance

are evaluated with cognizance of the

expectations of the sector’s stakeholders.

The review is expected to highlight

achievements, identify constraints and

inform problems solving and strategies

formulation for future development and

agriculture diversification. Grenada’s 2008

annual review would also seek to enquire

of the extent to which the sector began to

adhere to the National Policy and Strategy

for Agriculture which promotes the

modernization of Agriculture in Grenada

and also the Ministry of Agriculture’s success

in aligning its strategies to the strategic

objectives of its allied and international

donor agencies.

Over the years, Grenada’s agriculture

sector has been the recipient of numerous

assistance; financial, technical and other wise

from prominent international and regional

allied agriculture and pro-development

organizations. It is anticipated that the

review would provide donor agencies with

required statistics, information and analysis

to allow the formulation of appropriate

assistance, facilitate assistance to be

effectively monitored, support the Ministry

of Agriculture in its impact assessment and

also to plan future activities. The review

would also allow national planners and

decision makers to assess the contribution

of agriculture within the overall economy

and allocate the necessary resources for

its development and also permitting

researchers, students and potential investors

to use the information emanating from the

review for further development of Grenada’s

Agriculture Subsectors.

8


Ministry of Agriculture’s Impact on Grenada’s Agriculture Industry

The Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)

endeavors to be the premiere

agricultural service provider in

Grenada with a summary of objectives which

promote the facilitation of food security

in Grenada, agriculture development,

agriculture diversification, the sustainable

use of natural resources, agriculture

production that enables increase economic

returns for all stakeholders of the sector and

the national economy on a whole.

The Ministry operates extensively within

a legislative and regulatory framework.

Planning and budgetary activities are

directed by eleven (11) governing and

In the year 2008, the Ministry of Agriculture

identified its main priority areas as creating

an environment for enhancing growth

in the agricultural sector, evaluating and

strategizing to improve the management and

delivery of all its functions, translating and

implementing national policies relating to

its portfolio, developing and implementing

programmes that are economically viable,

socially acceptable and environmentally

sound and seeking to support programmes

that would contribute to the economic

and social well being of stakeholders. The

MOA identified essential areas for extensive

focus as: creating and maintaining an

environment for enhancing productivity

The agriculture sector in Grenada is

moderately diversified indicative by the

specialized agricultural service departments.

The Ministry of Agriculture comprises of

ten (10) agricultural service divisions; the

Administration, Planning, Agronomy,

Research and Development, Extension

Services, Land Use and Agriculture

Engineering, Fisheries, Veterinary and

Livestock, Forestry, Pest Management

and the Produce Chemist Laboratory. All

divisions were expected to aspire to attain

the Ministry’s vision of providing superior

services to all stakeholders to facilitate

agriculture development. The service

activities of the Ministry of Agriculture

Laura Estate, St. David

enabling legislative framework including

the Medium Term Framework for

Collaboration with the FAO and the

Agriculture Policy, coined by the Agency

for Rural Development. The activities of

the Ministry of Agriculture in 2008 were

also aligned to the Jagdeo Initiative, a

framework developed towards the common

goal of a regional agricultural repositioning

strategy and the Agro 2003-2015 Plan for

Agriculture and Rural Life in the Americas.

The Agro 2003-2015 Plan is the shared

long-term agenda for promoting the

sustainable development of agriculture and

the rural milieu, for the improvement of

Agriculture and Rural Life in the Americas

(IICA 2007:14).

and competitiveness, facilitating the

production of safe foods, education and

training in order to develop and implement

public awareness programmes and training

sessions for its stakeholders.

September 9th – 11th 2008 marked

a new dispensation for the agriculture

industry in Grenada as over one hundred

(100) stakeholders from the agriculture

community, professionals and lecturers

at the University of the West Indies

participated in a Strategic Planning

Retreat. The retreat which took the format

of a national stakeholders consultation

documented a framework which would

guide intervention strategies to revitalizing

the agriculture sector.

remain extremely diverse and dynamic,

employing a total of 139 agricultural

professionals and technical service staff.

Additionally, as was the case in previous

years, the Ministry remained intimately

associated with six statutory bodies, the

Grenada Cocoa Association (GCA), the

Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association

(GCNA), Minor Spice Cooperative

Marketing Society, Grenada Commercial

Fisheries Limited (GCFL), the Grenada

Food and Nutrition Council (GFNC)

and National Water and Sewage Authority

(NAWASA). The operations of the GCA,

GCNA and Minor Spice Cooperative

Marketing Society would be highlighted in

this annual review.

9


Extension

Services

Agro-

Tourism

The Dynamics of Grenada’s Agriculture Sector

Planning/

Marketing &

Communication

Pest

Management

Services

Biotechnology

Research &

Development

Engineering

Services

Agronomy Forestry Fisheries

Services Services

Livestock &

Veterinary

Services

Produce

Chemist

Laboratory

Spices Commodities

Fruit & Root Crop Livestock Agro- Forestry Fisheries

Vegetable

Processing

Grenada’s Agriculture Sector

Figure

3

Administration Agricultural Services Subsectors

10


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and

Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions

Since the abrogation of the Agriculture

Statistical Department in the

1990’s, there was no structured

data collection system to capture actual

production data for fruits, vegetables,

tubers and root crops production. Despite

this shortcoming, production data for the

past four years including the year under

review was estimated based on purchases

data collected from the Marketing National

and Importing Board (MNIB). The

assumption is that Marketing and National

Importing Board purchases 15% of the

overall fruits, vegetables and root crop

production. The national production was

therefore estimated as 100%. Consideration

was given to the fact that drastic declines

in purchases of produce from the MNIB

would not necessary indicate proportional

decline in the overall production. Some

producers (with the exception of contracted

farmers) often consider MNIB to be a

market of last resort, a consequence of

unattractive price structures compared to

more lucrative markets such as the hotel

industry. This limitation would therefore

hinder generalizablity of findings.

Evidently, Grenada has a sizeable fruit

subsector compared with that of vegetables

and tubers and root crops. Post Ivan, the

fruit subsector fluctuated after a significant

increase in production in 2006. In 2008, there

was decrease in production by less than 1%.

Leading fruits for 2008 and previous years

in descending order of performance were

banana (ripen), golden apple, Julie mango,

watermelon and orange with ripe bananas

representing 50% of total fruit production.

Soursop recorded an astounding 113%

increased compared to production in 2007

whilst cantaloupes decreased by 28%. The

overall performance of the fruit subsector in

Grenada demonstrates significant potential

for agro-processing of fruits.

Vegetable production increased by 9%

in 2008. Leading vegetable production

performance in descending order were

tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbages, callaloo,

lettuce and okras. Even though tomato led

as highest vegetable production by 18%, it

experienced a 18% decrease in production

when compared to production level in

2007. Carrot production increased by

an astounding 264% compared to 2007

whilst exotic vegetables such as broccoli

and cauliflower which are not indigenous

or traditional to Grenada recorded low

production levels.

In 2008, the tuber and root crop subsector

recorded a 23% increase in total production

when compared to production levels in

2007. Leading production performance for

tubers and root crops for the period under

review were sweet potatoes, yams, dasheen,

ginger, and tannia. Sweet potato production

increased by 36%, ginger increased by 67%

Fruit Subsector

Table 1: Estimated National Production of Fruits in Pounds (lbs) for 2005 -2008

Fruits

MNIB

Stats.

2005 2006 2007 2008

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

Bananas (ripened) 127,746 851,640 1,280,044 8,533,627 1,124,564 7,497,093 1,011,934 6,746,227

Cantaloupes 14,935 99,567 16,170 107,800 18,511 123,407 25,758 171,720

Golden Apples 16,541 110,273 104,481 696,542 141,324 942,160 138,485 923,233

Mangoes - Julie 38,533 256,887 48,864 325,760 64,680 431,200 102,413 682,754

Oranges 27,157 181,047 42,915 286,100 36,342 242,280 51,175 341,164

Pineapples (hybred) 5,352 35,680 6,398 42,653 6,516 43,440 4,000 26,668

Pineapples (local) 15 100 723 4,820 327 2,180 1,326 8,843

Plantains 14,631 97,540 72,671 484,473 62,192 414,613 40,461 269,740

Pumpkins 22,937 152,913 29,368 195,789 30,629 204,193 40,479 269,862

Soursops 131 873 3,232 21,545 8,870 59,132 18,913 126,087

Watermelons 48,585 323,900 60,135 400,903 58,884 392,560 76,200 508,000

Other Fruits 276,950 1,846,333 468,643 3,124,287 464,423 3,096,154 498,990 3,326,602

Total Itemized 316,563 2,110,420 1,665,002 11,100,013 1,552,839 10,352,259 1,511,145 10,074,298

Total Production 593,513 3,956,753 2,133,645 14,224,300 2,017,262 13,448,413 2,010,135 13,400,900

* Assumption: MNIB Purchases Represent 15% of National Production

11


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

Vegetable Subsector

Table 2: Estimated National Production of Vegetables in Pounds (lbs) for 2005 -2008

Vegetables

MNIB

Stats.

2005 2006 2007 2008

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

Beets 76 507 2,226 14,838 2,812 18,747 3,439 22,924

Broccolis 157 1,047 157 1,047 102 682 - N/A

Cabbages 38,649 257,660 48,826 325,507 49,04S 326,973 48,045 320,300

Callaloo 25,391 169,273 34,304 228,693 34,750 231,663 41,784 278,561

Carrots 1,586 10,573 7,368 49,120 4,559 30,393 12,024 80,160

Cauliflowers 2,130 14,200 3,268 21,787 6,613 44,088 7,027 46,850

Christophines 8,039 53,593 15,629 104,195 14,824 98,827 13,807 92,046

Cucumbers 26,049 173,660 35,759 238,394 29,340 195,599 48,353 322,353

Lettuces 20,236 134,907 24,714 164,760 26,269 175,124 27,961 186,409

Okras 8,760 58,397 10,333 68,889 7,454 49,692 11,770 78,465

Pak choi 14,780 98,533 21,063 140,420 15,668 104,453 17,051 113,674

Tomatoes 45,072 300,480 65,708 438,053 68,355 455,700 55,939 372,927

Other Vegetables 11,321 75,476 48,190 321,264 26,324 175,491 32,722 218,145

Total Itemized 189,339 1,262,257 261,987 1,746,583 255,232 1,701,549 275,176 1,834,508

Total Production 200,660 1,337,733 310,177 2,067,847 281,556 1,877,040 307,898 2,052,653

* Assumption: MNIB Purchases Represents 15% of National Production

Tubers and Root Crops Subsector

Table 3: Estimated National Production of Tubers and Root Crops in Pounds (lbs) for 2005 - 2008

Tuber & Root

Crop

MNIB

Stats.

2005 2006 2007 2008

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

MNIB

Stats.

NP

Estimates

Cassava Sweets 38 253 353 2,353 1,007 6,713 306 2,043

Dasheens 24,547 163,647 18,649 124,327 23,014 153,427 17,271 115,140

Eddoes 1,972 13,147 1,212 8,080 1,522 10,147 623 4,153

Gingers 1,762 11,747 3,688 24,587 6,261 41,740 10,437 69,580

Sweet Potatoes 30,839 205,593 41,555 277,033 24,239 161,590 38,784 258,558

Tannias 5,627 37,513 1,980 13,200 3,951 26,340 3,951 26,340

Yams 20,372 135,813 12,192 81,280 14,229 94,860 19,787 131,913

Total Production 85,157 567,713 79,629 530,860 74,223 94,860 91,159 607,728

* Assumption: MNIB Purchases Represents 15% of National Production

12


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

whilst dasheen production decreased by

25% in 2008.

The fruit, vegetable, and tuber and root

crop sub-sectors have been supported

by six main divisions of the Ministry of

Agriculture: Agronomy, Biotechnology,

Extension, Pest and Disease Management

and the Engineering Division. The following

assessments of these Divisions provide a

performance and an impact analysis on the

various sub-sectors and also an insight on

operations within divisions.

Agronomy Division

Strategic Focus

The Agronomy Division is liable for two

major services; the provision of planting

materials for farmers and the provision of

technical information to clienteles including

the extension services. The division is also

responsible for research and validation of

new technologies in crop production, for

instance, the introduction of new varieties

and selection of outstanding indigenous

plant types. The Division endeavours to

support production activities in order to

increase yield and economic returns and

nutrition of consumers, by providing

planting material in varieties and the

appropriate production technologies

that are easily adaptable to the farming

community. It is envisioned that the

Division would enhance farmers’ ability to

produce adequate quantities of high quality

products in an economically viable and

environmentally sustainable manner pliant

to changing market trends.

In alignment with the mission, vision and

priority areas of the Ministry of Agriculture,

the Division seeks to provide adequate

support services not only to the farming

community but to the general public as

well. Support was given to the Ministry’s

Food Security Programme through the

development of germplasm in Mirabeau

with targeted crops such as cassava, sweet

potatoes and corn. Cassava and sweet

potatoes were distributed to farmers and

rural community members at no cost.

Operations

The plant propagation activities of the

Agronomy Division are conducted at

four propagation stations; Ashenden,

Boulogne, Maran and Mirabeau, all rural

communities. Ashenden Propagation

Station mainly supplies ornamentals and

some specific fruit plants whilst Mirabeau

Propagation Station supplies mainly fruits,

and staples such as corn, yam, cassava and

sweet potatoes.

In recent years, the demand for planting

materials has increased drastically, as a result

of the enormous demand created following

the widespread destruction caused by

Hurricanes Ivan and Emily on plant crops

on the island. This trend of high demand for

planting materials persisted in 2008. A total

of 23,826 plants were distributed. Whilst

the system to monitor the quantity of plant

production is adequate and accurate, the

actual yield of plants distributed in 2008

was uncertain. This has been the case due to

inefficient monitoring systems. It has been

observed, however, that the survival rate of

plants propagated was extremely poor. Onsite

visits to selected farms by Agronomists

detected that the failure of plants can be

partially attributed to inadequate plant

care possibly due to the highly subsidized

prices that farmers benefits from. Subsidies

incorporated in the prices of planting

materials results in prices of EC$5 or less.

Based on historical data, the general

perception on demand can be derived,

however, the information system installed

to inform production targets was flawed.

Farmers request forms were submitted long

after planning periods which misinformed

the propagation system since allotted

gestation periods were necessary for

many fruit plants. The Division resorted

to guestimates in lieu of the inadequate

information system. Also, there was a need

for unwavering working relationships with

farmers since critical information such

as the readiness of the farms for planting

must be known prior to distribution.

The survivability of propagated planting

materials was dependent on this kind of

critical information.

Table 4: Plantlet Production & Distribution Figures 2004 - 2008

Plants

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Prod. Dist. Prod. Dist. Prod. Dist. Prod. Dist. Prod Dist

Citrus 8,186 4,429 6,939 9,420 9,328 6,283 12,369 6,243 12,189 8,236

Mangoes 397 1,793 - 1,262 589 166 949 1,561 3,162 3,054

Minor Fruits

& Spices

8,410 7,298 5,134 4,094 8,329 6,334 4,812 9,718 8,173 8,169

Ornamentals 838 1,064 1,577 1,113 4,272 3,769 4,395 4,187 7,324 4,357

Totals 21,131 14,584 13,650 15,889 22,518 16,552 22,222 21,709 30,848 23,816

13


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

As it relates to operational activities, the

Division’s main problems were rooted in

insufficient research activities. Although

applied research was undertaken, scientific

research which encourages innovation and

problem solving cannot be readily engaged

due to the absence of necessary facilities.

Over the years, the Division became overly

dependent on the resources of CARDI

for research especially in the areas of fruit

production, dwarf golden apples, and

selection work with selected local fruits.

Unfortunately, the limited resources

of CARDI have proven to be an

impediment. While pre-

Ivan periods reflected a

number of applied

research, post Ivan

periods revealed

a deliberation on

rehabilitation efforts.

Another major problem

which restricted

research activities was

the inadequate cadre of

functioning agronomists.

Though qualified agronomists

were available in the Ministry, some were not

functioning in the capacity. Nonetheless,

the situation was considered and rectified.

Human Resource Capacity

The Agronomy Division employed fifty-six

(56) staff members inclusive of three (3)

agronomists and thirty-six (36) agriculture

workers. Propagation and Technical

Specialists require academic training in

plant science and years of practical exposure

in the field and research/propagation

stations. Propagation subdivision consists

of extremely skilled technicians; however,

the prerequisite qualifications necessary

for further capacity building were not

achieved. This has become a major

impediment to productivity at the stations

since technicians were poorly rewarded and

became exceedingly unmotivated. In 2008,

training was available to Agronomists and

Agriculture Instructors in the area of project

preparation, use of colour traps in the

management of pests, event planning and

a seminar on climate change and biofuel.

Propagation Attendants and Agronomist

also attended training in the use of

irrigation technology. Most Agronomists

have a foundational background in research,

however, additional training is needed in

research and design analysis.

Any deficiency in production, not based

on targets but demand, can be directly

attributed to numerous

other challenges including, inadequate

transportation facilities, limited avenues

for soil sourcing, insufficient supply of

organic (pen) manure and semi-recuperated

germplasm from which a greater demand

of plants was imposed. Another setback is

the annual high demand for citrus plants

which was not based on market potential

rather farmers instincts. Farmers with

established orchards have been indicating

that there were inadequate markets for

citrus products. However, the demand for

citrus continues to be soaring. There was an

apparent need for market information to

inform propagation, and the dissemination

of market sensitive information to farmers

to encourage sound decision making.

Despite the many challenges and limited

resources, the human resource capacity

facilitated the division in achieving numerous

successes for the year 2008. Performance

indicators which were tied into production

revealed that the Division was successful

in attaining its targeted production for the

year 2008. Some measurable achievements

includes: the distribution of 2 ½ acres of

sweet potatoes were planted and 18,125

pieces of sweet potato cuttings were given

to farmers, 2869 1bs of yam plants and 786

lbs of dry peas were sold, 1 ¼ acres

of cassava were planted and

500 pieces of cuttings were

distributed.

Agriculture

Knowledge

Impartation

The provision of

technical information

to farmers as one of the

primary functions of

the Agronomy Division

can be realized through

hands on training sessions

with farmers. However, no

such training occurred in 2008.

Nonetheless, the Division continued

to disseminate information through fact

sheets (tech packs) to clients and as a back

up to extension services, participated in farm

visits to selected farmers (predominantly

commercial farmers) to provide one-onone

guidance on plant care. The Division

acknowledged gaps in some of the tech

packs distributed, an indication of the

effects of climate changes on agriculture

in Grenada. Tech packs are being modified

to reflect the changes in plant growth and

development cycles.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

The Agronomy Division works very closely

with the Extension Division. The Division

conveyed information to the Extension

Division such as new technologies and a

list of recipients of planting materials with

the expectation that the information would

14


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

be transferred to farmers. The support

from the Extension services as it relates to

monitoring and follow up on issues such

as plant survivability in the past year was

unsatisfactory. Inadequate support services

from the extensionists may have been due

to the limited manpower in that Division.

The absence of a Chief Technical Officer to

coordinate such collaborative activities may

also be part of the problem. The Agronomy

Division also collaborates extensively with

the Pest Management Unit whenever pest

and diseases were encountered on farm

visits.

Projects for Future Development

The Division anticipates development

in the future specifically for research. In

order to support the Ministry’s attempts

to diversify Grenada’s agriculture, there is

a need for improvement in germplasm to

meet new demands. Priority must also be

given to training especially in research and

development. Additionally, a strategy for

improving the knowledge of Agriculture

workers that can be recognized by pay

systems should be considered. Flexibility in

assessment for these workers must also be

explored. The Division should be upgraded

with information systems that support

informed and accurate decision making

and planning.

Biotechnology Division

Strategic Focus

The strategic goal of the Biotechnology

Division is to develop the capability of

the Ministry of Agriculture to implement

its policy of diversifying the agriculture

sector through the provision of high quality

planting materials to farming enterprises.

The Division propagates plants using biotechnology

methods and techniques. These

scientific techniques improve the quality,

quantity and variety range of germplasmic

materials. It is expected that these activities

would promote an economically and

environmentally sustainable agriculture

sector. The Biotechnology Unit’s main

function is to propagate and distribute

tissue culture plantlets and commodity

crops devoid of pest and diseases.

In 2008, the Unit supported five of the

Ministry’s programmes and key stakeholders;

Banana and Plantain Programme, the Food

Security Programme, Commercial Food

Crop Farmers, Commodity Crop Farmers

and the Agro-forestry Development. Under

the Food Security Programme, tissue culture

plants were provided for bananas, plantains,

pineapples, tannias and the once prominent

rural commodity, nutmegs. The activities of

the Biotechnology Unit has been subsidized

and supported by the French Mission in the

sum of €5,000,000, Caribbean Agriculture

Research Development Institute (CARDI)

in the form of personnel and Inter-

American Institute for Cooperation in

Agriculture (IICA) in the form of exchange

programmes which facilitated knowledge

and technology transfer.

Operations

The tissue culture plant propagation

activities were conducted mainly in the

Biotechnology Laboratory located in urban

St. George’s area. Plantlets were transported

to acclimatizing stations in Ashenden

and Maran pending distribution. The

Biotechnology Division exerted efforts to

further diversify the varieties of planting

materials and also attempted to optimize

plants propagation to effectively and

efficiently satisfy the increase demands by

stakeholders. Taking into consideration the

limited space and resource capacity of the

Biotechnology Laboratory, a significant

number of tissue culture plants were

imported. It was estimated that, in 2008

ninety-five per cent (95%) of the farmers

used tissue cultured plants. Nonetheless,

there was a substantial increase in plant

production in response to increase demand.

The production super exceeded pre-Ivan

periods twofold.

Increase in production can be attributed

to the introduction of a new laboratory

technology which allowed fifty (50) plants

to be cultured in one flask where as in the

past, the technology permitted only six (6)

Table 5: Purchase of Tissue Culture Plantlets 2005-2008

Plantlets

Purchased

2005 2006 2007 2008

Bananas 3,991 34,763 100,572 65,555

*42,316 *10,315 *17,428 *19,445

Total Bananas 46,307 45,078 118,000 85,000

Pineapples N/A 1,240 907 20,000

Tannias N/A 7,932 3,343 45,000

* Under the Free Trade initiative to revitalize the Banana Industry in Grenada plantlets were distributed on a complimentary basis to

farmers.

15


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

Table 6: Tissue Culture Plantlets Production 2005-2008

Tissue Culture

Plants

plants at once. This system has allowed the

laboratory to increase production from

10,000 plants per annum to a minimum

of 30,000 plants per annum. Tissue culture

plant survival rate was estimated at ninety

percent (90%). Despite this seemingly

success in production, the potential to further

increase production was seriously hindered

because of the limited space capacity at

the laboratory. Levels of contamination in

lab activities were extremely high since the

laboratory has been accommodated in the

downstairs of a building. Additionally, the

laboratory space was designed to occupy

only five (5) employees, however, there are

ten (10) technicians. The facility was also

considered a health hazard by the Public

Service Union and a request was made for

the facility to be abandoned. The Ministry

anticipates the construction of a new facility

by the Chinese Agricultural Mission.

In addition to limitations with the

laboratory, another major limitation to

productivity is the lack of research activities

in 2008. Research and Development

especially for this Division is necessary for

the creation of varieties and innovation in

propagation activities. The wherewithal for

research activities such as information and

technology was also unavailable.

Distribution of plants also had its limitation

over the years. Whilst the system would

have facilitated island-wide distribution,

its efficiency can be questioned since access

to plants was not devoid of problems. In

2006 2007 2008

Bananas N/A 300 1560

Orchids N/A 150 180

Pineapples N/A 1750 N/A

Plantains N/A 740 N/A

Tannias 1400 3020 1712

2008 farmers from St. David (Eastern

District) were faced with the inconvenience

of traveling to Maran (Western District) for

planting materials.

