Jackfruit monograph.pdf - Crops for the Future

Jackfruit monograph.pdf - Crops for the Future

Jackfruit monograph.pdf - Crops for the Future


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<strong>Jackfruit</strong><br />

Artocarpus heterophyllus<br />

Author:<br />

N. Haq<br />

Editors:<br />

J.T. Williams (Chief editor)<br />

R.W. Smith<br />

Z. Dunsiger

First published in 2006 by:<br />

Southampton Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, University of Southampton,<br />

Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK<br />

© 2006 Southampton Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong><br />

Printed at RPM Print and Design, West Sussex, UK<br />

The text in this document may be reproduced free of charge in any <strong>for</strong>mat<br />

or media without requiring specific permission. This is subject to <strong>the</strong><br />

materials not being used in a derogatory manner or in a misleading<br />

context. The source of <strong>the</strong> material must be acknowledged as [SCUC]<br />

copyright and <strong>the</strong> title of <strong>the</strong> document must be included when being<br />

reproduced as part of ano<strong>the</strong>r publication or service.<br />

Copies of this handbook, as well as an accompanying manual and<br />

factsheet, in English, can be obtained by writing to ei<strong>the</strong>r address below:<br />

International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong><br />

International Water Management Institute<br />

127 Sunil Mawatha, Pelawatta, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka<br />

or<br />

Southampton Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, University of Southampton,<br />

Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK<br />

British Library Catalogue in Publication Data<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong><br />

1. tropical fruit trees<br />

i Williams ii Smith iii Dunsiger<br />

ISBN 0854327851<br />

Citation: Haq, N. (2006) <strong>Jackfruit</strong>, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Southampton<br />

Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, University of Southampton, Southampton,<br />

UK.<br />

Cover photographs supplied by A. Latham


This publication is an output from a research project funded by <strong>the</strong> United<br />

Kingdom Department <strong>for</strong> International Development (DFID) <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

benefit of developing countries. The views expressed are not necessarily<br />

those of DFID [R7187 Forestry Research Programme].<br />

The opinions expressed in this book are those of <strong>the</strong> authors alone and do<br />

not imply acceptance or obligation whatsoever on <strong>the</strong> part of SCUC,<br />


ICUC<br />

The International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong> (ICUC) is an autonomous, nonprofit,<br />

scientific research and training centre. It was established in 1992 at <strong>the</strong><br />

University of Southampton in <strong>the</strong> UK and has now moved to <strong>the</strong> International<br />

Water Management Institute (IWMI) in Sri Lanka. The Centre was established to<br />

address ways to increase <strong>the</strong> use of underutilised crops <strong>for</strong> food, nutrition,<br />

medicinal and industrial products. The enhancement of currently underutilised<br />

crops is a key to food security, to <strong>the</strong> conservation of biological diversity and to <strong>the</strong><br />

preservation and restoration of fragile and degraded environments throughout <strong>the</strong><br />

world.<br />

World Agro<strong>for</strong>estry Centre<br />

The World Agro<strong>for</strong>estry Centre (ICRAF), established in Nairobi in 1977, is an<br />

autonomous, non-profit research body supported by <strong>the</strong> Consultative Group on<br />

International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). ICRAF aims to improve human<br />

welfare by alleviating poverty, improving food and nutrition security and<br />

enhancing environmental resistance in <strong>the</strong> tropics.<br />

IPGRI<br />

The International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) is an international<br />

research institute with a mandate to advance <strong>the</strong> conservation and use of genetic<br />

diversity <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> well-being of present and future generations. It is also a centre of<br />

<strong>the</strong> CGIAR.<br />

Also available in this series:<br />

Tamarind - Tamarindus indica, revised edition by K. El-Siddig, H.P.M. Gunasena,<br />

B.A. Prasad, D.K.N.G. Pushpakumara, K.V.R. Ramana, P. Vijayanand and J.T.<br />

Williams (ISBN 0854328599)<br />

Ber and o<strong>the</strong>r jujubes – Ziziphus species, revised edition by S. Azam-Ali, E.<br />

Bonkoungou, C. Bowe, C. deKock, A. Godara, and J.T. Williams (ISBN<br />

0854328580<br />

Safou – Dacryodes edulis by J. Kengue (ISBN 0854327649)<br />

Baobab – Adansonia digitata by M. Sidibe and J. T. Williams (ISBN 0854327762)<br />

Annona spp. by A. C. de Q. Pinto, M. C. R. Cordeiro, S. R. M. de Andrade, F. R.<br />

Ferreira, H. A. de C. Filgueiras, R. E. Alves and D. I. Kinpara (ISBN 0854327851)<br />

Mangosteen – Garcinia mangostana by M. bin Osman and Abd. Rahman Milan<br />

(ISBN 0854328173)<br />

Monkey orange – Strychnos cocculoides by C. K. Mwamba (ISBN 0854328416)<br />

Ndjanssang – Ricinodendron heudelotii by Z. Tchoundjeu (ISBN 0854328424)<br />

Sapote species – Pouteria sapota, P. campechiana, P. viridis by C. Azurdia<br />

(ISBN 0854327651)

Contents<br />

Abbreviations ............................................................................................i<br />

Preface.....................................................................................................iii<br />

Acknowledgements .................................................................................. v<br />

Chapter 1. Taxonomy, origin and distribution ......................................... 1<br />

1.1 Introduction....................................................................................1<br />

1.2 Moraceae........................................................................................2<br />

1.3 The genus Artocarpus ....................................................................3<br />

1.4. Artocarpus species ........................................................................4<br />

1.4.1 <strong>Jackfruit</strong>: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam ...............................4<br />

1.4.2 Chempedak: Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr..................11<br />

1.4.3 Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco.........................................12<br />

1.4.4 Artocarpus rigidus Blume ....................................................13<br />

1.5 O<strong>the</strong>r Artocarpus species bearing edible fruits ............................14<br />

1.6 Origin and distribution of jackfruit ..............................................15<br />

1.6.1 Climate and ecology .............................................................18<br />

Chapter 2. Properties and uses................................................................ 19<br />

2.1 Fruits ............................................................................................19<br />

2.1.2 Pulp.......................................................................................19<br />

2.1.3 Rind.......................................................................................21<br />

2.2 Seeds ............................................................................................21<br />

2.3 Leaves and flowers.......................................................................21<br />

2.4 Use of jackfruit in traditional medicine........................................22<br />

2.5 <strong>Jackfruit</strong> wood..............................................................................24<br />

