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An Adaptive IMM Estimator for Aircraft Tracking - ISIF

An Adaptive IMM Estimator for Aircraft Tracking - ISIF

Proc. 1999 International

Proc. 1999 International Conf. on Information Fusion, Silicon Valley, CA, USA, July 1999 18000 16000 4 Y 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 3.5 3 2.5 2 4000 2000 2 1.5 1 0 -5000 0 5000 10000 15000 Fig. 1 True aircraft trajectory The respective results for the fast maneuver are shown in Figs. 4-14. The NEES is given in Fig. 4. The mean errors (ME) and the root-mean square errors (RMSE) of the state vector are shown in Figs. 5-8 and Figs.9-11, respectively. The average model probabilities are presented in Figs. 12-13 and the average FF behavior is given in Fig. 14. These results show that IMM3a have better consistency, accuracy and faster response to abrupt maneuvers. 8 7 6 X 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 k Fig. 4 Normalized Estimation Error Squared 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 10 1 k 2 Fig. 5 X Position ME 5 5 n N 4 0 3 2 -5 1 1 0 9 8 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 k Fig. 2 True aircraft normal load factor -10 -15 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 2 k Fig. 6 Heading ME 7 6 1 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fig. 3 Normalized Estimation Error Squared k

Proc. 1999 International Conf. on Information Fusion, Silicon Valley, CA, USA, July 1999 6 22 5 4 2 20 18 16 2 3 1 14 12 2 1 10 8 1 6 0 4 -1 2 -2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 k Fig. 7 Velocity ME The true trajectory and the true NLF change for the moderate maneuver are represented in Figs. 15- 16. The NEES and average FF behavior are given in Figs. 17 and 18, respectively. The same inferences can be drawn for the next two scenarios. The true trajectory and the true NLF change for the weak maneuver are presented in Figs. 19-20. The NEES and average FF behavior are given in Figs. 21 and 22, respectively. 2 1 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 1 k Fig. 10 Heading RMSE 2 6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fig. 11 Velocity RMSE k -1 0.65 -2 0.6 -3 -4 -5 -6 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 µ 3 -7 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 k ∗ Fig. 8 ∆ $ , / n N i k k ME 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fig. 9 X Position RMSE k 2 1 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 µ 2 µ 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 k Fig. 12 Mean of Model Probabilities for IMM3 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 µ 5 µ 3 µ 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 k µ 4 µ 2 Fig. 13 Mean of Model Probabilities for IMM5

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