Designer Profile - Association of Professional Landscape Designers

Designer Profile - Association of Professional Landscape Designers


The Steady



This brings to a

close my first year as

president of APLD

and begins my final

year in that office. It

has been (and

continues to be)

both an honor and a


H. Kibbe Turner

President, APID

privilege to serve you. With all the effort,

enthusiasm and sUpJX>rtI have received

from the membership and the great strides

forward made by the APLD Board of

Directors during my 1994 term I am very

excited about our prospects in 1995 -- The

second year of MEMBERINVOLVEMENT,,·

We have, with your help, maintained a

steady JX>sitivegrowth cycle and enhanced

the image of Landscape Designers within

and without of the green industry. Now,

coupled with the successful national

leadership JX>sitionour APLD organization

has assumed in the Landscape Design field,

other forces have developed to help sUpJX>rt

and elevate our profession. To explain all

that's happening that effects us, let me

break it down into three categories which

I'll refer to as Internal, External and Cooperative


Internal Forces -- we share the excitement

of youth -- a young organization made up

of experienced, dedicated and independent

minded professionals brought together for a

common cause .•

To Promote Our Profession!! Briefly now,

with more details in a future issue, we have

added a managing director to our

APLD Board.

Jack Lagershausen with his years of

experience and the full back up of a

management company at his disJX>salwill

help us chart our business course. Welcome

to the new board members so carefully

selected to contribute our growth and

image. We have initiated regular meetings

for our long range, planning committee;

made up of past and present board members.

As you probably are aware the

Communications Committee formed in 1994

is up and running, John Hetrick, Chairman,

will now be resJX>nsible,with Bob Spencer

and Ellie Pine to co-ordinate the APLD

If Update".

External Forces - Converging trends of

business, information networking the

environment, home owner activities and

green industry awareness are all sUpJX>rting

growth for the Landscape Design profession.

Knowledgeable APLD members will be

major beneficiaries of this growth.

Cooperative Forces - refer to initiatives

undertaken with other businesses and

organizations that provide mutual benefits

and/or shared resources for strengthening

each other. This is actually, one of the

business trends of today and into the 21st

century. APLDis actively engaged in these

types of affiliations and you should benefit

from them.

For example, our Winter Conference was

held in conjunction with the Management

Clinic sJX>nsoredby AAN (American

Association of Nurserymen) and its divisions.

The mutual benefits were outstanding.

Some 895 green industry members

thought so. The knowledge, networking,

permanent relationships and glimpses of the

future we received there gave us all an edge

on our competitors.

Our American Horticulture Society (AHS)

affiliation is now moving into Phase II. In

Phase I APLDpaid your membership for

you. In Phase II you are a professional

member of AHS at a reduced rate (1995

only) and this allows you to put your

resume on the Inter-net which reaches

people worldwide.

Our affiliation with Society of Garden

Designers (SGD) in England officially

became a program in 1994. We have

effectively traded memberships at the

association level and individual affiliations

are available in either organization.

My trip to England for one of SGD

conferences entitled the "Compassionate

Eye" was an unforgettable educational,

networking and friendship experience. My

thanks to Sam and Donna Swansen for their

sJX>nsorshipof that trip.

The "Promotion Order" that APLDhas

fully supJX>rted is a perfect example of cooperative

effort. This is a world class

advertising campaign for the Green Industry

that needs the sUpJX>rtof the whole

industry. And because of the nature of this

promotion we, as Landscape Designers can

not contribute money to its implementation.

However, if the whole industry sUpJX>rtsit

the whole industry will benefit. What a

deal!! for more information contact The

Garden Council at (301) 577-4073.

The last cooperative effort I'll cover in

this issue is our 1995 summer conference

with Minnesota Nursery & Landscape

Association (MNLA)in MinneaJX>lis,MN

you missed the winter conference don't ,

miss this one - you really can't afford to

Hands on education with carefully selec

design and garden tours to excite your


My next letter will be on External Forces

followed by a more detailed account of the

forces generated from within APLDto keep

you informed and help you maintain the

cutting edge in our industry.

contribute to the Members Forum

I Contact APW News if you would like to


by linda Engstrom

For years we have been hearing

about the need for urban planning and

the urgent cry for more park space

within our cities, all this in an effort to

get people to come back to our urban

centers to live, work and play. There

have been major inroads in this

direction as cities around the country

have gained back their regional

identities. Portland, OR is one of these

cities that has a vibrant downtown core

and a truly regional sense of place. But,

unfortunately, it is the surrounding

suburbs, located in the rolling hills

between Mt. Hood and the coast, that

are having problems. There is a

growing trend to build bigger homes

2 APID News


on smaller and smaller lots. This often is

a result of planning laws that attempt to

limit the outward growth of cities - a

good idea in principle. The reality is that

developers are forced to squeeze more

people into a limited area. The architectural

designs, along with insensitive

planning, have long lasting effects on the

landscapes of tomorrow and as Landscape

Designers we need to make a

JX>sitiveimpact on this futuristic picture.

Tony Hiss, writes in his book "The

Experience of Place," that suburban

sprawl ... has been transformed into

urban and suburban gobbling up and

tearing at the ground, and it resembles

the work of the great beasts of the last

interglacial period, whose browsing

destroyed large areas of the thick forest."

We need a new approach. We need to

build on the landscape without eating

away at it. We need a holistic view, the

big picture, a sense of place. We need to

continued on page 15



11 S. Lasalle St.

Suite 1400

Chicago, IL 60603





Bidding and Pricing: Help for Landscape Designers in Estimating Costs

, \

- , .v Sylvia H. Fee

ost Landscape Design offices fit the

, inition of small businesses. Estimating

pricing are probably the two important

areas where Landscape Designers are left

untrained and floundering. The pricing of

design and installation work is based on

various factors. First of all, an analysis of all

aspects of the proposed job is necessary to

reveal the conditions or features that could

influence ones desire to design a particular


The measure of the interest and bewilderment

of designers regarding their costs, and

pricing of their work is witnessed by the

well attended business sessions at APLD's

annual meetings.

Establishing a consistent routine for cost

and pricing is important. Data compiled

using familiar methods can be checked and

traced easily. Always use forms. Lined paper

with columns will do, however forms can

be purchased that suggest descriptions,

quantities, dimensions, unit costs and

catagories. These preprinted guides can

prevent omissions.

here is no magic formula to determine

urate costs. But there are strong guides

that will lead to developing ones own

formula for accurate costing of each project.

"How much should I be charging for my

work," is the urgent question from the new

design office.

"Depends on what it costs you," is the

honest answer. And costs are not the same

for offices in the same town. That is the

reason one sees such a wide range of bids

on a project.

It is necessary to estimate overhead when

setting up an office. One must be prepared

to adjust the budget to on-going realities.

What one can do is set up a record keeping

system to completely record all the costs.

Such a historical account of costs on each

project is the most valuable source of

information for the cost of time, labor and

materials for future work. One's own

historical costs are the most accurate

predictor of future costs, second are the firm

prices of known subcontractors and third

are the costs from current 'cost books' and

similar references. When using historical

costs to plan a budget, one must assume

some inevitable increases in future years.

Begin estimating each project in categories.

Logically, work may be divided into

Design and Installation. If one is offering

only design services one must recover all

APLD'sBoard of Directors Selects New Management

CAG Management Company, Inc. of

Chicago has been selected to handle the

day-to-day management and administrative

functions of the APLD, effective this past


The APLDBoard of Directors voted to

retain the services of the new management

company at its February board meeting in

Louisville, KY.

Jack Lagershausen, a corporate officer and

vice president of CAG, was named as

APLD's new managing director. Associated

with the management firm for 10 years,

Lagershausen brings over 25 years of

association leadership experience to his

new position. He currently serves as the

Executive Director for both the Illinois

Turfgrass Foundation and the Turf Equipment

Technicians Association.

CAG is a full service 30-year-old association

management company which employs

. full-time staff professionals.

he new APLDmanagement firm has staff

sonnel specialists in the areas of not-forofit

group management, administration,

professional development, membership

recruitment and retention, membership

benefits and services, meeting, conference

and exhibit management, publicity, public,

trade and media relations, publishing,

government affairs, industry affairs, financial

planning/reporting, fund raising and

strategic long range planning.