2.6 Latex.............................................................................................26<br />

2.7 Use in agro<strong>for</strong>estry.......................................................................26<br />

2.8 Socio-cultural aspects...................................................................27<br />

2.9 Environmental value ....................................................................28<br />

Chapter 3. Agronomy ............................................................................. 29<br />

3.1 Field establishment.......................................................................29<br />

3.2 Direct seeding...............................................................................29<br />

3.2.1. Seed germination .................................................................30<br />

3.3 Transplanting................................................................................32<br />

3.4 Propagation ..................................................................................33<br />

3.4.1 Raising seedlings as rootstocks <strong>for</strong> vegetative propagation..34<br />

3.4.2 Methods of vegetative propagation.......................................34

3.5 Recommended methods ...............................................................44<br />

3.6 In vitro propagation......................................................................45<br />

3.6.1 Rooting of regenerated shoots ..............................................45<br />

3.6.2 Establishing and using a nursery...........................................48<br />

3.7 Spacing.........................................................................................50<br />

3.8 Time of planting...........................................................................51<br />

3.9 Management.................................................................................51<br />

3.9.1 Weeding and mulching .........................................................51<br />

3.9.2 Pruning and training..............................................................52<br />

3.10 Intercropping..............................................................................53<br />

3.11 Nutrition ....................................................................................53<br />

3.12 Fruiting.......................................................................................57<br />

3.13 Irrigation.....................................................................................59<br />

3.14 Pests and diseases.......................................................................59<br />

3.14.1 Pests ....................................................................................60<br />

3.14.2 Diseases ..............................................................................64<br />

Chapter 4. Reproductive biology............................................................ 70<br />

4.1 Introduction..................................................................................70<br />

4.2 Flowering habit ............................................................................71<br />

4.2.1 Male flowering......................................................................71<br />

4.2.2 Female flowering ..................................................................72<br />

4.3 Pollination ....................................................................................72<br />

4.4 Fruiting.........................................................................................72<br />

4.4.1 Tissues of <strong>the</strong> fruits/ fruit morphology .................................73<br />

4.4.2 Fruit maturation ....................................................................75<br />

4.5 Seeds ............................................................................................75<br />

Chapter 5. Genetic resources and crop improvement............................. 77<br />

5.1 Introduction..................................................................................77<br />

5.2 Cytology.......................................................................................77<br />

5.3 Current in<strong>for</strong>mation on diversity..................................................78<br />

5.4 Germplasm collections.................................................................82<br />

5. 5 Cultivars ......................................................................................83<br />

5.6 Breeding .......................................................................................94<br />

5.6.1 Current improvement ef<strong>for</strong>ts.................................................95<br />

5.6.2 Focus on genetic diversity ....................................................96<br />

5.6.3 Fur<strong>the</strong>r selection ...................................................................97<br />

5.6.4 Desirable criteria <strong>for</strong> improvement.......................................98<br />

5.6.5 Ideotypes...............................................................................98<br />

5.7 Genetic conservation....................................................................99<br />

5.7.1 In situ conservation...............................................................99

5.7.2 Ex situ conservation............................................................100<br />

5.7.3 Field genebanks ..................................................................101<br />

Chapter 6. Harvesting, post-harvest handling and processing products102<br />

6.1 Ripening and maturity................................................................102<br />

6.2 Harvesting ..................................................................................104<br />

6.3 Postharvest handling ..................................................................107<br />

6.4 Storage .......................................................................................108<br />

6.5 Processing ..................................................................................110<br />

6.5.1. Recipes...............................................................................112<br />

Chapter 7. Economics of production and marketing ............................ 127<br />

7.1 Economics of production ...........................................................127<br />

7.1.1 Cost of cultivation...............................................................127<br />

7.1.2 Tree establishment costs in household farms and small<br />

orchards........................................................................................128<br />

7.1.3 Maintenance cost ................................................................128<br />

7.1.4 Returns................................................................................129<br />

7.2 Marketing ...................................................................................129<br />

7.2.1 Marketing channels.............................................................129<br />

7.2.2 Products ..............................................................................130<br />

7.2.3 Domestic marketing............................................................136<br />

7.2.4 International marketing.......................................................137<br />

7.3 Socio-economics and marketing ................................................139<br />

Chapter 8. Conclusions and future research needs............................... 142<br />

8.1 Taxonomy ..................................................................................143<br />

8.2 Genetic resources and crop improvement ..................................144<br />

8.3 Crop management ......................................................................145<br />

8.4 Post-harvest and processing .......................................................145<br />

8.5 <strong>Future</strong> research...........................................................................146<br />

References ............................................................................................ 149<br />

Appendix 1. Specialists and institutions engaged in jackfruit research and<br />

development ......................................................................................... 170<br />

Appendix 2. Institutions with collections of jackfruit germplasm ....... 180<br />

Appendix 3. Seed suppliers .................................................................. 184<br />

Glossary................................................................................................ 186<br />

Index..................................................................................................... 190

Tables<br />

Table 1.1 Common names of jackfruit…………………………….<br />

Table 1.2 O<strong>the</strong>r Artocarpus species bearing edible fruits………….<br />

Table 1.3 Distribution of jackfruit by country……………………..<br />

Table 2.1 Composition of <strong>the</strong> edible parts …………………………<br />

Table 2.2 Putative use of jackfruit in local medicine .……………..<br />

Table 3.1 Characteristics of selected superior phenotypes of<br />

jackfruit……………………………………………………<br />

Table 3.2 Use of growth regulators to promote rooting……………<br />

Table 3.3 Use of growth regulators in air layering…………………<br />

Table 3.4 Results of success rates using different budding methods<br />

Table 3.5 Recommendations <strong>for</strong> vegetative propagation methods<br />

of jackfruit in Asia…………………………………………<br />

Table 3.6 Results of different in vitro methods <strong>for</strong> multiple shoot<br />

regeneration………………………………………………..<br />

Table 3.7 Results of regeneration using different methods <strong>for</strong><br />

rooting of regenerated shoots……………………………...<br />

Table 3.8 Yearly amounts of manure and fertilisers <strong>for</strong> jackfruit<br />

trees (per tree) in Bangladesh……………………………...<br />

Table 3.9 Application of fertilisers in four states of India ………...<br />

Table 3.10 Fertiliser recommendations <strong>for</strong> jackfruit in Florida……<br />

