Author Christine Dugan, M.A.Ed. - Teacher Created Materials

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Author Christine Dugan, M.A.Ed. - Teacher Created Materials

Level

1

Author

Christine Dugan, M.A.Ed.


Table of Contents

Introduction

Research ...................................................4

How To Use This Book ............................6

Overview of Strategies .............................8

Overview of Assessment .........................32

Standards Correlations ...........................34

Correlation to McREL Standards .........35

Correlation to TESOL Standards ..........37

Reading

Elements of a Fairy Tale ........................38

Following Directions ..............................43

Creating a Fantasy World ......................48

Parts of a Book ........................................53

Understanding Folktales ........................58

Writing

Writing a Personal Narrative .................63

Learning About Descriptive Writing .....68

Parts of a Letter ......................................73

Writing Expository Texts ........................78

Writing Poetry ........................................83

Science

What is Today’s Weather? ....................113

Patterns of the Sun and Moon .............118

The Life Cycle of a Plant .....................123

Does it Dissolve? ..................................128

The Importance of

Scientific Inquiry ..................................133

Social Studies

Who Is in Your Community? ...............138

Symbols of America ..............................143

How Families Change ..........................148

How We Get Around ...........................153

A Festival of Lights ..............................158

Answer Key ..............................................163

References Cited ....................................170

Sample Word Lists .................................171

Contents of the

Teacher Resource CD ......................175

Mathematics

Practicing Addition .................................88

Subtraction Skills ....................................93

Understanding Fact Families ................98

Identifying Patterns ..............................103

Using Tally Charts ................................108

© Shell Education #50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1 3


4Introduction

Research

This series, Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons, provides ready-to-use lessons that

help teachers develop effective strategies that build vocabulary and conceptual understanding

in all content areas. Vocabulary knowledge is a key component of reading comprehension and

is strongly related to general academic achievement (Feldman and Kinsella 2005). Students

need to understand key academic vocabulary that crosses all content areas to fully develop

conceptual understanding.

What Is Vocabulary Knowledge?

Simply put, vocabulary knowledge means having an awareness of words and word meanings.

Yet, vocabulary skills are more complicated than simply reciting key terms and their

definitions.

Vocabulary knowledge is often described as receptive or expressive. Receptive vocabulary

includes words that we recognize when heard or seen. Expressive vocabulary includes words

that we use when we speak or write. Students typically have a larger receptive vocabulary than

expressive vocabulary (Lehr, Osborn, and Hiebert 2004); they are familiar with many words,

but may not understand their multiple definitions or the deeper nuances of how those words

are used in oral and written language.

So, then, what does it mean for a student to truly know a word? Beck, McKeown, and Kucan

(2002) state that word knowledge is not black and white; understanding vocabulary is not as

simple as either knowing a word or not. The process by which students learn new words is

complex and often occurs in progression. Word knowledge may range from students never

having heard of a word, to students understanding all there is to know about a word, or some

level of understanding that lies between the two extremes. Understanding this complexity of

word knowledge helps educators develop a vocabulary program that addresses these unique

learning processes. The lessons in this book support both receptive and expressive vocabulary.

What Is Academic Vocabulary?

Specialized content vocabulary, although distinct, is considered a part of academic vocabulary.

Yopp, Yopp, and Bishop (2009) have developed definitions for each category. Specialized

content vocabulary words are specific to a particular content area and represent important

concepts or ideas. Examples of these include boycott (social studies), habitat (science),

numerator (mathematics), autobiography (reading), and narrative (writing). General

academic vocabulary includes high-utility words found across content areas and throughout

students’ academic reading, writing, and speech experiences. Words such as explain, define,

identify, and organize are examples of general academic vocabulary.

#50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1

© Shell Education


6Introduction

How To Use This Book

Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons provides teachers with lessons that integrate

academic vocabulary instruction into content-area lessons. This book includes 25

step-by-step, standards-based lessons. Each lesson features two vocabulary-development

strategies that reflect the latest research in effective vocabulary instruction. The strategies

within each lesson vary and are presented in detail on pages 8–31 and address the following

key aspects of effective vocabulary instruction:

Developing Oral Language

Developing students’ oral language skills is

crucial to assist them in navigating school

texts and understanding more complex oral

and written patterns of language. These

strategies help students gain a deeper

understanding of academic words and

concepts by guiding them to use the words

in a meaningful way.