The new APLDheadquarters facility

includes three client conference meeting

rooms and a large education/training center

for workshops and seminars.

Jack Lagersbaus_

Complete computerized services include

Hewlett Packard and Apple/Macintosh

systems used for membership tracking

membership processing, membership

development, financial record keeping and

desk top publishing. High speed Xerox

photocopy equipment, incoming and

outgoing Fax equipment, E-Mail and a fully

the costs of operating the studi%ffice.

Rent, furnishings, utilities, wages office help,

insurance, taxes, replacement of assets as

they depreciate and wear out, use of

vehicle(s) and professional services of

others are some of the obvious costs for one

year and determine the number of hours

one must invoice to recover all those costs.

For example: Projected costs total

$127,000. This includes paying one self a

wage of $62,500 annually. With a billing rate

of $60 per hour for the work in the office,

one must invoice 2,117 hours of work. Since

this would require working at least 40 hours

a week for 53 weeks a year, one would

need to adjust to either life styles or budget

or both to achieve those goals.

Estimating landscape installations can be

much more challenging. Whether one's

working from drawings and specifications or

jotting down notes in the field, method and

consistency are essential. For an installation

estimate, one must recover direct costs that

only apply to that particular project plus the

indirect costs of doing business that must be

apportioned to that particular project.

Examples of direct costs are: material,

labor, equipment, subcontractors, project

continued on page 10


equipped on-site, in-plant printing and

mailing center are all available for APLD

use. Twenty-four hour voice mail service is

also available so members are always in

touch with association headquarters.

"The founders and current leadership of

APLD are to be congratulated on the work

and progress accomplished in establishing

and building the organization to its present

stage," Lagerhausen said.

"Our primary focus will be to continue

building on this solid foundation and move

quickly to expand the membership base

through what we feel will be imaginative,

creative and result-producing membership

development programs," he added.

"There are literally thousands of professional

Landscape Designers in business

today that need to become involved in the

work of the APLD. They need to avail

themselves to the present and future service

programs of this association and, in turn,

APLD needs their support and commitment

to help the association in its mission to

represent the best interests of Landscape

Designers," Lagershausen said.

Members can contact the new APLD

headquarters at 11 S. laSalle Street, Suite

1400, Chicago, IL 60603. Telephone: 312­

201-0101; Fax: 312-201-0214.

APLDNews 3


by Tim Christie

The Board of Directors of APLD met in

Louisville F,eb. 2. Here are some highlights

of the meeting:

President's Report

H. Kibbe Turner remarked that 1995 will

be an important one for us. During our

initial years we experienced rapid growth.

And the next few years promises many new

members as the visibility of our association

grows. He suggested we turn our attention

to serving and retaining our members and

begin to focus more directly on our goals

and direction. Our long-range planning

committee has been working on just these

issues and will make its report shortly. As

we try to communicate with members more

frequently -- and on a wider range of

subjects -- we should look for a more

consistent style and "look" for APLD.

Turner also announced that the "Hiring a

Landscape Designer" brochure would be

available at trade shows and for other

member use and our new directory will be

issued in late Spring.

APLDHires Management

Late fall and winter were busy periods for

Membership Chair Harry Schuster and his

search committee. Their charge was to

investigate association management firms

for APLD.For the past two years administration

of the association had added to the

already full plate of Turner and his staffer

Kurt Feldmann. From an initial field of over

20 firms responding to our request, Schuster

and the group narrowed the candidates

down to four and eventually to one firm;

CAG Management Co., Inc. of Chicago. CAG

manages 25 other groups, including several

in the Green Industry. Jack Lagershausen, of

CAG became our new Managing Director on

March 1.

Upcoming Events Reviewed

MJ1r"4 Dowse"

4 APLD News


Pencil in July 27 to 30 for our Summer

Conference in Minneapolis, MN. Mark

Madsen and Susan Armstrong are already

hard at work on plans for the Conference,

to be held in conjunction with Minnesota

Nursery & Landscape Association, the

American Association of Nurserymen and

the Perennial Plant Association.

New Brochures Available·




A. Apanius

Legistlative Watchdogs On Alert!

More in the

Schuster introduced two new brochures.

One is for membership and explains the

benefits of APLD membership and the goals

of our organization. The other will be used

to define our profession and introduce the

organization to a wider audience. The

second brochure might be made available to

the press or local organizations.

Environment Committee Chair Larry

Weaner's committee has been at work on a

new brochure; "Guidelines for Designing

Ecologically Sensitive Landscapes." Like the

"Hiring a Designer" piece, this will be a selfsupporting

effort, available for sale to


The Communications Committee Chaired

by John Hetrick will now be involved in the

production of the APLD Update. Comments

and suggestions about this newsletter are

requested. Each issue will have a general

theme, and regional details. This publication

should compliment APLD News.

Hetrick reported that he and other

committee members are assisting our

members in both California and Florida.

Landscape Architecture legisltation is being

reviewed in both states. The committee is

following legislation in several other states.

New Directors and Officers Named

Five new Directors were elected to the

Board; Charlotte Phillips, Jerry Pence, Tim

Christie, Alex Apanius and Myrna Dowsett.

Retiring from the board after countless years

of combined service were Donna Swansen,

Susan Resnick and Joanne Murphy.


Board of Directors


This is the slate submitted to the board for

their approval for officers and directors for

1995. The slate was approved and presented

to the membership at the annual meeting of

APLD in Louisville. The nominating committee

consisted of Donna Swansen, Joanne

Murphy, Tim Thoelecke and Peggy

Connors, Chair.

Executive Committee


H. Kibbe Turner

President Elect/Treasurer: Sylvia H. Fee

Vice President/Membership: Harry Schu

Past President: Margaret S. Connors

Recording Secretary: Charlotte Phillips'

Tenafly, NJ

Communication: John Hetrick

Certification: Barbara Webster

(looking for co-chair)

Education: Tim :rhoelecke

Regional Coordinator Chair: Rhonda Smith

Landscape Restoration &

Preservation: John Sonnier

Publication: Ellie Pine

Publicity/Public Relations: Tim Christie,'


Environment: Larry Weaner

Program: Alex Apanius' Hudson, OH

Members at Large: Joel Lerner,

will work on Public Relations

Rick Anderson

Jane Hopf: will work with communications

Myrna Dowsett' Portland, OR

Member Benefits: Jerry Pence'St. Louis, MO

Promotions: Gavin Lingo

'5 ew board members are in the class of


Samuel Swansen, Esq. continues as Legal


"Minnesota Northern

by Mark Madsen

The beautiful Twin Cities of Minneapolis

and St. Paul, Minnesota will play host to the

1995 APLD Surruner Conference, July 28­

August 1. The Twin Cities have a strong

tradition of landscape design including a

wealth of lakes, public parks, gardens, open

space and striking private residences and


"Minnesota Northern Lites" will be the

theme and downtown Minneapolis will

serve as conference headquarters, with

walking access to the acclaimed Nicollet

Mall, restaurants, shopping, and the

Minneapolis Convention Center. The

Summer Conference will coincide with the

Minnesota Nursery & Landscape Association

(MNLA),American Association of Nurserymen

(AAN) and Perennial Plant Association

(PPA) surruner meetings in Minneapolis and

many related events and activities will be

open to APLDmember participation and


Friday morning starts off with the APLD

breakfast and member orientation, committee

meetings and workshops and features

guest speaker Mary Lehrman, Horticulturist

for the Minneapolis Parks and Rec. Board

discussing the history of the Minneapolis

ark System. A representative from the

Lites:" The 1995 APLD Summer Conference

University of Minnesota Landscape

Arboretum's Center for Development of

Hardy Landscape Plants will discuss cold

hardiness in plants. The day includes

networking with AAN.MNLAactivities and

trade show at the nearby Convention

Center. Be certain to spend some time at the

trade show to gather product and service

information on "green industry" goods.

Wind the day up by exploring downtown

Minneapolis nightlife sites and sights with

your fellow members.

Saturday begins with a breakfast workshop

and features a panel discussion on the

topic of "Design Fees" -- certain to be a

lively dialogue! Later that morning, a

wonderful optional Landscape Tour

coordinated by MNLAand AAN is a mustdo.