Table 3.11 Annual production of jackfruit in Asia…………………<br />

Table 3.12 Yield of fruits per hectare in major jackfruit producing<br />

countries in Asia…………………………………………...<br />

Table 3.13 Pests which generally affect jackfruit………………….<br />

Table 3.14 Diseases which generally affect jackfruit………………<br />

Table 4.1 Growth stages of parts of jackfruit ……………...............<br />

Table 5.1 Variation in morpho-agronomic characters……………...<br />

Table 5.2 Variation of qualitative characteristics of jackfruit<br />

accessions in Bangladesh………………………………….<br />

Table 5.3 Variation in fruit characteristics…………………………<br />

Table 5.4 <strong>Jackfruit</strong> collections held in different countries…………<br />

Table 5.5 Cultivars of jackfruit…………………………………….<br />

Table 5.6 Names of principal types of fruits in different countries...<br />

Table 5.7 Collection, characterisation, evaluation and selection of<br />

promising lines of jackfruit………………………………..<br />

Table 5.8 Number of planting materials produced in each country..<br />

Table 5.9 Criteria used in jackfruit selection………………………<br />

Table 6.1 Yield of bulbs and non-edible portions and physical<br />

variations in bulbs at harvest at six stages of maturity…….<br />

10<br />

14<br />

16<br />

20<br />

23<br />

33<br />

37<br />

39<br />

43<br />

44<br />

46<br />

47<br />

54<br />

54<br />

56<br />

58<br />

58<br />

62<br />

66<br />

76<br />

79<br />

80<br />

82<br />

83<br />

93<br />

94<br />

95<br />

96<br />

98<br />


Table 7.1 Estimated cost of establishment (in Indian Rs.) of a<br />

jackfruit orchard in India…………………………………..<br />

Table 7.2 Availability of jackfruit in different countries…………..<br />

Table 7.3 Socio-economic profile of Artocarpus growers in Nepal<br />

Table 7.4 Farmer cited suggestions <strong>for</strong> market management………<br />

Table 8.1 Comparison of properties of tropical fruits……………...<br />

Table 8.2 Suggestions <strong>for</strong> research requirements and technology<br />

transfer……………………………………………………..<br />

128<br />

133<br />

140<br />

141<br />

142<br />

147<br />

Figures<br />

Fig.1.1 A twig of jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus……….………<br />

Fig.1.2 Morphological characteristics of fruit parts of Artocarpus<br />

heterophyllus………………………………………………………………<br />

Fig.1.3 Indigenous and introduced areas of Artocarpus<br />

heterophyllus………………………………………………………………<br />

Fig. 3.1 Percentage success in grafting using different graft types...<br />

Fig.7.1 Producer to market chain <strong>for</strong> commercialization of fruits…<br />

6<br />

7<br />

17<br />

42<br />

131<br />

Plates<br />

Plate 1. Whole fruit and bulbs……………………………………<br />

Plate 2. Fruits…………………………………………………….<br />

Plate 3. High quality furniture……………………………………<br />

Plate 4. Goat fodder……………………………………………….<br />

Plate 5. Protective bamboo fencing………………………………<br />

Plate 6. A seedling raised in a polybag……………………………<br />

Plate 7a. Steps of epicotyl grafting………………………………..<br />

Plate 7b. Steps of epicotyl grafting……………………………….<br />

Plate 8. Polybags with shading……………………………………<br />

Plate 9. Grafted tree without pruning……………………………..<br />

Plate 10. Grafted tree pruned and trained to have a longer trunk…<br />

Plate 11a. Fruits of different sizes…………………………………<br />

Plate 11b. Fruits of different shapes………………………………<br />

Plate 12. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> products………………………………………..<br />

Plate 13. High quality fruits at market…………………………….<br />

85<br />

85<br />

86<br />

86<br />

87<br />

87<br />

88<br />

89<br />

90<br />

90<br />

90<br />

91<br />

91<br />

92<br />


Abbreviations<br />

ADH<br />

ACP<br />

AFLP<br />

BA<br />

BAP<br />

BARI<br />

BPI<br />

CPA<br />

DFID<br />

DMSO<br />

EDDHA<br />

EDTHA<br />

FYM<br />

GA<br />

GDH<br />

GOT<br />

HORDI<br />

HRC<br />

IAA<br />

IBA-<br />

IBPGR<br />

ICRAF<br />

ICUC<br />

IIHR<br />

IPB<br />

IPGRI<br />

KJ<br />

KMS<br />

IU-<br />

MS medium<br />

MT<br />

NAA<br />

MDH<br />

PPM<br />

PAB<br />


Alcohol dehyrogenase<br />

Acod phosphatase<br />

Amplified fragment length polymorphism<br />

Benzyladenine<br />

Benzyladenine purine<br />

Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute<br />

Bureau of Plant Industries<br />

p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid<br />

Department <strong>for</strong> International Development (UK)<br />

Dimethyl sulphoxide<br />

Ehylenediamine di- (o-hydroxyphenylacetate)<br />

Sodium ferric dimethyenetriamine pentaacetate<br />

Farmyard manure<br />

Gibberellic acid<br />

Glutamine dehydrogenase<br />

Glutamate oxalacetate transaminase<br />

Horticulture Research and Development Institute<br />

Horticulture Research Centre<br />

Indole acetic acid<br />

Indole butyric acid<br />

International Board <strong>for</strong> Plant Genetic Resources<br />

World Agro<strong>for</strong>estry Centre (<strong>for</strong>merly International<br />

Centre <strong>for</strong> Research in Agro<strong>for</strong>estry)<br />

International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong><br />

Indian Institute of Horticultral Research<br />

Institute of Plant Breeding<br />

International Plant Genetic Resources Institute<br />

Kilo Joule<br />

Potassium metabisulphite<br />

International unit<br />

Murashige and Skoog medium<br />

Metric tonnes<br />

Napthylacetic acid<br />

Meta dehydrogenase<br />

Part per million<br />

Polyhydroxybutyrate<br />

Underutilised Tropical Fruits in Asia Network<br />


RFLP<br />

RIFAV<br />

RH<br />

SCUC<br />

TDZ<br />

TSS<br />

Restricted fragment length polymorphism<br />

Research Institute of Fruits and Vegetables<br />

Relative humidity<br />

Southampton Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong><br />

Thiadiazuron<br />

Total soluble solids<br />


Preface<br />

Tropical fruits are important constituents in <strong>the</strong> daily diets of billions of<br />

people; and many such fruits are harvested from a wide range of minor<br />

species - ei<strong>the</strong>r from wild trees or locally cultivated ones. Many such<br />

fruit trees have multi-purpose uses and <strong>the</strong>ir plant products satisfy a<br />

variety of local non-food purposes ranging from timber to <strong>for</strong>est.<br />