Human Resource Capacity

Senior Technicians in the Biotechnology

Division are expected to possess competence

in biology and chemistry as it relates to

plant science whilst laboratory technician

propagation attendants should possess at

least basic academic knowledge in plant

science. Unfortunately, many technicians

do not possess such skills. There is therefore

a need to strengthen human resource

capacity to meet the changing demands of

the agriculture service environment. Whilst

some staff would have mastered the skills

in plant proliferation, there was need for

the application of scientific knowledge in

propagation and research activities. Greater

competency in cloning (plant breeding), and

propagation ought to be pursued. The main

challenge as it relates to human capacity

lies in the need for staff to understand the

technology and certain basic principles and

techniques such as adaptation which should

be applied in the given line of work. In the

year 2008, a few technicians were trained

in general biotechnology in Beijing, China.

Much more extensive training would be

required to improve efficiencies in plant

production, quality and also versatility.

In spite of the shortcomings with human

resource capacity, production targets for

2008 were accomplished.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

The biotechnology unit utilized the

Communication Department at the

Ministry to transfer information to

clients. During the periods of distribution,

instruction brochures were provided to

clients together with other communication

strategies such as media releases. Training

for farmers was considered responsibility

of the Agronomy Division. However,

together with the Extension Services, the

Senior Biotechnologist visited commercial

farmers to facilitate monitoring. Prescribed

practices for survivability of plants were

generally adhered to by farmers. The rate

of compliance to practices prescribed was

estimated at five out of ten (5/10). It was

observed that farmers were of the opinion

that plants provided by the Division were

resistant to disease. While the tissue culture

plantlets were cultured freed from pest

and diseases, plants distributed were not

resistant to pest and diseases.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

Collaborative work during the year 2008

existed between the Extension Division

and the Pest Management Unit. The

Extension Division was provided with a

list of commercial farmers to ensure that

technical services can be easily accessible

to these farmers. The Biotechnology Unit

in cooperation with the Pest Management

Unit conducted two experimental trials in

three water sheds with imported banana

plants that are resistant to the black

sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) disease.

Both divisions monitored the progress of

those plants to inform future decisions

and planning. Greater emphasis on activity

integration would be needed in future,

particularly, in the area of convening

workshops that would facilitate agricultural

knowledge and techniques to producers.

Attendance to workshops should become

a precondition for receiving subsidized

plants and should occur prior to plant

16


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

distribution.

Projects for Future Development

Future progress for the Biotechnology

Division is highly dependent on speedy

redress to many of the challenges faced. In

order for the division to significantly support

agriculture diversification in Grenada, there

is a need for the construction of a new

and modernized laboratory and improved

facilities at Maran and Boulongue. Training

and research and development should be a

priority. It should be noted that a research

desk was launched in the latter months of

the reviewed year.

Extension Division

Strategic Focus

The Extension Division seeks to disseminate

technical advice and guidance to the

farming community enabling high quality

food production which would increase

competitiveness and profitability for farmers.

Ultimately, the main goal is to enable farmers

to make informed decisions and eventually

increase the output with a consequential

increase in stakeholders’ standard of living.

Although the key functions of the Division

are to provide technical support, marketing

and production information to farmers, the

activities of the Division are multifaceted.

The Division has been spearheading various

activities at the Ministry including World

Food Day Celebrations and the Food

Security Programme.

In collaboration with the Food Security

Coordinator, the Division implemented

supporting activities including the

procurement and distribution of seeds and

other planting materials and agriculture

implements both to home gardeners and

resource poor commercials farmers. Under

the Ministry’s Food Security Programme,

planting materials and seeds for specific

produce were distributed: corn, pigeon

peas, beans, beets, carrots, sorrel, okras,

yams and ginger.

The implementation of the Food Security

Programme in 2008 stimulated production

of staples mainly corn, yams and pigeon

peas. The programme and other activities

at the Ministry resulted in marginal

contribution to rural employment, increase

wealth of farmers who were able to improve

their dwelling houses while some purchased

farm vehicles.

The Extension Division also implemented

two externally funded projects by the FAO;

the Disaster Mitigation Project conducted

with farmers at Mirabeau and the Integrated

Pest Management in Vegetables Project.

Operations

The implementation of extension service

activities for the year 2008 was driven by

governments’ policies to rehabilitate the

agriculture sector. Agriculture production

in 2008 far exceeded that of previous

years possibly because of the impact of the

Food Security Programme, the Agriculture

Enterprise Development Programme;

which provided assistance in the form of

loans to three hundred and eighty-nine

(389) farmers in the sum of $7.2 million

and the increase access and use of irrigation

technology which served vegetable and food

crop production nearly year round.

Evidently, in 2008, Grenada’s Agriculture

faced many challenges including higher

than normal temperatures, excessive

precipitation, and economic hardship as

a result of high cost of inputs as a result

reduced income of farmers. Many farmers

battled with intractable problems such as

insufficient markets, unproductive labour

resources, astronomical cost of inputs and

praedial larceny. A number commercial

farmers have exited the industry to pursue

more lucrative business ventures.

Information on production was captured

mostly from commercial and semicommercial

farmers. Consequently, the

Extension Division was able to provide

some guidance on periods of shortage of

some produce, also estimated figures on

quantities of production based on sample

figures from selected farmers visited was also

conducted. However, the actual production

figures of specific crops for the year 2008

were unavailable. It is therefore a necessity

to implement an enhanced information

system which would capture real output

data. In addition to the foregoing

shortcomings, statistics captured by the

Extension Division for the year was by no

means analyzed to provide stakeholders

with critical market sensitive data.

Human Resource Capacity

Extension Officers are expected to

be extremely knowledgeable of crop

production practices, new technologies,

new produce varieties, pest and diseases

and also equipped with general sectorrelated

knowledge including marketing

information. The Division operates with

ten (10) frontline officers with responsibility

for the four agriculture districts, (Northern,

Southern, Western and Eastern District).

Recent census by the department identified

10,000 farmers island wide, therefore the

ratio of an Extension Officers to farmers

1:1000. This justifies the officers’ approach

in recent years to monitor and evaluate

production of only selected, mostly

commercial farmers. However, in recent

years, the Extension Division received

assistance from seventy-eight (78) Extension

Trainees; twenty-two (22) in the Northern

District, fifteen (15) in the Southern

District, seventeen (17) in the Eastern

District and fourteen (14) in the Western

District. Trainees performed data collection

and seed and plant material distribution

and monitoring services to farmers since

full competence in provided technical

support were inadequate. The Chinese

Agricultural Mission in collaboration with

the Livestock Division conducted training

sessions aimed at improving the technical

support competency of extension trainees.

The training areas covered were;

17


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

• Hot Pepper Production

• Sheep, Goat and Pig Production and

Management

• Farm Record Keeping

• Bee Production and Management

• Soil-less Culture

• Composting and Organic Farming

• Budding, Grafting and Pruning

• Floral Arrangements

• Papaya Production

Besides the impracticable ratio of

competent Extension Officers available

to farmers, numerous other problems

affected the efficient performance of the

Extension Division in the year 2008. Some

of these problems include: limited access to

transportation and the insufficient travel

allowance for extension officers and an

inapt mileage claim system, together with

inflexible working hours of officers 8a.m.

to 4p.m. contrary to that of most farmers.

Another limitation to the performance of

the Extension Division over the years as it

relates to building human resource capacity

was the predisposition of Extension

Service Officers not to exploit long-term

opportunity for training. While several

officers received training in China on

relevant subject matters, opportunities for

long-term training abroad were forfeited

because of commitments such as families

and mortgages of Officers. Nonetheless,

in 2008, several training sessions were

organized to increase staff capacity in the

areas of;

• Agri-business Management

• Shade House Management

• Integrated Pest Management

• New and Improved Varieties, Nutrient

Hormones and Technologies,

• Animal Health and Production

• Vegetable Production

• Project Appraisal

Agriculture Credit

• New and Invasive Pest and Diseases

• Cocoa Production

• Floriculture

Training needed for further capacity

improvement are GPS, new technologies

for all crops, irrigation technology and

information technology. The Division’s

capacity to provide adequate technical

support to farmers was fatally hindered due

to the increased activities in the distribution

of agriculture inputs for the year.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

Over the years the Extension Division

employed a number of different strategies

and approaches to convey agricultural

knowledge to key stakeholders. The most

common approach used was the one-toone

demonstration to farmers. Another key

strategy used was training. Farmers received

training in the past year in: rodent control,

new techniques in vegetable production,

integrated pest management, field training

on new plant nutrients, home gardening,

irrigation and drainage, record keeping,

treffolon technology in carrot production,

developing farm plans, soil observation,

field sanitation and management, use of

appropriate pesticides and bamboo shadehouse

technology. The Division has

been strategically reaching out to farmers

groups to optimize on quantity and

quality of information transfer and shared

among farmers. The Division worked in

close collaboration with the North East

Farmers Group, Mt. Rich/Mt.Reuil Carrot

Growers, CABA, GRENROP, Northern

Cassava Growers Group, GAFY, St. John’s

Farmers Association and La Digue Farmers

Association.

Other approaches used to impart

knowledge to farmers were the distribution

of brochures, flyers and media presentation.

The compliance rate to agriculture practices

prescribed by Division was rated 4/10. It

was observed that farmers’ age has become

a major barrier to the successful adoption

of new technologies. Younger farmers were

the pioneers of new technologies taught.

However, in order to encourage compliance

in the future more methods and results

demonstration plots should be prepared.

Additionally, the successes and impact of

farmers using new technologies should be

highlighted.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

The Extension Division collaborated

closely with the Planning Unit, Veterinary

and Livestock Division, Grenada Cocoa

Association, Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg

Association, and the Marketing and

National Importing Board to facilitate

the collection of production information.

Routinely, the Division joined forces with

the Agronomy Division, Pest Management

Unit and Livestock Division. In addition to

the Ministry’s Management Team meetings,

the Division convened weekly meetings

with its senior Extension Officers and

other collaborating institutions to facilitate

efficient planning.

Projects for Future Development

The major impeding factors necessary

to stimulating agriculture production

in Grenada are attractive prices for

commodities and market accessibility.

As it relates to the mandate of Extension

Division, projects that are needed to support

agriculture development are soil and water

management, further technical support

training for Extension Service Officers and

Trainees, demonstration plots showcasing

18


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crop Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

the use of new technologies and support

from the research divisions.

Pest Management Unit

Strategic Focus

The Pest Management Unit positioned itself

to be the leading institution that executes

integrated management of crop pests in

Grenada. The Unit is constantly applying

all pest (and disease) management methods

to prevent or mitigate the introduction of

exotic pests to the island. Precautionary

attempts are also made to facilitate the

implementation of economically

viable, technically sound

and environmentally

friendly courses

of action for the

management of

indigenous pests

in Grenada.

In 2008,

the strategic

objectives of the

Unit proposed

to achieve the

following: suppress the

spread of Moko (Ralstonia

solanacearum) and Black Sigatoka

(Mycosphaerella fijiensis) diseases

in the Musa species (banana family)

whilst maintaining Yellow Banana

Leaf Spot disease below the economic

threshold level, reduce the population and

damage caused by the Red Palm Mite,

reduce economic losses caused by rodents,

significantly reduce the adult population

of the West Indian Fruit Fly pest in order

to resume fresh fruit export to the United

States market and improve the quality of

plant protection and quarantine services

offered.

The Pest Management Unit has been

extremely instrumental in preserving the

livelihoods of many people in rural farming

communities because of its efficacious

management of noxious pests and diseases

which, if otherwise left unattended, would

have made farming almost impossible. Most

pest management programmes during the

year under review focused on the cultivation

of economic crops cultivated in the rural

areas.

Over the years, some farmers (especially those

cultivating bananas) incurred substantial

crop losses because of the rapid spread of

Moko, Yellow and Black Sigatoka diseases.

In some cases there were almost complete

crop failure while in more drastic situations

some farmers had to abandon their farms.

It is instructive to note, that Moko disease

was first observed on the island in 1978

and has been cited as one of the principal

contributing factors in the decline of

the banana sub sector in Grenada.

The disease is extremely virulent

and affected areas have to be left

abandoned

for a

period of two

years prior to

replanting of the

crop. The disease is

exceedingly expensive to control as it is

spread by insects, contaminated planting

materials, tools and drainage water.

One of the strategies adapted by the

Ministry of Agriculture to control this

dreadful disease is to make available to

farmers clean and healthy tissue cultured

planting materials. Additionally, the

Pest Management Unit employs a Moko

Eradication Team that provides technical

support to farmers in identifying and

destroying diseased mats as well as providing

some prophylactic measures to prevent the

spread of the disease.

The year 2008 marked the implementation

of proactive strategies to prevent further

economic losses to farmers. The production

of banana is critical to Food Security in

Grenada since the crop continues to be a

major staple in the Grenadian food basket.

The last time bananas were exported to the

UK, i.e. through the Windward Islands

Banana Development and Exporting

Company (WIBDECO) was, September 6,

the day before the passage of Hurricane Ivan

in 2004. Since then, the focus in Grenada

as far as banana production is concerned

is for local consumption and for regional

export (especially the Trinidad Market).

Since the dismantling of the European

Banana regime, small exporting states as

those in the Windward Islands have had

enormous difficulties in maintaining their

market share in the UK because of

stiff competition from efficient

producers especially the dollar

producers in Latin American.

The Pest Management

Unit upholds its mandate

to prevent the introduction

of pest through quarantine

surveillance at ports of entry and

throughout the island. In addition,

the Pest Management Unit facilitates

the integrated management of crop pests

to ensure that their population and damage

remain below economic threshold levels.

As the contact point for the International

Plant Protection Convention, strict

actions are enforced to prevent entry and

dissemination of exotic and local pests and

diseases to neighboring states.

Operations

The operations of the Pest Management

Unit for the year under review were

conducted island wide. Services were

solicited from all agricultural districts

including Carriacou and Petite Martinique.

The Unit basically undertakes eight (8)

principal functions which are: execution

of risk analysis on imports, inspection of

19


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

plants and animal imports, certification

of exports, supervision of treatments of

plant products for plant pests, island

wide surveillance for pests, inspection of

agricultural products and carriers entering

Grenada and the identification of pests at

the Unit’s diagnostic laboratory.

In 2008, the Unit employed proactive

and offensive strategies (rather than

reactive strategies used in previous years)

to combat and prevent economic losses

caused by pests in Grenada. Five projects

were implemented: Banana Pest Control,

Rodent Control, Fruit Fly Eradication, Red

Palm Mite Control and the Strengthening

of Quarantine Services. All the projects

were implemented simultaneously within

the Unit with core staff designated to

specific tasks.

The explicit goal of the Banana Pest

Control Project is to reduce the incidence

and severity of the Black Sigatoka disease

below the economic threshold and curtails

the spread of the Moko disease especially

to areas that have not been affected in

the past. Operating activities for the year

included weekly collection and analysis

of data relating to the dynamics of the

Black Sigatoka Disease, spraying and

field inspections. Black Sigatoka was first

identified in Windsor, St. Andrew in 2005

and later it spreaded to adjacent banana

producing areas such as Belvidere, Florida

and Clozier. The measurable success of the

Banana Pest Control Project implemented

in 2008 was an overall decline in the spread

of Banana diseases throughout the length

and breadth of the island.

The Rodent Control Project was geared

towards the implementation of a

participatory approach intended to achieve

drastic reduction in the rodent population

in Grenada. The main implementation

activities included: an assessment of the

rodent population and the installation

of baits and baiting stations island-wide

including Carriacou. This project resulted in

a 40% reduction of the rodent population.

Although the export trade of locally

produced fruits to the US market was not

achieved, a significant decline in the Fruit

Fly population which was approximated

to be 10 times lower than the population

in 2003. Since the discovery of the West

Indian Fruit Fly in 2002, Grenada’s export

trade of fresh fruits suffered drastic decline

in the export of June Plum, Golden

Apple and Yellow and Red Plums resulted

in significant foreign exchange losses

approximately EC$2.5 million per annum.

The Golden Apple market once earned

export income of approximately EC$ 2

million per annum. The implementation

of the Fruit fly Eradication Project received

very strong commendations from the Food

and Agriculture Organization. The Project

involved the placement of bait stations at

all sites known to be affected by fruit flies,

the release of parasitoids, distribution of

protein baits on a tri-weekly basis and the

rearing and release of fruit fly parasitoids,

all in effort to eliminate this noxious pest.

The last phase (parasitoids) has not yet been

implemented.

In an attempt to improve the quality of Plant

Protection and Quarantine services offered

in the Tri Island State and to minimize the

entry of prohibited agricultural products and

pests, the Unit embarked upon a strategy

of Strengthening Quarantine Services

in Grenada and Carriacou. This project

required a number of training activities for

members of staff. Unfortunately, the level

of training needs for the absolute success

of this project was not executed. Despite

the shortcomings, standard operating

procedures prevailed which resulted in the

confiscation of over 300 lbs of fruits and

vegetables imported from neighboring

islands, specifically, Trinidad and Tobago

and Guyana. A number of pests were also

intercepted.

The Pest Management Unit encountered

numerous challenges which significantly

impeded the execution of effective services.

Some of those challenges identified were:

the slow processing of claims for products

procured from suppliers, inappropriate

government bureaucracy to acquire supplies,

difficulties in expanding workforce,

inadequate transportation access for officers

to carry out day to day duties, insufficient

storage space for equipment and field

supplies, ineffective systems to capture crop

production and accurate import data and

analysis and limited training opportunities

for staff. Despite these shortcomings,

the Unit acknowledged its impact which

resulted in an increase in agriculture

produce for the period (eggs, poultry, meat,

vegetables, staples and fruits), improvement

in the quality of products (less incidence of

sooty mold disease for example), increase

in farmers disposable income and a notable

improvement in some stakeholders’

confidence in the Ministry of Agriculture as

far as the delivery of effective services are

concerned.

Human Resource Capacity

The Unit deploys Plant Quarantine/

Protection Officers in all Agriculture

Districts thereby providing services to

approximately 3000 farmers island-wide.

Two officers are assigned to the Eastern

District which contains some of the largest

farming communities on the island and

which is nicknamed the `breadbasket’ of

Grenada.

Field officers are expected to possess

competencies in the operations of plant and

quarantine systems, diagnostic capabilities

of crops, pests and diseases, etc. It is also

expected that these officers should possess

some basic knowledge of the legal aspects

of plant quarantine. Unfortunately, most

officers possess a diploma in Agriculture

and few opportunities have been made

available for them to upgrade their skills

and training.

Core actions that are necessary to improve

and strengthen staff capacity include

recruitment and training of existing staff.

There has been no structured or specialized

training for staff during the past ten (10)

20


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

years. The critical areas where training

has become a necessity for staff are: Plant

Protection and Quarantine, Pest and

Disease Diagnosis, Quarantine Treatment

Methods, World Trade Organisation’s

Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary Measures,

the International Plant Protection

Convention and other legal instruments

to which Grenada is signatory. The Unit

anticipates facilitating more direct contact

with producers and rapid response to the

complaints of farmers, however, the limited

quantity of staff capacity has prevented the

fulfillment of these objectives. Recruitment

has been a difficult process as a consequence

of financial constraints. Pest Management

services provided by Field Officers have

also been adversely affected by some factors

including low morale and limited traveling

(mileage) allowance.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

Integrated Pest Management was promoted

by the Unit instead of heavy reliance on

the use of chemical pesticides. The Unit

conveyed pest management knowledge

to farmers and key stakeholders mainly

through the facilitation of field sessions and

the use of private and electronic media. To

ensure that farmers complied with practices

prescribed, procedures were demonstrated

to them in the fields and in some cases,

officers worked along with farmers on

their farms. The Unit also did important

monitoring and loaning of equipment in

a few cases. Overall compliance rate was

about 50 %.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

The Pest Management Unit collaborates

extensively with the Extension and

Agronomy Divisions in all districts and has

been actively involved in the supervision of

nurseries. The Unit also integrates many of

its operations relating to rodent control with

the Ministry of Health. It was anticipated

that enhanced collaboration with local

agencies, for instance, other departments

within the Ministry (Extension, Agronomy,

and Forestry), Customs and Port Authority

would permit the Division to better exploit

opportunities necessary to thoroughly fulfill

the mandate of the Unit.

The Unit can also improve its operations

by conducting research activities in

collaboration with regional and international

agencies and soliciting funding from donor

agencies through the preparation and

submission of pivotal projects.

Projects for Future Development

The fulfillment of the strategic objective

of the Pest Management Unit needs to be

expedited in order to re-establish export

trade of many agricultural products. Effective

operations of this Unit undoubtedly impacts

on sustainable livelihoods of rural people

and by extension, rural development and the

improvement of the national economy on

a whole. The intervention of international

donors and allied organizations is imperative

to enhance Grenada’s export capabilities

and perhaps, repositioning the island to

capitalize on many potential opportunities

in the lucrative export market.

In addition to urgent training needs of

officers and the considerable investment

in human resource capacity building that

needs to be prioritized, the implementation

of some essential Pest and Disease

Management Projects that would radically

benefit agriculture production in Grenada

are: Fruit Fly eradication projects which

should be incorporated with biological and

Sterile Insect Technique, National Fruit Tree

Projects to facilitate the improved quality

and quantity of fruits, National Rodent and

Mongoose Pest Management, and in light

of the high priority given to the National

Food Security Programme, implementation

of National Banana Pest Control Projects

would be crucially needed.

Engineering Division

Strategic Focus

The Engineering Division is sub-divided

into the Land Use, Soil Lab, Irrigation Unit

and the Farm Machinery Pool and Garage

Unit. Both units ensure the efficient use

and management of technology that

would contribute to sustainable agriculture

development.

Essentially, the Farm Machinery Pool and

Garage Units work toward the provision

of services in land preparation to farmers

at a highly subsidized cost. Conversely,

the Land Use, Soil Lab and Irrigation Unit

have a broader work scope which seek to

provide reliable information and services

on natural resources, agro-meteorology

and irrigation management practices.

This Unit envisions being the principal

provider of land information services that

can be used to manage the environment

sustainably. Ultimately, the Land Use, Soil

Lab and Irrigation Unit, attempt to provide

information and services that would

encourage the sustainable use of land.

The work plan activities in 2008 reflected

the urgent need to revitalize and increase

agriculture production in Grenada. Land

clearance and the installation of irrigation

systems took preeminence in the Division.

Irrigation agriculture in Grenada in the

pass has been grossly underdeveloped.

Considering the classification of Grenada’s

climate, semi-tropical nature, which is

officially marked by a dry season from

January to May and wet season from June

to December (though often fluctuates), the

need for irrigation technology to combat

inconsistencies in agriculture production

became an imperative.

Following a thorough feasibility study in

2002, under the European Union SFA99

and 2000, the Irrigation Management Unit

(IMU) was set up. In 2008 the Division

received financial support in excess of EC$1

million. In expedition towards stimulating

agriculture development, agriculture

21


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

diversification and achieving national food

security, the GREP received support from

IMU to conduct irrigation assessment and

design for twenty (20) farms for the La

Portrie Farmers Cooperative and also for

five (5) acres of farm lands in La Fortune

St. Patrick. The Land Use Division also

received benefits by coordinating the

Grenada Chapter of the CARIWIN which

advocated the installation of a Water Level

Recorded and Automatic Rain Gauge on

the Great River at Birch Grove to monitor

river flow.