The tour includes the renowned

Minneapolis Sculpture Garden at the Walker

Art'Center, the Lyndale Park Rose and Rock

Gardens, the Northrup Plaza Gardens at the

University of Minnesota -- designed by

Oehme & Van Sweden, and concludes at

the Governor's Residence Gardens in St.

Paul. That evening, the APLD Banquet will

feature Peter Olin, FASLA.Mr. Olin is

Director of the University of Minnesota

. Landscape Arboretum and will discuss

landscape education.

Sunday concentrates on the APLD Garden

Tour, beginning in St. Paul at the Como

Park Conservatory, includes lunch and a

tour of the 900 acre Landscape Arboretum

and ends with a tour of Noerenberg

Memorial Gardens, the estate grounds of the

late Frederick Noerenberg, with a dramatic

late afternoon panorama of Lake

Minnetonka's Crystal Bay. The Garden Tour

will also include several private residential

gardens. Later that evening, back downtown,

enjoy a reception and get to know

one another at the APLD Hospitality Suite in

the Minneapolis Park Inn, APLD headquarters

for the conference.

Monday is a "free" day with options of

exploring the Mall of America in

Bloomington (the largest enclosed malll

entertainment space in North America),

taking a boat cruise on Lake Minnetonka, or

participating in the PPA Garden Design

Workshops. Tuesday, August 1st is checkout

and departure for home.

For more information on the APLD

Surruner Meeting, contact Susan Armstrong,

at Bachman's Landscaping: 612-861-9226.

Many thanks to Armstrong and the other

members of the Surruner Conference

Committee in Minnesota: Co-Chair Debra

Ensteness, Tad Anderson, Mark Madsen, and

Aaron Westfield.


Thursday, July 27

4:00-8:00 p.m. -- APLD Board Meeting at

Park Inn, Downtown

Friday, July 28

8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. -- APLD Breakfast at

Park Inn, Downtown Minneapolis,

followed by New Member Orientation,

Committee Meetings and guest speaker:

Mary Lehrman

Horticulturist for the Minneapolis Parks

Department "The History of the Minneapolis

Parks Department:

8:00-12:30 p.m. -- AAN/MNLAGarden

Center/Retail Tour (optional)

9:00-5:30 p.m. -- AAN/MNLATrade Show

and networking at Minneapolis Convention


12:00-1:00 p.m. -- Lunch on your own

1:00-4:00 p.m. -- APLD Board Meeting at

Park Inn Downtown

4:00-5:30 p.m. -- Informal Reception and

networking with AAN/MNLAat Trade

Show at Minneapolis Convention Center

5:30 p.m. -- Dinner and evening on your


Saturday, July 29

8:00-11:00 a.m. -- Breakfast workshop at the

Park Inn Downtown Minneapolis including

a panel discussion on the topic "Design


9:00 a.m. - 2:00 p.m. -- AAN/MNLATrade

Show and networking at Minneapolis

Convention Center

11:30 a.m.-5:00 p.m. -- AAN.MNLALandscape

Tour (optional), includes lunch and

Trade Show entry ticket

6:00-9:00 p.m. -- APLD Banquet at Park Inn,

Downtown with featured

speaker Peter Olin, FASLA,Director of the

Minnesota Landscape Arboretum

9:00 p.m. -- Join AAN/MNLABanquet for


Sunday, July 30

8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. -- APLD Private Garden

Tour (open to AAN/MNLA),includes box

lunch and beverage breaks

5:30-6:30 p.m. -- APLD reception and

networking at APLD Hospitality Suite at

Park Inn Downtown Minneapolis (PPN


6:30 p.m. -- Dinner and evening on your


Monday, July 31 (Optional Day)

Option #1 -- Participate in Garden Design

Workshop conducted by PPA at Radisson


Option #2 -- Shuttle to Mall of America.

This is the largest enclosed malI/entertainment

space in North America, combining

800 retail establishments, entertainment

opportunities including rides, miniature

golf, games, restaurants, theaters, as well

as an elaborate indoor "landscape" with

trees, shrubs, ground covers, hardscape

and water features. Departure to MSP Air

Terminal is only five-minute shuttle.

Option #3 -- Boat Cruise on Lake

Minnetonka, approximately 20 minutes

west of downtown Minneapolis. Lake

Minnetonka is a twelve thousand acre

clean body of water with countless bays

and peninsulas and a large number of

estates which enjoy lakefront exposure.

APLDNews 5


by Timothy N. Thoelecke,Jr.,

It is said in pubic relations that a single

occurrence is an incident, two occurrences

is a coincidence, and three is a trend. Well,

there is a growing trend in the green

industry, and APLD is at the forefront. The

trend? Certification. It seems that certification

programs are emerging all over the

country, some on a national/intemational

basis, and others more local. APLD's

Certified Professional Landscape Designer

program joins those of the Associated

Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA),

which has been promoting very heavily its

Certified Landscape Professional (CLP)

exam, and the International Society of

Arboriculture (ISA) which has been actively

pushing its Certified Arborist program.


Certification is not a license to practice,

nor is it government regulation. Certification

is an industry-created and controlled

approval process. Certified professionals

must meet certain minimum competency

requirements to receive the "seal of

approval" from the governing organization.

Non-certified professionals are in no way

barred from practicing, so there is no threat

to them. The reasons to get certified are all


Why get certified?

In the November/December, 1994 issue of

PRO magazine, Wayne Marx illustrates the

positive image that goes with professional

certification: .

"Say you're looking in the yellow pages

for someone to help you out of a complicated

tax situation. Would you select Bob's

Better Bookkeeping or Charles Countrnore

CPA(Certified Public Accountant). Both Bob

and Charlie might possess the same skills,

but Charlie has been tested and recognized

for his skills."

C~catlon can directly influence a

consumer's decision.

Employees also benefit. Employers may

reward certified professionals for their

accomplishment and status in the way of

more responsibility or salary. Employees

gain a certain sense of accomplishment by

attaining certification. Also, when it comes

time for interviewing or promotions, it helps

an employer to differentiate.

For the employer, the benefits are many.

In this world of over-regulation by governments

- local, state, and federal - an

industry-run certification program keeps

control in the private sector. This can only

benefit the entire green industry by estab-


lishing and maintaining a level of credibility,

professionalism, and quality. What benefits

the industry in general also helps those

individual members of the industry.

Future Benefits

Down the road there may be added

benefits to maintaining a minimum standard

in the business. For example, if an insurance

carrier can minimize his risk by

making his product available to certified

professionals, perhaps lower rates can be


Programs Differ

Certification as a general concept is

similar in all fields, but in the specifics its

requirements vary. For example, to be a

Certified Arborist, one need not be a

member of ISA.The same holds true for

ALCA'sCLP.To be certified by APLD,

however, one must be a member. The

opportunity to become certified is considered

by APLDto be a member benefit. This

is reflected in the relatively modest $75

certification fee that APLD requires. ISA

requires $100 for members/$150 for nonmembers

and ALCArequires $250 for

members/$450 for non-members. The

programs also differ in the application

process. While the ISAand ALCAprograms

require an exam and usually classes or

review sessions to prepare, APLDcalls for

submission of plans and photos of the

applicant's work, along with professional

and client references. To maintain certification,

APLD and ISA insist on continuing

education, though the requirements differ

for each group. In all cases, however, one

need not be certified to be a member of the


The certification trend is industry-wide. In

addition to the three programs outlined

above, the Illinois Nurserymen's Association

has its six-year-old Illinois Certified Nurseryman

exam. There are countless other to be

sure, but all have the same goal: To serve as

the industry's means of setting a higher

standard. For this reason qualification is

difficult, yet very rewarding for those who


For more information, contact APLD (312)

201-0101, ISA (217) 355-9411, ALCA(703)

620-6363, or INA (217) 525-6222..

Tim 1boelecke ispresident of Garden

Concepts, Inc. of Chicago. A Glenview, IL

native, 1boelecke's professional affiliations

include the Chicago Botanic Garden, APW,

ASIA, Rotary International and the

Glenview Chamber of Commerce. He is a

certified arborist, holds a degree in Landscape

Design from Duke University, and is a

graduate of the Inchbald School of Design in

London. He is Education Chair and a

member of APW's Board of Directors.