There are scores of lesser-known tropical fruits which have received<br />

little attention if any, from agronomists and breeders, yet a number of<br />

such fruits have, from time to time, been recognised as worthy of more<br />

focus. This is because <strong>the</strong>y can supplement diets with important<br />

minerals, vitamins and carbohydrates and <strong>the</strong>ir production can also<br />

generate income <strong>the</strong>reby helping to alleviate poverty. Neglect of such<br />

fruits by <strong>the</strong> scientific community is often also coupled with poor market<br />

structures and practical constraints to transport and storage.<br />

The International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong> (ICUC) has been<br />

involved in prioritising a limited number of such lesser-known tropical<br />

fruits and promoting <strong>the</strong>ir use through technology development <strong>for</strong> better<br />

husbandry and marketing. National partners in Asia placed jackfruit high<br />

on <strong>the</strong> list <strong>for</strong> attention. ICUC’s programmes include identification of<br />

suitable types <strong>for</strong> different purposes. The Centre and its partners are<br />

maintaining <strong>the</strong> diversity of underutilised fruits in on-farm and research<br />

field <strong>for</strong> domestication of cultivars to maximise utilisation (see Chapter<br />

5).<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is widely esteemed in tropical Asia where it originated as a<br />

cultigen, but its distribution is pantropic through introduction in <strong>the</strong> past.<br />

However, although it is well-known and widely used and cultivated it<br />

remains underutilised because it has hardly undergone any scientific<br />

improvement. This book aims to ga<strong>the</strong>r toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation relevant<br />

to <strong>the</strong> production and utilisation of jackfruit in order to highlight <strong>the</strong><br />

current gaps in knowledge, to identify research constraints and to<br />

summarise appropriate technology <strong>for</strong> enhanced production.<br />

The book takes <strong>the</strong> <strong>for</strong>mat of a <strong>monograph</strong> and will be disseminated to a<br />

wide audience in both developing and developed countries. A<br />

complementary manual <strong>for</strong> extension workers supplements this<br />

<strong>monograph</strong> which is also available to field workers, policy makers and<br />

o<strong>the</strong>rs so that better use can be made of jackfruit.<br />


The preparation and publication of this book has been funded by <strong>the</strong><br />

UK’s Department <strong>for</strong> International Development as part of a project<br />

called “Fruits <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Future</strong>”. During its preparation a large number of<br />

national scientists were called upon <strong>for</strong> data and in<strong>for</strong>mation. The<br />

interests of ICUC’s partner international organisations, ICRAF and<br />

IPGRI, also meant that <strong>the</strong> role of <strong>the</strong> species in land use, especially in<br />

agro<strong>for</strong>estry and homegarden systems, and in providing food and<br />

nutrition security at <strong>the</strong> local level, were duly dealt with during <strong>the</strong><br />

book’s compilation.<br />

The editors express <strong>the</strong>ir great thanks to Dr Nazmul Haq who found <strong>the</strong><br />

time, whilst directing <strong>the</strong> overall Fruits <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Future</strong> project, to write<br />

<strong>the</strong> text <strong>for</strong> jackfruit. Thanks are also due to Zoë Dunsiger who has<br />

coordinated <strong>the</strong> production of <strong>the</strong> manuscript and to Rosemary Wise <strong>for</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> drawings of <strong>the</strong> species.<br />

J.T. Williams<br />

Chief Editor<br />


Acknowledgements<br />

I was in Bangladesh on a holiday and met a Britis friend who was living<br />

<strong>the</strong>re. He knew of my interest in tropical and sub-tropical fruits and in<br />

particular in jackfruit. He asked me whe<strong>the</strong>r I was aware of any small<br />

fruits of 1-2 kg in weight which would be easy to transport. He had only<br />

seen large jackfruits in <strong>the</strong> UK market and felt that <strong>the</strong> size of <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

and its short shelf life had been hindering <strong>the</strong> export market. I told him<br />

that I had observed variability in size, shape and quality but I had never<br />

seen 1-2 kg fruit. My friend’s comments encouraged me to think about a<br />

project on <strong>the</strong> improvement of jackfruit.<br />

During this holiday I had several meetings with <strong>the</strong> directors of <strong>the</strong><br />

Horticulture Research Centre (HRC) of Bangladesh Agricultural<br />

Research Institute (BARI) and <strong>the</strong> Institute of Food Technology of<br />

Bangladesh Council <strong>for</strong> Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) in<br />

Dhaka to discuss <strong>the</strong> present status of jackfruit in Bangladesh. We agreed<br />

to develop a joint project on jackfruit in Bangladesh and later <strong>the</strong> project<br />

was partly funded by ODA (now DFID, UK) and partly by <strong>the</strong><br />

Commonwealth Science Council. Subsequently, I surveyed <strong>the</strong> genetic<br />

diversity of jackfruit in Bangladesh and was partly involved in eight<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r countries of Asia through <strong>the</strong> project, Underutilised Tropical Fruits<br />

in Asia Network (UTFANET). I took two Ph.D students with me, one<br />

worked on “Genetic Diversity of <strong>Jackfruit</strong> in Bangladesh and<br />

Development of Propagation Methods” and <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r on <strong>the</strong> “Diversity<br />

of Homestead Farming in Bangladesh”. I am pleased to say that we have<br />

now found cultigens which are small in size and produce fruits about 1.5<br />

kg in weight.<br />

My continued discussions with farmers, scientists in particular my<br />

students, and policy makers of nine countries in Asia as well as my own<br />

observations provided in<strong>for</strong>mation on <strong>the</strong> benefits and constraints of<br />

production, and o<strong>the</strong>r field experiences. I ga<strong>the</strong>red copies of valuable<br />

unpublished reports and as a result was able to draft this <strong>monograph</strong>.<br />

Un<strong>for</strong>tunately, <strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation in producing areas in Africa and Latin<br />

America is very scarce. I have tried hard to collect data but failed to<br />

obtain in<strong>for</strong>mation on genetic diversity, cultural practices adopted or any<br />

production figures. However, colleagues from Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya,<br />

Brazil and Costa Rica have provided some in<strong>for</strong>mation which is<br />

included. I am grateful to <strong>the</strong>m.<br />


Numerous institutions and individuals have helped me but <strong>the</strong> list is too<br />

long to give in full. I should give credit to those farmers who gave <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

valuable time to tell me about <strong>the</strong>ir crop, to my colleagues from many<br />

countries and <strong>the</strong> team members of <strong>the</strong> UTFANET project. I thank<br />

particularly, Drs A. K. Azad, A. Mannan, A. Hossain, Farid Ahmed, A.<br />

Quasem and Mr. A. Bashar from Bangladesh, Drs B.M.C. Reddy, P.<br />

Patil, J. N. Daniel and Prof. S. K. Mitra from India, Dr Kudagamage and<br />

Prof. Gunasena from Sri Lanka, Drs K. P. Paudual and Shakya from<br />

Nepal; Drs P. Faylon, J. Eusebio and Mr Lito Carpio from <strong>the</strong><br />

