Executive Summary.FINAL - The Stimson Center

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Executive Summary.FINAL - The Stimson Center

BEYOND BOUNDARIES IN EAST AFRICA:

Leveraging International Security Assistance to Address Security/Development Needs in the Global South

As a byproduct of globalization and expanded opportunity, the world is amidst the most remarkable exodus from

poverty in human history. Regrettably, not all have benefitted equally—and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa

provide sobering examples of this continued disparity. In that region, poverty, poor public health opportunities,

trafficking in small arms and terrorism continue to fuel a vicious cycle that prevents large portions of the

population from participating in much of the positive economic momentum that other parts of the world are

either beginning to experience, or have been enjoying for decades.

Although a significant amount of international development assistance has been provided to the region to

build public health infrastructures, promote the rule of law, and address the underlying conditions that may

contribute to terrorist fervor, a wealth of evidence suggest existing resources have been insufficient.

Meanwhile, many of the wealthiest donors internationally have directed growing portions of their assistance

dollars toward meeting the twin security concerns of global terrorism and WMD proliferation. For Africa, this

trend, along with the current global economic crisis and diminishing streams of traditional aid, necessitate the

identification of novel streams of assistance in order to sustain and build upon the development and human

security gains that have been made to date.

To that end, The Beyond Boundaries Initiative proposes an innovative “whole-of-society” approach that seeks

to better leverage existing resources, identify innovative new streams of assistance, and bridge the

unproductive divide between security and development. Independent studies along with in-region research

suggests that there are myriad opportunities to tap international security assistance (counterterrorism and

nonproliferation capacity) that will simultaneously combat regional security threats, including the trafficking in

small arms and the promotion of public health infrastructures.

When used innovatively, UN Security Council Resolution 1373 (counterterrorism) and 1540 (nonproliferation)

are two mechanisms that have proven to be effective tools to not only prevent terrorism and proliferation, but

to also benefit development needs and regional security priorities, thus building common ground between the

goals of the donor and the needs of the recipient.

For example, several Eastern African governments and public health organizations have identified a lack of

laboratory capacity to confirm diseases as a central failure of countries’ public health woes. Given that several

key diseases of bioterrorism concern are endemic to the East African sub-region, security assistance designed

to build laboratory capacity and provide for the requisite training of technicians in laboratory techniques

would be as well suited to be considered by the 1540 Committee as it would be by international aid

organizations, national development agencies, or the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. So too would be the

provision of equipment necessary to support a disease surveillance and responsive infrastructure. Similarly,

national public health agencies across the region continue to be hampered by the manual transmission of

surveillance information which has slowed critical response time in the face of a disease outreach. Assistance

rendered under Resolution 1540 could provide much needed infrastructure updates that would directly

benefit nonproliferation as well as national and international public health efforts.

Likewise, preventing the transit of small arms and light weapons within and across national boundaries in

Eastern Africa also has a logical nexus with global efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and

chemical weapons of mass destruction. For instance, both require enhanced human and technical capacity at

border crossings, including better trained and equipped border agents and improved arms detection gear and

techniques. International nonproliferation donors have long provided a wide variety of practical assistance


tailored to these needs in the area of WMD detection and proliferation prevention. This “dual-benefit”

assistance includes the provision of long-term regional advisors, short-term experts, equipment and training to

foreign governments in support of mutual nonproliferation, export control, anti-terrorism, and border security

objectives. And in a similar vein, much of the assistance that might be proffered under Resolution 1373 yield

direct benefit for improving quality of life standards across the board in developing nations. For example, security

sector reform, assistance in developing a functioning judicial system to advance rule of law, improved training for

of law enforcement agencies, and the overall strengthening democratic institutions and government

bureaucracies to, among other things, limit corruption and prevent radicalization of a country’s citizens meet

directly many of the development and human security needs across Eastern Africa and the wider Global South.

Dual-Benefit International Security Assistance

Security Imperatives

Develop legislative framework

Border controls

Export/transshipment controls

Financial controls

Physical security of

materials/equipment

Law enforcement

Legal training

CBRN expertise training/equipment

Intergovernmental cooperation in

investigation, detection, arrest,

extradition and prosecution of

terrorists

Development Goals

Legal development

Rule of law

Institutional capacity building

Provision of equipment

Police training

Tertiary education

Anti-corruption initiatives

Border controls

Customs enforcement/revenue collection

Global competitiveness/development

Logistics

Infrastructure development

Public health (HIV/AIDS, malaria)

Reform public finance

Prevent natural resource trafficking

Improve reliability of transport system

Provide mobile health centers for rural areas

Training, logistics for public health providers

The Beyond Boundaries initiative works to identify innovative streams of assistance to address high-priority

in-country needs across the Global South.

Brian Finlay

Senior Associate and Director

Managing Across Boundaries Program

The Stimson Center

1111 19 th St., NW

Washington, DC 20036

202-478-3444

bfinlay@stimson.org

Johan Bergenäs

Research Associate

Managing Across Boundaries Program

The Stimson Center

1111 19 th St., NW

Washington, DC 20036

202-478-3443

jbergenas@stimson.org

In cooperation with the Stanley Foundation

Veronica Tessler

Associate Program Officer

The Stanley Foundation

209 Iowa Ave.

Muscatine, IA 52761

563-264-6885

vtessler@stanleyfoundation.org

For more information on the Beyond Boundaries Initiative, please visit:

http://www.stimson.org/programs/managing-across-boundaries/

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