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The Teachings of the "Profits" Are Always Worth Listening To

y Joel Lerner

Landscape Designer and APLD News

Editor, Ellie Pine, wrote, "Landscape

designers need to learn how to market their

businesses and increase their profits."

It's simple to do. Market by telling

prospects what a valuable investment

Landscape Design is for their properties.

Increase profits by charging enough for the

service. And always innovate and improve

techniques to make the business more


Steve Cockerham of Betty's Azalea Ranch

in Fairfax, VAoperates a successful garden

center in direct competition with today's

mass merchandisers, such as Home Depot

and K-Mart. He conducts ongoing intelligence

gathering at these facilities to

continue effectively competing. He says,

"price isn't the only determinant. People

want quality, price and value." Value is what

Cockerham calls "the human factor, the

expertise and helping hand, that most mass

merchandisers forget."

Value - while Cockerham works to keep

some garden center products priced

ompetitively, his profits come from

customers recognizing the value of dealing

ith his company, many times regardless of

a higher price tag.

TeUProperty Owners the

Value of Landscape Design

For Landscape Designers marketing is

also value oriented. Tell property owners

the value of Landscape Design. Use what

have become standard selling points in the

industry and are often quoted to substantiate

value. The following are taken from

"Discover the Pleasure of Gardening" by the

American Association of Nurserymen (AAN)

and are offered with many other selling

points in the Landscape Professionals

Marketing and Sales Sourcebook

(SANJO Press, 1993).

Landscaping increases property value up

to 15 percent gives

l00-Zoo percent return on investment

is the only home improvement that increases

with age

educes air conditioning up to 50 percent,

speeds the sales of homes by 5-6 weeks,

s good for the environment and is a

therapeutic stress reliever.

There are thousands of promotional

mechanisms for getting this message to

prospective clients extolling the value of

landscaping -- busin~ss cards, display

advertising, flower and home shows, public

speaking, leaders, premiums, television and

radio shows, door-to-door solicitation,

referrals, direct mail, telemarketing, point-ofpurchase

gimmicks and sales. Try them.

Don't be afraid to make mistakes.

Profits -- According to Cary Levenson,

Landscape Designers, and owner and

operator of Valley Gardens in Charleston,

WV, his greatest profits, in 15 years in

business, come from his design/build work.

His garden center has to be run very

carefully to make money. Levenson believes

"There is really only one way in any

business to know exactly what to charge to

show a profit, know operating expenses."

Levenson agrees that "quick bid" formulas,

high hourly rates, or getting "what the

market will bear" can markedly bump

profits, but they are trial and error without

knowing operating expenses. Advice for the

newcomer is first do the accounting; make

the numbers work for modest growth; then

adjust the rates higher as the market allows.

Profit implies that money is made on all

facets of the business. Don't offer "estimates."

Set up "consultations." Landscape

Designers share hundreds, maybe thousands,

of dollars worth of free advice during

an initial consultation. A consult can save

clients thousands of dollars. A consultation

better explains the service and implies that a

fee is charged. Go beyond operating

expenses by setting rates according to all to

the benefits one derives from the excellent

service, independent of what others might


Innovate and Improve -- Regardless of

discipline "continuous quality improvement"

will lead to the perfect product or service

for the customer, which will lead to

increased sales and/or higher fees. Then

when it seems that perfection is found,

continued innovation and improvement will

take the company even further.

McDonalds is still the preeminent fast

food restaurant in the world, yet they serve

the same thing as their first day of business

-- hamburgers and French fries.

They continuously refresh their products

with new promotional -- Happy Meal, Value

Meal, Playland.

Landscape Design is similar to

McDonalds. Design is still the same lines on

paper as when it started. With ongoing'­

innovation, those lines can be of more value

than in the past. One could ultimately offer

a Happy Design, a Value Drawing, or a

Playland Plan, or borrow from a competitor

with a "Have it your way" design.

The theory of "continuous quality

improvement" has an influential proponent.

World renowned management expert W.

Edwards Deming taught this to Japanese

companies 40 years ago and was ignored in

America. Now every management, marketing,

and motivational expert in the world

espouses his philosophy.

According to the senior management

consultant at Kraft Associates/ODA, Inc. in

Exton, PA. Deming's message was based on

the premise that people live most of their

lives as a repetitive process. This causes

them to "repeat the same plans and the

same actions again and again without much

thought, thereby achieving the same result

time after time.

One of the keys to realizefuU

potential is to be different

One of the keys to realizing full potential

is to be different. Variation is the raw

material of evolution. And the biggest

successes are when someone can create a

demand for an innovative product or


• ChemLawn®, HydroLawn® and others

cashed in on a wave in popularity for lawn

treatment. They took a method of broadcasting

lawn chemicals that had been around for

a long time and packaged and sold it in an

innovative way to homeowners. They

reaped millions of dollars in profits from

door-to-door lawn chemical vending,

because quick, efficient fertilizing and week

killing was in demand.

• Paul Hawken started the Smith & Hawken

tool and garden supply catalog company by

improving on two commodities that have

been around since the beginning of society ­

- tools and service. In the 1970's he saw a

market in this country for high quality

garden tools. He arranged to import them

from England and sell them through the

mail. Additionally, Hawken placed a strong

emphasis on customer service, because he

understood that people expect it and

respond favorably to is. In short time, Smith

& Hawken was a $60 million mail-order


• George Ballas was doing very well in the

real estate business when he developed a

method of trimming grass around the roots

of some big old oak trees in his yard. The

method of pruning that he invented was the

continued on page 11

APLD News 7

Natural Design: Incorporating Native Plant Communities into Designed Landscapes.

By Larry Weaner

What is natural design anyway? Is it any

landscape with curved bedlines, informal

plant arrangements and no pyramidal Yew,

Is it a design philosophy eager to banish a

host of beautiful exotics from the plant

pallets of the good landscape designers of

America, and replace them with a motley

crew of straggly natives with rninuscule

white flowers? As you might have guessed,

the answer is neither. The basic concept

behind "natural design" is fairly simple - to

incorporate the composition and processes

of our native plant communities into the

designed landscape. Unfortunately these

compositions and processes are anything

but simple, Their successful incorporation

into our designs requires a basic understanding

of how they operate in nature, Too

often random informality passes for

"natural", when in reality nature is highly

ordered and anything but random. Understanding

this order and utilizing it in our

designs is the key to making natural design

a workable and successful landscape style.

This does not mean that we must design

exclusively with native plants, attempt to

copy nature verbatim, or exclude the

influence of other design styles. Each

project has its own dictates, each client his

or her own needs and preferences, and

each designer his or her own creative style,

The goal is to create at least a framework

for the overall designed landscape that has

an aesthetic and ecological relationship to

our indigenous landscape through the use

of native plants in their natural associations.

Guidelines for when, where and how

extensively, to borrow from the native

landscape is something designers must

develop for themselves,

The basic goals of natural design can be

broken down into three categories:

Aesthetic: The aesthetic aspect of our

designs is of course the most subjective of

the three categories. Who is to say that one

style of landscape is appropriate over

another on any particular project? Why

would we want to homogenize our designs

and stifle artistic expression by uniformly

patterning our work on the native landscape?

Because as landscape designers our

medium is the land, Unlike a painter whose

art occupies an isolated canvass, much of

our work is viewed beyond the boundaries

of the property on which we are working. It

is seen in conjunction with the surrounding

landscape, both natural and built, We

therefore have a responsibility, beyond

simple artistic expression, to contribute

continuity and a sense of place to the larger

landscape, I can hear the collective groan

that this paragraph is generating, The

thought of homogenizing our designs on


Weaner~ design shows a five-year'-old meadow planting that began from plugs and seed.

any level is inunediately abhorrent to the

creative and individual spirit in all of us.

However, envision a suburban neighborhood

consisting of ten homes. Ten of the

worlds most brilliant landscape designers

are brought in to design each property.

Each designer is commissioned to express

his or her own personal vision using a wide

array of their favorite plants from around

the globe. Individually each design could

very well be an inspiring work of art, but

viewed as a whole, the neighborhood

would be an incongruous collection of

competing masterpieces with no relation to

the indigenous landscape that originally

occupied the site. On the other hand, let's

ask these same ten designers to put their

creative and artistic talents to work again,

but this time with an added sensitivity

towards the indigenous landscape of the

area, The result would still be satisfying on

an individual level, but each design could

also contribute to a unified and coherent

overall landscape that reflected a marriage

of art and nature. Who else can be trusted

to determine which type of landscape is

best suited to create unity of design in our

suburban neighborhoods? I think the answer

is obvious. Let nature be our guide.