Philippines, Mr A. Susiloadi and Dr S. Sastrapradja from Indonesia, Dr<br />

Mohammad bin Osman from Malaysia, Dr Songpol Somsiri from<br />

Thailand, Drs Vu Manh Hai, Tran Van Lai and Thanh from Vietnam, Mr<br />

Campos from Costa Rica, Dr Charles Clement from Brazil and Dr M.<br />

Wilson from Tanzania.<br />

I must not <strong>for</strong>get my colleagues at Southampton, Zoë Dunsiger,<br />

Colm Bowe, Angela Hughes, Sonia Bryant and Berekhet Berakhy<br />

who helped me in many ways to complete <strong>the</strong> book.<br />

My thanks to Drs R.K. Arora and S. Azam-Ali and Mr Roger<br />

Smith who made very useful comments on <strong>the</strong> draft manuscripts<br />

and my sincere thanks to Prof. Trevor Williams, <strong>the</strong> Chief Editor<br />

of <strong>the</strong> Monograph Series who has gone through <strong>the</strong> draft<br />

manuscripts repeatedly and helped me to improve <strong>the</strong> final one.<br />

I hope you all find this book useful.<br />

Nazmul Haq<br />

2006<br />


Chapter 1. Taxonomy, origin and distribution<br />

1.1 Introduction<br />

The domesticated jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., is<br />

important in tropical and sub-tropical regions, particularly in South and<br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia. The tree is a major component of subsistence and small<br />

farmers’ farming systems and <strong>the</strong> fruit often assumes <strong>the</strong> role of a<br />

secondary staple food as well as contributing to <strong>the</strong> livelihoods of <strong>the</strong><br />

poor. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> has been in cultivation in India from ancient times. It<br />

was probably taken by Arab traders to <strong>the</strong> East African coast, and now<br />

it has spread throughout <strong>the</strong> tropics.<br />

The genus Artocarpus is a member of <strong>the</strong> family Moraceae which is<br />

part of <strong>the</strong> tribe Urticales. The family includes a number of<br />

economically important species. In <strong>the</strong> Asian tropics Broussonetia<br />

species are cultivated <strong>for</strong> paper pulp and <strong>the</strong> bast of Artocarpus<br />

elasticus Reinw. (and o<strong>the</strong>r Artocarpus spp.) is used locally <strong>for</strong> fibre <strong>for</strong><br />

rope and paper (Purseglove, 1968). However, in warm temperate<br />

regions and in <strong>the</strong> tropics, <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r members of Moraceae such as<br />

species of fig of <strong>the</strong> genus Ficus produce important fruits <strong>for</strong> humans<br />

and <strong>for</strong> animal fodder. In temperate North America Maehura species (a<br />

member of Moraceae) provide sour orange-like fruits and in Europe and<br />

Asia Morus species provide mulberry fruits and also food <strong>for</strong><br />

silkworms.<br />

It is thought that jackfruit originated in <strong>the</strong> Western Ghats region of<br />

India but whe<strong>the</strong>r it is found wild or not is still debatable. Some<br />

authorities think <strong>the</strong>re are related wild materials in <strong>the</strong> Andaman Islands<br />

(Haq, pers. comm.); o<strong>the</strong>rs have proposed that jackfruit originated in<br />

Malaysia (Zielenski, 1955; Barrau, 1976).<br />

The lack of knowledge on a precise area of origin relates to inadequate<br />

taxonomic research having been carried out, although <strong>the</strong> work of<br />

Jarrett (1959a, 1959b, 1960) has substantially contributed to clarifying<br />

much confusion. More recently, molecular research has provided<br />

important pointers to which species might <strong>for</strong>m <strong>the</strong> primary and<br />

secondary genepools of jackfruit. However this recent work is<br />

preliminary because <strong>the</strong> research has been done only in Japan, Thailand<br />


and <strong>the</strong> USA and a limited number of accessions were available <strong>for</strong><br />

analyses (Kanzaki et al., 1997; Schnell et al., 2001).<br />

Several Artocarpus species bear edible fruits that are economically<br />

valuable (Wester, 1921). Breadfruit, A. altilis (Parkins.) Fosb., widely<br />

grown in <strong>the</strong> Pacific islands, produces pulp which is cooked in various<br />

ways and used in numerous main and side dishes. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> is eaten<br />

fresh, as are fruits of A. integer (Thunb.) Merr., <strong>the</strong> chempedak, which<br />

is truly domesticated and locally important in Malaysia and Indonesia.<br />

Two o<strong>the</strong>r species are more minor domesticates: A. odoratissimus<br />

Blanco is well known in Borneo and selected wild <strong>for</strong>ms from Indonesia<br />

and Malaysia have been cultivated <strong>for</strong> fruits in <strong>the</strong> Philippines; and A.<br />

rigidus Blume from <strong>the</strong> Malesian archipelago (covering Malaysia,<br />

Indonesia and extending to Papua New Guinea) is ano<strong>the</strong>r locally<br />

important cultigen. There is also a range of wild species of Artocarpus<br />

whose fruits are ga<strong>the</strong>red <strong>for</strong> fresh consumption such as A. lakoocha<br />

Roxb. which is mainly confined to peninsular India and Nepal.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is regarded as a species worthy of research attention because<br />

of its wider potential use in nutrition and its potential to increase local<br />

incomes when grown in agro<strong>for</strong>estry and homegarden systems. It is<br />

locally sometimes of high value (Rehm and Espig, 1991) and has<br />

proved valuable when introduced to o<strong>the</strong>r parts of <strong>the</strong> world where it is<br />

fairly widely cultivated in suitable climates (Morton, 1965).<br />

1.2 Moraceae<br />

The Moraceae family contains over 50 genera and over 800 species<br />

which are mostly tropical and sub-tropical. However, a few are<br />

temperate. Most of <strong>the</strong> family members are trees and shrubs but all<br />

contain latex.<br />

Genera which have stipules leaving amplexicaul scars when <strong>the</strong>y drop<br />

off, and straight stamens and ovules near <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> ovary are<br />

included in <strong>the</strong> sub-family Artocarpoideae. This includes Artocarpus.<br />

