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IMPROVED FACIAL SURFACE SEBUM<br />

AND PORE APPEARANCE WITH<br />

NIACINAMIDE AND SDA<br />

FC02-06<br />

AUTHORS: Rosemarie Osborne, PhD, Rachel Rose-Mansfield, MS,<br />

Akira Matsubara, PhD, Cheri Swanson, PhD<br />

AFFILIATIONS: The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio<br />

USA <strong>and</strong> Kobe, Japan


Introduction<br />

• Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) is utilized in numerous topical cosmetic<br />

products to provide beneficial effects for a wide array of common skin<br />

problems such as those associated with aging <strong>and</strong> photoaging, e.g.,<br />

dryness, red blotchiness, hyperpigmentation, texture problems <strong>and</strong> fine<br />

lines/wrinkles (1-4). A general mechanism for niacinamide is as a<br />

precursor to the important cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide<br />

(NAD), its phosphate derivative (NADP), <strong>and</strong> their reduced forms<br />

(NADH <strong>and</strong> NADPH).<br />

• Dehydroacetic acid <strong>and</strong> its more water soluble salts such as Sodium<br />

Dehydroacetate (SDA) have been used as antimicrobial agents in a<br />

range of cosmetic formulations (5).<br />

• A screening program was conducted with a wide range of compounds<br />

<strong>and</strong> natural extracts to identify potential lipogenesis inhibitors. Two<br />

compounds identified were Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA.<br />

• This report presents the in vitro responses as well as cosmetic benefits<br />

of Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA-containing moisturizers for <strong>sebum</strong>-related<br />

endpoints.


Purpose/Objective<br />

• To evaluate effects of Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA on<br />

lipogenesis in an in vitro model.<br />

• To determine potential cosmetic benefits of daily<br />

use of Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA-containing <strong>facial</strong><br />

moisturizers for <strong>sebum</strong>, <strong>pore</strong>s <strong>and</strong> texture<br />

<strong>appearance</strong> endpoints in a clinical setting.


Methods<br />

• In Vitro Sebocyte Assay:<br />

– In vitro sebocytes have been used historically to evaluate effects of compounds on <strong>sebum</strong><br />

expression, including sebosuppression (6, 7). Lipid synthesis was detected via incorporation of<br />

radiolabeled glucose over a 3 hour period in the presence of test compound in cultured<br />

sebocytes (6, 7).<br />

• Clinical Studies:<br />

– Niacinamide Product Studies. Two 4-week studies were conducted with a niacinamide (2%)<br />

containing <strong>facial</strong> moisturizer in Caucasian (U.S) <strong>and</strong> Japanese female panelists. The cosmetic<br />

product was applied twice daily to the face <strong>and</strong> compared to the moisturizer base vehicle<br />

control in a double-blind, vehicle-controlled split-face r<strong>and</strong>omized (left-right) study design<br />

(Caucasian study), <strong>and</strong> as well as compared to baseline (both studies). Facial <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong><br />

(Sebutape®) <strong>and</strong> <strong>pore</strong> <strong>appearance</strong> (image analysis) were determined at baseline <strong>and</strong> up to 4<br />

weeks. Self-assessments of improvements in <strong>facial</strong> skin <strong>appearance</strong> were obtained also.<br />

Comparison of treatment groups was accomplished by t-test analysis.<br />

– SDA Product Study. A double-blind study design similar to the that used for the niacinamide<br />

studies was used to evaluate a <strong>facial</strong> moisturizer containing 0.5% SDA in combination with<br />

3.5% niacinamide as compared to the moisturizer base vehicle control moisturizer. The<br />

panelists were Caucasian (U.S.) women in a 6-week vehicle-controlled split-face r<strong>and</strong>omized<br />

(left-right) study design, evaluating <strong>sebum</strong> (Sebumeter) <strong>and</strong> <strong>pore</strong> (image analysis) endpoints.<br />

Self-assessments of improvements in <strong>facial</strong> skin <strong>appearance</strong> were obtained also. Comparison<br />

of treatment groups was accomplished by t-test analysis.


In Vitro Results - Lipogenesis<br />

• Niacinamide reduced lipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, with significant inhibitory<br />

activity observed up to 4.0% (w/v) niacinamide. For example, at 1% niacinamide (Fig. 1)<br />

lipogenesis was significantly reduced to 33% of control levels (p < 0.05, Student’s t).<br />

• SDA <strong>and</strong> its free acid form, dehydroacetic acid (DA), significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited<br />

lipogenesis by up to 82% over a dose range up to 0.15% in the in vitro lipogenesis assay.<br />

For example, at 0.1% (w/v), SDA <strong>and</strong> DA inhibited lipogenesis to 45% <strong>and</strong> 48% of control,<br />

respectively.<br />

Figure 1. In Vitro Sebum Lipogenesis<br />

100<br />

In Vitro Lipogenesis<br />

(% Control)<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

*<br />

*<br />

*<br />

1 % Ni ac 0.1%SDA 0.1%DA<br />

*p


Niacinamide Product – Surface Sebum & Pores (Caucasian Women)<br />

• Figure 2. Use of a moisturizer containing 2% niacinamide for 4 weeks<br />

led to decreased <strong>sebum</strong> (Sebutape®) <strong>and</strong> <strong>pore</strong>s (image analysis) in<br />