Management: Reducing landscape

maintenance is a strong priority for virtually

all of our clients in this day and age, atural

design techniques can make a great

contribution in this regard. This does not

mean that natural landscapes are maintenance

free and can be completely left to

natural processes with no human guidance.

Nor does it mean that by simply including

some native plants in a design, that a

significant maintenance reduction will take

place. Any designer who advertises this is

not honestly representing the true benefits

of natural design. What it does mean is that

designed landscapes which incorporate

native plants in their natural associations,

and work with natural processes instead of

against them will require less time, money

and energy for upkeep than a landscape in

which plants are selected and combined for

ornamental effect alone. A purely ornamental

garden is like a beautiful, sleek automobile

with no engine. It may be nice to look

at, but the only direction it will go on it's

own power is downhill. We will be perpetl'

ally required to tow these gardens up the

hills with fertilizers, watering hoses and

weeding forks.

Environmental: First on the environmental

agenda is to change those landscape

practices which have a negative effect on

the surrounding environment. These include

reducing pollution caused by pesticides,

herbicides and excessive amounts of

inorganic fertilizers, increasing groundwater

recharge by limiting surface runoff into the

storm water system, reducing the amount of

fossil fuels burned while mowing large

areas of turf grass, and eliminating the use

of those exotic species that have naturalized

in the wild to the extent that they have

displaced the native flora of the area, These

goals are becoming increasingly recognized

in the landscape field in general and can be

incorporated into virtually any style of

landscape design through intelligent and

environmentally sensitive horticultural


Natural design, however, aims not only to

reduce these negative effects, but by it's

nature make a positive contribution to the

surrounding environment. By adapting and

incorporating native plant communities and "

their developmental processes into our

designs and management procedures, our

ornamental plantings can also become

functioning ecosystems capable of providing

food and shelter for birds, animals and

insects, while helping to perpetuate many

native plants whose habitats are being

reduced through development.

The following are some of the most

important concepts and techniques for the

cessful accomplishment of the goals

tlined above.

turb as Little Existing Native

Growth as Possible During


Saving existing native growth, particularly

woodlands, is much easier and cheaper than

trying to restore it after the fact.

Define the Role that the Indigenous

Landscape WillPlay In the


Determine whether you are attempting to

recreate a natural ecosystem (stick with

native species) or design an adapted

representation of an indigenous community

which can allow more latitude in the use of

native cultivars and some exotic plants. This

can be determined by many factors including

the character of the surrounding

landscape, client dictates, architectural style,

site characteristics, and the scale of the site.

Delinf.atethe Location of Tree

asses, Open Spaces and

ansltlonal Areas

he most obvious feature of the eastern

andscape is the patterns that are formed by

the interplay of woodlands, open landscape

and the transitional areas where they meet

(edges or ecotones). Creating a layout

containing a graceful and functional mix of

these features will become a defining aspect

of the design before any plants are even

selected. Even small properties can be

approached in this manner, often resulting

in the illusion of more space and a more

multi-dimensional feel.

Incorporate the Structure

and Patterns of the Native


Woodlands, native meadows and the

transitional areas between them (edges or

ecotones) all contain very distinctive

patterns and follow predictable processes.

Learning these characteristics will provide

you with a wealth of ideas for your designs.

se your Design on Native

tant Communities

Once you have determined a general

yout consisting of woodlands, open space

and transitional edges, you are ready to

determine which specific plant communities

are best suited to your site and can serve as

your design model.

This concept is of course central to the

successful implementation of landscapes

that achieve our previously stated aesthetic,

management and environmental goals.

Utilize and Planfor Natural

Processes of Change

Understand that the indigenous landscape

is a constantly changing system composed

of plants, animals, insects, microorganisms

and soils. Plants are not isolated entities but

participants in this system which is constantly

in flux. The selective inclusion of

these processes into our design and

management plan is a fundamental difference

between 'natural design' and other

more traditional approaches. Maintenance

can then become more of a partnership

with nature and less of a battle to keep it at


OCcupy aUthe Spaces

A basic law of almost any native ecosystem

is that where nothing is currently

growing, something soon will. Any native

conglomeration of plants is basically a battle

to occupy the space. By occupying all

possible niches, both above and below

ground we create more stable plantings able

to resist weed invasion without outside


Preserve Rain Water on the Site

Whenever we grade a property to direct

surface water into the storm water system,

we are sending a valuable commodity out

to sea. Aquifer recharge (the replenishment

of our underground water tables) depends

upon the absorption of rainwater into the

ground. We can assist this process by the

use of ponds, irrigation catchments, porous

paving surfaces and swales running

perpendicular to pitch direction. Low, wet

problem areas can be converted into

colorful assets by designing them as wet

basins containing water tolerant perennials

and shrubs.

Employ Alternatives to High

Intensive Lawns

The American lawn has become the focus

of a great deal of controversy. The negative

environmental effects are well documented.

Having said this however, lawn does serve a

useful function and its demonization by

some proponents of natural design can be

counterproductive. By rejecting a one size

fits all approach and basing our alternatives

on natural communities designed to be

functional, not just ornamental (ex. Meadows

in a Can) we can begin to make

inroads into the hegemony of lawn in the

American Landscape.

Exclude those Exotic Plants that

are Invasive

It is certainly not the intent of this article

to advocate a ban on the use of a nonnative

plants, but there are a number of

exotic species that have naturalized so

aggressively into our woods, meadows and

wetlands that the natural plant diversity of

these areas are destroyed. These include

many commonly used ornamental plants

such as Norway Maple, Burning Bush

Euonymus, Privet, Japanese Barberry,

Russian Olive, Purple Loose strife and many

others. The use of these plants should be

discontinued without further adoe.

Cultivate Inyour Cl/.entsan

Apprecf.atlon of the Beauty In


Everyone understands the beauty in a

majestic mountain range or a towering

waterfall, but most of what we can create in

our landscapes is much more subtle. If our

clients are missing the less grandiose

aspects of the native landscape, even its

successful incorporation in a design may not

be appreciated. The contrasting patterns of

straight and leaning tree trunks in a

woodland grove, a single Turk's Cap Lily

nodding above a bed of meadow grass, or

the layered branches of a Pagoda Dogwood

in a woodland edge may just be an acquired


A native old field in winter is a prime

example of how learning to see the

landscape with new eyes can open a whole

new vista of aesthetic possibilities. The

glistening orange of Little bluestem in the

sun, punctuated with columnar green

patches of Eastern Red Cedar is a spectacular

American scene, and a much more

warming sight on a frigid February morning

than a curled up PJM in a crispy bed of


Landscape designers and architects have a

responsibility to treat the land as more than

our personal paint canvas to hang on the

outside of the house. The landscape

designer should be part artist and part

repairman, restoring at least some of the

aesthetic qualities and environmental

functions of the indigenous landscape that

has been destroyed. By making an effort to

truly understand the workings of our

indigenous landscape, and combining that

understanding with the horticultural and

design knowledge long associated with the

landscape profession, we can legitimately

lay claim to the word 'natural' when

describing our work.

Larry Weaner is oumer of Larry Weaner

Landscape Design, a residential design-build

firm in Erdenheim, PA. He chairs APID's

Environmental Committee.



Aprll29, 1995 -- The Institute of

Ecosystem Studies holds workshop for

landscape professionals on "&ological

Alternatives to Lawns." Landscape

Architect Ruth Parnall and Donald

Walker of the Conway School of

Landscape Design will speak. Held 10

a.m. to 3:30 p.m. at the Institute, Route

44A, Millbrook, NY. Contract (914)


May 6,1995 - The Institute of

Ecosystem Studies holds workshop on

"Restoring Nature to the Residential

Landscape." Landscape Architects Neil

Korostoff and Stacy Levy to speak.

Held 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. at Institute,

Route 44A, Millbrook, NY. Contact

(914) 677-9643.