The fusion of individual fruits to make a syncarp is seen not only in<br />

Artocarpoideae but in several genera in o<strong>the</strong>r sub-families of Moraceae.<br />


1.3 The genus Artocarpus<br />

The name Artocarpus is derived from <strong>the</strong> Greek words artos (bread)<br />

and carpos (fruit) (Bailey, 1942). The genus contains about 50-60<br />

species, distributed throughout <strong>the</strong> Indo-Malaysian region and in<br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>rn China (Corner, 1938; Bailey, 1949; Campbell, 1984). All <strong>the</strong><br />

species are monoecious, <strong>the</strong> male flowers in pseudo-catkins and <strong>the</strong><br />

female in pseudo-heads. All produce a multiple fruit (a syncarp), <strong>the</strong><br />

achenes being surrounded by fleshy pulp and <strong>the</strong> common receptacle<br />

becoming fleshy<br />

The genus is usually divided into two sub-genera: Artocarpus and<br />

Pseudojaca. Sub-genus Artocarpus has spirally arranged leaves with<br />

amplexicaul stipules whereas subgenus Pseudojaca has alternate leaves<br />

and lateral stipules. In addition <strong>the</strong> characteristics of <strong>the</strong> syncarpy are<br />

different. In Artocarpus syncarps are usually ellipsoid or cylindrical;<br />

and <strong>the</strong> perianth segments are mostly free and always so at <strong>the</strong>ir apices.<br />

By contrast <strong>the</strong> syncarps of Pseudojaca are more uni<strong>for</strong>m and subglobose<br />

or slightly lobed; <strong>the</strong> perianth segments are often fused only at<br />

<strong>the</strong> base or along much of <strong>the</strong> length (Jarrett, 1959b).<br />

Jarrett (1959a) subdivided subgenus Artocarpus fur<strong>the</strong>r into two<br />

sections mainly on characters of <strong>the</strong> inflorescence, including those of<br />

<strong>the</strong> embryo and into several series based primarily, though not solely,<br />

on <strong>the</strong> distinctive, microscopic, capitate hairs on <strong>the</strong> leaves. They are<br />

Artocarpus and Duricarpus (Jarrett, 1959a). The section Duricarpus<br />

may represent ei<strong>the</strong>r an offshoot of section Artocarpus or an<br />

independent line of evolution within <strong>the</strong> genus.<br />

Artocarpus heterophyllus belongs to <strong>the</strong> sub-genus Artocarpus and<br />

series Cauliflori (Barrau, 1976). The series Cauliflori is distinguished by<br />

inflorescences which are cauliflorous or ramiflorous. The inflorescence<br />

of A. heterophyllus has a basal annulus <strong>for</strong>med by <strong>the</strong> enlargement of<br />

<strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> peduncle into a narrow flange. The series also includes A.<br />

integer.<br />


1.4. Artocarpus species<br />

Descriptions are provided below <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> domesticated species and <strong>for</strong><br />

some of <strong>the</strong> better known wild species with edible fruits.<br />

1.4.1 <strong>Jackfruit</strong>: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.<br />

The botanical or scientific name of jackfruit was originally reported by<br />

Lamarck. The synonyms of <strong>the</strong> species are: A. philippinensis Lam., A.<br />

maxima Blanco, Soccus arboreus major Rumph., Polyphema jaca<br />

Lour., A. brasiliensis Gomez (Corner, 1938; Soepadmo, 1992).<br />

However, <strong>the</strong>re is some confusion in relation to taxonomic<br />

nomenclature because of various synonyms given to this species. A.<br />

integrifolius Auct. is often used as a synonym but it actually belongs to<br />

A. integer (Thunb.) Merr.<br /> General morphology<br />

An evergreen medium-sized to large tree, 10-20 m tall, occasionally<br />

reaching 30 m, with a long taproot and a dense crown. The crown is<br />

conical when <strong>the</strong> trees are young or grown under shaded conditions and<br />

reaches a diameter of 3.5-6.7 m at five years; becoming rounded and<br />

somewhat irregular when older. The trunk is unbuttressed and is usually<br />

about (80-) 100 (-120) cm in diameter but can be much wider in older<br />

trees. The bark is somewhat scaly and greyish brown or dark grey.<br />

Branches spread from low down <strong>the</strong> trunk and are inserted at angles<br />

ranging from 30-90º. Twigs are cylindrical and mostly glabrous but<br />

sometimes with minute, short, white hairs, becoming glabrous later.<br /> Leaves<br />

Leaves are oblong, obovate or elliptic; leaves on upper mature branches<br />

tend to be more obovate and those on young shoots more oblong and<br />

narrower. Leaves are (2-) 5 (-25) cm long and (2-) 3 (-12) cm wide at or<br />

just above <strong>the</strong> middle where <strong>the</strong>y are broadest. The lamina is<br />

coriaceous, stiff and dark shiny green above and pale green beneath, at<br />

first hispidous but becoming glabrous underneath. Venation is pinnate<br />

with 5-8 (-12) pairs of veins; midrib and main veins are greenish white<br />

to pale greenish yellow. Leaves are cuneate or obtuse at <strong>the</strong> base and<br />

entire but irregular shaped leaves can be seen in young plants. The<br />

lamina is flat, wrinkled or with upward sides. Leaf apices are blunt,<br />

rounded or with a short tip. From <strong>the</strong> widest point <strong>the</strong> leaves taper to <strong>the</strong><br />


petiole which is dark green, (1-) 3.5 (-5) cm long and grooved on <strong>the</strong><br />

side facing <strong>the</strong> stem.<br />

Leaves are inserted alternately on horizontal branches but tend to be<br />

spiral on ascending branches with a 2/5 phyllotaxis. Stipules are<br />

present, ovate, about (1-5-) 4 (-8) cm long and (0.5-) 1 (-3) cm wide,<br />

deciduous , leaving noticeable scars on <strong>the</strong> stem (Figure 1.1).<br /> Inflorescences and flowers<br />

The inflorescences are solitary, both male and female produced<br />

separately on short axillary leafy twigs, ei<strong>the</strong>r on <strong>the</strong> tree trunk or on<br />

older branches. In some cases <strong>the</strong>y can also be borne on <strong>the</strong><br />

underground parts of <strong>the</strong> tree, producing fruits protruding from <strong>the</strong><br />

ground. The individual flowers are borne on an elongated axis and are<br />

grouped into a racemoid inflorescence, also called a spike or head.<br />

A large number of flowers are borne on a club-shaped rachis. The<br />

female spikes are borne on footstalks while <strong>the</strong> male spikes are both on<br />