Caucasian women significantly vs baseline, <strong>and</strong> vs the vehicle control<br />

moisturizer.<br />

Sebum & Pore Reduction from Baseline (%)<br />

5<br />

-5<br />

- 15<br />

- 25<br />

- 35<br />

- 45<br />

* *<br />

*<br />

*<br />

2%Niacinamide<br />

Control<br />

Sebum Area Sebum Spots<br />

Pore Count Pore Area<br />

*p


Niacinamide Product – Surface Sebum & Pores (Japanese Women)<br />

• Figure 3. Decreased <strong>facial</strong> skin <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong><br />

with use of a 2% niacinamide product for 2 or 4<br />

weeks in Japanese women. Images indicate<br />

Sebutape ® <strong>appearance</strong>. A majority (88%) of the<br />

panelists reported their skin was less oily.<br />

• Figure 4. Decreased <strong>facial</strong> <strong>pore</strong> <strong>appearance</strong><br />

with use of a 2% niacinamide product for 2 or 4<br />

weeks in Japanese women. Images indicate<br />

example <strong>facial</strong> images used for <strong>pore</strong> image<br />

analysis.<br />

Sebum Reduction from Baseline (%)<br />

0<br />

- 10<br />

- 20<br />

- 30<br />

- 40<br />

*<br />

*<br />

Week 2 Week 4<br />

*p


Niacinamide + SDA Product –Surface Sebum & Texture<br />

• Figure 5. Decreased <strong>facial</strong> skin <strong>surface</strong><br />

<strong>sebum</strong> (Sebumeter) with use of a 3.5%<br />

niacinamide product or a niacinamide + 0.5%<br />

SDA combination product for 6 weeks. A<br />

majority (62%) of panelists reported the SDA<br />

product reduced oily shine better than the<br />

niacinamide alone product.<br />

• Figure 6. Decreased bumpy <strong>facial</strong> texture/<strong>pore</strong><br />

<strong>appearance</strong> (% texture/<strong>pore</strong> area fraction) with<br />

use of a 3.5% niacinamide product or a<br />

niacinamide + 0.5% SDA combination product for<br />

6 weeks. A majority (70%) of panelists reported<br />

that the SDA product reduced texture & <strong>pore</strong>s<br />

better than the niacinamide alone product.<br />

Sebum Level<br />

(% Change from Baseline)<br />

0<br />

-5<br />

- 10<br />

- 15<br />

- 20<br />

- 25<br />

- 30<br />

- 35<br />

- 40<br />

- 45<br />

*<br />

Facial Texture/Pores<br />

(% Change from Baseline)<br />

0<br />

-2<br />

-4<br />

-6<br />

-8<br />

- 10<br />

- 12<br />

- 14<br />

- 16<br />

- 18<br />

* † - 20<br />

*<br />

* †<br />

Control Niac Niac+SDA<br />

*p


Figure 7. Improvement in Texture <strong>and</strong> Pores<br />

Baseline<br />

6 Weeks:<br />

Niacinamide + SDA Product


Conclusions<br />

• Niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA reduced lipogenesis in an in vitro sebocyte<br />

model (Fig. 1).<br />

• In both Caucasian (Fig. 2) <strong>and</strong> Japanese women (Figs. 3 & 4), use of a<br />

niacinamide-containing moisturizer reduced <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong> levels as<br />

well as the <strong>appearance</strong> of <strong>facial</strong> <strong>pore</strong>s.<br />

• Use of a moisturizer containing a combination of niacinamide & SDA<br />

led to a significant reduction in <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong> as compared to<br />

niacinamide product alone (Fig. 5).<br />

• The reduction in <strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong> was paralleled by reduction in uneven<br />

skin texture <strong>and</strong> <strong>pore</strong>s (Figs. 6 & 7). A majority of the panelists<br />

reported their skin was less oily <strong>and</strong> had reduced uneven texture <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>pore</strong>s with the combination product.<br />

• These results indicate that <strong>facial</strong> moisturizers containing cosmetic<br />

ingredients such as niacinamide <strong>and</strong> SDA are valuable in reducing skin<br />

<strong>surface</strong> <strong>sebum</strong> as well as the <strong>appearance</strong> of uneven <strong>facial</strong> texture <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>pore</strong>s.


References<br />

(1) Matts et al. 2002: A review of the range of effects of niacinamide in human skin.<br />

Intl Fed Soc Cosmet Chem Magazine 5:285-289<br />

(2) Bissett et al. 2003: Topical niacinamide provides skin aging <strong>appearance</strong> benefits<br />

while enhancing barrier function. J Clin Dermatol 32:S9-S18.<br />

(3) Soma et al. 2005: Moisturizing effects of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin.<br />

Int J Dermatol 44:197-202.<br />

(4) Draelos 2005: Niacinamide-containing <strong>facial</strong> moisturizer improves skin barrier<br />

<strong>and</strong> benefits subjects with rosacea. Cutis 76:135-141.<br />

(5) Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Sodium Dehydroacetate <strong>and</strong><br />

Dehydroacetic Acid (1985). J Am Coll Toxicol 4:123-159<br />

(6) Wheatley VR, Hodgins LT, Coon WM, (1970) Cutaneous lipogenesis. J Invest<br />

Dermatol 54: 288-297.<br />

(7) Seki T, Morohashi M 1993: Effect of some alkaloids, flavonoids <strong>and</strong><br />

triterpenoids, contents of Japanese-Chinese traditional herbal medicines, on the<br />

lipogenesis of sebaceous gl<strong>and</strong>s. Skin Pharmacol. 6:56-60.


This work was funded by P&G <strong>Beauty</strong> & Grooming

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