The Irrigation Project increased agriculture

production significantly in 2008. The

overwhelming evidence was in the year’s

vegetable production, as fresh vegetables

were consistently available on the local

market. The introduction of irrigation

technology in rural areas did not only

promote agriculture development in terms

of production but it also impacted on the

livelihoods of the farming communities with

farmers moving from a state of poverty to

income earning. The magnitude of benefits

can be attributed to the business concept

which was designed as a revolving fund

and loan scheme for farmers. Farmers were

allowed to make a down payment of only

20% of the total cost of irrigation system

inclusive of installation cost. As the systems

were consigned, the outstanding cost was

then converted to a soft loan with a low

interest rate. Monies from loan payment

were reimbursed into the fund to provide

some assistance to other farmers. Access to

this type of credit facility has lured farmers’

interest in the much needed irrigation

technology which would otherwise be

extremely expensive and laden with a high

installation cost.

Operations

The Farm Machinery Pool and Garage Unit

have been operating from the rural area of

Mirabeau with eight (8) tractors (including

four 4 rotovators and three (3) ridgers).

The Unit has provided services for over

160 farmers in 2008 specifically in the area

of plowing, rotovating and ridging. The

Machinery Pool and Garage Unit was not

able to meet the demands of the farming

community of the services already provided

and also additional services especially land

clearing. The inability of the Unit to provide

services demanded can be attributed to

inadequate machinery also inapt machinery

which would be ideal for the topography

in Grenada. Escalating cost of labour

resulted in an increase in the demand for

land preparation services together with the

heightened demand for farmers to recover

inaccessible agricultural lands since the

devastating impacts of Hurricanes Ivan and

Emily.

The operations of the Land Use, Soil Lab

and Irrigation Unit should be guided by

four key functions which are:

• Irrigation Management; to supply

equipment and technical information

for the establishment and management

of irrigation systems.

• Land Suitability Assessment: to

Table 7: Number of Farmers Receiving Assistance under the Irrigation

Programme by Agriculture District for the Year 2008

Agriculture Districts

No. of Farmers

Northern District ( St. Patrick) 18

Southern District ( St. George & St.

David)

20

Eastern District ( St. Andrew) 13

Western District ( St. John & St. Mark) 1

determine best areas for agriculture

production through the use of

geophysical information.

• Land Use Planning: to provide

guidance through land use mapping

and survey for the suitable use of lands

by all stakeholders, to provide some

level of soil conservation management

which would inform best practices

in cultivation methods that would

prevent soil erosion and land and soil

degradation.

• Performance of Analytical Testing for

Soil Fertility: to determine the soil

nutrient levels as a guide to fertilizer

application.

The Unit successfully functioned in all

capacities in 2008 except in the capacity of

analytical soil testing due to the destruction

of the Soil Laboratory in 2004 by Hurricane

Ivan.

The Irrigation Management Unit has worked

fervently to enhance farm productivity

and the overall competitiveness of the

agriculture sector through the supply of

improved irrigation infrastructure. Using

funding from donor agencies, the Unit

procured high quality irrigation equipment

in bulk at a cheaper price than that offered

by local retailers. Polyethylene pipes which

have a longer lifespan were used rather than

PBC pipes. Irrigation systems were not

only installed for vegetable production but

also under tree crops such as citrus, cherries,

carambola, sour soup and sapodilla. The

Unit installed irrigation systems on fiftyone

(51) farms in 2008, completed system

designs for sixteen (16) farmers, and had

sixteen (9) farmers waiting for installation.

While the use of irrigation technology has

been escalating, evidence of disparity with

the use of other critical technologies such

as soil and water management existed. It

was apparent that farmers perceived that

the introduction of irrigation systems

would solve all agriculture production

problems. However, the reality is with

22


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

World Food Day Exhibition, Carriacou

irrigation, added technologies such as soil

management, ploughing, land terracing,

temperature data analysis and assessment of

rain fall data has become even more critical

in order for farmers to attain compensating

production.

It has become even more essential to

transfer more agronomical information

to farmers. Deficiency in this area would

continuously result in negative impacts to

the environment especially as it relates to

vegetable production. In 2008, there was an

indication of increased siltation in rivers and

dams which is indicative of the breakdown

in farm planning systems. Basic cultivation

techniques were seemingly abandoned

possibly due to the cost of implementation

verses price received for produce or market

availability.

The Division acknowledges other daunting

challenges which have worked together

as impediments to farmers’ adherence to

proper land use practices. Some of these

were identified as inadequate marketing

of produce, lack of availability of land

resources, especially for the young farmers,

and small volume production.

Limited marketing has resulted in reluctance

of farmers to adhere to proper land use and

management practices since it is unlikely

that farmers recover these operational costs

with the current prices received for their

produce. Often citizens who possess land

are not farmers. Farmers are then forced

to lease land resources. In many cases,

the Ministry assisted such farmers in the

installation of irrigation systems. Landlords

then request higher rent which more often

than not became unaffordable to the farmers

who was then forced to evacuate the farm.

In turn, both the farm and the Ministry

incurred losses.

Another crucial problem is associated with

the size of farming plots. Farmers attempt

to maximize the land space whilst ignoring

some of the detrimental impacts of

extensive tree cutting. Also, small size plots

are economically inviable for irrigation

systems. Generally, in order for a farm to be

economically viable it should be at least one

(1) acre. Based on visual field observation,

there is a growing trend that some ideal

farm lands conducive for mechanized

farming, which also have access to water

and labour resources are located in the rural

areas of Pearls and Conference, St. Andrew.

However, the farming community runs the

risk of losing these lands to housing and

other developments.

The Land Use Division attained many

commendable achievements in 2008. The

Division digitized and geo-referenced land

parcels for the south western part of Grenada.

It was also involved in the cartographic

23


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting

Ministerial Divisions ...continued

map design and sale of hard copy maps and

digital data. A land suitability assessment

and appraisal for farmers who benefitted

under the irrigation and draining project

was conducted.

The IMU coordinated the preparation

of Grenada National Water Policy and

the drafting of the relevant Legislation to

accompany that Policy. The Division also

coordinated and convened a National

Stakeholders’ Consultation on the Draft

Water Policy Legislation to review and

discuss the Legislation. Despite the many

achievements, the major shortcoming of

the Division was its inability to evaluate

and monitor the impacts of technologies

implementation on real agricultural

output. However, in collaboration with the

Extension Division, a farm data collection

form was designed to capture this data in

the future.

Human Resource Capacity

Knowledge of soil science, Meteorology,

Hydrology, Agro-Meteorology, Irrigation

Management and Geographic Information

Systems are the types of attributes and

competencies that are expected within the

Land Use Division. The Division employs

specialists with knowledge in these areas,

however, the human resource capacity,

especially for the provision of irrigation

services, was insufficient. Refreshers

training in these various areas are also

essential in order to increase competencies

and also necessary to keep specialist abreast

with new and improved technologies.

In 2008, the Specialists in the Division

received short term training in Hydrology,

Irrigation Management, Geographic

Information Systems and Land Use

Management, nonetheless, more long

term training is required. The Division

endeavors to conduct research in the area

of soil fertility, fertilizer use and irrigation

management, however, the complementary

staff necessary for research and monitoring

is not available. In 2008, there were only

four (4) field officers to provide irrigation

and services island wide. Field Officers

provided service for over 130 farmers which

includes assessment and design, installation

and maintenance. The officers were unable

to meet the total demands for services

requested by farmers.

It was also apparent that there was a

deficiency in general knowledge of the

irrigation technology within the general

public. Additionally, a lack of private

repairs and maintenance support services

impacted negatively on the quality of

services provided to farmers. Consequently,

much of the limited resource capacity in

the Division was involved in the repairs

and maintenance duties for farmers. This

problem was compounded by the Division’s

limited access to transportation.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

The Division conducted training sessions

for farmers prior to installation of irrigation

systems. Other critical training needs such

as proper land use technologies should

be imparted to farmers by the Extension

Division. Farm demonstration was also used

to impart knowledge to farmers. As it relates

to irrigation technology, it was compulsory

for farmers to work along with officers

during installation. Farmers were also taught

how to dismantle the system and also how

to perform minor repairs and maintenance.

Farmers were extremely compliant with

the technique recommended for irrigation

systems. The Division rated compliance as

high as seventy percent (70%). However,

other land use technologies were rated

extremely low.

In order to promote good land use practices

the Division endeavors to foster good

relationship with farmers and to highlight,

through economic persuasion, the savings

that can be made by employing proper land

use practices. Some successful cases were

also highlighted to farmers.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

The Division endeavors to facilitate the

needs of other collaborative institutions.

This was the fundamental strategy used

to ensure activity integration within the

Ministry and with other key stakeholders.

Additionally, information on special

projects was shared with all key stakeholders

in a timely manner. The Division worked

extensively with the Extension Division

especially in the area of training and

technology knowledge transfer. In many

cases, based on the recommendations of the

Extension Division, services were provided

to farmers. Occasionally, the Land Use

and Irrigation Officers visited farms with

Extension Officers.

Projects for the Future

Agriculture production was significantly

improved as a result of the implementation

of the irrigation project. The major concern

is the survivability of the project which

might be threatened by defaulting on

loans by farmers. Appropriate measures

should be taken to ensure the sustainability

of this project. Other projects that are

critical to future operation of the Land

Use and Soil Lab and Irrigation Unit are

a feasibility study to determine the cost

effectiveness and impacts of fertilizer use on

the integrity of soils. The Farm Machinery

Pool and Garage Unit, envisages increasing

its clientele and types of services offered

especially land clearing. Increase resource

capacity specifically D4 bulldozers, bobcats,

disc plows and a JCB backhoe would be

essential in order to achieve this objective.

Other important priority areas as envisaged

by the Division include: a project in rain

water harvesting, training in environmental

efficiency for fertilizers usage, project in

water quality sampling and analysis, and

training in irrigation efficiency and repairs

and maintenance.

24


Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and

Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

Livestock Subsectors

The abrogation of the Agriculture

Statistical Department and the

absence of an appropriate system

to monitor slaughtering have resulted in a

deficiency of livestock production data for

pigs, cattle and small ruminants (goats and

sheep). Production data for these animals

for 2008 were therefore unattainable. Since

2007, the poultry subsector employed

an efficient production system which

accommodated comparative performance

analysis of the sub-sector.

Although production statistics is also

difficult to ascertain, apiculture was one

of the fastest growing livestock subsectors

in Grenada for the year 2008. Beekeepers

have been exporting honey regionally and

internationally. A number of gold medals

have been won by the subsector at the

London Show, indicative of the quality

of honey produced in Grenada. Rabbit

production also has significant potential,

however, a number of initiatives of the past

Comparison of Local Poultry Meat Production vs. Imported Poultry Meat

10,943,568 lbs

88%

Local Poultry Meat Production in Pounds (lbs)

Imported Poultry Meat in Pounds (lbs)

1431,565 lbs

12%

Figure

4

Table 8: Poultry Production in 2008 (comparison percentage and value increase/decrease with Production in

2007)

Poultry Production

2008

Amount

Day Old Chicks 392,191

Local Broilers

1,395,385 lbs

Eggs 7,829,778

ASL Hatchery (local) Imported

704 Cases

(253440 eggs)

Turkey 20% Imported Stock

177,181 Chicks

36,180 lbs

Description

351,684 broilers

38,832 layers

1675 turkeys

Total value

$ 6,628,078.70

Total value

$4,436,874.20

162, 424 broilers

14,727 Layers

High mortality rate due to

sudden increase in environmental

temperature resulting in the death

of appox.20% of stock

%Increase (decrease) &

Increase (decrease) Value in

EC$

-

3.21%

$14, 319

(0.86%)

($57,565.25)

8.33%

601,818 eggs

$341,030.20

(32.07%)

(17,080 lbs)

($136,640.00)

25


Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

used to support rabbit production have

declined. Nonetheless, rabbit meat can be

purchased at some local supermarket.

Poultry Subsector

In 2008, Grenada’s poultry industry

accounted for only 12% of the market share

of total poultry consumption in Grenada.

There was an increase of 3.31% in ‘day old

chicks’ production and 8.33% increase in

egg production. Grenada remained selfsufficient

in egg production, however, there

was an overall decrease in poultry compared

to 2007. Corresponding to the decrease

in local poultry production is a 19.97%

increase in importation (2,185,626 lbs),

valued at EC$ 6,556,878.00. Total poultry

meat importation for 2008 amounted

to 10,943,546.07 1bs which includes

(1,539,544.55 lbs of Chicken back &

neck, 3,320,228.79 lbs of Chicken wings,

4,193,943.74 lbs of Chicken other parts,

90.6 lbs of Chicken whole, 41,598.40 lbs

of other poultry whole and 1,848,161.99

lbs of other poultry parts).

The poultry, cattle, pigs and small

ruminants’ livestock subsectors have been

supported over the years by the Ministry

of Agriculture’s Veterinary and Livestock

Division. The following assessment of the

Division provides a performance and an

impact analysis on the Livestock Subsector

and also operation within the division in

Table 9: Distribution of Dairy Goats by Parish

Parish

the year 2008. The Extension Division also

provided support services to the Livestock

Subsector.

Veterinary and Livestock

Division

Strategic Focus

The Veterinary and Livestock Division is

subdivided into two departments; Animal

Health Emergencies and First Aid and

Animal Production (Livestock Extension).

The Division seeks to provide technical and

non-technical support required for national

livestock development, the maintenance

of a healthy animal population and the

prevention of the spread of diseases within

the animal population and between the

animal and human populations. The

Division attempts to provide all services

in a timely and efficient manner in order

to support Grenada’s growing Livestock

Industry. Key functions of the Division are

to ensure that disease problems in animals

are treated, prevented and wherever possible

eradicated. It also seeks to provide technical

information to livestock farmers including

guidance on infrastructural designs and

plan development, equipment installation,

nutritional information and direction for

feed production and storage.

Livestock continued to be a main agricultural

activity in rural areas. The Industry did not

Number of

Farmers

Goats Owned

St. Andrew 12 158

St. Mark 38 197

St. John 9 133

St. Patrick 26 167

St. George 16 168

St. David 7 44

TOTAL 108 867

generate significant income to rural people,

yet, some measure of income security

was attained. Small poultry projects

implemented by the Ministry, undoubtedly,

made a valuable contribution to the

incomes of rural people. Under the Food

Security Programme, numerous vulnerable

households also benefited. Assistance to

the Livestock Industry through a livestock

component of the AEDP Programme

provided credit facilities in the form of

loans which encouraged the production

of poultry, pigs, small ruminants, rabbits

and honey. A number of livestock farmers

benefited from this programme.

The Division is cognizant of the need to

significantly expand the capacity of the

Livestock Industry in Grenada since local

production has not been able to significantly

reduce decades of high meat importation. In

2008, FAO, G-REP and European Union

provided assistance to some activities of the

Division.

Operations

In 2008, The Veterinary Sub-division

experienced no outbreaks or incidences of

any major diseases. The Division preformed

routine animal health treatments; both

internal and external parasite (lice and

worms) which had devastating effects on

imported goats. Annual rabies vaccination

program was also conducted. The subdivision

activities also included reactivation

of the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

with project completion date carded

for March 2009. Equipment for the

Laboratory was funded by the FAO valuing

EC $202,500.00.

Extension Sub-divisions embarked on several

activities including the establishment of

recording system in the piggery enterprises

and initiation of Small Scale Dairy Goats

Farmers Associations. Pig record cards were

designed and 1,000 copies were printed

and distributed to pig farmers. A sample of

approximately 240 farmers is being guided

on the usage of these forms.

26


Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

Dairy Goats, Belmont Estate, St. Patrick

Through field visits to all parishes, farmers

were identified to rear goats for either milk

or meat. The farmers were encouraged to

form an association of dairy goats which

has since been materialized.

Animal production for the entire Livestock

Industry in 2008 was unavailable since

there was no organized production system

for cattle, pigs and small ruminants.

Animal slaughter was conducted in an ad

hoc manner by stakeholders in numerous

places island wide rather than at local

Abattoirs where it would be much easier to

accumulate production data. The poultry

industry used a more organized system since

Livestock Extension engaged Extension

Trainees to visit poultry farms to collect

data. In the case of apiculture, an estimate

of producing hives must be attained in order

to calculate gallons of honey produced.

The most recent animal census was

conducted in 1996 or 1995 (in 1995

when the last agriculture census was done)

which indicated then that there was an

overall decrease in livestock production

in Grenada. A significant number of

the animal population expired during

Hurricanes Ivan and Emily. However, the

recovery period for poultry production was

much faster than other animals especially

cattle which has a gestation period of nine

(9) months. A comparison of pre-Ivan

animal population with 2008 was not

determined. However, livestock farmers

were faced with innumerable challenges

such as primitive farming systems which

are incapable of producing the market

demands, poor quality replacement stock

since high quality genetic stock would

require substantial investments, high cost

of production which makes it difficult to

achieve cost leadership which is necessary

to eliminate competition from import

oriented suppliers, inconsistency in supplies

due to limited investments in the industry,

stock thief, dog predation and high cost of

supplements among many others.

Human Resource Capacity

The Livestock and Veterinary Division

attempted to designate at least one Animal

Health Officer in each agriculture district

together with one Extension Officer

per livestock type; poultry, swine, small

ruminants, and apiculture, which was

the fastest growing sector. All officers

worked with cattle whilst under the

artificial insemination programme, an

individual officer was assigned. Livestock

and Veterinary Officers are expected to

be trained in the discipline of veterinary,

27


Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

livestock animal science or livestock

production. Unfortunately, throughout the

Caribbean it is difficult to find academically

trained persons in these areas.

Capacity deficiencies by many field workers

were supplemented by numerous training

sessions. In 2008, training was conducted

in areas of; rodent control, poultry

husbandry, brooding and slaughtering

management, honey production, record

keeping, animal husbandry, pig production

and ear tagging techniques. Additionally,

in house training was provided to ensure

that officers are abreast with the changing

dynamics of the industry including training

in artificial insemination, management

systems, updated information on diseases

and diagnostic techniques and prescribed

treatments, together with knowledge base

building on worldwide animal health

diseases.

The efficiency of the Division was

considerable impeded by several problems

including limited access to transportation

and inadequate transport allowance,

leverage necessary to meet the demands of

stakeholders, deficiency in communication

(no communication systems to facilitate

information transfer from the office to

and from the field visits), ad hoc farming

systems as clients are located in many

scattered remote areas which reduces the

number of visits per day, flexible working

hours of livestock farmers which makes it

difficult to plan daily schedules accurately.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

The Division spent the past year reaching

out to farmers’ organizations specifically

the Grenada Poultry Association. Officer

in charge of poultry development was

intimately involved in the affairs of the

association thereby providing training and

knowledge exchange on poultry husbandry

and other related areas. Likewise,

information for livestock was disseminated

through radio programmes sponsored by

Caribbean Agro (supplement producer) and

also television interviews and programmes

were engaged to provide information on

diseases and also demonstrations on new

technologies. Workshops and seminars

were also used to teach livestock farmers

best practices for numerous issues.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

Enforcement of laws was an apparent

weakness of the Division owing to inadequate

inter-ministry collaboration between the

Ministry of Health and the Livestock

Division. There have been some unclear

arrangements over the years which should

be addressed using a structured approach.

Operative collaboration was obligatory in

the area of anti-mortem and post-mortem

inspection. Whilst the Ministry of Health

was compliant with the post-mortem

inspections, this was not the case

for the Livestock Division even

though anti-mortem inspection

should be a prerequisite for

post-mortem inspection.

Another area of concern was

the livestock stakeholders’

compliance to sanitary and

phyto Sanitary measures

which are mostly required for

trade as mandated by the World

Trade Organization of which

Grenada is a signatory.

However, consideration

must be given to the

internal trade of local

livestock products to

the local Tourism

Industry.

Projects

for Future

Development

The success and

development of

Grenada’s Livestock

Industry requires

expansion of production

capacity. Extensive strategic planning would

be necessary to develop the sector. Already,

a demonstration model was erected for

small ruminants in Laura Lands, St. David

with facilities that would inspire farmers to

become involved in commercial production.

More of these types of investments are

needed. The Livestock Industry would

significantly impact rural development only

if substantial investments are made in the

sector. Investments in dairy goat production,

dairy breed cattle and expansion of the

poultry industry are necessary for import

substitution and significant contribution to

national food security.

28


Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact

of Supporting Ministerial Division

Fisheries Subsector

Grenada’s Fishing Industry was one

of the top performing subsectors in

the Agriculture Industry in 2008.

Production level in 2008 was only six percent

(6%) less than pre-existing levels prior to

Hurricanes Ivan and Emily. Overall fish

production in 2008 was valued at EC$31.7

million and in quantity, 5,260,145 lbs that

was a sixteen percent (16.7%) increase in

production compared to 2004. Crustacean

fish production (lobsters, conch, turtles,

squid) in 2008 recorded 31, 276 1bs.

Fish exported to international markets in

2008 amounted to 1,174,810 lbs, valued

at EC$10.6 million. Eighty-five percent

(85%) of total fish export goes to the North

American Market, ten percent (10%) to

the EU via French Martinique, and the

remaining five percent (5%) to other

Caribbean Islands. Fish export represented

46.9% of the total Agriculture Export in

2008, with a contribution of 1.4% to Gross

Domestic Product.

The Fisheries Subsector has been supported

over the years by the Ministry of Agriculture’s

Fisheries Division. The following assessment

of the Division provides a performance and

an impact analysis on the subsectors and

also operation within the Division in the

year 2008.

Fisheries Division

Strategic Focus

condition. The Division is therefore

cognizant of the importance to enact

appropriate legislation and enforcement

complemented by a co-management and

community-based management approach

to achieve its professed mission of effective

fisheries management and development.

Conservation and management of

threatened and endangered species such

as conch, lobster, turtle and the inshore

Production

in Million

Pounds

(lbs)

$14

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

5,613,833

2003

Fish Production 2003-2008

4,505,478

2004

pelagic stock remains a main concern of the

Division.

The fishing industry in Grenada remains a

critical enterprise for the livelihoods of both

rural and urban communities. A number of

coastal communities obtain their livelihoods

and daily protein from fish. The industry is

generally community focused at a number

of focal points on the islands of Grenada,

4,512,945

2005

Year

4,773,502

2006

Fish Exports in Value 2003-2008

4,874,950

2007

5,260,145

2008

Figure

5

The Fisheries Division promotes sustainable

utilization of the living marine resources

within the Fishery waters of Grenada for

current and future generations. The Division

intends to effectively manage and develop

the Fisheries sub sector, functioning as

the lead agency for purpose of governance

and with vested interest in the sector that

ensures the unremitting benefits to all

stakeholders.

Export

value in

dollars

(Million)

$12

$10

$8

$6

$4

$2

$11,718,835

$8,193,909

$9,494,601

$11,088,428

$10,587,147

$9,414,413

Figure

6

Fishing in Grenada is conducted under

open access and common property

$0

2003

2004

2005

Year

2006

2007

2008

29


Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

Fishing Community in St. John

© FAO / Giuseppe Bizzarri

Carriacou and Petite Martinique consisting

of over 2800 fishermen. Although the

industry is small scale, the fishing fleet

is rapidly transforming from subsistence

operations into commercial operations.

Subsequent to the devastation caused

to the industry by Hurricanes Ivan and

Emily in 2004 and 2005 respectively,

financial assistance from the Government

of Grenada and donor agencies specifically;

FAO, USAID and CIDA contributed

significantly to the tremendous recovery

and development of this subsector.

Fishermen were provided with vessels, a

communication network, fishing items and

safety items. The Grenada Rural Enterprise

Project also funded a storage facility at

Waltham, St. Mark (a very underprivileged

community in Grenada) which resulted

in great benefits for the community. The

Ministry of Agriculture also concluded

negotiations with the Government of

Japan on the Project for Improvement

of the Traditional Fishing Community

Infrastructure at Gouyave.

Though the actual impact on rural

development is difficult to decipher,

observations of increase wealth of some

grassroots fishermen is evident in their

access to credit from financial institutions

to purchase boats and personal property

in recent years. The marginal increase in

wealth of some fishermen may be attributed

to the expansion of export markets that

have been attained in North America since

the mid 80’s.