<strong>the</strong> footstalks as well as on <strong>the</strong> terminal shoots. The terminal shoots,<br />

measure about 0.4 cm in diameter, produce only male spikes and each<br />

shoot has seven to eight leaves clustered at its end. One male<br />

inflorescence is <strong>for</strong>med per terminal shoot in each flowering season<br />

(Manalo, 1986).<br />

There are two types of footstalks: one type is non-bearing, as it<br />

produces only male spikes and <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r type is fruit-bearing, as it<br />

produces female spikes. The non-bearing footstalks appear on branches<br />

or stems in early season. They appear as yellow-green, bud-like<br />

structures but later develop into leafy, twig-like laterals. These<br />

footstalks are thicker than <strong>the</strong> terminal shoot, about 0.72 cm in<br />

diameter. They also contain fewer leaves and produce more male spikes<br />

(about three per footstalk per flowering season). Male flowers start to<br />

emerge in <strong>the</strong> fourth week after <strong>the</strong> footstalk emergence. The footstalks<br />

with female spikes are much more vigorous than those carrying only <strong>the</strong><br />

male or both male and female spikes.<br />


1 mm<br />

2 cm<br />

4 mm<br />

Fig.1.1. A twig of jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus.<br />


2 cm<br />

1 mm<br />

Fig.1.2 Morphological characteristics of fruit parts of Artocarpus<br />

heterophyllus.<br />


The male inflorescence toge<strong>the</strong>r with <strong>the</strong> bud and leaf primodial is<br />

shea<strong>the</strong>d with stipules. As <strong>the</strong> bud grows larger <strong>the</strong> stipules open to<br />

expose <strong>the</strong> bud, a new leaf and <strong>the</strong> spike. At emergence <strong>the</strong> male spike<br />

is 3-3.5 cm long and ca 1.5 cm wide but it increases in size, assuming<br />

an oblong clavate shape and reaching 5-10 cm in length and 2-3 cm in<br />

width. There are no interfloral bracts.<br />

The male spike is densely covered with small male flowers. Each flower<br />

is borne on a peduncle with a green fleshy ring at <strong>the</strong> apex. Male<br />

flowers can be sterile or fertile. The sterile male flower has a solid<br />

perianth and <strong>the</strong> fertile male flower is tubular and bi-lobed. A male<br />

flower contains a single long stamen (1-2 mm) and four an<strong>the</strong>rs<br />

(Moncur, 1985). These are enclosed in a green lea<strong>the</strong>ry tubular perianth<br />

which protrudes out of <strong>the</strong> perianth tube on <strong>the</strong> surface of <strong>the</strong> spike.<br />

The first stamen appears about 4-6 days after opening and <strong>the</strong> whole<br />

surface of <strong>the</strong> spike is covered with undehisced yellow an<strong>the</strong>rs. The<br />

male spikes gradually turn black after dehiscence, due to growth of<br />

mould, and drop after about a week (Jarrett, 1959b).<br />

Female inflorescences are 4-15 cm long and usually found distal to <strong>the</strong><br />

male inflorescences. They tend to be more cylindrical or oblong than <strong>the</strong><br />

male. Interfloral bracts are present. O<strong>the</strong>rwise <strong>the</strong>y resemble <strong>the</strong> male<br />

spikes. The female spikes are composite, large bright green, and have a<br />

segmented surface (Alexander et al. 1983).<br />

Female flowers have a tubular perianth of free segments when young<br />

but fusing in <strong>the</strong> mid point; perianth encloses a basal compressed ovary<br />

with an obliquely inserted terminal style with a club shaped stigma.<br />

Stigmatic points are persistently sharp (becoming blunt in mature<br />

fruits). Stigmata protrude after 4-6 days of opening of <strong>the</strong> spa<strong>the</strong>s. The<br />

female spikes become woolly with numerous stigmata within ano<strong>the</strong>r 4-<br />

6 days. The receptivity of <strong>the</strong> stigma remains <strong>for</strong> 28-36 hours<br />

(Sambamurthy and Ramalingam, 1954; Azad, 1989).<br />

The female inflorescences are solitary or in pairs on footstalks (i.e.<br />

special leafy branches) and grow out of <strong>the</strong> trunk and large branches.<br />

The female inflorescences have a thicker peduncle than <strong>the</strong> male<br />

inflorescences and often have a fleshy ring at <strong>the</strong> base. Staminate spikes<br />

are produced on <strong>the</strong> terminal leaf axil and on <strong>the</strong> footstalks emerging<br />


from primary and secondary branches. When young <strong>the</strong> spikes are<br />

enclosed in thick, lea<strong>the</strong>ry and deciduous spa<strong>the</strong>s.<br /> Fruits<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> produces a large yellowish syncarp 30-100 cm long and 25-50<br />

cm in diameter, round-cylindrical to pear-shaped hanging on a stout<br />

stalk. The fruit surface is warty with numerous protruding pyramidal<br />

sections. The perianths of <strong>the</strong> individual flowers become <strong>the</strong> fleshy<br />

pericarp and surround <strong>the</strong> seeds, each pericarp and seed being an<br />

individual fruit. The pericarp is yellow-white or yellow and waxy-firm<br />

(Corner, 1938).<br />

The fruit axis is <strong>the</strong> modified mature inflorescence axis and is somewhat<br />

dome shaped. It is rigid and slightly fleshy. The axis contains elongated<br />

broad parenchyma and vascular elements as well as numerous lacticifers<br />

rendering this part of <strong>the</strong> fruit non-edible. The lower free part of <strong>the</strong><br />

perianth becomes exclusively fleshy and edible; <strong>the</strong> middle fused part<br />

and <strong>the</strong> upper free region make up <strong>the</strong> rind of <strong>the</strong> fruit; it is <strong>the</strong> latter<br />

which <strong>for</strong>ms <strong>the</strong> conical studs of <strong>the</strong> rind and this can differentiate into<br />

hairs, sclerenchymatous hypodermis, thick walled ground tissue,<br />

vascular elements and fibrous shea<strong>the</strong>s and lacticifers making <strong>the</strong><br />

conical regions of <strong>the</strong> fruit rigid and protective (Figure 1.2 and Plates 1<br />

and 2).<br /> Seeds<br />

The seed is firm and waxy, oval, oblong or oblong ellipsoid in shape.<br />

Each seed is 2-4 x 1-2 cm in size and 2.5-14 g in weight (Gunasena et<br />

al., 1996) with a coriaceous testa. Many flowers on <strong>the</strong> inflorescence do<br />

not produce seeds; normally <strong>the</strong>re are 100-500 seeds in each fruit<br />

syncarp.<br />

The testa is thin and lea<strong>the</strong>ry and is ra<strong>the</strong>r thick, tough, parchment-like<br />

and crinkly when dry. The inner seed coat is a thin, brownish<br />

membrane. The seed is thickened at <strong>the</strong> hilum, which is situated with<br />

