26.09.2014 Views

improved facial surface sebum and pore appearance - P&G Beauty ...

improved facial surface sebum and pore appearance - P&G Beauty ...

improved facial surface sebum and pore appearance - P&G Beauty ...

SHOW MORE
SHOW LESS

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

IMPROVED FACIAL SURFACE SEBUM<br />

AND PORE APPEARANCE WITH<br />

NIACINAMIDE AND SDA<br />

FC02-06<br />

AUTHORS: Rosemarie Osborne, PhD, Rachel Rose-Mansfield, MS,<br />

Akira Matsubara, PhD, Cheri Swanson, PhD<br />

AFFILIATIONS: The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio<br />

USA <strong>and</strong> Kobe, Japan


Introduction<br />

• Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) is utilized in numerous topical cosmetic<br />

products to provide beneficial effects for a wide array of common skin<br />

problems such as those associated with aging <strong>and</strong> photoaging, e.g.,<br />

dryness, red blotchiness, hyperpigmentation, texture problems <strong>and</strong> fine<br />

lines/wrinkles (1-4). A general mechanism for niacinamide is as a<br />

precursor to the important cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide<br />

(NAD), its phosphate derivative (NADP), <strong>and</strong> their reduced forms<br />

(NADH <strong>and</strong> NADPH).<br />

• Dehydroacetic acid <strong>and</strong> its more water soluble salts such as Sodium<br />

Dehydroacetate (SDA) have been used as antimicrobial agents in a<br />

range of cosmetic formulations (5).<br />

• A screening program was conducted with a wide range of compounds<br />

<strong>and</strong> natural extracts to identify potential lipogenesis inhibitors. Two<br />

compounds identified were Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA.<br />

• This report presents the in vitro responses as well as cosmetic benefits<br />

of Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA-containing moisturizers for <strong>sebum</strong>-related<br />

endpoints.


Purpose/Objective<br />

• To evaluate effects of Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA on<br />

lipogenesis in an in vitro model.<br />

• To determine potential cosmetic benefits of daily<br />

use of Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA-containing <strong>facial</strong><br />

moisturizers for <strong>sebum</strong>, <strong>pore</strong>s <strong>and</strong> texture<br />

<strong>appearance</strong> endpoints in a clinical setting.


Methods<br />

• In Vitro Sebocyte Assay:<br />

– In vitro sebocytes have been used historically to evaluate effects of compounds on <strong>sebum</strong><br />

expression, including sebosuppression (6, 7). Lipid synthesis was detected via incorporation of<br />

radiolabeled glucose over a 3 hour period in the presence of test compound in cultured<br />

sebocytes (6, 7).<br />

• Clinical Studies:<br />

– Niacinamide Product Studies. Two 4-week studies were conducted with a niacinamide (2%)<br />

containing <strong>facial</strong> moisturizer in Caucasian (U.S) <strong>and</strong> Japanese female panelists. The cosmetic<br />

product was applied twice daily to the face <strong>and</strong> compared to the moisturizer base vehicle<br />

control in a double-blind, vehicle-controlled split-face r<strong>and</strong>omized (left-right) study design<br />

(Caucasian study), <strong>and</strong> as well as compared to baseline (both studies). Facial <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong><br />

(Sebutape®) <strong>and</strong> <strong>pore</strong> <strong>appearance</strong> (image analysis) were determined at baseline <strong>and</strong> up to 4<br />

weeks. Self-assessments of improvements in <strong>facial</strong> skin <strong>appearance</strong> were obtained also.<br />

Comparison of treatment groups was accomplished by t-test analysis.<br />

– SDA Product Study. A double-blind study design similar to the that used for the niacinamide<br />

studies was used to evaluate a <strong>facial</strong> moisturizer containing 0.5% SDA in combination with<br />

3.5% niacinamide as compared to the moisturizer base vehicle control moisturizer. The<br />

panelists were Caucasian (U.S.) women in a 6-week vehicle-controlled split-face r<strong>and</strong>omized<br />

(left-right) study design, evaluating <strong>sebum</strong> (Sebumeter) <strong>and</strong> <strong>pore</strong> (image analysis) endpoints.<br />

Self-assessments of improvements in <strong>facial</strong> skin <strong>appearance</strong> were obtained also. Comparison<br />

of treatment groups was accomplished by t-test analysis.


In Vitro Results - Lipogenesis<br />

• Niacinamide reduced lipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, with significant inhibitory<br />

activity observed up to 4.0% (w/v) niacinamide. For example, at 1% niacinamide (Fig. 1)<br />

lipogenesis was significantly reduced to 33% of control levels (p < 0.05, Student’s t).<br />

• SDA <strong>and</strong> its free acid form, dehydroacetic acid (DA), significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited<br />

lipogenesis by up to 82% over a dose range up to 0.15% in the in vitro lipogenesis assay.<br />

For example, at 0.1% (w/v), SDA <strong>and</strong> DA inhibited lipogenesis to 45% <strong>and</strong> 48% of control,<br />

respectively.<br />

Figure 1. In Vitro Sebum Lipogenesis<br />

100<br />

In Vitro Lipogenesis<br />

(% Control)<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

*<br />

*<br />

*<br />

1 % Ni ac 0.1%SDA 0.1%DA<br />

*p


Niacinamide Product – Surface Sebum & Pores (Caucasian Women)<br />

• Figure 2. Use of a moisturizer containing 2% niacinamide for 4 weeks<br />

led to decreased <strong>sebum</strong> (Sebutape®) <strong>and</strong> <strong>pore</strong>s (image analysis) in<br />