July 26-28,1995 -- Turfgrass Producers

International (TPI) holds Summer

Convention and Field Days in Omaha,

NE. Call (708) 705-9898 or (800) 405­


July 27-30, 1995 --APID Membership

meeting and Summer Convention

will be held in Minneapolis, MN.

For more information contact APLD

headquarters at (312) 201-0101.

November, 1995 - APID Board

Meeting in Chicago, IL. Contact (312)


New Plants for Spring

Stephanie Cohen, Education Director of

Waterloo Gardens in Devon, PAhas

released this list of new plants for spring:

Hemerocallis 'Moon Traveler' is a new

rebloomer. Slightly taller than 'Happy

Returns' and more floriferous.

Monarda 'Jacob Klose' is a gem. It is

being touted as one of the "most mildew

resistant" cultivars on the market.

Heucheras - there are always a plethora

of them, but this one is slightly different.

This dwarf selection called 'Fairy Cups' is 10

inches tall with leaves that are cupped

upward on the edges. It has reddish orange

flowers that appear to be coming from a

miniature water lily.

Discover Hosta 'Sun Power' which is

touted to take more sun than most. It's two

feet to three feet tall on golden yellow

leaves and conspicuous veins.

Dianthus 'Frosty Fire' is a great double

red on blue green leaves. This plant has

handsome foliage, dainty flowers, and a

long bloom season.

Perovskia atriplicifolia, is a sure fire late

season winner 'Felagrin's a very fine

textured, large plant at 42 inches tall. It has

very good foliage with blue flowers in

August and September. Combined with

grass, goldenrod, or asters it makes a season

finale with a flourish.

10 APID News


Publications • Portfolio

Stock Images

East64f Street, New York, NY 10021 • (212) 371·3596

Bidding ...

continued from page 3

overhead. Examples of indirect costs are:

taxes, overhead, profit, contingencies.

Direct Costs are determined by doing a

quantity take-off. Here are some guidelines:

Use preprinted forms for an orderly

sequence of descriptions, dimensions,

quantities, extensions and totals.

Be consistent when listing dimensions, for

example, always describe length by width

by height in the same sequence.

Use printed dimensions where given.

Portions of a landscape plan may be

schematic or curvilinear, it may be difficult

to scale a drawing in order to determine

accurate quantities.

Convert feet and inch measurements to

decimal feet. A plant bed of six-feet-sixinches

should convert to 6.5 feet.

Typical categories for landscape construction

are Site Work, Hard Construction and

Plantings. List each of these broad categories

separately, they are summarized later.

At this early stage no costs or' prices are

listed on the estimate. The task at this stage

is to list every item that is a direct cost to

this job.

For each category, systematically list

materials that are noted or indicated on the

plans. When doing a takeoff from a plan,

read and make notations in a planned

sequence. One method is to always begin at

the upper right quarter of a plan, listing the

plants in this part of the drawing.

Continue working around the drawing in

a consistent clockwise pattern. Complete the

takeoff for each group or category of

materials by making separate searches

around the plan. Be methodical. Locate all

lawn seed areas, then all sod areas, followed

by all paved walkway areas of similar

materials. If quantities are difficult to

determine, the estimate may be qualified by

stating certain assumed dimensions. For

example, 42,000 square feet of sod installed,

may be stated, rather than simply "grass sod

installed" Field verification of measurements

will be helpful, and is recommended if


When completing the takeoff, look over

the quantities and compare the pieces of

information that have been collected. Man

items are a "natural check" against each

other. For example, if specifications call for

three inches of topsoil under grass sod, the

relationship between square feet of sod and

cubic yards of topsoil can be known. There

are many relationships between materials,

work areas, and equipment and installations

costs, and these are cross referenced by the

experienced estimator.

After all the takeoff is completed, the next

step is to extend and summarize the

quantities. Takeoff units should be converted

to "pricing units". For example,

requirements for depths of topsoil or mulch

over a given area can be converted to cubic

yards (or cubic feet) of material - the units

in which the material will be priced and

purchased. Following such method through

all categories, prices are applied and

overhead and profit added, to arrive at the

final estimated cost.

For greater detail the reader is referred to

"Means Landscape Estimating", second

edition, by this author, Sylvia Hollman Fee -.

The book may be order by calling 1-800­


Sylvia Fee is an Albuqerque, NM Landscape

Designer and isfeatured as this issue's

Designer Profile.

Profits ...

r:ontinued from page 7

string trimmer. He invented it in 1972

n a popcorn can, some fishing line, and

old edger with the blade removed. He

named is the "~eedEater®." By 1976,

Ballas's company was doing over $50

million in sales annually, and string trimmers

now rank with lawn mower sales in

numbers sold.

• Due to this author's years spent advising

people about their properties, he innovated

a program to teach homeowners how to put

their personalities into their properties. The

program developed was called

LERNSCAPINGTM. it has garnered a great

deal of media attention and keeps a steady

flow of consultations and designs coming


The way LERNSCAPINGworks is that

property owners pay a Landscape Designer

to generate ideas, draft a design, and install

the landscape. The client fills out a

LERNSCAPEChecklist, meets with a

Landscape Designer to get guidelines and

:.-leas,then the designer takes the ideas

eloped during the LERNSCAPETM

~nsultation and generates a Landscape


The above examples have one thing in

common. They were an innovation or

improvement on an existing product or

service. If one develops a product or service

that there is a demand for, there is a bundle

to be made on it. Invent a market. Be first

on the block. Innovate. SpecialiZe in a new

field -- edible gardens, affordable gardens,

anti-cacophonous gardens, employee

gardens for corporations, there's even a

garden in a can.

In answer to Pine's observation that,

"Landscape DesignerS need to learn how to

market their businesses and increase their

profits," analyze operating costs, make

money on everything; keep pushing up

rates and trying (0 get what the market will

bear. Develop a gimmick that will make the

company fresh, new and exciting. "Hit a

nerve," and strike "pay dirt."

APID Members Participate

in Trade Shows and

Flower Shows

All members are encouraged to participate

in local events. Many APlD members

are participating in trade shows, flower

shows, and local activities around the

country. APLD'sJock Lewendon of Warren,

NJ and nine other members displayed a

booth at the New Jersey Rower Show. lhis

show's attendance exceeded 60,000.

Existing members have gotten jobs directly

from this show and attracted many new


APID's Colibraro Also


APLD's Associate Member Michael

Colibraro of Colibraro Landscaping and

Nursery, in Horsham, PA is participated in

the 1995 Philadelphia Rower Show as a

major exhibitor. This year's show them is

"Moments in Time .... A Galaxy of Gardens."

Colibraro's exhibit, "Magical Memories"

featured a garden of an Italian farmhouse,

with antique terracotta pots, vine-covered

'pergola', herbs and indigenous plants of the

Italian countryside.

News Notes

Robin Williams and His

Son Win Awards

APlD's British members, Robin Williams

and his son, Robin Templar Williams, were

honored recently with two prestigious

national awards.

The British Association of Landscape

Industries Awards presented the elder

Williams with the Garden Scheme Award

and younger with the Principal Award for a

Garden Scheme for Private Gardens.

APID Establishes a

Speakers Bureau

APLD's Education Committee has established

a Speakers Bureau of members

qualified and willing to speak on various

landscape-related subject. The committee's

aim is to have a central data bank of those

interested in speaking to groups which can

then be made available to botanic gardens,

educational institutions, garden clubs, trade

and professional associations and which can

also be used as a resource by the APLD.

For more information, please contact:

Anne Radway

531 Bennetts Farm Road

Ridgefield, CT 06877-2226


or fax to: 708-657-7917

Over 40 Years of Service I





Excerpted from Landscape

Professional's Marketing & Sales

rcebook byJoel M. Lerner, APLD

'45).Forfurther Information, coU

1) 495-4747.

Joel Lerner is a past president of the APID.

He is president of and author of general




P.O. Box 350

Sassamansville, PA 19472

610/754-7843 Fax 610/754-9750








by Peg Bue! Ecker


Botany for Gardeners

by Brian capon

1990 Timber Press

201 pages $17.95

This book can function as in introduction or review for the nonbotanist

yet serious plant person to enhance plant selection from a

horticultural perspective.