Food Security also takes precedence in

the development of the sector. Whilst the

fishing industry may have been a source of

income for rural community which permits

access to food, there is a need to focus on

fish processing and preservation to ensure

long-term food security.

Operations

The fisheries industry was one of the few

industries to recover in a short period of

time post Ivan and Emily. Fish production

has been increasing progressively, however,

one of the major concern is the management

of the fisheries resources in order to ensure

sustainability. The work scope of the

Fisheries Division includes; the monitoring

of the range of fish stocks and habitat utilized

by stakeholders, regulation to the operations

of users of fisheries resources, surveillance

of activities of fishing units, actions to

initiate and facilitate development within

the sector, collaboration with regional

30


Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

and international institutions on matters

of fisheries development, the promotion

of co-management and community based

management among stakeholders and

provision of services, including technical

support to enhance the efficiency within

the sector.

In 2008, the Division identified its

priority areas for 2008 as; infrastructural

development, training, establishment of a

fishery communication network, support

strategies for marine protected areas, focus

on fisheries biology, the welfare of fishermen,

adherence to ICCAT Convention,

focus on building and strengthening

fisher organisations, collaboration with

the Regional Corporation in Fisheries,

enhancement of quality assurance, review

of legislation and support to investment

in the industry. Accomplishment in some

of the priority areas resulted in a gradual

increase in fish production for the year.

Infrastructural projects implemented,

specifically, the communication network

and the installation of the Waltham

Fish Centre had a significant impact on

production in 2008. The installment

of communication network permitted

fishermen to conduct fishing activities up

to 100 or 120 miles out at sea. This major

improvement created confidence among

fishermen since any problems encountered

or information required ashore can be

easily communicated. Fishermen were

able to work further at sea spending longer

periods. The installation of a new cold

room facility at Waltham made possible for

the community to move from the one or

two boats to the most number of boats in

the Parish of St. Mark. Seventy-five (75%)

of the fish from the parish comes from the

Waltham community.

There are opportunities to further increase

the total fish production from the pelagic

fishery to a maximum sustainable yield

through expansion of the pelagic fleet

that utilizes the appropriate technology.

However, the management of demersal and

crustacean fisheries is critical since they are

more susceptible to depletion than large

pelagic. More management measures should

be employed to ensure the sustenance of

these residential stocks.

In 2008, the Division employed technology

such as close seasons, biological and

physiological restrictions in terms of size,

of spawning, molting or other growth

signals. Fishermen were prohibited by

law to catch lobsters that were premature

or lobsters with eggs in order to facilitate

stock replenishment. The Division has

been working persistently to develop

more management strategies to protect

crustacean species. In collaboration with

the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean

States-Environmental and Sustainable

Development Unit (OECS-ESDU) and

other local stakeholders, the Fisheries

Division has been preparing for the

implementation of the Management Plan

for Sandy Island and Oyster Bed Marine

Protected Area Project.

The main challenge in the fisheries industry

is marketing. Some cold storage facilities,

over the period under review, were filled to

capacity. However, the marketing is also

reliant on another critical challenge, that

is, quality control and quality assurance; a

post harvesting technology. It is imperative

that quality is considered through all stages

of production, including at the point of

harvesting since it would be useless to

enforce quality at the latter stages. Training

in this area is therefore critical. It was found

that the younger generation of fishermen

generally fails to adhere to quality

standards. In order for the industry to be

more economically viable to stakeholders,

quality control must be taken seriously.

Commitment on the part of all stakeholders

is needed to ensure and maintain quality

assurance.

Operational problems that existed in

the provision of fishery services for the

past year includes: inadequate access to

transportation; budgetary constraints,

inadequate information system to provide

biological data on fisheries and lack of

training opportunities. The Division

was not assigned a vehicle which is a

necessity when dealing with regulations

enforcements. Often there were reports of

illegal activities, however, no transportation

was available to facilitate officers in visiting

such eventualities.

Human Resource Capacity

The Fisheries Division is subdivided into

Fisheries Biology, Fisheries Quality and

Fisheries Extension or Communication.

The Division operates in the four agriculture

districts in Grenada and one in Carriacou.

Sixteen (16) specialized staff and twentyseven

(27) operational staff were employed

at the various districts.

The Division has experienced and trained

staff, however, the complement of staff

was inadequate to satisfy the demands of

the work programme. Human Resource

Development, specifically recruitment

and training of staff to provide continuity

with the work programme became a major

concern. There has been an urgent need for

a Data Management Officer since 2003

and to date that vacant post has not been

filled, which resulted in severe constraint in

providing data and information to facilitate

planning and management. There are only

four (4) Extension Officers, three (3) in

Grenada and one for Carriacou and Petit

Martinique which negatively affected the

productivity and efficiency of officers. The

ratio of Extension Officers to fishermen

is therefore extremely high; 4 to 2800

fishermen.

Within the past ten years, no officer has

attended any structured short-term or

long-term training. There is an apparent

lack of such opportunities available, not

only in Grenada, but throughout the

OECS. Few officers participated in an

exchange programme on Fish Culture and

Fish Development in China. There has also

been a lack of a continuous system for staff

assessment and upgrading which may also

influence productivity negatively.

31


Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

Fish Market. Melville Street, St. George’s

© FAO / Giuseppe Bizzarri

However, the most critical issue as it relates

to human resource capacity was the need

for training.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

Consultation and training were the major

strategies used for knowledge impartation

to fishermen. Two major consultations were

held with fishermen island-wide; the first

addressed critical issues such as marketing,

escalating fuel prices, opportunities

for increase fish production, fisheries

conservation and formation of a National

Fisherfolk Organization.

The second consultation dealt with

enhancing communication among and

between fisherfolks. This programme

was jointly organized with the Centre for

Resource Management and Environmental

Studies at the University of the West Indies.

Training was also provided to fishermen in

the areas of: Fishing Vessel Captaincy, use of

VHF/SSB Radio to enhance ship-to-shore

communication, Saftey-at-Sea and Global

Positioning System. To enhance quality

assurance, assistance was also provided to

five fish trading vessels that are engaged

in fish trade between Grenada Grenadines

and French Martinique to prepare their

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures

(SSOP) and Hazard Analysis Critical

Control Point (HACCP).

Generally there were various levels of

compliance to prescribed practices by the

Division. Nonetheless, on average, the

compliance rate was five out of ten (5/10).

In the past fishermen blatantly contravene

the regulations and prescribed practices of

the fisheries management and conservation

system, however, in recent years the

evidence of their destructive actions may

have contributed to greater compliance.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

Within the Ministry of Agriculture there was

constant and effective collaboration between

the Fisheries Division and other ministerial

divisions. Working collaboration with the

Department of Forestry, the Coast Guard,

Custom Department and the Ministry of

Health was also extremely beneficial to the

affairs of Fisheries. The Ministry of Health

has been ensuring quality assurance and has

been providing certification for fish vendors

and fish cleaners. A good relationship persists

with the Department of Forestry in the

quest to protect marine areas, for instance,

the mangroves which provide an extremely

important habitant for fish breeding and

feeding. This relationship between the

Fisheries and Forestry Divisions existed for

over twenty (20) years.

Projects for Future Development

There are tremendous opportunities for

expansion of the fishing industry in Grenada.

However, further expansion is dependent on

the necessary infrastructural development

to create the environment for proper fish

handling systems and to ensure safety and

security of fishermen. In the past, a number

of fishermen were lost at sea. The expansion

of export markets relies extensively on the

effective implementation of quality and

food standards. Projects relating to fish

processing are also a necessity.

32


Performance of the Forestry Subsector and Assessment and Impact

of Supporting Ministerial Division

Forestry Subsector

Grenada’s forestry subsector is of

critical importance to the country

especially as it regards to protecting

the island water sources, conserving our

biodiversity, providing recreational and

livelihood opportunities. Field observations

bear witness to the drying up of ravine

and some rivers. Hurricanes Ivan and

Emily also had a devastating impact on

the destruction of Forest resources. The

Forestry Division remains the sole manager

of forest resources in Grenada and has the

mandate to manage the forest resources

in collaboration with all stakeholders. In

2008, the Division continued its forest

rehabilitation efforts with a target of

15 acres. Six (6) acres were successfully

rehabilitated in a manner devoid of adverse

effects to biodiversity. Rehabilitation for the

year recorded a significant 43% increase in

quantity of production compared to 2007.

The following assessment of the Division

provides a performance and an impact

analysis on the subsector and also operation

within the Division in the year 2008.

Forestry Division

Strategic Focus

of the forestry system to the environment,

institutions and communities. The Forestry

Division is committed to facilitating: the

sustainable management of wild life and

maintenance of biodiversity, watershed

management, timber production, tree

planting, protection of mangroves, and

enhancement of recreational and ecotourism

products.

The strategic objectives of the Division were

grafted from the National Forestry Policy

which is consistent with both regional and

international conservation organization such

as The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the

United Nations Convention on Biological

Diversity Forum on Forest (UNFF).

The Strategic objectives for 2008 were:

reforestation of about fifteen (15) acres of

forest, consistent liaison with stakeholders

and the provision of technical support to all

stakeholders, implementation of activities

geared towards conservation of the forest

and collaboration with conservation

institutions including the United Nations

Convention to Combat Diversification and

local Non-Governmental Organisations.

The operations of the Division during

the year under review have significantly

contributed to rural development. In

addition to achieving some form of

sustainable management of forested areas

which was done in collaboration with

G-REP, the Division also embarked upon

the development of an eco-tourism product

in the community of Après Tout, St. David.

This livelihood project has the potential

to benefit the community tremendously

through the provision of employment and

other income opportunities. Members

from this community were equipped

with the necessary tolls such as effective

communication and other entrepreneurial

skills. Community members will establish

their own tourism service business such

as tour guides and the merchants of

medicinal herbs and exotic spices. The

Division also worked with the Convention

on Climate Change, CANARI and TNC

for the implementation of other forestry

related activities that are consistent with

international conventions and agreements

and ensures that Grenada’s commitments

with such conventions and agreements are

honored.

Operations

The Forestry Division is sub-divided into

the Upland Watershed Management,

Trees Establishment and Management,

The Forestry Division is conceived as the

leading natural resource management

institution that ensures the sustainable

management of the island’s forest resources.

The Division works diligently to manage

in a sustainable manner, Grenada’s forest

resources and cultural landmarks in order

to optimise on the potential contribution

that could be made environmentally,

socially and also to the country’s economic

development.

In past decades, the Division narrowly

focused on the planting of trees to support

economic activities such as local craft

production. However, from 1997, with the

introduction of the National Forest Policy, its

mandate has evolved to reflect the strategic

direction which highlights the importance

Number of

Forest Trees

Produced

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0

Forest Trees Production 2003-2008

10,000

8,000

7,000

5,000

5,000

3,000

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Year

Figure

7

33


Performance of the Forestry Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

Maintenance and Management, Forest

Recreation, Heritage, Forestry Conversation

and Environmental Education, Wildlife

Conservation and Mangrove Conservation.

All the Departments performed assiduously

various activities to ensure the success in

achieving the strategic objectives of the

Division.

As a result of Hurricane Ivan, ninety

percent (90%) of the forest lands and

watershed became uncovered as canopying

trees had fallen. Estimated damage to the

Forestry Industry was around EC$ 20.8

million. Regeneration and growth of

vegetation became a matter of urgency not

only because of the exposure of watershed

areas but to prevent the destruction of the

wildlife habitat and feeding grounds of

the faunal species. Wildlife habitat started

to diminish which may have resulted in

possible decline of these species. Though the

market demand for trees had decreased, the

need to stimulate production was eminent.

The Forestry Division has been phasing

out excessive forestry harvesting since most

trees are located in critical watershed areas,

however, harvesters were permitted to extract

fallen trees. Major extracting activities were

related to the six (6) sawmills operating

in Grenada. These sawmills produce small

volumes of lumber, mainly for furniture and

craft production. To sustain this market,

the Forestry Division replanted economical

trees such as Mahogany and Blue Mahoe.

Other species were also purchased by

farmers for windbreaks. The Caribbean

Table 10: Size of Grenada’s Forest Reserves

Grenada’s Gazetted Forest Reserves

Pine, an exotic species, was severely damaged

during Hurricane Ivan. Even standing pine

tree has been dying. In attempts to salvage

some benefits from these trees, the Division

permitted harvesters to cut for economical

purposes.

Other achievements of the Division for

the period under review were: production

of fence post to satisfy needs of local

builders and other local stakeholders,

the establishment of boundary lines

maintenance to avoid forest rangers from

patrolling on private lands, successes in

anti-squatting and early detection activities,

establishment of a management plan for

the Levera Diversity and the Conservation

Action Plan (CAP) in Brizian St. George.

Another major success was the survey and

demarcation of six (6) Forest Reserves;

Mt. Moritz, Grand Etang, Annadale,

Richman Hill, Mt. Gazo, Grand Bras and

Perseverance which were also gazetted. In

collaboration with G-REP, the Division

commenced the process of maintaining

facilities and establishing new ones in order

to satisfy the needs of locals and tourists in

the areas of Grand Etang and Après Tout.

The main challenges experienced by the

Forestry Division were identified as:

budgetary constraints, insufficient research,

inadequate resource capacity including

office equipment and inflexibility of service

operations particularly for forest policing

activities. Financial allocation for the

Division was insufficient to bear the cost

of replanting and extraction operations.

Size in Acres

Mt. Moritz 22

Mt. Gazo 62

Grand Etang 3,816

Annandale 590

Perseverance (Dove Sanctuary) 45

Grand Bras 10.4

Richmond Hill 21

Planting materials procured from

Holland were especially high-priced. The

physiological and demographics status of

many wildlife species were unascertained in

the absence of research. This limitation may

have deluded or reduce the effectiveness of

management strategies for hunting of wild

animals. Additionally, funding anticipated

from donor agencies was not realized. Other

intractable problems such as the challenges

posed by the topography and problems

caused by fragility of soil and water facilities

in the uplands were contingently managed.

The Division restrained extraction in

the middle belt of forestry areas and also

prohibited clear felling (the mass clearing of

forest areas) operations in order to prevent

vulnerable upper lands from eroding

during heavy rain falls. Selecting felling was

therefore practiced.

Human Resource Capacity

The Forestry Division operations are

conducted in each agriculture district

including Carriacou and Petite Martinique.

Basic services provided in all districts

include: the maintenance of plantations,

planting activities and the provision of

labour service and technical assistance to

stakeholders. Forestry Officers are expected

to be conversant in their specialized line of

work as it relates to mandate of their Unit.

However, for the effective operation of the

Division special competency is needed in

biodiversity management, collaborative

management and communication skills

since the Division takes a participatory

approaching in meeting the needs of

stakeholders.

While the overall structure of the Division

can be described as competent, there were

inadequacies in its effectiveness in 2008

because of insufficient human resource

capacity. Critical positions in the Forest

Conservation Unit, Tree Establishment

and Management Unit and the Forest

Recreation Unit remained vacant for

the year. This significantly affected the

efficiency of service operations provided

34


Performance of the Forestry Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

by the Division. The Division was also

concerned about the continuity of the

Forestry Division since experienced staff

are approaching retirement age. There is the

need for a succession plan and strategies to

transfer of knowledge to younger recruits.

The Division also suffered from major

deficiencies due to the lack of training.

Forest Rangers in all districts were by no

means trained in the area. Operations

of the Rangers are sustained solely

from the knowledge imparted by senior

professionals. These Rangers were expected

to execute conservation practices which

include: monitoring and evaluating of

pest and diseases, identifying exotic species

and policing activities, however, they lack

structured training in these areas.

Forest Rangers should be knowledgeable

in Pathology, Entomology, Hydrology

and Forestry Management, unfortunately,

opportunities to acquire such competencies

were unavailable. Another critical problem

as it relates to the Forest Rangers was the

inflexible working hours, (8am - 4pm)

which failed to allow efficient policing of

illegal activities in the forest. The lack of

transportation after working hours has been

cited also as a major difficulty. The hours

of operations for Grenada’s Forest Rangers

are different to that which occurs in other

OECS countries.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

The Division works closely with the

harvesters and the hunters association.

Forestry tree harvesting is extremely

procedural in order to prevent adverse

effects to the environment. Officers provide

guidance to harvesters on designated

harvesting areas. The Forestry Officer

visits the site prior to harvesting and they

also provide specifications on the tree that

should be cut, the direction it should fall

and hauled. Only chain saws are used for

cutting since no mechanized harvesting is

allowed. These practices also ensure that

the under-story regenerating plants are not

destroyed. The compliance rate of harvester

is as high as nine out of ten (9/10). It is

suspected that management strategies

employed for hunting were not always

adhered to by hunters, especially after the

working hours of Forest Rangers. Great

attempts to liaise with farming stakeholders

above the catchment area should also be

pursued.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

Forestry Division works in close partnership

with other Ministerial Divisions especially

the Fisheries Division and many other nongovernmental

organisations. The National

Water and Sewerage Authority which is a

statutory body works very closely also with

the Division. The Division attempts to

work in partnership with all stakeholders

within the various communities to facilitate

the provision of effective services.

Though the planning activities within

the Ministry of Agriculture take a holistic

approach, there is a need to formalize interdepartmental

relationships. Departmental

liaison officers must be clearly identified

and should engage in the sharing of

information on inter-related activities. The

Forestry Division also acknowledges the

efforts of other Ministries responsible for

the Environment. However, the mandates

should be made clear in order to avoid

duplication of efforts.

Projects for Future Development

The continuous success of the Forest

Division will be dependent on many

factors such as the human resource

development, constant liaison with regional

and international allied organisation,

investment in training, forestry research and

constructive collaborative efforts with key

stakeholders. Sustainability plans should be

developed for projects already implemented

such as the livelihood projects in Grand

Etang and Après Tout. It is imperative that

the Ministry of Tourism and the Board of

Tourism provide substantial support to

these projects.

Other projects which are critical to the

future success of the Division are projects

associated with Watershed Management

and the implementation of strategies which

would ensure reforestation especially the

establishment of a nursery.

© FAO / Giuseppe Bizzarri

35


Performance of the Agro-Processing Subsector and Assessment and

Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

Agro-Processing

Subsector

The agro-processing subsector in

many cases has been indigenous

to Grenada. However, the

commercialization of locally produced

agro-processed products may be considered

to be bordering the introduction stage for

many products and the growth stage of the

Product Life Cycle for some which have

been accessing regional and international

markets. Some prominent successes in the

agro-subsector can be attributed to the key

players, namely, the La Grenade Industry

leading producers of jams and jellies,

Noelville Ltd with its most distinguished

product – the Nutmed spray for pain relief,

Grenada Chocolate Company; producer

of organic dark chocolate, Caribbean Agro

Industries Ltd and local rum distillers.

Grenada Central Statistics Office recorded

exports of agro-processed products in 2008

EC $2,760,000. The Beekeepers Association

also exported honey in the quantity of

701 litres to Trinidad, Martinique and St.

Vincent valuing over EC $20,000. Other

smaller groups and small agro-processors

throughout the island processed products

such as jams and jellies, tamarind balls,

guava cheese, plantain and banana chips,

fresh fruit juices, nectars, pepper sauces,

cassava bread, farine, rum, ice creams,

nutmeg and coconut oil among many other

products. Actual production figures during

the year 2008 were unavailable.

Although it is not mandatory, the

Ministry of Agriculture’s Produce Chemist

Laboratory has provided support to some

commercial and small agro-processors over

the years. The following assessment of the

Laboratory provides a performance and an

impact analysis on the subsector and also

operation within the Laboratory in the year

2008.

Produce Chemist

Laboratory

Strategic Focus

The Produce Chemist Laboratory seeks to

provide quality analytical services, relevant

research, product development and pilot

processing, training, consultancies and

project development in support of the Agro-

Processing and Trade Industries in Grenada.

The Laboratory intends to become a leading

accredited laboratory with a qualified

resource centre that would adequately meet

the needs of its stakeholders locally and

regionally.

Over the years, the Produce Chemist

Laboratory has benefited many food

processing efforts locally: community

groups, the manufacturing sector in Grenada

and government and non-governmental

departments and other organizations.

Since the establishment of the laboratory,

hundreds of analyses have been performed

which resulted in the development of over

fifty (50) formulas, the commercialization of

several products formulated and training in

excess of five hundred (500) rural persons in

agro-processing techniques which provided

the necessary skills and knowledge base

to foster self-reliance and entrepreneurial

development.

In 2008, the Laboratory provided services

to both the private and public sectors.

Capacity building in rural personnel and

women’s groups in rural areas was promoted

in an attempt to improve the livelihoods of

rural people. Assistance provided by the

Laboratory was aimed to equip stakeholders

for the delivery of high quality and safe

products to consumer markets.

During the period under review, the

Laboratory implemented two livelihood

projects which were expected to boost

agro-processing in Grenada. These projects,

funded by the OAS, were the ‘Individualized

Technical Assistance to the Agro-Processing

Sector’ which was geared towards

improving food safety and enhancement

of consumers confidence and the ‘Heritage

Documentation and Enhancement Project’

which was aimed towards nurturing the

economic potential of Grenada’s traditional

confectionary and snack foods. The FAO

also funded another livelihood project

geared towards enhancing agro-processing

in Grenada.

Operations

The Produce Chemist Laboratory is

sub-divided into three main functional

departments: Food Technology, Chemistry

and Micro Biology. The Food Technology

sub-division provides services to agroprocessors

which include pilot processing

and training. The Chemistry and Micro

Biology sub-division provides support

to trade through the provision of quasi

certification for example, analysis for

cocoa and quality testing for fish exported.

Quality testing for potable water and also

island-wide supply is also a mandate of

these sub-divisions since Grenada has

compulsory standards for water.

The Laboratory conducted routine

operations for the year 2008 which

included the provision of analytical

services to stakeholders, training for agroprocessors,

modifications or improvement

of formulas upon processors request,

forensic testing in cases where criminal

activities were suspected and other

collaborative work with other institutions.

However, the effectiveness and efficiency

of the Laboratory was severely hindered by

numerous problems including, a dilapidated

building which houses the laboratory,

insufficient infrastructure and poor sanitary

conditions for food preparation, inadequate

equipment (computers, microscopes)

and a pilot processing area which was

considered to be in a deplorable state. The

pilot processing area once facilitated all

training and provided facilities for agroprocessors

with limited resources to conduct

production activities at their private homes.

36


Performance of the Agro-Processing Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

The current facility is a poor example and

demonstration for agro-processors. Two (2)

years ago, a project was submitted for the

renovation of the pilot area, however, it was

not approved.

In the past years, no system was instituted to

collect agro-processing data. This problem

has been difficult to surmount since it was

by no means mandatory for agro-processors

to consult with the Laboratory. The

Laboratory was therefore unable to provide

any production data as it relates to agroprocessing,

neither was it able to compare

production levels over the years.

Some of the agro-processors main challenges

have been identified as inconsistency in the

availability of raw material supplies, limited

competencies in business management,

social interaction and overall entrepreneurial

skills, inadequate observance of food

and packaging standards and lack of

credit facilities available with reasonable

interest rates. Affordable packaging was

also an impeding limitation to many

agro-processors. It was also emphasized

that seasonality and inadequate storage

negatively impacted on consistent

availability of raw materials. Agro-processors

encountered problems when purchasing

raw materials since farmers do not always

provide consistent quality and quantities at

a reasonable price. This significantly affects

the final product weighing on the principle

of ‘garbage in garbage out’.

Additionally, many agro processors have

been providing the laboratory with parts

of formulation because of an apparent lack

of trust or defense mechanism to protect

their secret recipes. This practice limits the

credibility of analysis conducted for agroprocessors.

It was also suspected that the

businesses of many small agro-processors

have been unprofitable since they produce

small quantities and unable to achieve

economies of scale and proper product

costing.

