Fluid Design and Execution - Society of Petroleum Engineers

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Fluid Design and Execution - Society of Petroleum Engineers

SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES

is funded principally

through a grant of the

SPE FOUNDATION

The Society gratefully acknowledges

those companies that support the program

by allowing their professionals

to participate as Lecturers.

And special thanks to The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical,

and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) for their contribution to the program.


The Critical Path to Success

for Openhole Completions

***************

Fluid Design and Execution

Charlie Svoboda

MI SWACO


Why Do We Drill and Complete

1. It is easy.

Openhole?

2. Everybody’s doing it.

3. It gives greater exposure to the reservoir.

1. Greater incremental productivity

2. Lower drawdown pressure

3. More even production across reservoir

4. Greater ultimate recovery from reservoir

5. Extended facility life


Fluid Design to Balance Needs

Reservoir Requirements

“Non-Damaging”

Sand Control Needs

Well Type – Prod/Inj

Well Fluid – Oil/Gas/Water

Goal

Reservoir Capability

Completion Requirements

Insert Equipment

Success

Complete Process

Remove Potential Barriers

Stimulate ?

Produce

Unimpeded Production w/

Managed Solids

Drilling Requirements

Wellbore Stability

Pressure Control

ROP

Directional Control

Target

On Time & Under $


Drilling Issues

Inhibition/ Wellbore Stability

‣ Interstitial

‣ Interbedded

• Chemical

• Mechanical

Well Control

Thermal Stability


Drilling Issues - continued

Lubricity

‣Mechanical Coefficient of Friction

‣Stuck Pipe Tendency

Fluid Friction - Hydraulics

• Drillability

‣Rate of Penetration (ROP)

‣Hole Cleaning

‣Directional Control

‣Rotating

‣Sliding


Reservoir Issues – “Non-Damaging”

Invasion Control

‣Pores/Permeability

‣PSD/Filtration Control

7.00%

Histogram CaCO 3

6.00%

5.00%

4.00%

CaCO3 (VF)

CaCO3 (F)

CaCO3 (M)

CaCO3 (C)

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00%

0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

Particle Size M icrons

Goal:

Thin External Filtercake


More “Non-Damaging” Reservoir Issues

Compatible Chemistry

‣Mineralogy

•Dissolution

•Swelling

•Dispersing

‣Formation Fluids


More “Non-Damaging” Reservoir Issues

• Well Type

‣Producer / Injector

Fluids – Oil / Gas / Water

Contamination Impact

‣How much?

‣What Type?

• Contingency Products

‣Lubricants

‣Shale Inhibitors

‣Lost circulation Material

0% Injection post flowback

75% Injection post flowback


Completion Issues

Fluid Compatibility

‣Drilling/Completion

‣Completion/Reservoir

‣Breaker/Reservoir

‣Drilling/Completion/Breaker?/Reservoir

Equipment Compatibility

‣Screen Plugging

‣Corrosion

‣Elastomers


More Completion Issues

Degree of “Forgiveness”

‣ Barefoot

‣ Predrilled

‣ Slotted liner

‣ Wire Wrapped Screen

‣ Premium Screen

‣ Expandable Screen

‣ Openhole gravel pack

Relative “Forgiveness”

More “Forgiving”

More “Unforgiving”


More Completion Issues

Process Compatibility

‣Tools permit all of completion process

‣Proper fluids in the correct place at the

appropriate time with correct placement rate

‣Efficiently remove previous wellbore fluids

•Appropriate chemistry

•Sufficient volume

•Correct Hydraulics

Contingency Flexibility

‣Losses

‣Equipment failure


DON’T forget PRODUCTION!!!!

When does production/injection begin?

‣ 1 week, 6 months, 2 years…….

‣ Well test before - How long?

‣ Immediate injection

‣ Remoteness

What will happen downhole?

‣ Settling / Separation

‣ Subsequent laterals?

‣ Emulsion development

‣ Corrosion

Rate, BPD

45000

40000

35000

30000

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

Target

OBM

Comparison of Injection Wells

Equatorial Guinea

LS OBM

A B C

Well

Target

Rev OBM

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

Pressure, psi


Suspension Fluid?

Production / Injection

Fluid – Oil based vs. Water Based

‣ Density

‣ Solids

• Amount

• Size / Type – Plugging / Settling / Erosion

‣ Compatibility

Fluids

•Metallurgy

•Elastomers

‣ Stability

• Separation/Settling??


Production / Injection

Subsequent Stimulation

‣Acidization

‣Fracturing

Production Facility Requirements / Location

‣ Solids

‣ Emulsion

‣ Corrosion


Select from the Vast Array of Fluids

Water Based

Monovalent

Divalent

Formate

Solids Free

Bridging Agent

High Solids or Low Solids

vs.

Invert Emulsion

Conventional

Reversible

Low Solids

Breaker

Disperse

Dissolve

vs.

No Breaker

Flowback


Evaluation / Planning / Testing

Formation Damage Testing

NOT the Ultimate Test

Look beyond the number

(%return)

‣Filtration/Filtercake quality

‣Relative perm changes

‣Flow initiation pressure

‣Understand the steps

Permeability, mD

Permeability Comparison Test MOBM

500.0

450.0

400.0

350.0

300.0

250.0

200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Volume

Init. Inject after cleanup. Inject. After Prod. Flow

Base Perm.

Prod. Flow Back

Be careful about overcomplicating the Test


Evaluation / Planning / Testing

Formation Damage Testing

NOT the Ultimate Test

Fluid Integrity

‣Temperature

‣Solids Contamination

Fluid Compatibilities

‣Scale

Oil Phase

‣Corrosion

‣Elastomers

Water

‣Emulsion

Permeability, md

Permeability Comparison Test #11

450.0

400.0

350.0

300.0

250.0

200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Volume

Init. Inject after Cleanup. Inject. After Prod. Flow

Base Perm.

Prod. Flow Back

Low pH

Water Phase

High pH

Oil

OBM

WW


Planning / Testing / Evaluation

Breakers – Chemical CleanUp

‣Timing

‣Efficiency

• Cake removal

• Formation Impairment

Production Screen Testing

Full Sequence Simulation Testing

‣ Drill

‣ Displace

‣ Run Completion

‣ Chemical Breaker

‣ Produce

99% 1 hr

92.5% 3 hrs


Field Testing

Standard

‣Density, Rheological

Properties, Chemistry

Low Shear Rate Viscosity

Fluid Loss

‣Permeable Media NOT Paper

Breaker Insolubles

Production Screen Testing

Pre-agreed Treatment Matrix

‣Solids Control Limitations

‣Premix Dilution


Keys to Success

Plan Thoroughly –

Include adequate time and

consider the complete process

Cooperate

‣Operator (Office, Lab, Field)

Fluid provider

‣Tool provider(s)

‣Pumping service provider


More Keys to Success

Agree on a plan

‣ Compromises

‣ Contingencies

• Breakers

• Losses

Follow the plan

Analyze performance

‣ Well performance

‣ Operational performance

Adjust where needed for future projects

‣ Learn

‣ Don’t reinvent unless absolutely necessary


Where has this worked?

Routinely

And many more…………

Routinely

9+ wells

5 wells

2 wells

2 wells

Routinely

15 wells on

3 projects

Generally

Everywhere is possible!!!!!!


More Details to Projects

SPE 98347

SPE 98242

SPE 96830

SPE 96828

SPE 95024

SPE 82278

It Really is EASY

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