This concise, clearly written book guides the reader by defining

plant parts, describing why the parts are arranged as they are, how

the parts form the whole, how the whole plant interacts with its

own kind and how the plant interacts and adapts to its environment

to insure growth and survival.

The well organized text is supported by illustrations and color

photos, definitely worth 1000 words, as they illuminate the

descriptions of microscopic structures and processes.

The Book of Garden Design

by John Brookes

1991 Macmillan Publishers (American version)

345 pages $40.00

Our Book of Garden Ornament is the handbook of the industry. No

landscape architect or professional designer of interior or exterior

landscapes can be without one. It contains hundreds of unique products.

And gives specifications & sitework suggestions; a price list is included.






I and specificationsdata.

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Please Note: Books are shipped UPS, so P.O. Box Numbers are not acceptable'J



Artistically presented inspirational pictures along with a solid

review of Landscape Design principles and methods could fire the

imagination or creative spark within Landscape Designers.

John Brookes, famous for his beautifully produced gardenin

"coffee table" books combines his trademark pretty pictures anr'

elegant presentation with theoretical how's and philosophical

why's specific to his methods of creating Landscape Designs. This

book is the basis of the Landscape Design course he presents in

the United States and abroad.

Starting with a brief history of gardening, he goes on to review

the design process meshing gorgeous photos with actual process.

He gets specific in instructing the reader how to practically use a

site and its buildings to create a proportionally balanced and

artistically arranged ground pattern that 'serves as the basis for the

plan view translating into elevations.

His rather brief look at drafting, graphics, hard surfaces, garden

accessories, turf and edgings are accompanied by familiar Brookes

style lavish photos of garden detail and are supplemented with a

short final chapter on installation detail. His plant selection section

presents the plants with emphasis on their visual characteristics;

form, texture, color and again are well documented with photos.



Different styles designed for different gardening and landscaping

activities. All styles designed for comfort, function and protection.

For free catalogue call or write LITTLE'SGOOD GLOVES,P.O. Bo~

808, Johnstown, NY 12095, (SI8) 736-5014.

SINCE 1893



ornamentals, American natives, perennials, rare conifers, wildlife

plants, ... 300+ page descriptive catalog $3. FORESTFARM990

Tetherapple, Williams, OR 97544.


Oh, Deer!

-~y Dee Kruschwitz

, Remote, picturesque deer country - this

age recalls an appealing rural scene of

co-existence, peace and plenty. That picture

may still be a reality but another scenario is

appearing with alarming frequency. Deer

are not remote and landowners are grappling

with the results of this troubling trend.

Loss of natural predators, expansion of

suburbia, and a remarkable adaptability

have increased the deer population in this

country by millions. They are no longer just

shy, elusive woodland creatures. They are

flourishing in exurbia and suburbia.

Consequently, when deer appear on a

client's property it is wise and also good

business to have information about effective

fences, repellents and plants that are super

attractive as deer food as well as those that

are deer resistant. Most people with serious

deer problems have discovered that

commercially available sprays, and home

remedies like bars of soap, bags of hair, and

soaked hanging rags have definite limitations.

Constant vigilance for respraying,

resoaking and repositioning requires much

. time and energy. Some new nettings for

IlfUbs are effective for existing plants, but

'mart choices could eliminate the need to

roteet new ones.

Before any major decisions about

ornamental plantings are made, one must

understand a client with deer problems.

Usually it is pretty clear - Bambi is either

adorable or abominable. Of course, there is

a middle ground as well.

Homeowners wanting complete freedom

to grow desirables such as roses, daylilies,

and hostas (high in deer taste appeal) could

only be happy with fencing. Recommended

heights are eight to 10 feet and materials

vary from wire mesh, chain link, wood or

electric fencing. There also is seven and a

half foot high inexpensive black plastic

mesh fencing new to the market that has

had favorable' results.

Research available about deer preferences

is fairly consistent, and most agricultural

bulletins are in agreement. Naturally, this

varies if one is talking about the mainly

eastern white-tailed deer or mule deer of

the west. Most research shown here deals

with the white tailed deer, since they appear

to be the largest problem. Data results can

'ary widely when grazing areas are reduced

ue to severe weather or habitat loss.

tarving deer will eat almost anything.

When the decision is for an informed but

open approach the following lists will be

invaluable in making planting decisions.

A list of ornamentals white-tailed deer

favor most (97) and least (0) during winter


How do Designers


Euonymus fortunei

Taxus baccata

T. cuspidats

T. brevifolia

Thuya occidentalis

Rhododendron spp.


Hex crenata

Hex x meservae

Viburnum carlesii

Juniperus virginiana



Pyracantha coccinea



Rhodo.'Exbury Hybrids'

Ligustrum spp.

Rhodo. carolinianum

Malus domestica

Cotoneaster spp.

Euonymus alata

Juniperus chin ens is

Eleagnus angustifolia

Acer palmatum

Rhododendrum spp.




Tsuga canadensis

Pinus nigra

Hex glabra

Prunus serrulata

Betula papyrifera

Chamaecyparis pisifera

Philadelphus spp.

Viburnum tomentosum

Magnolia spp.

Hex comuta

Spirea spp.

Betula pendula

Leucothoe fontanesiana

Syringa vulgaris

Pinus strobus

Cornus sericea

Picea pungens

Pieris japonica

Amelanchier spp.

Forsythia spp.

Comus kousa

Pseudotsuga menziesii

Buxus sempervirens

Hex opaca

Abies fraseri

Cryptomeria spp.

Hibiscus syriacus

Picea abies

Pinus mugo

Pinus sylvestris

Pinus communis

























































Source: Conover, M.R. and C.S. Kania.

1988 "Browsing Preference of White­

Tailed Deer for Different Ornamental

Species. "Wildlife Soc. Bulletin. 16: 175-

Keep Them Away?

Good news abounds in a recently

published 50 page booklet "Gardening in

Deer Country" by Karen Jescavage-Bernard.

Her data on deer resistant plants is the

result of intensive personal study and

observation. It includes lists of trees, shrubs,

ground covers, perennials vines, bulbs and

herbaecous plants. After discovering specific

plants generally unpalatable to deer,

Jescavage-Bernard researched the botanic

families of these plants and discovered

many other deer resistant plants in that

specific family. For example, although deer

love daylilies and tulips (Amaryllidacae),

they leave others in that family, such as

Snowdrops, Daffodils and Alliums alone.

Generally, deer dislike herbs. Many

varieties are attractive and useful in flower

gardens: Lavender, Artemesia, Rue, Lamb's

Ears, Santolina, Catmint are a few. Surrounding

less resistant plants with aromatic

herbs has often been a good deterrent.

Here is an abbreviated list of deerresistant








Boltonia Paeonia





Dicentra Salvia




Echinops Veronica





















As these lists demonstrate, when the

client opts for less than a fenced compound,

it is quite possible to plant a lovely, colorful

deer-resistant garden. Preparation pays'

"Gardening in Deer Country" by Karen

Jescavage - Bernard is available thru: The

Book Tree, 12 Pine Hill, Englishtown, NJ

(800) 515-5544, or Capability Books, 800­


Dee Kruschwitz, a certifwd member of APID

is a frequent contributor to the APID News.

She oumers Superscapes in Bethlehem, PA.


Licensure Of Landscape Designers

by Harry Shuster, Chairman APLD


This is probably an article better written

by another committee or officer, however I

believe it does speak to membership. I've

said it before and I'll say it again. "There is

strength in numbers."

An article in the December issue of

Landscape Architect and Specifier News

(LASN)points out that there are only five

states left without any licensing laws for the

practice of Landscape Architecture. The

1995 agenda of the American Society of

Landscape Architecture's president Dennis

Otsujf "wants to move toward universal

licensure of the practice of LA.Some good

news is, however, a recent court decision

calling title acts unconstitutional. They, the

LA'sdo intend to promote their profession

at a grassroots level, as we must too. In an

effort to quell deregulation movements,

LASNgoes on to say, that they "need to halt

the assault which is more insidious than

competitive activity on the part of the

Landscape Designers." They go on to say

the LA'sneed to keep the other professions

from establishing footholds in new markets

and to renew efforts against unlicensed

practitioners is "unlicensed act by Landscape


Fellow designers, bring in your friends

and acquaintances. Now is the right time

and opportunity to establish credibility, and

insure preservation of our profession that

we love so much. "We want you" as Uncle

Sam used to say. We need to work together

to continue to enjoy all the benefits of being

in this great business.