Agro-Processing in Grenada can be

intrinsically linked to national food

security, especially in the area of food

preservation. Collaborators should focus

on the production of sweeteners and

preservatives on a community level which

would be especially critical in the aftermath

of national catastrophes.

There is also enormous potential for

the development of spice products. The

Laboratory developed eighteen (18) formulas

for the Minor Spices Cooperative, however,

none of these formulas were developed or

commercialized. The maximum potential

of the agro-processing industry in Grenada

requires the support of a comprehensive

plan for the sub sector which would provide

appropriate development strategies.

Human Resource Capacity

Laboratory Technicians are expected

to possess core competencies in their

specialized area of work, (food technology,

chemistry or micro-biology) in addition

to analytical, research and reporting skills.

There is an urgent need for refresher and

specialized training. The Laboratory’s Food

Technologist and Chemist are certified,

however, the Microbiologist possesses

37


Performance of the Agro-Processing Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

...continued

mostly practical skills. There is also an

urgent need for the development of a

successor to the head of Division since the

present head is approaching retirement. An

ideal technician would be an individual

with multi-faceted abilities rather than the

mere specialized competencies.

Capacity strengthening at the Produce

Chemist Laboratory would be necessary in

order to upgrade Laboratory services and

also the provision of official certification

in areas of competencies within the facility.

Training in the development of analytical

techniques, new laboratory methodologies,

documentation, calculation of uncertainties

and expertise in the implementation and

support services for quality systems would

be imperative for the future success of the

laboratory.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

and quality standards were adhered to prior

to retail purchasing.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

The Produce Chemist Laboratory worked

very closely with the Extension Division

of the Ministry of Agriculture and also

with the Grenada Bureau of Standard,

especially in the areas of training, water

testing, etc. Close collaboration has been

developed also with the 4H movement

(young agriculturists at primary school

level). Occasionally, consultations with the

Ministry of Health was facilitated also and

with the Department of Consumer Affairs

whenever there were consumer complaints.

Relationships were also fostered with agroprocessors

cluster groups such as CABA

and non-profit organizations.

Projects for Future Development

Immediate attention must be given to

the renovation of the Produce Chemist

Laboratory and an upgrade of laboratory

infrastructure. A repositioning strategy is an

essential step towards the accreditation of

the Produce Chemist Laboratory and also

a necessity to meet the current demands of

the agro-processing industry. As agriculture

production increases there is a heighten

demand for agro-processing which is

equally critical to the country’s attempts to

realize national food security and a measure

of import substitution. Projects which

embark upon the development of this

industry should be welcomed. Certification

programs and the development of a quality

manual which recognizes laboratory

standards ISO 17025 should also be

encouraged.

Laboratory Technicians have been actively

involved in the provision of technical

assistance for agro-processors on an

individual basis. Under the OAS livelihood

projects, training was also provided to agroprocessors

specifically in the areas quality

auditing, risk management and general

hygiene. The Laboratory also provided other

supplementary services such as site visits,

consultations, provision of information

as requested, tech packs and ingredient

measuring facilities. Processing services

were not available for the year under review

due to deplorable lab conditions.

Waterwheel at River Antoine Rum Distillery, St. Patrick

Despite guidance provided by the

Laboratory, many agro-processors sell

products of mediocre labeling and packaging

standards. Overall compliance rate to

practices prescribed by the Laboratory was

rated at fifty percent (50%). Legislation

to enact such standards also to ensure

compulsory analysis by the Laboratory

would assist in rectifying these problems.

Supermarkets and other sales outlets should

only purchase products on the premise that

the proper auxiliary analysis was conducted

38


Performance of the Spice Subsector and Assessment and Impact of

Supporting Statutory Association

Spice Subsector

The real production output of spices

produced in Grenada in 2008

was difficult to ascertain since

processing is frequently conducted by locals

for various purposes which is not captured,

for instance, a significant amount of spices

are harvested and processed annually by

members of the rural communities for

trafficking and vending to cruise and

stayover visitors. Nonetheless, the Minor

Spice Cooperative and Marketing Society

is the renowned spice processor on island.

Records from the cooperative indicates

that it produced 4846 pounds of spices of

which 3800 was processed and 3300 was

exported to its main market, Barbados and

other regional markets. Total income raised

from sales of spices for 2008 was EC$

52,053.29.

with monopolistic authorization for the

trading of spices to external markets. The

Cooperative has been the nucleus of the

spice industry in Grenada through the

purchasing of spices from farmers for

processing. The processed spices are then

supplied to customers locally, regionally

and internationally. The Cooperative has

been established with the intent of creating

livelihood and a source of income for

farmers in rural areas.

A continuous production of spices in

Grenada is necessary for maintaining the

world renowned image as the ‘Spice Isle

6,000

5,630

Spice Exported in 2003-2008

of the Caribbean’. The Cooperative is

committed to the development of the Spice

Industry in Grenada to ensure sustainable

livelihoods of rural people. Purchases are

made from sixty (60) farmers mostly from

rural areas of Mal Mount and Après Tout

in St. David. The Cooperative developed

the concept of the Laura Spice and Herb

Garden which serves as a spice production

plant and a spice and herb garden which

showcases herbs and economic spices. The

Laura Spice and Herb Garden is also used

as an Agro/Eco-Tourism product.

The following assessment of the Minor Spice

Cooperative Marketing Society provides a

performance and an impact analysis on the

subsectors and also insight on the operation

of the statutory body in the year 2008.

Minor Spice Cooperative

Marketing Society

Strategic Focus

Minor Spice Cooperative Marketing Society

(Minor Spices) is a farmers’ organisation

Total

Quantities of

Export Spices

in Pounds

(lbs)

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

4,663

3,300

2,050

1,463

-

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Year

Figure

8

Table 11: Quantities of Individual Spices Exported from 2003-2008 in Pounds (lbs)

Products Exported 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Cinnamon Bark 1,530 1,500 - 0 0 20

Cinnamon Ground 4,030 3,027 - 1,463 2,000 3,090

Clove Ground 0 22 - 0 0 0

Clove Whole 70 105 - 0 50 50

Nutmeg Ground 0 2 - 0 0 0

Nutmeg Whole 0 4 - 0 0 140

Turmeric 0 3 - 0 0 0

Total in Pounds (lbs) 5,630 4,663 - 1,463 2,050 3,300

39


Performance of the Spice Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association

...continued

Operations

The premium spices processed by the spice

factory in 2008 were cinnamon, cloves,

turmeric, nutmegs, pimento, ginger and

bay leaf. High demand for spices drove

the activities of Minor Spices in 2008.

Processing sequence includes; cutting,

picking, drying, sorting, grinding and

subsequently packaging and labeling of

finished products. Some products such as

cinnamon, cloves and pimento were also

traded unprocessed. As a facility for the

tourism attraction, the plant contains a

spice shop where visitors purchase spice

products.

The operations of the spice factory faced

tremendous challenges during the year

under review. Procurement of raw materials

was the most obstinate problem with two

prevailing factors; exorbitant prices for raw

materials and scarcity due to the devastation

of the spice industry caused by the 2004

hurricane amplified by intense competition

for raw materials from traffickers. Prices of

unprocessed cinnamon, harvested directly

from farmers fields inflated from $3 to $5

per pound. Prices escalated further when

farmers resorted to the purchasing of raw

materials from non-farmers to for resale to

Minor Spices.

Minor Spices was able to deliver only 50 % of

its demand for spices within the year because

of the scarcity in raw materials especially

cinnamon which is the Cooperative’s most

lucrative product. The Cooperative was

unable to supply customers in the Barbados

market with spices demanded especially

cinnamon bark. As a result, there was a loss

of potential income.

In the past, spices were not given high

priority as other commodities. There was

no emphasis on replanting of spices over

the years. The Cooperative made progress in

developing a concept strategy to rejuvenate

the overall Spice Industry in Grenada which

involved the introduction of a spice nursery.

Unfortunately, planting materials were not

readily available. As a result, replanting

materials for nutmeg replacement were

replanted in the spice garden four (4) years

after Hurricane Ivan.

The Cooperative contests with many

challenges and limitations, including

detrimental financial constraints, lack of

technical support from the Ministry of

Agriculture’s Extension Service Division,

high transportation cost (since the

cooperative does not own a vehicle which is

a necessity for procuring raw materials from

farmers), limited machinery and no security

presence on the premise of the spice factory

which resulted in vandalism of the building

on a number of occasions.

Human Resource Capacity

The Minor Spices was significantly

understaffed in 2008. Production after

Hurricane Ivan was considerable reduced,

consequently staff level was reduced due to

many uncertainties in the industry including

unavailability of raw materials. Minor

Spices operated with six (6) employees

including the Manager. All members of

staff were able to perform in the various

capacities of spice production including

the manager, in a desperate attempt to

substitute for deficiency in manpower.

Processing of spices was carried out in a

traditional manner which is characterized

by highly intensive manual methods.

Irrespective of the fact that the staff possesses

proficiency in spice processing, capacity

in customer services is needed because of

the agri-tourism aspects of the business

operations. Competencies in tour guiding

and communications skills are also needed.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

The quality of some products of Minor

Spices has been considerable compromised

because of poor harvesting methods used

by farmers. However, by reason of financial

constraints, the Cooperative has not been

able to provide any training for its farmers

in the critical area of proper harvesting

methods. Nonetheless, the Minor Spices

will continue to encourage farmers to

replant spices by providing planting

materials in the future.

Inter-Ministry Activities

Integration

The Ministry of Agriculture was

represented on the board of the Minor

Spice Cooperative Marketing Society. The

Cooperative participated in many meetings

and workshops convened by the Ministry of

Agriculture, however, there was a measure

of dissatisfaction with the general support

provided by the Ministry. Technical support

to herb and spice garden was especially

needed from the Ministry of Agriculture

in the aftermath of Hurricane Ivan. The

Cooperative has been considering CARDI

as a strategic partner together with other

research oriented institutions to support

and facilitate the sustainable practice of

spice propagation and replanting in the

near future.

Projects for Future Development

The Minor Spices Cooperative was unable

to achieve business growth in the past year.

Effective sales and marketing strategies was

stalled because of the inadequate supply of

raw materials. A dynamic spice industry

in Grenada would require investments

in the propagation of indigenous spices

and mechanized processing of spices.

Rehabilitation of the Laura Spice and Herb

Garden must also be treated as a matter of

urgency.

40


Performance of the Cocoa Subsector and Assessment and Impact

of Supporting Statutory Association

Cocoa Subsector

Cocoa Production in 2008 was 48%

less than pre-Ivan levels. However,

there was a corresponding 62%

increase in 2008 production compared

with that of 2007. The subsector showed

marginal signs of rehabilitation. The value

of exports concurrently increased with

production by an astounding 58%.

The Grenada Cocoa Association provided

support to the Cocoa Industry over the

years. The following assessment of the

statutory body provides a performance

analysis of the industry and an impact

analysis on the Association in the year

2008.

Grenada Cocoa

Association

Strategic Focus

EC$100,000 on a monthly basis. The

Grenada Cocoa Association would have

significantly contributed to national food

security particularly for its 2500 cocoa bean

farmers. The Association also contributed

a significant 2.5% to Gross Domestic

Product.

Production

in Pounds

(lbs)

2,000,000

1,500,000

1,000,000

Operations

Cocoa Bean Production 2003-2008

In 2008, the Grenada Cocoa Association

collected and processed 783,000 pounds

of cocoa beans mainly from St. Patrick

and St. Andrew. Fifty-eighty percent

(58%) of the cocoa beans processed was

exported to Belgium, thirty-three percent

(33%) to Switzerland, six percent (6%) to

Japan and three percent (3%) to Italy. The

$1,507,375 $111,859 $484,531

$1,829,987 $169,724 $783,989

Figure

9

The Grenada Cocoa Association has

been working assiduously to manage

the cocoa industry in a manner which

ensures long term commercial viability

of the Industry, guided by the principles

of commercialization, efficiency and

transparency. Emphasis is also placed on

prudent management of the industry and

the provision of a business model which

makes the industry profitable to the cocoa

farming community. The key functions

of the Association are to purchase, semi

process and export the locally produced

cocoa bean. Technical support to cocoa

bean producers is also provided.

500,000

0

7

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Year

Cocoa Bean Export Value 2003-2008

$3,933,682 $197,408 $2,346,770

$5,504,532 $748,180 $3,697,703

The Grenada Cocoa Association

made significant contribution to rural

development, employment and poverty over

the years. The Association’s membership

consists of ninety percent (90%) of small

farmers with land areas bordering 2-3 acres.

Members are exclusively from rural areas

and in 2008, the GCA’s contribution to

the rural economy was in the amount of

EC$3.6 million, with rural communities

of St. Patrick and St. Andrew receiving

Export Value

(Million)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Year

Figure

10

41


Performance of the Cocoa Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association

...continued

Figure

11

GCA endeavored to achieve its strategic

objectives for the period which included:

unswerving negotiations with traders to

ensure cocoa bean producers received the

best prices possible, amalgamation with

the other main commodity producer

organization on the island i.e. the GCNA,

the establishment of a chocolate plant,

rehabilitation of abandoned cocoa fields,

the implementation of a Farmer Incentive

Credit Programme and activities that

would stimulate increased production in

cocoa bean.

Unattractive prices in combination with the

devastation of Hurricanes Ivan and Emily

contributed to an apparent stagnation in the

cocoa industry in recent years. Production

declined by approximately 100,000 pounds

for two successive years following the passage

of Hurricane Ivan. The main challenges

which affected productivity for cocoa

farmers were the high cost of inputs and

labour and low productivity. The industry

also endured limited reinvestments, lack

of research and development activities,

dwindling cocoa acreage, advanced age

of farmers and competition with other

commodities for land space.

Number

of Cocoa

Producers

The implementation of some of the GCA’s

strategic objectives, specifically, the initiation

of the provisional credit programme,

improvement in extension services and

increase in prices paid to farmers (from

$3.12 to $3.34/lbs) contributed significantly

to a sixty-two percent (62%) increase in

production in 2008. Production increased

from 484,000 pounds in the previous year

to 783,000 pounds during the year under

review and the acreage remained 3200

acres. However, increase production is

vital to meet the rising market demands.

Further stimulation in production

is dependent on the establishment

of a Rehabilitation Programme, the

strengthening of propagation activities,

focus on pest and disease management,

more input programmes and a strategic

focus on achieving premium prices from

international markets, that is the use of a

market led strategy rather than production

led strategy.

Grenada Cocoa Association achieved most

of its strategic objectives including success

in its negotiations with international

markets for higher prices. Unfortunately,

the merger of the GCA and GCNA made

limited progress whilst the establishment of

the Chocolate Plant has not materialized.

Comparison of Cocoa Bean Producers 2003-2008

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

$8,000

$8,000

$1,100

$1,100

$2,200

$2,500

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Year

Human Resource Capacity

Twenty five (25) employees were engaged

with the Grenada Cocoa Association.

Generally, the human resource capacity can

be considered limited even though capacity

for cocoa Agronomy was adequate. It is

anticipated that there would be a greater

demand for recruitment and specialized

training in the near future as the Association

endeavours to expand its business operation

to manufacturing chocolate. The increase

in demand for the cocoa bean would also

directly affect staff allocation.

Few training opportunities were available

in 2008, however, for efficient operations

and high quality service, it is imperative

that employees are trained. Training in

marketing, chocolate making, the use of

industrial equipment and international

standards would be essential to support the

chocolate manufacture component of the

business in the near future.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

Extension services and low cost inputs were

provided to cocoa producers during the

year under review. Information on plant

protection practices were disseminated

through the extension services. Soil

conservation methods were encouraged

including the use of organic manure to

improve soil structure and the planting

of shade trees to mimic natural cocoa

environment. Additionally, the promotion

of agronomical practices as a substitute

for pesticides usage can be accredited for

the profitable increase in production. The

production of 0.17% in off-grade cocoa

was indicative of this effort.

42


Projects for Future

Development

Grenada, as a high quality cocoa

producing country, should exploit the

numerous opportunities available. The

cocoa bean has been recognized as a health

food and a number of specialized cocoa

products are beginning to emerge. In the

past five years, the prices offered for cocoa

has been generally higher than previous

years. The demand for semi processed

cocoa bean persists internationally and

there are readily accessible markets. The

historical importance of this product

coupled with its environmental benefits

has provided an avenue for lucrative agrotourism

projects. The implementation

of projects that would stimulate cocoa

bean production must be treated with

expedition and high priority in light of

the tremendous demand for chocolate

products on the international market.

43


Performance of the Nutmeg Subsector and Assessment and Impact

of Supporting Statutory Association

Nutmeg Subsector

The devastating impacts of

Hurricanes Ivan and Emily crippled

the Nutmeg Industry in Grenada.

Compared to pre-Ivan levels, specifically in

2003, nutmeg export in 2008 represents a

86% decrease. Additionally, exports in 2008

compared to that of 2007 represented a 61%

decrease. Similarly, foreign income earnings

from exports in pre-Ivan decreased by 83%

whilst in 2008 earning further depleted by

34% compared to earnings in 2007. Export

sales plummeted from EC$9.5 million to

EC$6.5 million in 2008.

Nonetheless, there was a marginal increase

recorded in nutmeg production in 2008

over the previous year, 1,197,241 lbs in

2007 as compared to 1,392,666 lbs in

2008. This represents a 14.03% increase

in collection from growers. The Grenada

Cooperative Nutmeg Association, the

statutory body responsible for the industry,

also manufactured 1,484.37 kilos of

nutmeg oil at the Marli Distillation Plant

using 206,979 lbs of processed nutmegs.

The following assessment of the GCNA

provides a performance analysis of the

industry and an impact analysis on the

Association in the year 2008.

Grenada Cooperative

Nutmeg Association

Strategic Focus

Nutmeg Exports in Value 2003-2008

The Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg

Association (GCNA) is a statutory

organisation entrusted with the development

of the Nutmeg Industry on the island.

The strategic goals of the organisation

is to increase production, international

market share and to attract more profitable

markets whilst maintaining high quality of

nutmeg and mace to ensure that its main

stakeholders, i.e. nutmeg farmers, receive

maximum social and economical gains. The

association is committed to the sustainable

livelihood of members of the rural nutmeg

producing communities. The key operations

of the association involve the purchase and

export of locally produced nutmegs.

Over the years, a significant percentage

of rural people has depended heavily on

the nutmeg industry as a main source of

livelihood; unfortunately, the breadbasket

of many was deprived by the passage of

Hurricane Ivan in 2004 which destroyed

over 80 % of the industry. Presently, the

main nutmeg producing areas are in St.

Andrew and St. Patrick which account for

approximately 64% of production.

The industry remains critical, not only

for rural development, but national

development as well. Export of nutmeg

and mace once held preeminence as the

highest export commodity and represented

over 65% of all agricultural exports in 2003

which generated revenue of EC$39.5 million

(Central Statistics Office 2008; Pannel Kerr

Foster 2008). Income from nutmeg export

decreased in 2008 to a meager EC$6.5

million (Pannel Kerr Foster 2008). In 2008,

rural communities received advances in the

amount of $3 million, while in previous

years, these communities received as much

as EC$2 million per parish.

The GCNA implemented three (3) main

activities to revitalize the nutmeg industry

following the passage of Hurricane Ivan in

2004. The main thrust were in the areas of:

1) Propagation of nutmeg plants which

was done in collaboration with the

Ministry of Agriculture. Under that

programme, twenty-five thousand

(25,000) plantlets were distributed to

farmers.

2) The Land Clearing and Harvesting

Programme which was extended to six

farms in which 5,888 lbs of nutmegs

were collected.

Figure

12

$40

Export

value in $30

dollars

(Million)

$20

$10

$0

$39,543,742

$26,139,252

$31,564,730

$8,645,803

2003 2004 2005 2006

Year

$9,825,667

2007

$6,528,414

2008

3) The Nutmeg Tree Clearing Loan

Programme which assisted ninetythree

(93) farmers who received a total

of EC $61,444 under the Ministry of

Agriculture soft loan scheme (AEDP).

Other notable interventions that were

intended to support the revitalization efforts

of the nutmeg industry include a grant of

EC $ 91, 000 provided by the Grenada

Rural Enterprise Development Project

(G-REP) to support the Epicotyl Grafting

Project intended to significantly boost the

production of planting material and the

assistance received by the International

44


Performance of the Nutmeg Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association

...continued

Trade Centre in providing technical

expertise and coordination in developing a

comprehensive strategy for the resuscitation

of that pivotal subsector.

Operations

The Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg

Association collects, processes, exports and

also manufactures a significant amount of

nutmegs to produce nutmeg oils. Processed

nutmegs were exported to the following

markets; 31.8% to Holland, 19% to

Canada, 18.7% to the United States and

30.3% to other international and regional

markets.

Evidently, the GCNA was unable to meet

demands on of the world’s market for

nutmegs due to inadequate supply. The

maintenance of the GCNA market share

is a critical issue, however, the Association

attempted and has been successful in

maintaining its status as the leading

supplier of high quality nutmegs. In future,

emphasis must be placed on adherence to

international quality standards in order to

ensure consistent high quality production.

Due diligence must be given to stimulating

production. Approximately 2500 nutmeg

farmers delivered 2008’s production.

Nutmeg farmers were faced with some

major challenges which have been impeding

maximum production. These problems

were; inadequate financing for land clearing

which was compounded with high labour

cost (farmers were not getting the quantum

of work to compensate for wages paid).

There are many nutmeg farms which are

still inaccessible (due largely to the effects

of Hurricane Ivan). There was also a scarcity

of planting materials available to farmers.

A notable increase in the incidence of the

nutmeg wilt (or root rot disease) affected

many farms during the year under review.

It was reported that, on average, losses of

trees attributed to the disease was as high as

30 % and this development, no doubt, has

significantly affected production.

Another critical problem was the price

offered to nutmeg farmers. The GCNA

was unable to pay the price anticipated

by farmers based on the economical

constraints caused by the low volume of

nutmegs processed. However, in order for

farmers to be able to maximize harvesting,

it was necessary that they receive prices of

$3 per lbs or more, in order to fund high

expenditures for land clearing and nutmeg

harvesting. For this and other reasons, a

Quantity

in Million

Pounds

(lbs)

Export in

Thousand

Pounds

(lbs)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

500

400

300

200

100

0

Nutmeg Exported in Quantity 2003-2008

5,208,924

2003

470,907

2003

4,169,382

2004

391,815

2004

significant amount of uncollected nutmegs

remained in the fields. Increase nutmeg

harvesting would improve production level

and increase the capacity to respond to

international market demands which could

influence better prices.

The GCNA took responsibility for

insufficient production for the period,

however, the Association was unable to

increase its assistance to nutmeg producers

4,232,615

2005

Year

192,079

2005

Year

1,474,571

2006

Mace Exported in Quantity 2003-2008

24,081

2006

1,792,010

2007

28,780

2007

707,029

2008

36,506

2008

Figure

13

Figure

14

45


Performance of the Nutmeg Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association

...continued

because of its limited financial resources.

Some of the programmes introduced such

as the farm rehabilitation, land clearing,

and harvesting of nutmegs in abandoned

fields together with the government’s

rehabilitation programme and farmers

own initiatives, contributed to the slight

increase in nutmeg collection recorded in

the year under review. In the land clearing

programmes, 30% of nutmeg sales from

fields cleared were retrieved for loan

repayments, whilst the Association also held

30% of the revenue from sales of nutmegs

on abandoned fields.

Limited research activities were conducted

in 2008, however, emphasis was placed on

propagation. Selected seeds with desirable

traits such as high quality mace, large fruit

size and tree conservation were identified

and used for propagation. Seeds laboratory

tested for saffrole by an international

pharmaceutical company were also

propagated. Farmers with this specific

type of nutmegs received a premium price

of $3.50 per pound from the company.