Teaching Words

These strategies use a variety of techniques

to help students build conceptual

knowledge and increase their oral and

written vocabularies. This type of strategy

may be incorporated at different points

throughout your study. Some of the

strategies are more effective in introducing

new words while others will benefit students

as they review and make connections among

words.

#50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1

Developing Word Consciousness

These strategies provide structured

opportunities to build students’ awareness

of academic words used in the classroom

and their lives. Students are encouraged

to note when they see or hear key words

and to use the words themselves. This

strategy helps students develop a true love

of language and a keen sense of how words

sound as they hear and speak them.

Independent Word Learning

These strategies help students derive

word meanings and explore the use of

context to infer the meaning of unknown

words. The strategies can be taught and

reviewed throughout the school year to

improve students’ abilities in learning words

independently.

© Shell Education


For use

or Windows ®

This CD contains reproducible student activity pages.

Copyright © 2011 by Shell Education

SEP 50830

How To Use This Book (cont.)

Each two-page lesson is followed by two student activity pages as well as an assessment that

allows teachers to assess students’ vocabulary knowledge in effective and meaningful ways.

All of the reproducible student activity pages are also included on the Teacher Resource CD.

Each lesson in this

book includes two

featured academic

vocabulary

strategies.

An overview of each

strategy can be found

on pages 8–31.

The standards listed

in each lesson indicate

the area of focus for

the lesson.

The materials

needed to

complete the

lesson are listed.

The procedures

provide step-by-step

instructions for teaching

the content-area lesson.

Writing

Featured Academic

Vocabulary Strategies

68

• Questions, Reasons,

and Examples:

Developing Oral

Language (page 12)

• Content Links:

Teaching Words

(page 26)

Standards

• McREL: Students will

use descriptive words

to convey basic ideas.

• McREL: Students

will use strategies to

organize written work.

• TESOL: Students will

use English to obtain,

process, construct, and

provide subject-matter

information in spoken

and written form.

Materials

• chart paper

• marker

• Descriptive Writing

Practice (page 70)

• index cards

• Linking Ideas (page 71)

• Descriptive Writing

Context Completion

(page 72)

Learning About

Descriptive Writing

Focus Vocabulary Words

Specialized Content General Academic

Vocabulary

Vocabulary

description

create

illustration

describe

mental image

Procedure

1 Begin the lesson by sharing the following: It was

a hot, humid summer day. As Molly stepped

outside, she felt the rays of the sun beaming down

on her. Her clothes began to stick to her body.

She needed to cool down. So she decided to have

some ice cream.

2 Read the text aloud a second time, and ask

students to listen with their eyes closed. Talk

with them about the mental images they have

when they listen to the words. Have students

describe what they saw, tasted, or felt as they

listened. List their ideas. Give students time

to briefly share in pairs how the descriptive

language made them feel as they listened.

3 Use the Questions, Reasons, and Examples

strategy (page 12) to further discuss the

vocabulary words and help students share their

personal connections to the words. The following

are some examples:

• What is one character that you remember

well because of an author’s description?

• How does an illustration help you as you

read?

• What kind of mental images do you have as

you read your favorite story?

• Why should an author write enough details

to create the world of the story in your mind?

• How can you describe a text to someone who

has not read it before?

#50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1 © She l Education

Name___________________________________

Directions

70

Descriptive Writing Practice

Look at the pictures below. Write a sentence to describe

each picture. Use descriptive writing.

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

#50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1 © She l Education

Procedure (cont.)

4 Distribute copies of Descriptive Writing Practice

activity sheet (page 70) to students. Explain to

them that they will be looking at pictures and

writing descriptive sentences. Look at the two

pictures together and discuss what students

notice in each picture. Use the first picture as an

example. Write a vivid sentence that could describe

the picture, and discuss how students may add

adjectives and other kinds of descriptive language

to make the writing more vivid. Give students time

to write their sentences in pairs. When students are

finished, ask them to share their writing.

5 Help facilitate a whole-class discussion about what

students have learned about descriptive writing.

Take notes on a sheet of chart paper. Remind the

group of the focus vocabulary words from the lesson

by writing them on the board. Then have students

brainstorm additional words they learned that are

related to this topic. End the list when there is one

word for every student in the class.