Please take a look at the sidebar with a

list of states and how licensure relates to

them and you. The states marked with a dot

have activity going on in the legislature

now, be aware, look for it and let headquarters


Legend of symbols:

T Title Law

P Practice Law

S LAsare regulated by their peers,

though the group may only


M One entity regulates Multiple
























Affects All Of Us







































































For the fifth year, the College will bring their Summer School to Aspen, Colorado


Two week course 31 st July - 11th August 1995



Two week course 1st August - 11th August 1995



PrincipalTutors: Robin Williamsand LucyHuntington

Pleasesend for a prospectus:Collegeof Garden Design,AdministrativeOffice,Cothelstone,Taunton, Somerset,

EnglandTA4 3DP.Tel: 011-44 1823433215 Fax: 011-44 1823 433811

Or you can speakto our USAAssociate,MaggieGuitar, in Texas on 915 673 0328





continued from page 2

understand that our surroundings have an

impact on the way we feel and what we

will become.

Research has shown that people only care

for something that they've grown to feel a

part of. Overdevelopment cuts us off from

the myriad sights, sounds, textures, shapes

and other sensory information that helps to

mold our personalities. The new housing

developments don't seem to convey a sense

of neighborhood.

Ethan Seltzer, the landuse supervisor for

the Metropolitan Service District, has called

them "the scorched-earth style of development.

n They are not comforting, enfolding,

or at peace with nature. The houses are

monstrous, pretentious, over-decorated,

meaningless, and aggressive in character.

Each house seems to sit on an egotistical

island, oblivious to the neighbors on either

side. The small lots make it very difficult for

designers to create proportionately pleasing

landscapes. A maze of man-made fences,

walls, terraces and screens do battle in an

effort to protect each owner's privacy. The

car reigns supreme, with multi-car garages

and narrow entrance paths leading from the

driveway to the two-story entry. What is

wrong with this picture?

We need to build on the landscape

without eating at it.

for communication to develop between the

builder-developer and the Landscape

Designer - before that first bulldozer enters

the picture! Our sense of place affects our

sense of self and will in turn have a big

impact on what the future holds. There are

still people today who have fond memories

of playing in the woods, climbing their

grandparent's apple tree, or nurturing a

small garden as a child. What memories will

the children born today have? Will they care

enough about our natural world? We will

continue to live in an aggressive, uncaring,

materialistic world if we allow our surroundings

to become sterile.

Linda Engstrom is a certified member of

APID and teaches Landscape Design at

Portland Community College. She maintains

a garden and vineyard in the hills southwest

of Portland, OR.

A Computer Information

Service Has Now Began

For APLD Members

APLD Member Jeff Chorba has begun the

Landscape Connection a computer information

service online 24 hours a day seven

days a week. FREE access with an hour per

day usage. Through many universities and

associations there will be a lot of information

available for Landscape Designers,

horticulturalists, and home gardeners.


818 Herman Road

Horsham, PA 19044


FAX (215) 628-3180



Dwarf Conifers

Ornamental Trees & Shrubs

3 Gallon Ornamental

Grasses & Perennials

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society

Gold Medal Plants

Landscape Architect, John Simonds, in a

recent letter appearing in "Landscape

Architecture", defined organic design as

"Landscape Architecture focused on its

unique and essential role: bringing people,

their activities, their constructions and their

communities into ever more compatible and

synergistic relationships with the living

landscape." As designers, we need to regain

this philosophy that attempts to harmonize

habitation with nature. We need to be

connected to the landscape. We need to see

the natural contours of the land around us ­

too much of it has been altered.

Regional landscape assets should not be

built upon, open space should be maintained,

trees, winding paths, and water

features should be encouraged for these are

inborn preferences. As designers we need to

maintain the regional character of an area

using hedgerows and trees to disguise the

infrastructures and commercial development.

We must not let the architectural and

development trends dictate what the big

picture will be. There is a desperate need


Beach Lake, PA USA

(717) 729-8102

Information available on:

Landscape Design & Horticulture

Home Gardening & Plant Pests


Computer with at least a 2400 baud modem

Communications software with ANSI


Standard telephone connection

How to get connected:

Set communications software to ANSI

terminal with 8 databits, No parity, and 1

stopbit. (8,N,I) Please call 717-729-8691 for

techrUcal support.

After you are connected, the BBS

(Bulletin Board System) will ask you a

number of questions. You will then be told

the rules and asked to agree to abide by

them. This whole process will not be

required every time you "log on," but it is

necessary your first time.


Designer Profile

by Meg Wolfe


Hollman Fee

Sylvia Hollman Fee just doesn't quit. This

award-wiruling Landscape Designer first

made her mark in Boston and the New

England area. Inspired in her Southern

Illinois childhood by her very own spot in

the garden, she grew up to graduate in

Landscape Design at Radcliffe College.

Successful work with her private clients led

to commercial work as she applied basic

principles of "maximum usage," whether of

view or space, to the clients' commercial

properties as well as to their homes. Seeing

opportunity and a clear need for responsible

design in commercial landscaping, Fee

built and expanded her landscape contracting


All this intense hands-on experience

culminated in Fee's authorship of "Means

Landscape Estimating," that invaluable tome

which provides forms and formats for

estimating quantity and cost for everything

from bushes to bulldozers. The book is now

in its second edition, has been on the

American Society of Landscape Architects' c

reading list for quite a few years and is used

Sylvia Fee at home in Albuquerque, NM

as a college textbook. Fee has also used the

book in seminars. Her range of information,

combined with her decisive energy and

snappy style, makes a personal impact one

doesn't soon forget. Asked about the source

of her creativity and efficiency, Fee credits

her Midwestern roots: "People just dug in

and solved their problems. Basically

Landscape Designers are problem-solvers. If

clients didn't have problems with their

landscapes, they wouldn't need us."

The APLDis an important part of Fee's

professional life. She has enjoyed her

participation on the certification committee,

and served for two years as Chair of the

State Coordinators. She presently serves as

President-elect of the APLDBoard of

Directors. Fee believes that the future of the

APLD is in membership growth and

expansion across the U.S., providing

services for its members such as legislatiol

awareness and increased visibility for the

profession. Another important goal is the

APLD's increased contact with other green

industry organizations, and participation in

their gatherings.

Now Fee has taken on Albuquerque, NM

and tremendously enjoys that stimulating

and challenging environment. Since moving

there in the summer of 1993, she has been

working as designer and consultant for her

firm, Gardens by Design. A big change from

the hassle and hustle of her commercial firm

in Boston, her current work focuses on

private clients and working on specific .

projects with the County Extension senJee. •

There are "enormous issues with gardening

in the high southwest desert," according tor

Fee, and she hopes to address these issues

with fellow APLD members in future


APLD members will be sure to offer their

best wishes to Fee on her upcoming

marriage to Wayne Chattin, Executive

Director of the National Indian Business

Association, in August of this year. The

happy couple look forward to sharing the

occasion with their combined family of five

children and eight grandchildren.

Meg Wolfe is a certified member of the

APill and owner of Domicile, Inc., Land-

• scape Design, in Northwest, lA.


On the Cover: APLD's Lacey Weanerdesigns a "naturalistic" landscape, mixing natives and exotics.

APLD NEWS is published 3 times a year

by the Association of Professional

Landscape Designers.


Ellen F. Pine, 661 Leslie Lane,

Yardley, PA 19067, (215) 49~311


Charlene Gallen

24 Woodland Dr.,

New Britain, PA 18901, (215) 345-6646


Margaret Connors

Donna Swansen


H. KIbbe Turner

420 E. Diamond Ave.

Gaithersburg, MD 20877

(301) 670-1366


Jack ~gerhausen

11 S. ~alle St., Suite 1400

Chicago, IL 60603

(312) 201-DI0l

Material may be reproduced without written permission

if credit is given to individual authors and to APLD

NEWS and a copy is sent to the Editor.

Il:>Association of Professional Landscape Designers.


11 S. LaSalle St.

Suite 1400

Chicago, IL 60603

'*' ~APIDNews Printed on Recycled Paper.

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