GCNA also fostered a relationship with the

University of the West Indies to identify

areas where research would be needed.

In addition to the inadequate research

and development activities conducted by

the GCNA, some critical problems which

impeded the profitability of the organization

in the past affected the Association again

in 2008. These were: inadequate market

research, absence of a comprehensive

marketing strategy, deficiency in new

product development, heightened trade

freight cost, limited finances, inadequate

production and most recently, competition

for substitutes to the nutmeg products.

The Nutmeg Association is also cognizant

of many opportunities to increase the value

in returns to nutmeg producers, such as

opportunities for agro-processing to extract

essential oils such as oleoresin, the increase

in demand for low aflatoxin and also the

demand for organic nutmegs. There is

therefore a critical urgency to stimulate and

enhance nutmeg production in Grenada.

The potential competition from other

nutmeg producing countries specifically,

Jamaica, Brazil, India and Papa New Guinea

must also be taken into consideration.

Human Resource Capacity

Generally, human resources available for

the operation at the GCNA in 2008 were

inadequate. This was the case especially

in the capacity of quality assessment. It is

imperative that the organization adhere to

international standards such as the necessary

product testing, documentations of results,

recording, monitoring of stations, and

compliance to HACCP regulations.

An Officer functioned provisionally in

the capacity for the past year with basic

understanding of the processes, however,

a qualified professional with accreditation

in Biology, Chemistry and exposure to

international standards such as HACCP,

Codex and ISO, should have been employed.

Much of the work in the department,

including moisture testing was forwarded

to the Produce Chemist Laboratory where

a fee was paid for services provided. The

Grenada Bureau of Standards also provided

assistance upon request. The GCNA has

not been able to hire a Quality Officer due

to its financial constraints in the past year.

The Association also functioned with one

Field Officer to monitor field operations for

approximately 6000 farmers.

Capacity building is a critical necessity for

the GCNA. Station Managers and Field

Officers should be trained in HACCP

to improve awareness and adherence to

food standards and its importance when

processing a food. Other employees

especially those at collection stations need

to acquire computer skills so that the

computerization of the operations of the

GCNA can be realized.

Agriculture Knowledge

Impartation

In collaboration with the Pest Management

Unit and the Grenada Cocoa Association,

the GCNA established demonstration

plots in St. Andrew Bellevue Estate, St.

George Estate, Purcell’s Estate and some

other selected farms. The GCNA has

also distributed flyers with the prescribed

procedures for planting and care for

plantlets. No training was given to farmers

for the period under review. The Epicotyl

Grafting Project, partially funded by the

G-REP, was implemented. The grafting

technique was expected to improve the

overall quality of planting materials made

available to farmers.

Inter-Ministry Activity

Integration

The Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg

Association benefited from harmonious

relationship with the Ministry of

Agriculture. The Association also fostered

good relationship with the Pest Management

Unit and requested assistance and advice

from subject specialists at the Ministry of

Agriculture. Additionally, the GCNA has

been in discussion with the Grenada Cocoa

Association in consideration of possible

amalgamation. The merger of these two

associations is expected to yield numerous

benefits including cost effectiveness,

improved organizational operations,

an apt business model and structured

markets. The progress of merger activities

remains dependent on farmers’ request for

capitalization of the GCNA prior to the

amalgamation.

46


Projects for Future

Development

The development of the nutmeg industry

in Grenada is essential for Economic

Development. All stakeholders would

be required to work forcefully and

conscientiously to ensure the future

progress and incessant development of

this sub-sector. It is imperative that any

strategic plan for future development

of the industry must be inclusive of the

following critical areas: programmes

to stimulate production, research and

development, development of germplasm

bank, manufacturing facilities that would

encourage the processing of value added

products and most importantly, the

modernization of all processing plants

with ISO and HACCP certification which

is critical since in the near future quality

regulations and standards enforced by

the European Market may prove to be a

major barrier to nutmeg trade.

47


Ministry of Agriculture’s 4H Movement

4H’ers Harvesting Fruits

The Ministry of Agriculture continues

to advocate practical involvement of

young people in Agriculture. This

role of the Ministry is essential considering

the current situation of an unprecedented

high age rate of the farming community.

The involvement of youths in agriculture

is critical for the sustainability of Grenada’s

agriculture industry. In a collaborative

effort with the Ministry of Education, the

Ministry of Agriculture’s 4H subdivision

promotes agriculture at the primary school

level. In 2008 Grenada’s 4H Movement

consisted of two thousand six hundred

young people (2600) from fifty-six (56)

clubs.

In the year under review, the 4H movement

embarked on a number of agricultural

projects in the areas of Livestock and

Poultry Production and Management,

Vegetable Production, Food Preparation,

Agro-processing and Arts and Crafts.

Training for 4H’ers was also provided

in these areas. The Movement also

participated in the 2008 World Food Day

Celebrations where many of their products

were placed on display. The 4H Movement

endeavours to cultivated dynamic youth

leaders in agriculture. Activities such as

leadership training and recognition of

outstanding leaders were carried out to

foster this extremely pertinent life skill.

Outstanding junior 4H’ers for 2008 were

therefore recognized at the Movement’s

annual 4H Achievement Celebrations

whilst senior leaders (inclusive of teachers

with responsibility for the 4H Movement)

received leadership training at the annual

convention which was held at the National

Stadium on May 20th 2008.

The tremendous successes of the 4H

Movement in 2008 can be measured by

its contribution to agriculture production

and development. Livestock production

(poultry and rabbits) amounted to 16,046

pounds which was sold to community

members, supermarkets and to a lesser extent

the National School Feeding Programme.

In the schools’ backyard gardens, 14,864

pounds of produce were harvested which

includes beans, bananas, cucumbers, egg

plants, okras, sweet and seasoning peppers,

corn, pigeon peas, bluggoes, celery,

chive and thyme, lettuce, pumpkins and

cauliflower. Over 2000 pounds of fruits

and vegetables were sold at a cheaper rate

than other suppliers to the School Feeding

Programme. Funds received from the sale

of agriculture produce were reinstated into

project activities of the Movement.

Generally, in 2008, 4H’ers exhibited great

enthusiasm and commitment to Movement

and Agriculture Development. Innovative

strategies implemented by leaders and

individual club initiatives were intrinsically

responsible for spurring enthusiasm

among 4H’ers. Some of those activities

include debates, camping activities,

hiking, community work (which includes

feeding the elderly programmes), support

services for schools and the 4H King and

Queen Show. The momentum of the 4H

Movement in 2008, after forty-nine (49)

years of existence was extremely heartening.

Perhaps the concrete establishment of the

4H Movement at the secondary education

level would be even more rewarding to

Grenada’s agriculture sector.

48


Ministry of Agriculture’s Projects and Programmes to Support

Agriculture Development

Mr. Brendon James’ Farm, Pearls, St. Andrew

The Ministry of Agriculture engaged

and supported financially a number

of projects and programmes in

order to support activities in the agriculture

industry. The Projects and Finance

Division assumes the responsibility for

this undertaking projects in the Ministry.

The following assessment of the Division

provides insight on projects and programmes

facilitated by the Ministry of Agriculture

and also operations within the Division in

the year 2008.

Projects & Finance

Division

Strategic Focus

The Projects and Finance Department

is a sub-division of the Administration

Department of the Ministry of Agriculture

which manages all capital projects and

programmes of the Ministry, both internal

and externally funded. Projects and

Programmes are undertaken to support

the Ministry’s vision of achieving national

food security, increase economic returns

of stakeholders and contribute to the

production of high quality food products.

A number of programmes are implemented

by the Ministry annually while new ones are

geared towards building specific capacities

in various divisions.

Operations

One of the most important project

implemented by the Ministry in 2008

was the Agriculture Recovery Project

which budgeted $2.5 million with actual

spending of $1.8 million. This was funded

by local revenue. This project focused on

the rehabilitation of government estates,

repairs to propagation stations namely,

Ashenden, Mirabeau and Maran. This

programme was expected to stimulate and

enhance agriculture production. Another

prominent programme implemented was

the Agriculture Enterprise Development

Programme which budgeted the sum of

$3.5 million with actual spending of $3.3

million. This programme was funded by the

Government. The Agriculture Enterprise

Development Programme provided low

interest loans to farmers inclusive of tree

crops, livestock and poultry farmers.

While there was evidence of some measure

of recovery in the Agriculture Industry

in 2008, there are no systems in place to

evaluate the effectiveness of these projects.

Projects were implemented by various

divisional heads, however, monitoring and

evaluation of projects and programmes

rarely occurred. The degree of impact of the

projects and programmes on the industry

was never evaluated. The contribution of

the projects on the agricultural sector and

rural development was not determined

also.

Human Resource Capacity

The project and finance division carried

out routine financial transactions relative to

projects, however, there are few occasions

where project managers were appointed

to manage projects. The responsibility for

project implementation was often passed to

divisional heads. There is therefore the need

for a structured project department which

may work in close collaboration with the

Department of Planning. Additionally a

project team to facilitate the monitoring

and evaluation of projects and programmes

would be a necessity.

Projects for Future Development

External investments and funding for

Grenada’s agriculture industry has been

minimal. In 2008, many of the projects

and programmes were funded locally.

However, the economic meltdown has force

government to reduce spending or redirect

funds to national priority areas. Financial

support for international donor is vital for

further rehabilitation of the agriculture

sector, sustainable agriculture development

and agriculture diversification.

49


Ministry of Agriculture’s Projects and Programmes to Support Agriculture Development ...continued

Table 12: Selected Capital Project for 2008

Funding Institution

Project/Programme

Budgeted Spending

EC$

Actual Spending

EC$

Government of Grenada Agriculture Recovery Project $ 2.5 million $1.8 million

Government of Grenada

UNDP

Agriculture Enterprise Development

Programme

United Nation Environmental Programme –

Division of Technology Industry & Energy

$3.5 million $3.3 million

$175,000 $121,498

Government of Grenada Support for Technical Assistance Programme $250,000 $11,278

Government of Grenada Farm Road Project $100,000 $96,009

Government of Grenada Farm Road Rehabilitation Project $4 million $3.9 million

European Union SFA Farm Road Rehabilitation Project $571,559 $514,403

Government of Grenada Food Security Programme $500,000 $127,533

Government of Grenada Re-organisation of MOA Extension Programme $1 million $818,437

Government of Grenada Building Capacity for Bio-Technology $109,944 $109,937

Government of Grenada Capacity Building for National Biosafety $75,000 $74,465

Government of Grenada Refurbishing of Propagation Stations $990,000 $302,595

Government of Grenada Support to Irrigation Programme $500,000 $363,344

Government of Grenada Forest Management Programme $50,000 $45,852

Government of Grenada

Banana Pest Control Programme (Black

Sigatoka Management)

$200, 000 $199,609

Government of Grenada Rodent Control Programme $500,735 $350,630

50


Support Received From Collaborating Institutions and /or Donor

Community

The agricultural sector in Grenada

has always received tangible

support from many collaborating

institutions and members of the donor

community and that was again the case in

2008, the year under review.

Food and Agriculture

Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization

(FAO) has been one of the most reliable

supporting institutions over the years and

its assistance to the development of the

agriculture sector in Grenada has been

significantly increased following the passage

of Hurricane Ivan in 2004. During the year

under review, the island benefited from

technical, financial and material resources

provided by this very noble institution.

The following succinctly highlights some

of the assistance received from the FAO in

2008:

• Support for improving the island’s

critical Food Security Programme,

financial, technical and material

resources were provided.

• Initiation of a Land Bank Project. A

workshop involving key stakeholders

was held with technical expertise from

the FAO and modalities of the project

are being worked on presently.

• Under FAO’s national Technical

Cooperation facility (national TCP

facility) the agricultural sector benefited

from a number of projects covering

areas such as resource mobilization,

policy advice and advocacy, capacity

building for food, Agriculture, Forestry

and Fisheries etc.

• Under the SFA 2006 Financing

Agreement (EU), FAO has coordinated

and provided technical assistance for

the implementation of a number of

projects: Marketing and Promotion of

locally grown and processed projects on

the island, Strengthening Agricultural

Information Systems in the Ministry

of Agriculture, improving livelihoods

via Agro processing etc.

• The agriculture industry also benefited

from the National Medium Term

Priority Framework (NMTPF)

programme in which the FAO has

provided leadership, financial resources

and technical advice. Some of the priority

areas under that programme include:

disaster management, infrastructural

improvement development, natural

resource management, new and

value added product development,

investment and credit, trade and market

development and promotion, research

and development and technology

development and transfer.

• In 2008, the FAO approved a number

of Telefood projects intended to assist

rural community groups in improving

their production capacity and as a

consequence, their income.

• Assistance to the development of the

nutmeg industry was also a major

intervention by the FAO in 2008

(laboratory facility development).

• A major role has been played by the

FAO in the livelihoods restoration

project where four NGOs on the island

will be involved in its implementation,

working in rural communities to restore

livelihoods that were enormously

affected by Hurricanes Ivan and

Emily.

The European Union

The financial support provided by the

European Union over the years to the

development of the agriculture sector in

Grenada is second to none.

In 2008, under the SFA 1999 financial

Agreement, the European Union provided

financial resources for the rehabilitation of

the Boulogne Farm road. That project was

completed at the end of the year and is now

widely used by many farmers in the area.

It is also a critical assess road for one of

the Government’s principal nursery facility

which is located in the area.

During the year under review, the EU also

provided financial assistance for continued

expansion of irrigation development on

the island. In excess of one million dollars

(XCD) was provided under the SFA 1999

financial agreement for the procurement

of irrigation equipment. It is worth noting

that similar support has been provided

by the EU in the recent past under the

SFA2000 and 1999 financial agreements

which were implemented in 2004 and 2005

respectively.

Irrigation development has n prioritized as

a major thrust of the Ministry of Agriculture

in its quest to develop the pivotal agricultural

sector. Irrigation technology provides

farmers with an opportunity to lessen their

dependence on natural precipitation and to

significantly boost food production.

In 2008, the European Union also provided

financial support for the commissioning of

an agricultural diversification study. This

study is seen as a crucial undertaking as it

will provide agriculture industry officials

Minister with Representative of EU

51


Support Received From Collaborating Institutions and /or Donor Community ...continued

with reliable and credible information

particularly as it relates to the potential

that exist for the development of the fruit

sector in Grenada particularly in the area of

marketing and agro processing.

horticulture, floral arrangement, fruit

tree production, vegetable production.

• Provision of planting materials:

vegetable seedlings, fruit trees, cut

flowers.

The EU has also approved two very

important projects namely: the rural

credit scheme and the spice development

project which will be implemented during

2009. The Ministry of Agriculture attaches

enormous importance to these two projects

as it is expected that an enormous impact

will be made on the resuscitation of the

sector.

The Chinese Agricultural Mission

During the year under review, the Chinese

Agricultural Mission provided support to

the sector particularly in the areas of:

• Training in: pig production, ornamental

• Demonstration on the use of local

materials for the construction of shade

houses.

• Provision of poultry equipment for

some farmers.

• Provide support for training of

agriculture officers in China

• Supply of equipment for tissue Culture

Laboratory

• Provision of technical support to

farmers

Table 13: CARDI’s Distribution of Crop Planting Material for 2008

Sapodilla

Crop

Dwarf Golden Apple

Quantities

Distributed

Seed 150g

Scion 200

Seed 4160 lbs

(About 62, 000 plants)

Recipients

Ministry of Agriculture

(MOA)

Trinidad & Tobago

Agribusiness

Association

Cashew Nut Seeds 50 MOA

Mango - Julie Scion 5000 Private Entrepreneur

Fig Cuttings 40 MOA

West Indian Cherry Scion 75 MOA

Passion Fruit

Cuttings 600

Seedlings 400

MOA

Corn

Seeds 13.5 lbs Farmers (10)

10 lbs MOA

Pigeon Pea Seeds 10 lbs Farmers (8)

Sorrel Seeds 5 lbs Farmers (8)

Cassava Cuttings 1000 Farmer (1)

Sweet Potato Cuttings 2155 Gardeners (15)

Vegetable Seedlings 314,000

Numerous Farmers and

Gardeners

Passing of the Memorandum of

Understanding with UWI

The University of the West Indies

In recognition of the enormous pool

of human resources that resides in the

University of the West Indies and bearing

in mind the critical need for improving

human resource capability at all levels in the

sector, the Ministry of Agriculture began

discussing potential areas of collaboration

between the two institutions during the

year under review. It is expected that a

Memorandum of Understanding will be

signed between both entities in 2009.

The Ministry of Agriculture envisages

immense benefit for the industry would

accrue as a result of that initiative

particularly in the areas of training, research

and development.

Caribbean Agriculture Research

and Development Institute

The Caribbean Agriculture Research

and Development Institute (CARDI)

contributed significantly to Grenada’s

agriculture sector in 2008 in the area of

research. A research projects for the period

and the results are as follows:

• New Way of Enhancing Hot Pepper

Productivity Tested

52


Support Received From Collaborating Institutions and /or Donor Community ...continued

This trial consisted of testing a new

chemical ‘GSR calcium’ for stem borer

control in hot peppers.

Results:

The application of ‘GSR Calcium’ did

not induce any significant change in

yield, nor did it reduce the incidence

of stem borer. There was also no

significant change in soil pH. The

experiment therefore needs to be

repeated before firm recommendations

can be made.

• Assistance in Developing a

Sustainable Papaya Industry

in Grenada An experiment was

conducted to investigate the claim that

Red Lady papaya is tolerant to Bunchy

top disease and therefore make firm

recommendations to farmers. The

first part of the experiment, however,

was to verify the susceptibility of a

local variety, Barbados yellow, to the

disease. Later, the ‘tolerance’ of the

Red Lady variety will be compared to

the susceptibility of the local variety.

Results:

The local type was indeed susceptible

to bunchy top disease, Plate 5. The

incidence of the disease became

evident from as early as 52 days (1.7

months) after planting when 29% of

the plants showed signs of the disease.

The percentage of plants affected

continued to rise slowly. The rate of

infection became more rapid from

196 days (6.5 months) after planting.

At 413 days after planting 70% of the

plants became infected. The proven

susceptibility of the local type has

effectively set the stage for the next

phase of the experiment in which the

suggested tolerance of the Red Lady

papaya will be measured against the

susceptibility of the local type.

CARDI also supported food security and

commercial production for the period under

review. This was done mainly through the

multiplication and distribution of planting

material to farmers, gardeners and the

Agronomy Division, Ministry of Agriculture

as shown in the following table. The

material supplied to farmers was estimated

to have an estimated economic impact of

EC$ 8.2 million on the agricultural sector.

Other contribution to food security was in

the form of technical advice to many farmers

in the areas of crop management. Direct

financial contribution to the Grenadian

economy was in the tune of EC$ 308,

000.00.

Inter-American Institute for

Cooperation on Agriculture

The Inter-American Institute for

Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA)

continued to lend technical support to

agriculture development in Grenada to

foster the well-being of the rural people.

During 2008, IICA conducted a number

of activities, mainly in the area of training,

geared towards supporting efforts to develop

Grenada’s agricultural and rural sector.

Following is a brief summary of some of the

actions carried out:

• Conducted a seminar on “Use of the

Agro Matrix as a Planning tool”.

Facilitated jointly by IICA and the

Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), this

seminar focused mainly on interpreting

and applying the Agro Matrix relative

to the Jagdeo Initiative, the Agro

Plan 2003-2015, and other relevant

Agreements to which Grenada is a

signatory. Participants included senior

technicians of the MOA.

• Co-chaired meetings of major

stakeholders in the agriculture and

tourism sectors. The Agro Tourism

Linkage Committee met for the

purpose of finalizing the Committee’s

Work Plan and assigning institutional

responsibilities for implementing the

Plan. This was an effort to strengthen

the inter-sectoral linkage.

• Conducted a Case Study of a rural

agribusiness enterprise. Based on

the case study, the entrepreneur was

provided with a commercial blender,

two stainless steel tables, product

analysis and improved labeling, and

entrepreneurial training.

• Organized a workshop on

“Entrepreneurship and Business

Planning”. The workshop

was facilitated by the National

Development Foundation of Grenada

(NDFG). Participants included some

members from Grenada Association

of Beekeepers (GAB), Grenada

Association of Small Agro Processors

(GASAP), Grenada Network of Rural

Women Producers (GRENROP), and

the national chapter of Caribbean Agri

Business Association (CABA).

• Conducted a “Business Management

Training Course” for members of

the national chapter of CABA. The

course was facilitated by a University

of the West Indies (UWI) postgraduate

intern attached to the local

IICA Office.

• Organized a workshop on “Product

Formulation and Costing”. The

workshop was facilitated by the

Grenada Bureau of Standards (GDBS).

Participants included members of

GASAP and GRENROP.

• Carried out an assessment of

Grenada’s Sanitary and Phyto

Sanitary (SPS) System. This was done

by IICA’s Agricultural Health and Food

Safety (AHFS) Specialist from Guyana,

with assistance from the MOA. It was

followed up with a Common Vision

Workshop which was conducted

jointly by AHFS Specialists from IICA,

the Canadian Food Inspection Agency

(CFIA), and MOA.

53


54

• Provided financial and technical

support to MOA’s Pest Management

Unit towards institutional

strengthening of the Unit. Thus,

the Pest Management Officer was

able to participate in the WTO/SPS

Committee meetings in Geneva. This

ensured that Grenada had the overall

capability to become more effectively

involved in the multilateral trading

system.


Articles

Dear Readers

We hope that thus far the content of Grenada’s 2008 Annual Review has been informative

and rewarding beyond your expectations.

It is now our desire to further engage your psyche in critical thought of some contemporary

subject areas specifically; Agro-Tourism, Developing a Food Security Strategy and Agriculture

Production Statistics, which are worthy of your concerted attention and that of all

stakeholders. These topical issues are necessary and vital for the further development of the

agriculture industry, especially as they lend a significant contribution to increasing agriculture

diversification.

It is our intent that these articles presented will spur extensive efforts to promote new

developments in the specific areas, raise innovative ideas and prescribe the ‘know how’ for

projects and policy implementation and evaluation.

Again, enjoy your reading!

Editor

Authors

Article

Shadel Nyack Compton

Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-Tourism

Daniel Lewis

Jude Houston

Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy,

Programme and Policy can no longer be left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada?

Agriculture Production Data – Pivotal for Promoting the Commercialization of Agriculture in

Grenada

55


Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-

Tourism - By Shadel Nyack Compton, Proprietor, Belmont Estate

Belmont Estate, St. Patrick

Grenada’s agrarian economy

emanates out of the island’s historic

past – from the days of its original

settlers, the Arawaks and later the Caribs.

Both operated a subsistence economy,

that was directed towards the land and

sea. 1 Prolific farmers and fishermen, their

success was assured not only because of

their techniques and assiduousness, but

because of the availability of arable land, the

extreme fertility of the volcanic soil and the

fruitfulness of the seas. With colonization

came the further dependence on agriculture

as the bedrock of the economy. Plantations

were established for the production of

agricultural produce for export, with

guaranteed markets of the produce to

Europe. With independence, and erosion

of the plantation system in favour of smaller

farms came changes in production, trends

and markets.

Grenada was historically known for

its sugar, and later banana, cocoa and

nutmeg production. The export-centered

agriculture has been challenged because

of free trade restrictions and the removal

of market protection privileges previously

enjoyed by the region. 2 The reduction in

some of the international markets, and

the stiffening of competition, have led

to decreased production for export and

diversification into fruits and vegetables,

mostly for the domestic market. In addition,

change in consumer preferences for

imported and processed foods over locally

grown, unfriendly environmental and

climatic changes have negatively impacted

agricultural production. Hurricanes Ivan

and Emily of 2004 and 2005 respectively,

largely damaged and destroyed tree crop

production of nutmegs, cocoa and fruit,

resulting in overall decreased production in

these areas.