Caucasian women significantly vs baseline, <strong>and</strong> vs the vehicle control<br />

moisturizer.<br />

Sebum & Pore Reduction from Baseline (%)<br />

5<br />

-5<br />

- 15<br />

- 25<br />

- 35<br />

- 45<br />

* *<br />

*<br />

*<br />

2%Niacinamide<br />

Control<br />

Sebum Area Sebum Spots<br />

Pore Count Pore Area<br />

*p


Niacinamide Product – Surface Sebum & Pores (Japanese Women)<br />

• Figure 3. Decreased <strong>facial</strong> skin <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong><br />

with use of a 2% niacinamide product for 2 or 4<br />

weeks in Japanese women. Images indicate<br />

Sebutape ® <strong>appearance</strong>. A majority (88%) of the<br />

panelists reported their skin was less oily.<br />

• Figure 4. Decreased <strong>facial</strong> <strong>pore</strong> <strong>appearance</strong><br />

with use of a 2% niacinamide product for 2 or 4<br />

weeks in Japanese women. Images indicate<br />

example <strong>facial</strong> images used for <strong>pore</strong> image<br />

analysis.<br />

Sebum Reduction from Baseline (%)<br />

0<br />

- 10<br />

- 20<br />

- 30<br />

- 40<br />

*<br />

*<br />

Week 2 Week 4<br />

*p


Niacinamide + SDA Product –Surface Sebum & Texture<br />

• Figure 5. Decreased <strong>facial</strong> skin <strong>surface</strong><br />

<strong>sebum</strong> (Sebumeter) with use of a 3.5%<br />

niacinamide product or a niacinamide + 0.5%<br />

SDA combination product for 6 weeks. A<br />

majority (62%) of panelists reported the SDA<br />

product reduced oily shine better than the<br />

niacinamide alone product.<br />

• Figure 6. Decreased bumpy <strong>facial</strong> texture/<strong>pore</strong><br />

<strong>appearance</strong> (% texture/<strong>pore</strong> area fraction) with<br />

use of a 3.5% niacinamide product or a<br />

niacinamide + 0.5% SDA combination product for<br />

6 weeks. A majority (70%) of panelists reported<br />

that the SDA product reduced texture & <strong>pore</strong>s<br />

better than the niacinamide alone product.<br />

Sebum Level<br />

(% Change from Baseline)<br />

0<br />

-5<br />

- 10<br />

- 15<br />

- 20<br />

- 25<br />

- 30<br />

- 35<br />

- 40<br />

- 45<br />

*<br />

Facial Texture/Pores<br />

(% Change from Baseline)<br />

0<br />

-2<br />

-4<br />

-6<br />

-8<br />

- 10<br />

- 12<br />

- 14<br />

- 16<br />

- 18<br />

* † - 20<br />

*<br />

* †<br />

Control Niac Niac+SDA<br />

*p


Figure 7. Improvement in Texture <strong>and</strong> Pores<br />

Baseline<br />

6 Weeks:<br />

Niacinamide + SDA Product


Conclusions<br />

• Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA reduced lipogenesis in an in vitro sebocyte<br />

model (Fig. 1).<br />

• In both Caucasian (Fig. 2) <strong>and</strong> Japanese women (Figs. 3 & 4), use of a<br />

niacinamide-containing moisturizer reduced <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong> levels as<br />

well as the <strong>appearance</strong> of <strong>facial</strong> <strong>pore</strong>s.<br />

• Use of a moisturizer containing a combination of niacinamide & SDA<br />

led to a significant reduction in <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong> as compared to<br />

niacinamide product alone (Fig. 5).<br />

• The reduction in <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong> was paralleled by reduction in uneven<br />

skin texture <strong>and</strong> <strong>pore</strong>s (Figs. 6 & 7). A majority of the panelists<br />

reported their skin was less oily <strong>and</strong> had reduced uneven texture <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>pore</strong>s with the combination product.<br />

• These results indicate that <strong>facial</strong> moisturizers containing cosmetic<br />

ingredients such as niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA are valuable in reducing skin<br />

<strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong> as well as the <strong>appearance</strong> of uneven <strong>facial</strong> texture <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>pore</strong>s.


References<br />

(1) Matts et al. 2002: A review of the range of effects of niacinamide in human skin.<br />

Intl Fed Soc Cosmet Chem Magazine 5:285-289<br />

(2) Bissett et al. 2003: Topical niacinamide provides skin aging <strong>appearance</strong> benefits<br />

while enhancing barrier function. J Clin Dermatol 32:S9-S18.<br />

(3) Soma et al. 2005: Moisturizing effects of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin.<br />

Int J Dermatol 44:197-202.<br />

(4) Draelos 2005: Niacinamide-containing <strong>facial</strong> moisturizer improves skin barrier<br />

<strong>and</strong> benefits subjects with rosacea. Cutis 76:135-141.<br />

(5) Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Sodium Dehydroacetate <strong>and</strong><br />

Dehydroacetic Acid (1985). J Am Coll Toxicol 4:123-159<br />

(6) Wheatley VR, Hodgins LT, Coon WM, (1970) Cutaneous lipogenesis. J Invest<br />

Dermatol 54: 288-297.<br />

(7) Seki T, Morohashi M 1993: Effect of some alkaloids, flavonoids <strong>and</strong><br />

triterpenoids, contents of Japanese-Chinese traditional herbal medicines, on the<br />

lipogenesis of sebaceous gl<strong>and</strong>s. Skin Pharmacol. 6:56-60.


This work was funded by P&G <strong>Beauty</strong> & Grooming

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!