6 Record the words on index cards and distribute

one card to each student. Complete the Content

Links strategy (page 26) with students to solidify

their comprehension of the words necessary to

understand the content of this lesson.

7 Distribute copies of Linking Ideas activity sheet

(page 71) to students. With the partner with whom

they linked, have students complete the activity

sheet to explain why and how their words are

related.

8 Distribute copies of Descriptive Writing Context

Completion assessment sheet (page 72) to

students. Model the first response. Then have

students complete the assessment individually to

see whether they understand how to correctly use

context to write meaningful sentences with new

vocabulary.

Differentiation

English language

support—Complete

the Descriptive Writing

Practice activity sheet

as a small group.

Students may model

the picture as others

describe what is

happening using their

ideas. Then write a

sentence using their

ideas. Along the way,

make suggestions for

incorporating more

vivid and descriptive

language.

Below-level

students—After

students have linked

words, discuss the

connections they made

and help them fill

out the Linking Ideas

activity sheet.

Above-level

students—Have

students use an idea

from the Descriptive

Writing Practice activity

sheet and expand

upon it by writing a

descriptive paragraph.

© She l Education #50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1 69

Name___________________________________

Directions

Specialized content vocabulary

and general academic

vocabulary words are identified at

the beginning of the lesson.

Linking Ideas

Name___________________________________

Descriptive Writing Context Completion

Directions

Write the words you linked in the spaces below and illustrate

why they can be linked.

Word 1

__________________________________

My Illustration

Word 2

__________________________________

Directions Complete the sentence explaining how and why the words

are linked.

These words are linked because… __________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

1. Sentence starter: A good

description gives the reader more

information because

____________________________________________________

72

Writing

Read each sentence starter. Fill in the blank to complete the

sentence.

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

2. Sentence starter:

A reader may look at an

illustration in order to

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

Each lesson

includes a

differentiation

section to help

meet the needs

of all students.

3. Sentence starter:

Making a

mental image in your head of what you

are reading may help you

______________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

4. Sentence

starter: To

create something new means to _______________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

5. Sentence

starter: An author may

describe something clearly so

that ______________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

#50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1

© Shell Education

Introduction

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

© She l Education #50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1 71

with either

Macintosh ®

Teacher Resource CD — Level 1

Each lesson has two student activity pages

and an assessment page that reinforces the

featured academic vocabulary words for the

lesson as well as the standard.

The Teacher Resource CD

includes all student activity pages

and assessment pages.

© Shell Education #50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1 7


Featured Academic

Vocabulary Strategies

• Questions, Reasons,

and Examples:

Developing Oral

Language (page 12)

• Vocabulary Journal:

Independent Word

Learning (page 28)

Standards

• McREL: Students

will read a variety

of familiar literary

passages and texts

• McREL: Students

will understand

level-appropriate sight

words and vocabulary.

• TESOL: Students

will use appropriate

learning strategies to

construct and apply

academic knowledge.

Materials

• book containing the

specialized content

vocabulary

• Table of Contents

(page 55)

• Vocabulary Journal:

Parts of a Book

(page 56)

• Parts of a Book Context

Interpretation

(page 57)

Parts of a Book

Specialized Content

Vocabulary

author

front cover

illustrator

table of contents

Focus Vocabulary Words

General Academic

Vocabulary

recognize

Procedure

1 Display the selected book to students. Ask

students to identify the following book parts:

front cover, author, illustrator, and table of

contents.

2 Use the Questions, Reasons, and Examples

strategy (page 12) to further discuss these

vocabulary words and help students share

information and examples related to these new

concepts. Ask questions that students have to

answer by using the vocabulary in a relevant

and appropriate way. The following are some

examples:

• What is an example of a front cover that

made you interested in reading a book?

• Why is an illustrator so important in telling a

story?

• What are some reasons to use a table of

contents?

• How are you able to recognize whether a

text is fiction?

Reading

© Shell Education #50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1 53


Name___________________________________

Vocabulary Journal: Parts of a Book

Directions

Find a book. Look at the table below. Draw a picture of the

front cover of the book you selected. Then write the title,

author, and illustrator of the book.

Front Cover:

Title:

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

Author:

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

Illustrator:

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

56

#50703—Academic Vocabulary: 25 Content-Area Lessons Level 1

© Shell Education

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