Correspondingly, agriculture’s contribution

to GDP has decreased from 9.46% in

2002 to 6.25% in 2008. Cognizant of

the declining agricultural revenue, and the

need to stimulate local food production the

government of Grenada over the last decade

has instituted a national food security

program. With the trend towards domestic

food security, satisfying the demands at

56


Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-Tourism ...continued

home, and satisfying the tourists discerning

demands for local food products, agriculture

in Grenada has refocused on diversification

to contribute more products and services to

the growing tourism market. “Economically,

this would enhance employment, reduce

the growing bill for food import and foreign

exchange outflows, improve food security

and increase the importance and visibility

of agriculture in national development.” 3

It is widely recognized that internationally

tourism has become the popular option for

economic growth in developing countries

because of its ability to generate foreign

exchange, provide employment, attract

development finance and support economic

independence. 4 In small island states it

is very important to ensure that there is

the proper linkage between tourism and

agriculture, to make certain that the foreign

exchange earned from tourism is not lost

on high costs for imported food. 5 Further,

proper linkages empower farmers, provides

more employment for locals, promotes food

security and local supply to the hospitality

sector and affords locals the opportunity to

organize into co-operatives and establish

better business linkages.

The region is blessed with an authentic

tourism atmosphere. The natural

environment, biodiversity, warm weather,

sand, sea, sun, clean air, vegetation, and

varied ecosystems are all benefits to be

capitalized upon in the growing tourism

tendencies. 6 The natural physical attributes

required for a fledging agricultural

economy are supportive of a dynamic

tourism environment, resulting in the

perfect symbiotic relationship of the two

industries.

Exploring the Dimensions of Agritourism

This synthesis of the two industries, is

what is known as Agro-tourism. 7 Agrotourism

is travel that combines agriculture,

rural settings, agricultural products and

experiences within the tourism experience.

It requires the strategic utilization the

tourism system to reposition (a country)

as a healthy lifestyle destination based on

value-added products, strategic clustering

of the supply chain and empowerment

of the micro-enterprise sector in both

agriculture and tourism.” 9 Agro-tourism

ventures provide recreation, leisure, rural

exposure, entertainment and/or educational

products and services to the visiting public.

It is particularly attractive to discerning,

sophisticated tourists that are eager to

learn about the history, culture, social,

environmental, community and political

issues that affect their host country, while

still enjoying the more conventional aspects

like excellent weather, food and beaches.

Initially promoted as the destination of sand,

sea, sun, and fun; the Caribbean tourism

strategists soon recognized the challenge

to broaden and diversify its product to

compete in the global marketplace, by

offering a more tangible, meaningful,

and wholesome vacation experience. The

values of world travelers have changed,

precipitating the re-focusing of Caribbean

product development. Travelers have

become more sophisticated, educated,

culturally aware and sensitive to the social

and physical environment, and politics of

the host country.

Agro-tourism is an expansive area that

includes several activities, events and areas.

The notable sub-sets of Agro-tourism

are: Farm based & Agro-Eco Tourism;

Community Tourism; Health & Wellness

Tourism; Culinary Tourism; Agro-Heritage

Tourism and Agro-Trade. 10 Grenada’s agrotourism

product has significant potential

for exploring all dimensions of the agrotourism

spectrum. Working farms of any size

and nature can initiate farm based tourism

activities that would invite guests to visit

farms and participate in farm activities. The

activities include farm tours, participating

in farming activities, fruit, vegetable and

product tastings, self-harvesting of produce,

pony or horse rides, petting zoos and trails,

accommodation and even dive or other

marine ecology tours. 11 Douglaston Estate,

River Antoine Estate, Bon Accord tropical

Gardens, and Belmont Estate are all

examples of farm-based tourism enterprises

on the island. The scope of agro-ecotourism

is significant and Grenada is bountiful in

natural sites and regions with unique innate

or ecological quality. Services and support

systems must be incorporated to provide

convenient access to and interpretation

of the sites, and the linkage to our agrotourism

sector should be established and

emphasized. These involve marine ecology

and dive tours. Ocean Spirits has been able

to foster a strong sense of conservation of

the turtles and have organized a popular

turtle watch tour at Levera Beach in St.

Patrick.

Community tourism is a combination

of tourism products that are offered at a

community level to domestic or international

visitors. 12 It allows the visitor to interact

with locals within their communities and

participate in rural activities. It includes

activities like community festivals, special

events, farmers markets, village shop

activities, staying with a host family in a

local village. 13 Grenada has been intensively

developing its tourism product to include

community tourism, and has as a result

increased the quantity of supporting

activities. Numerous community festivals

have been developed to include Grenada

Drum Festival, Fish Fridays, Rainbow City

festival, among several other village festivals

and competitions. Health and Wellness

Tourism is described as combining travel,

vacation, leisure and fun with healthy

eating, and looking and feeling better.

This includes spa activities, alternative

medicines, herbal gardens, tours, teas, other

herbal remedies, and specialty surgeries.

This is also an area with notable potential,

but a policy and framework must be put in

place to introduce the concept to the private

sector and communities. A few hotels on

the island host therapeutic and beauty spas.

Within the last year the boutique hotel

La Luna added to its offerings a spa and

wellness center, an organic garden and yoga

pavilion, introducing new standards for

residential health retreats and spa services.

Grenada is well poised to maximize in this

57


Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-Tourism ...continued

niche. Branded “The Isle of Spice” the

island is profuse with spices and herbs.

Spice gardens, herbal gardens, organic

gardens, coupled with the spa and therapy

features can all be packaged appropriately

for the health and wellness enthusiasts.

Culinary Tourism focuses on the

preparation, and enjoyment of food

and drink. The emphasis is the creation

of international dishes adapted using

local ingredients and the preparation of

traditional food and drink. This sub-set of

agro-tourism includes dinner and theatre

packages, culinary schools and workshops,

food festivals, tasting/buying packaged

local products, farmers markets and tour

of a food or rum factory. The food festivals

above mentioned as community tourism

initiatives, World Food Day food festival,

are all examples of Culinary Tourism.

Grenada continues to excel in regional food

competitions, with local chefs achieving the

tops positions. There is a conscious effort

within the local hotels and restaurants,

driven by the Grenada Tourism Board to

consistently improve food variety, standards

and quality, with an emphasis on the use

of local products in food preparation.

Grenada’s rich culture of traditional ethnic

foods enables extraordinary potential for

development of this sub-sector. The area

of Agro-Trade is involves creating trade

relationships with the business sector,

artisans and agro-processors. This is an area

of exponential growth potential. Presently,

de La Grenade Industries is the largest local

agro-processor. However, there are several

small scale enterprises that need growth and

development direction and assistance.

Success Cases: Gouyave

Fish Friday Festival &

Belmont Estate

Fish Friday 14

Gouyave Fish Friday Festival (GFFF) is a

street festival that was established in June

2005. Held every Friday evening, the event

focused on offering a wide assortment

of fish cuisine to its guests, in a fun, safe

environment where people also enjoy

meeting friends, and listening to music

and participating in cultural activities. The

established goals of GFFF are to focus on

the development and marketing of diverse

fish products, to promote community

development in Gouyave and the rest

of the Parish of St. John, by promoting

Gouyave as the fishing capital of our Spice

Island; create linkages with other sectors of

the local economy, including agriculture,

craft production and the cultural arts; to

promote Gouyave as a tourist town and

provide diverse economic opportunities

and generate income opportunities for the

people of St. John.

The festival is managed by a Board of

Directors comprised of stakeholders and

representatives of various interest groups. It is

now a major community tourism attraction.

In an effort to ensure the continued success

of this venture, and bring the festival to

capacity, plans are being made to improve

the current operation and to introduce

new activities like tours of Dougaldston

Spice Factory, the town of Gouyave, the

nutmeg factory, other landmark sites and

to also offer accommodation. The festival

is an outstanding example of a successful

community tourism project with a strong

agro-toursim linkage.

Belmont Estate

Belmont Estate is an authentic 17th century

plantation, located at Belmont in St. Patrick.

It is a fully functioning estate and employs

about 80 persons from the surrounding

communities. The concept is to offer

visitors a unique perspective of Grenadian

agricultural and food processing life in situ

and help visitors to see the value-added

initiatives that were being implemented at

Belmont Estate. The decision was made

for economic, socio-cultural and external

factors. It became necessary to diversify

the farm activities so as to generate other

revenue streams for the business.

However, equally important was that the

owners thought that Belmont Estate would

be an excellent facility to educate visitors

about agricultural production, plantation

life, the cocoa to chocolate experience,

and plantation history that is so intricately

woven into the island’s history.

Further, it was envisioned that an enterprise

like Belmont Estate would increase the

tourism product offerings of Grenada, and

would also stimulate other entrepreneurs to

reorganize their farm activities to include

agro-tourism products.

The uniqueness of Belmont Estate is that it

is the most diverse agro-tourism enterprise

on the island. The product offerings

include visits to the organic farm, gardens,

heritage museum, and cocoa processing

facilities. There is also a restaurant featuring

traditional Grenadian cuisine, a goat dairy

farm, petting farm, conference room,

gift shop, café, produce shop, cultural

entertainment, a credit union and craft

market. Belmont Estate presently embodies

several of the sub-sectors of the agrotourism

market. As a farm based and agroeco

tourism facility it offers tours, petting

farm, and donkey rides. The main feature of

the tour is learning of the operations of the

organic cocoa produced on the estate for

making dark chocolate with the Grenada

Chocolate Company. The new goat dairy

project utilized the milk from the goat to

make fresh goats cheese. A full tour of the

goat houses and dairy will commence in

November 2009. Harvesting of fruits and

vegetables will be introduced as part of the

visitor activities at that time. As part of

its community tourism activities, culinary

tourism, it has introduced four annual

festivals – Indian Arrival Day, African

Heritage Day, Rhythms & Flavours and

Creole Day, featuring ethnic foods and

cultural activities.

A small farmers market is included as

a part of these events and local farmers

participate by selling their produce. In an

effort to add greater variety to the typical

Grenadian cuisine offered at the restaurant,

58


Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-Tourism ...continued

a new concept was introduced. On the

first Sunday of every month, the restaurant

offers different international cuisine to

its guests. The concept is to use our local

ingredients, herbs and spices to create

international dishes. Community Tourism

activities are also encouraged through its

charity arm, Hearts and Hands. Guests

have opportunities to contribute to and

participate in assisting persons in need

or to make contributions to community

projects. The heritage museum and the

cocoa-processing tour are Afro-Heritage

Tourism components of the business.

Belmont Estate’s future offerings include

accommodations and a river spa featuring

traditional herbal treatments.

Recommendations and

Conclusion

To successfully market Grenada as an

agro-tourism destination, it is pivotal

that the Government develop a national

agricultural policy that would strengthen

and expand Agro-tourism, spearheaded by

the Ministries of Agriculture, and Tourism,

in collaboration with the Ministries of

Health, Education, Culture and Trade.

Out of this policy, a taskforce, headed by

the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of

Agriculture or another top level personnel,

and comprised of various stakeholders from

the public and private sectors should be

assigned the responsibility to formulate and

implement a strategic development plan

for Grenada, and to manage the function,

growth and development of the sub-sector.

Foundational work on the plan would

require a comprehensive SWOT analysis

and an economic impact study.

According to research done by Ms. Kimberly

M. Thomas, there is already an existing

agro-tourism linkage network in Grenada

linking the wholesaler to the hotels, and

the farmer to hotels. However, the existing

models need to be strengthened, and

widened to ensure adequate production

in quantity and quality and adequate

distribution network to guarantee market

penetration. 15 The implementation

plan must address strengthening of the

matrix. Further value-added initiatives,

manufacturing of secondary products

for the Agro-Trade sub-sector need to be

developed. Value added initiatives require

considerable investments for producers.

Thus the Government and private financial

institutions must make viable financing

options available to producers. 16 Allocations

must be made by Government for funding

and other support of Agro-tourism ventures

for the development of the sector. Financial

incentives, tax holidays, sound government

policies, enrich the rural environment and

motivate agricultural producers to initiate

Agro-tourism ventures.

In collaboration with the Ministry of

Education, the Grenadian public and

visitors must be sensitized and educated

on the value of eating locally produced

foods, with a strong emphasis on eating

seasonal foods. This would encourage

local production, and sales, and reduce the

dependency on importing “out of season”

foods during the off seasons. Also critical

in this plan is the marketing of Grenada

as a Culinary-Tourism destination.

Tourists would thus visit Grenada with the

appreciation for local foods, and would

thus reduce the expectation that they would

be mostly consuming foods that are already

familiar to them during their stay here.

The opportunities in agro-tourism are

enormous for Grenada. The country

already has established linkages between

the Agriculture and Tourism that need to

be strengthened and bolstered by a strong

policy initiative, and a dynamic matrix

of stakeholders that would develop and

manage the sub-sector. Key to success

is a shared vision for the sub-sector, with

a view to increase revenue, generate

foreign exchange and create more jobs,

with positive multiplier effect in the

rural community. The Government has

affirmed its commitment to revitalizing

and re-structuring of Agriculture and its

keen interest in structural and economic

linkages to other complementary sectors

like Tourism. With the Government’s

renewed position as the launch pad for

Agro-Tourism, there is a renewed sense of

optimism about the positive impacts for

Grenada’s economy.

1

George Brizan, Grenada – Island of Conflict, p5.

2

Helen Mc Bain, “Caribbean Tourism and Agriculture:

linking to enhance development and competitiveness,

p7.

3

http://www.caribbeanagritourism.org, (accessed April

29, 2008).

4

Kimberly M. Thomas, A Stakeholder Informed

Approach to the Development of Formal Agri-tourism

Backward Linkages in Grenada, p15.

5

Ibid. iii.

6

Ibid

7

Agri-toursim and Agro-tourism are used interchangeably

throughout this paper.

8

Roxanna Waithe, Barbados Agro- Tourism Inventory

Report” Ena C. Harvey, Presentation at the 7th

Annual Caribbean Conference on Sustainable Tourism

Development “Keeping the Right Balance – Sustainable

Tourism Through Diversity” April 28, 2005, p3.

9

Caronlyn E. Hayle et el, Market Research on Agrotourism

Products and Services, p7.

10

Roxanne Waithe, “Barbados Agro- Tourism Inventory

Report”, p3.

11

Roanne Waithe, p5

12

Community Tourism in the Caribbean was pioneered

by Diana McIntre-Pike, Chairman/CEO of Country

Style Community Tourism in Jamaica in 2003

13

Ibid

14

The information for this section on Fish Friday was

provided by Dr. George Vincent the founder of Fish

Friday.

15

Kimberly M. Thomas, p58.

16

Vincent Amanor-Boadu, Options for Financing

Agricultural Value-Adding Business, p1.

59


Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable

Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy Can No Longer Be

Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada?

- By Daniel Lewis, Senior Planning Officer, Ministry of Agriculture

Introduction

Recent developments both nationally

and globally have brought to

the fore, the whole issue of the

absolute necessity of developing in

Grenada, a national food security plan that

is scientifically sound, environmentally

sustainable and which must be enshrined

in the policy frame work of Government

and implemented in the most vigorous and

committed manner.

In September 2004, Grenada’s agriculture

industry was decimated by the passage of

Hurricane Ivan. Prior to that colossal event,

the only recorded natural phenomena that

left Grenada as humbled and bruised was in

1955 when Hurricane Janet created havoc

on the island. The older folks who had

vivid memory of Hurricane Janet admitted

that compared to Ivan, Janet was a piece of

cake.

Hurricane Ivan left an unprecedented trail

of destruction in the agriculture sector

that shattered the hearts of even the most

tenacious and resilient farmers. All the subsectors

reported damages in excess of 80 %

including food crops and the impact on

infrastructure including roads, bridges and

drainage systems was alarmingly high.

A deep analysis of the resulting food crisis

that emerged from the passage of Hurricane

Ivan had revealed, in the most profound

way, the absence of a comprehensive disaster

management plan and a comprehensive

food security strategy at the national level,

to mitigate against eventualities of the scale

of Hurricane Ivan. In other words, Grenada’s

vulnerability to food insecurity was exposed

in the most amazing way following that

very traumatic event.

The passage of Hurricane Emily in 2005

dealt another blow to Grenada’s agriculture

industry and further exacerbated the

food security problems on the island.

Irrespective of the fact that hurricane was

not as destructive as Ivan, its impact on

the island’s fragile agriculture industry and

infrastructure was substantial.

The global food crisis that affected many

countries over the last 18 months or so

was another significant development which

impacted food access and availability by

many persons in Grenada, particularly the

marginalized and vulnerable in society.

60


Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy

Can No Longer Be Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada?

...continued

This crisis was inextricably linked to the

unprecedented high oil prices experienced

during the aforementioned period where

critical agriculture inputs of all types had

increased exorbitantly which resulted in the

eventual rise in food prices.

While high oil prices have been cited

as the main factor contributing to the

recent food crisis, it must be emphasized

that other factors such as climate change,

population explosion and drought may

have a more prominent effect on long term

food crisis. It is estimated that half of the

world’s population could face severe food

shortages by the end of this century as rising

temperatures shorten the growing season in

the tropics and sub tropics, increasing the

risk of drought, and reduce the harvests of

dietary staples such as rice and maize by 20

percent to 40 percent, according to a study

published in the Journal of Science.

Global warming is expected to affect

agriculture in every part of the world

but it would have a greater impact in the

tropics and sub tropics, where crops are less

able to adapt to climate change and food

shortages are already starting to occur due

to rapid population growth. It is therefore

incumbent on countries like Grenada to put

systems in place to ensure the sustainable

production of food to meet the demand of

its population and to lessen on the reliance

on food imports.

With the expectation that the world

population would double by the end of the

century, the need for food would become

increasingly urgent as rising temperatures

force nations to retool their approach to

agriculture, create new climate- resistant

crops, and develop additional strategies to

ensure an adequate food supply for their

people. One of the major challenges for

small island developing states like Grenada

is to critically look at ways of boosting its

food production capacity and to explore the

possibility at the same time, to grow some

crops intended for import substitution.

The recent food crisis can well be described

as a defining moment as far as it relates to the

prioritization of food security programmes

in developing and food vulnerable states like

Grenada. One of the tangible lessons learnt

from that experience, is that, no longer can

countries like Grenada take comfort in the

fact that food can be imported easily from

exporting countries. In the midst of the

recent crisis, many countries restricted the

export of food as a means of protecting the

food status of their own countries and this

obviously left many importing countries in

limbo.

From the foregoing discussion, it is not very

difficult to understand why the Government

of Grenada and indeed the Ministry of

Agriculture have intensified their efforts

recently in order to strengthen the island’s

food security status.

Government’s Intervention

In September 2008, Cabinet directed the

development of a comprehensive coherent

national response to the food security crisis

facing the island.

The Cabinet provided some guidance for

the national food security plan that would

be developed. Cabinet directed that the

national response must:

• Address the areas of, inter alia,

production, consumption and storage

• Provide coherence and coordination to

the work of the many Ministries and

State Agencies and the NGO’s and

private sector that work in these areas.

• Not subvert the existing markets and

the private sector and

• Ensure sustainability of the programmes

and activities designed and effected.

Cabinet has also taken the conscious

decision to appoint a Food Security

Committee, with membership from a

broad based multidisciplinary background.

The Committee is mandated to coordinate

and provide technical advice to the cabinet

on all matters related to food security issues

on the island.

It is important to point out that such a

decision by Cabinet to prioritize food

security is highly commendable taking into

account the fact that the decision came only

two months after the Government assumed

office.

Prior to 2008, the Ministry of Agriculture

had been implementing a food security

programme (as early as 2002). In contrast to

the new approach, the previous food security

programme was not as comprehensive and it

was not perpetuated by any crisis, thus there

was less urgency to commit resources and

develop policies to sustain the programme.

The past Government, nevertheless, must

be acknowledged for initiating such an

initiative at a time when food security was

not as fashionable and urgent as it is today.

It is worth noting that with Government’s

unwavering support, it is expected that any

food security plan developed would have

some degree of sustenance as it is expected

that Government will provide the resources

necessary to ensure that the island achieve

some degree of food security.

It is instructive to point out that the present

food security programme implemented by

the Ministry of Agriculture is funded by

the Government of Grenada and the Food

and Agriculture Organization (FAO). So

far about 2000 households have benefited

from a wide array of material and technical

services. The programme has been designed

to benefit marginalized families, resource

poor farmers, institutions such as schools.

The current programme is intended to

bring some relief to the poorer people in the

community but for a longer term and more

sustainable action, it is vitally important

that a food security plan is developed and

implemented.

Strategies to Address Food Security Issues

in Grenada

According to the 1996 World Food

Summit and the FAO, food security exists

when “all people, at all times, have physical

and economic access to sufficient, safe and

61


Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy

Can No Longer Be Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada?

...continued

nutritious food to meet their dietary needs

and food preferences for an active and

healthy life”.

This definition suggests four requirements

for a food secure people and country.

1. Food Availability: S u f f i c i e n t

quantities of food of appropriate

quality must be available within the

country. The food source can be a

mixture of both domestic and local

production.

2. Food Accessibility: Ho u s e h o l d s

and individuals must have access

to adequate resources for acquiring

appropriate food for a nutritious diet.

3. Food Utilization: U t i l i z a t i o n

of food through adequate diet, clean

water, sanitation and health care to

reach a state of nutritional well being

where all physiological needs are met.

4. Stability: There should not be risks

to households and individuals access

to food as a consequence of sudden

shocks (e.g. hurricane, economic crisis

etc.) or cyclical events (e.g. seasonal

food insecurity).

Some of the strategies that can be used to

address food security issues at the national

level in Grenada are:

• Boosting Agriculture Production and

Productivity.

This is a very important strategy and is

intended to improve production efficiency

by decreasing cost and improving the

income of farmers. This would also impact

on consumer prices as they would pay

less. This broad strategy can be achieved

by the implementation of a number of

interventions which include:

1. Training of farmers and technicians.

2. Promotion of the use of modern

technology (irrigation, shade house

usage etc.).

3. Market support to farmers.

4. Development of cost of production

modules.

5. Train farmers to be more astute

business men /women.

6. Develop better storage facilities.

7. Prioritize Research and Development

activities.

8. Create the enabling environment to

get the private sector more involved in

agriculture.

9. Promote value added (agro-processing)

as a priority.

10. Facilitate access to farm lands for

young potential farmers.

• Introduce a marketing and publicity

programme to optimize farmers’ sale

and marketing of produce. This would

be a very good incentive for farmers and

will definitely instill a lot of confidence

in the agricultural sector.

• Development of a programme to

ensure sustainable availability and

affordable prices of agricultural inputs.

The Government may contemplate

the establishment of an input quasi

business where inputs are sourced and

sold to farmers at cost price. There are

good examples where such system has

been tried and proven successful e.g.

St. Vincent Inputs Warehouse.

• Implementation of a programme

to significantly boost the utilization

of domestic, fresh and processed

products on the island. This could

be done by an aggressive campaign

in schools, restaurants, the hotels

and the wider community at large.

Already, the Ministry of Agriculture

is implementing a project on the

marketing and promotion of locally

grown or processed produce which is

intended to achieve the same objective.

From a strategic stand point, that

programme must outlive any short

term project and must be pursued

with a high degree of aggressiveness

and commitment.

Strategies to Address Food

Security at the Household Level

(Food Accessibility)

Given the fact that poverty exist among

a large number of households, a key

concern of the food security strategy is

develop programmes to ensure sustainable

improvement of food access at the household

level. Through the adoption of a number of

policy interventions, Government can:

1. Develop social safety nets for the most

vulnerable.

2. Implement some measures in support

of trade liberalization such as reducing

import tariffs on some of the most

widely consumed commodities

(intended to reduce prices of these

items).

3. Develop mechanisms to improve

the competitiveness of agricultural

production and marketing systems to

reduce prices of locally grown foods.

4. Market intervention to reduce food

prices.

Some Strategies that can be used

to Improve Food Security at the

Household Level

1. Intensify training for farmers.

2. Strengthening market systems.

3. Conduct an in depth review of import

policies and patterns.

4. Improve the access of farm lands for

agriculture.

5. Intensify plant propagation.

62


Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy

Can No Longer Be Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada?

...continued

6. Enhancement of germplasm bank.

7. Establishment of concessions for

value added activities that utilize local

agricultural production.

8. Ensure access to food baskets and

other safety net provisions for the most

vulnerable.

Household/Individual Nutritional

Status

It is generally accepted that education and

knowledge are the main tools for addressing

that component of food security. The active

inputs of Ministries such as Health and

Education and the Grenada Food and

Nutrition Council would be of fundamental

importance in imparting knowledge as far

as health and nutrition is concerned.

Key strategies that could be employed

to achieve that aspect of food security

include:

1. The implementation of a dynamic,

coherent and well focused education

programme.

2. Development of an improved school

feeding programme.

3. More efficient social safety nets

programme with emphasis on

improving the targeted beneficiary

groups.

Stability of National and

Household Food Security

The implementation of a food storage

policy can reduce the risks to an adequate

food supply at the national level. This is

very important as the absence of such a

policy was a determinant factor in all the

problems experienced after the passage of

Hurricanes Ivan and Emily in 2004 and

2005 respectively. Such a policy would

ensure that the island has adequate stocks of

food in high risk periods especially during

the hurricane season that spans about 6

months of the year. This policy must also

be cost effective, minimizing as much as

possible, wastage, pilferage, disruption and

distortion to the domestic markets.

Strategies that can be Employed to

Achieve Stability of National and

Household Food Security

1. Promotion of roots and tubers

cultivation that can withstand disasters

such as hurricanes especially those with

long shelf life e.g. sweet potato, tannia,

yams etc.

2. Enhancement of value added as a

strategy to avoid wastage especially

during periods of high production

of seasonal crops and as a means of

safeguarding foods for emergency

situations (e.g. production of cassava

farine, drying of fish, production of

corn flower etc.).

3. Stockholding within the current

market system operated by importers

and supermarkets.

4. Educate private households to maintain

stocks of foods especially during

periods of potential natural disasters

(e.g. during the hurricane season).

Development of a Food security

Plan for Grenada

The Ministry of Agriculture has prioritized

the development of a comprehensive food

security plan as a major goal and has solicited

assistance from the Food and Agriculture

Organization (FAO) for the development

of that plan. The FAO would provide the

assistance under the TCP facility (Technical

Cooperation Programme).

In developing the food security plan,

FAO would take into account the multidimensional

problems associated with

food security issues and has made the

commitment to provide expertise of various

disciplines who are expected to work in a

very coherent manner among themselves

and with the Ministry’s personnel and

other stakeholders to develop that plan. For

example, the following experts would be

recruited by the FAO:

• A National Disaster Risk Management

Advisor.

• An International Food Security

Consultant.

• A National Nutritional Advisor.

• A Social Protection/Safety Net

Consultant.

• A Value Chain, Trade and Marketing

consultant.

In addition to the aforementioned experts,

the Agricultural Development Economics

Division (ESA) would provide technical

advisory services in support of the

implementation of the development of the

food security plan.

Conclusion

Grenada has been subjected to a

preponderance of crisis situations over the

last five years including the passage of two

major hurricanes and the harsh food crisis

experienced over the last 18 months. These

crises have exposed the island’s vulnerability

to food insecurity in the most vivid fashion.

In light of the foregoing, the Government

and indeed the Ministry of Agriculture have

proactively responded in a manner that

is mature and responsible and have been

implementing a food security programme

(with assistance from the FAO) on the

island to assist the poor and vulnerable. In

the meantime, the Ministry of Agriculture

is working conscientiously and diligently

in order to develop a comprehensive food

security plan for the island.

The development of a comprehensive food

security plan for Grenada is not a choice

but an absolute imperative.

63


Agricultural Production Data – Pivotal for Promoting the

Commercialization of Agriculture in Grenada

- By Jude Houston, Consultant, FAO

It is widely accepted that

commercialization of Grenada’s

agriculture is the way forward.

Unfortunately, the process has been

terribly stymied by the lack of production

data. Often some critical questions arise

which cannot be answered. Is Grenada

food secure? Which vegetables and fruits

should be imported within a given period

without tariff? Are we self-sufficient in the

production of cantelopes and other exotic

fruits? Can we support the idea of import

substitution for root crops and tubers?

Many of these questions can only be

answered with the existence of an adequate

production data system.

The Agriculture Sector in Grenada makes

an extremely vital contribution to social,

economical, and rural development.

Considering this fact, it is therefore

essential to monitor the performance of

sector. Up-to-date and accurate Agricultural

Production Data is necessary in order to

assess the impact of the resources expended

by the Ministry of Agriculture and other

donor agencies, to ensure informed

decision making by national planners and

the donor community and to permit an

accurate assessment of the contribution of

agriculture to the overall economy.

As far as it relates to food security - the

imperative of feeding ourselves, especially

in light of the global food crisis of high

prices and potential food shortages –

whether or not can certainly be contended

at this present juncture. Nonetheless,

Agricultural Production Data helps in

understanding the structure of the food

production industry and the constraints

faced by farmers in increasing agricultural

production, as well as, suggesting strategies

for increasing agricultural productivity.

Cropping patterns can be studied along

with information on the use of irrigation,

farm machinery and improved varieties

of seed to help develop programmes for

increased food production.

Agricultural censuses are also necessary for

various reasons. The last agricultural census

in Grenada was done in 1995. Grenada has

not been able to report in a comprehensive

way on the situation of agriculture within

the country since. Over the intervening

period, the face of agriculture has changed

considerably. The whole island was

devastated by Hurricane Ivan in 2004

and was badly affected by the passage of

Hurricane Emily in 2005, especially the

agricultural sector. An agriculture census

and accurate production data necessitate a

comprehensive situational analysis especially

as it relates to food access issues.

Data emanating from agricultural produce

markets and other infrastructures on the

community level can help in assessing

the effectiveness of the food distribution

system. Issues related to stability of food

supplies, such as weather conditions and

exposure to natural disasters, can also be

studied from the community component

of the agricultural census. The agricultural

census also provides broad economic, social

and environmental indicators to show

the background against which the food

economy operates. It assists in the study

of environmental issues that may affect

agricultural output, such as forest cover,

and the use of fertilizers and pesticides.

Household data from the agricultural

census may also highlight social issues

affecting food security, such as changes

in demographic patterns and household

structures.

The present situation now as far as it relates

to the generation of agricultural data is very

limited, though some organizations may be

able to provide actual production on certain

commodities, by and large, agricultural

production statistics in Grenada, especially

in the area of vegetables, fruits, tubers and

root crops are merely guesstimates. Statistical

data is obtained on the sector often mostly

from secondary sources which includes:

the Grenada Port Authority, Marketing

and National Importing Board (MNIB),

Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association

(GCNA), Ministry of Agriculture (MOA),

Grenada Cocoa Association (GCA) as

well knowledgeable personnel involved or

related to specific crops and or livestock at

either production, processing or marketing

levels. Often, for official documentations,

data related to purchases of fresh produce

from the MNIB is used to estimate national

production (extrapolation technique).

Some persons use a general assumption

which tend indicate that MNIB purchases

15% of local production. On the basis of

this assumption, the national production is

estimated. The extrapolation technique is

often based on Raising Factors to represent

production passing through other markets

such as hotels, groceries and the public

market.

Some agriculture subsectors are particularly

problematic where guesstimates are

concerned. Very often, it’s almost impossible

to estimate production. A classical example

of this problem is in the livestock sub

sector.

The livestock industry in Grenada revolves

around cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, broilers,

layers and bees. The slaughtering of animals

for households consumption is undertaken

at two public abattoirs in the island as well

as by itinerant butchers and farmers at the

community level. Animals slaughtered

at public abattoirs are certified by Public

Health Inspectors; however, there is an

absence of records for number of animals

slaughtered by type and carcass weight. It

is also felt that the majority of sheep, goats

and pig slaughtered are undertaken by

butchers and farmers at the community

level. It is unknown what percentage of

domestic fresh meat production originates

from this latter practice.

It is against this background that

methodologies and technologies need to

be applied towards the provision of timely,

reliable and comprehensive production

statistics within the Ministry of Agriculture.

Taking account of its resource limitations,

the Ministry of Agriculture should embrace

whole heartedly the assistance being offered

by the European Commission through

the Food and Agriculture Organization

64


Agricultural Production Data – Pivotal for Promoting the Commercialization of Agriculture in Grenada

...continued

with its Special Framework of Assistance

(SFA 2006), which is providing resources

for implementation of the project:

“Strengthening Agriculture Information

System in the Ministry of Agriculture for

Grenada”.

This project is intended to build

government’s capacity to regularly collect

and analyse data to facilitate informed

decision making, particularly, for effective

assessment of agricultural project assistance

in general , and to prepare ground for

undertaking an agricultural census in

2011. The project would therefore provide

staff and financial resources to allow the

Ministry of Agriculture to provide data

on the agricultural sector which are as

comprehensive as possible. Furthermore, it

would assist the staff of the Ministry to plan

the development of statistical information

on the agricultural sector in Grenada. In

this regard, this assistance would be an

important precursor to conducting the

national agricultural census under SFA

2007 financing agreement.

The focus of the project would be on

providing the inputs that the Ministry

of Agriculture is not currently able to

provide from its own resources. At the

same time, the project will work with the

staff of the Ministry to ensure that, via the

assistance, steps would be taken towards the

establishment of a self-sustaining system for

producing national agricultural production

statistics and related information and

analysis.

During the implementation of the project

the Ministry of Agriculture should prepare

or make it part of its objective to highlight

the impact of the project and maintain its

sustainability. This can be achieved through

the underlined activities:

• Change the system of data collection

from manual to electronic. This would

facilitate the electronic transfer of field

data to the Statistical Unit in Ministry

of Agriculture, bypassing the editing

and data entry exercises, reducing

processing time and facilitating

dissemination of information to end

users. This process would require

the use of mobile devices (for

example palmtops) which would be

programmed to collect the data sets

(similar to electronic questionnaires)

with built-in “field edit” queries to

validate data quality at entry.

• Further training of the Statistician

assigned to the Statistical Unit in the

Ministry of Agriculture, in the field

of sampling with special reference to

agriculture and agricultural related

surveys.

• Retraining of field personnel in the

use of electronic data capture in the

field including submission of collected

to Head Office via the Internet.

• Training of field personnel in field

interviewing techniques including

guidelines for the collection of the new

data sets.

• Recruitment of IT personnel for

data processing and ancillary related

activities.

• Ensuring that reports on agricultural

production surveys would be submitted

to end-users with email addresses. Hard

copies to be submitted to libraries,

selected institutions, users without

email addresses. These reports should

include request for comments on

scope and coverage of data content and

format including recommendations for

improvements.

Accurate Agriculture Production Data

would aid the government and others

in effective planning and policy-making

decisions. Policy issues that can be analysed

using the agricultural census are:

Study of a specific crop: Census tables

specific to agricultural holdings with the

particular crop – for example, cocoa – can

be used to measure the number and location

of cocoa growers, the distribution of cocoa

growers by holding area, cropping systems

used by cocoa grower, labour requirements

for cocoa growing, etc.

Study of a specific livestock production

system: Census tables specific to agricultural

holdings with the particular livestock type –

for example, sheep – can be used to measure

the number and location of sheep producers,

the distribution of sheep producers by flock

size, the integration of sheep raising with

cropping activities, etc.

Structure of agriculture in a particular

area: Census tables relating to the

particular geographic area, such as a

district, can highlight the main crops

grown and livestock raised in the district,

the agricultural practices used in the

district in comparison with other districts,

employment characteristics in the district,

etc.

Inter-relationship between crop and

livestock production: Census tables can be

prepared showing the number of holdings

with specific combinations of crop and

livestock types.

Sources of farm labour: Census tables can

be prepared to show the types of farm labour

inputs for specific farming systems and the

role of household and outside labour.

Farm typology studies: The agricultural

census can be useful for classifying holdings

by type, as an aid to developing agricultural

development policies. For example,

holdings can be sub-divided into whether

they are subsistence or market oriented,

and different policies and programmes can

be developed for each group.

65


With Agriculture Production Data

or agriculture census, the Ministry of

Agriculture would be better able to

analyse trends in production which

would allow reorientation of its

support programmes to those areas

which are either most in need or which

demonstrate the best potential for

development. In the wider society, the

presence of comprehensive statistics on

agriculture would indicate quite lucidly

the impact the sector is making in the

socio-economic life of the country, its

contribution to GDP and as provider of

rural employment in particular. Finally,

donor agencies providing assistance to

agricultural development would be in

a better position to assess the impact

of their assistance on the output of the

critical agricultural sector.

66


Meteorological Observation for 2008

The Ministry of Agriculture’s Land

Use Division submitted primary

data collected from its rainfall

monitoring stations to the Caribbean

Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology

(CIMH) for analysis. The Standardized

Precipitation Index (SPI) which was

developed by T.B. Mckeee, N.J. Doesken

and J. Kleist of Colorado State University

was used to investigate drought and

precipitation in Grenada. This index is

favourable for investigating and monitoring

drought and periods with extremely high

precipitation. It also has the capability

to provide an early warning of extended

drought periods. Positive values are an

indication of greater than median rainfalls

whilst negative values indicate less than

median rainfall.

According to the SPI index, in 2008,

there was near normal precipitation (SPI

-0.81) in Grenada. Similar conditions

was experienced in 2007 (SPI -0.86) and

2006 (SPI 0.46). However, pervious years

2004 (SPI 2.12) and 2005(SPI 1.46) were

categorized as extremely wet.

Climate Change Impact on

Agriculture in Grenada

According to Grenada’s first National

Communication on Climate Change

presented in the year 2000, climate change

impacts on tropical crops in Grenada

is not clear. However, as regards to

livestock specifically in Carriacou, based

on historical data there is vulnerability of

extreme drought which may result stock

losses (GOG-MOF, 2000). Similarly, as

it relates to fisheries, the breeding ground

of seventeen (17) of the main demersal

species may be adversely affected because

of sea level rising over mangroves and reefs

a consequence of climate change (GOG-

MOF, 2000).

Automatic Weather Station at Mirabeau in St. Andrew

Table 14: SPI Values and Precipitation Intensities (Mckee et al 1993)

SPI Category Probability (%)

2.0 + Extremely wet 2.3

1.5 to 1.99 Very wet 4.4

1.0 to 1.49 Moderately wet 9.2

-0.99 to 0.99 Near normal 68.2

-1.0 to -1.49 Moderately dry 9.2

-1.5 to -1.99 Severely dry 4.4

-2.0 and less Extremely dry 2.3

Table 15: Showing Average Rainfall in Inches at Selected Monitoring

Stations (2004- 2008)

Monitoring Stations 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Lower Marli (North) 5.76 6.55 5.01 5.06 4.97

Mt. Hartman (South) 5.64 5.95 4.60 1.99 4.65

Clozier (West) 13.8 10.2 9.94 8.82 9.04

Mirabeau Agri. Station 9.48 9.11 6.30 7.35 6.65

(East)

67


List of Figures & Tables

Figures

Figure Number Figure Name Page Number

1 Grenada’s Agriculture Sector Contribution to GDP by Economic Activity 7

2 Agriculture Sector’s Contribution to National Export Earnings 7

3 The Dynamics of Grenada’s Agriculture Sector 10

4 Comparison of Local Poultry Meat Production vs. Imported Poultry Meat 25

5 Fish Production 2003-2008 29

6 Fish Exports in Value 2003-2008 29

7 Forest Trees Production 2003-2008 33

8 Spice Exported in 2003-2008 39

9 Cocoa Bean Production 2003-2008 41

10 Cocoa Bean Exports in Value 2003-2008 41

11 Comparison of Cocoa Bean Producers 2003-2008 42

12 Nutmeg Exports in Value 2003-2008 44

13 Nutmegs Exported in Quantity (nutmeg processed for exports) 2003-2008 45

14 Mace Exported in Quantity 2003-2008 45

Tables

Table Number Table Name Page Number

1 Estimated National Production of Fruits in Pounds (lbs) for 2005-2008 11

2 Estimated National Production of Vegetables in Pounds (lbs) for 2005-2008 12

3 Estimated National Production of Tubers and Root Crops in Pounds (lbs) for 2005-

12

2008

4 Plantlet Production & Distribution Figures 2004-2008 13

5 Purchase of Tissue Culture Plantlets 2005-2008 15

6 Tissue Culture Plantlets Production 2005-2008 16

7 Number of Farmers Receiving Assistance Under the Irrigation Programme by

22

Agriculture District for the Year 2008

8 Poultry Production in 2008 (comparison percentage and value increase/decrease with

25

Production in 2007)

9 Distribution of Dairy Goats by Parish 26

10 Size of Grenada’s Forest Reserves 34

11 Quantities of Individual Spices Exported from 2003-2008 in Pounds (lbs) 39

12 Selected Capital Project for 2008 50

13 CARDI’s Distribution of Crop Planting Material for 2008 52

68


References

Agency for Reconstruction and

Development. 2005. Modernizing

Agriculture in Grenada: A National Policy

Strategy. ARD Publication. St. George’s.

Amanor-Boadu, V. 2003. Options for

Financing Agricultural Value-Adding

Business

http://www.agmrc.org/media/cms/

financeagbusiness_DBBAC4E22E484.pdf

[accessed April 29 2009].

Brizan, G.1998. Grenada – Island of

Conflict. Macmillan Caribbean. Oxford.

Bruinsma, J. 2003. World Agriculture:

Towards 2015/2030. FAO: Earthen

Publications Ltd. London.

Caribbean Agri-Tourism. 2008.

www.caribbeanagritourism.org

[accessed April 29, 2009].

Caribbean Agro-Tourism. 2009.

www.caribbeanagrotourism.com/Agrotrade/WhyAgro-Trade.htm

[accessed June 28, 2009].

Food and Agriculture Organization,

Inter-American Institute for Cooperation

on Agriculture, Organization of Eastern

Caribbean States Secretariat. 2004. Grenada

Plan of Action for the Rehabilitation/

Revitalization of the Agricultural Sector in

the Aftermath of Hurricane Ivan. Summary

Document. Grenada.

Plan for Agriculture and Rural Life in the

Americas. IICA Headquarters. San Jose.

Mc Bain, H. 2007. “Caribbean Tourism

and Agriculture: linking to enhance

development and competitiveness”.

http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/

xml/2/28172/L.76.pdf

[accessed June 28 2009].

Nyack-Compton, S. 2008. “Transforming

Belmont Estate: A Strategic Plan”. Belmonte

Estate Publication. St. George’s.

Paul, R. 2008. Towards a Strategy for

Agriculture and Poverty Alleviation in the

OECS. UNDP: Publication UNDP Subregional

Office. Bridgetown.

Ramsaroop, M. 2007. Foundation Study

towards the Establishment of an Agricultural

Data Service in Grenada. Draft Report

European Union SFA 2003: St. George’s.

Thomas, K. 2009.. “A Stakeholder

Informed Approach to the Development of

Formal Agri-Tourism Backward Linkages

in Grenada.” Unpublished Research Paper.

University of the West Indies – Cave Hill.

Bridgetown.

Government of Grenada: Ministry

of Finance. 2000. First National

Communication on Climate Change for

Grenada. Government of Grenada and

UNDP. St. George’s.

Hayle, C. 2006. “Market Research on Agrotourism

Products and Services.”

http://caribbeanagrotourism.com/

Publications/Carolyn-Hayle.pdf

[accessed June 28 2009].

Inter-American Institute for Cooperation

on Agriculture. 2007. Hemispheric

Ministerial Agreements: Agro 2003-2015

69


Contact Information

Ministerial Division/

Allied Organization

Contact Person

Telephone Number

(473)

Email

Address

Agronomy Division Ms. Shira Baldeo 440-3083 ext. 3002 sjbaldeo @hotmail.com MOA

Biotechnology Division Dr. Malachy Dottin 440-4460 ext. 3026 malachyd@caribsurf.com MOA

Caribbean Agriculture

Research and

Development Institute

Mr. Reginald Andall 443-5459/420-1334 cardignd@caribsurf.com

Westerhall,

St. David

Engineering Division Mr. Raymond Baptiste 440-2708 ext. 3003 raybap@hotmail.com MOA

Extension Division Mr. Randolph Shears 440-3083 ext. 3001 rjshears1961@yahoo.com MOA

Fisheries Division Mr. Justine Rennie 440-3831 justinar7368@hotmail.com MOA

Forestry Division Mr. Aden Forteau 440-2934 Michael_forteau@yahoo.co.uk MOA

Grenada Cocoa and

Nutmeg Association

Grenada Cocoa

Association

Inter-American Institute

for Cooperation on

Agriculture

Marketing National

Importing Board

Minor Spices

Cooperative

Mrs. Joyce John 440-2117/2714 gcna.nutmeg@spiceisle.com

Mr. Andrew Hastick 440-2234/2714 gca@spiceisle.com

Mr. Cosmos Joseph 440-5547 iicagda@spiceisle.com

Mr. Fitzroy James 440-1791 mnib@spiceisle.com

Mr. Milton Gabriel 443-2604 minorspices@caribsurf.com

Lagoon Road,

St. George

Lagoon Road,

St. George

The Villa,

St. George’s

Young Street,

St. George’s

Laura Land

St. David

Pest and Disease

Management Unit

Mr. Paul Graham 440-0019/6219

pestmanagementunitgda@

spiceisle.com

MOA

Produce Chemist Lab Dr. Guido Marcelle 440-0105 guimacel@caribsurf.com MOA

Veterinary Division Dr. Bowen Louison 440-2708 ext. 3018 vetliv@hotmail.com MOA

70


Notes

71


Grenada’s Annual Agriculture Review can be

accessed from the following website and links:

http://www.gov.gd/ministries/agriculture.html

Annex

Annex 1: Food and Live Animals Imports

01/2008 – 06/2008

Annex 2: Food and Live Animals Exports

01/2008 – 06/2008

http://www.gov.gd/ministries/agriculture.html

72

Report designed by: AllyDay Creative Projects Ltd. | www.allyday.net


The Annual Report

Mission Statement

To present a review on Grenada’s agriculture sector which highlights developments, identify

obstacles, informs problem solving and provides an outlook for future development and

agriculture diversification.

Vision Statement

Grenada’s Annual Agriculture Review will be the most thorough, yet, concise replica of the

sector’s information sort after by all stakeholders including producers, policy makers, donor

agencies, academia and marketers of Grenada’s agriculture industry.

Key Objectives

The Annual Review would;

• allow national planners and decision makers to assess the contribution of agriculture

within the overall economy and allocate the necessary resources for its development;

• allow the Ministry of Agriculture to assess the impact of its assistance and to plan future

activities;

• provide donor agencies with required statistics, information and analysis to allow them

to formulate appropriate assistance to the country and to allow the effectiveness of this

assistance to be monitored;

• permit researchers, students and potential investors to use the information emanating

from the review to great effect.


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Agrimetrologist • Agri-Journalist • Agronomist • Biotechnologist •

Extention Officer • Tree Surgeon • Pomologist • Nematologist •

Nursery/Green House Manager • Olerticulturelist • Permanent Secretary in

Agriculture • Strategic Planning Officer • Marine Biologist • Veterinary

Officer • Public Relations Officer • Quarantine Officer • Pest Control

Officer • Fishery Officer • Lands & Survey Officer • Hydrologist and

MORE!

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