<strong>the</strong> micropyle in <strong>the</strong> distal end or near <strong>the</strong> reticular end of <strong>the</strong> seed. The<br />

fleshy cotyledons are very unequal, with one cotyledon only about onethird<br />

to one-half <strong>the</strong> size of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r. The endosperm, if present, is very<br />

small. The embryo has a superficial radicle (<strong>the</strong> basal lobe of <strong>the</strong><br />

smaller cotyledon being undeveloped).<br />

9 Vernacular names<br />

The jackfruit is commonly named jak or jack in English, being<br />

adaptations of <strong>the</strong> Portuguese jaca (Popenoe, 1974). This in turn was<br />

derived from <strong>the</strong> Malaysian tsjaka or chakka. Table 1.1 lists some of <strong>the</strong><br />

common names of jackfruit:<br />

Table 1.1 Common names of jackfruit<br />

Country<br />

Common names<br />

Bangladesh Kanthal<br />

Brazil<br />

Jaca<br />

Cambodia Khnor or Khnaôr<br />

China<br />

Po-lo-mi<br />

Columbia Jaqueira,<br />

Cuba<br />

Rima<br />

Guyana<br />

Cartahar<br />

India<br />

Kanthal, Kathal, Kantaka, Jaka; Palaamaram<br />

(Tamil), Pilavu chakka (Malayan), Halasu<br />

(Kanarese), Panasa (Telagu)<br />

Indonesia Nangka, Nongka, Lamasa, Malasa<br />

Laos<br />

Mak mi, May mi, Miiz or Mizz hnang<br />

Malaysia<br />

Nangka, Tsjaka, Jaka<br />

Myanmar Peignai<br />

Nepal<br />

Rookh-Katahar<br />

Nicaragua Castaňo<br />

Papua New Guinea Kapiak<br />

Philippines Langka or Nangka (Tagalog, Bisaya, Ilocano),<br />

Nanka or Lanka (Tagalog, Bisaya), Sagakat<br />

(Mountain Province), Badak (Cagayan),<br />

Ananka (Ilocano), Yanka (Kapampangan),<br />

Ubiyen (Ibanag),<br />

Sri Lanka Jak, Palaamaram<br />

Thailand<br />

Khanun, Makmi , Banun<br />

USA: Puerto Rico Jaca<br />

Vietnam<br />

Mit<br />

Zanzibar<br />

Fenesi<br />


Fur<strong>the</strong>r common names in specific languages<br />

English: <strong>Jackfruit</strong>, jak, jack, jaca-tree,<br />

French: Jacque or jacquier, jack,<br />

Spanish: Jaca, jacquero<br />

Dutch: Nangka, jacca<br />

German; Jacabaum, Jackbaum,<br />

Portuguese: Jaqueira, Jaca, Jaca da Baia.<br /> Domestication<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is not known in <strong>the</strong> wild although some authorities believe that<br />

wild <strong>for</strong>ms may be found in <strong>the</strong> Andaman islands. It is thought to have<br />

originated in evergreen rain <strong>for</strong>ests of <strong>the</strong> Western Ghats of India<br />

between 400 and 1200 m above sea level. Its domestication took place<br />

in <strong>the</strong> distant past and it spread in cultivation throughout South and<br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia until colonial times when it was introduced elsewhere.<br />

Due to its natural cross pollination and protandry jackfruit trees show<br />

great variability. However, over time, a large range of cultivars have<br />

been identified and <strong>the</strong>y tend to fall into two groups:<br />

(i) those with soft-fleshed fruits, which are generally acid to sweet in<br />

taste with a strong odour; and<br />

(ii) those with firm fleshed fruits, which are generally crisp, sweet to<br />

slightly acid and less odorous.<br />

1.4.2 Chempedak: Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.<br />

Syn: A. champeden (Lour.) Stokes. Two o<strong>the</strong>r synonyms are<br />

illegitimate: A. integrifolia L.f. and A. polyphema Pers.<br /> Description<br />

Chempedak is an evergreen tree similar to jackfruit and of about <strong>the</strong><br />

same size. It differs by <strong>the</strong> leaves, twigs, buds and peduncles having<br />

large brown hairs (up to 3 mm), although some wild types are glabrous.<br />

Leaves are smaller than those of jackfruit and narrow abruptly to <strong>the</strong><br />

petiole and are sharply tipped. Stipules are large 5-25 x 2.5-12 cm. Leaf<br />

veins are curved <strong>for</strong>ward.<br />


The male and female inflorescences are cylindrical. Female styles are<br />

fili<strong>for</strong>m. Fruits are yellow to orange and smaller than jackfruit, usually<br />

20-30 x 10-15 cm and <strong>the</strong>y often have a very strong smell. They are<br />

eaten as dessert fruits or cooked and <strong>the</strong> yellow pulp has a sweet<br />

aromatic taste.<br />

The wood is used <strong>for</strong> a yellow dye and <strong>the</strong> bark <strong>for</strong> tannin.<br /> Domestication<br />

Chempedak occurs wild in Malaysia and Indonesia, especially in<br />

Borneo and Sumatra where it is restricted to primary and secondary<br />

<strong>for</strong>ests in areas with a distinct dry season. Attempts have been made to<br />

classify <strong>the</strong> wild <strong>for</strong>ms in primary and secondary lowland tropical rain<br />

<strong>for</strong>ests as var. silvestris but this is not valid.<br />

It is somewhat popular in Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia and cultivated in Thailand,<br />

Myanmar, Malaysia and Indonesia. It is also grown in Australia and <strong>the</strong><br />

USA.<br />

1.4.3 Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco<br />

Syn: A. mutabilis Becc.; A. tarap Becc.<br /> Description<br />

An evergreen tree up to 20 m tall with <strong>the</strong> mature trunk about 40 cm<br />

diameter, sometimes possessing buttresses. The bark is light brown and<br />

has obvious lenticels.<br />

Leaves are much bigger than jackfruit although similar with 13-15 pairs<br />

of pinnate veins. Leaves, twigs and stipules are stiff and hairy on both<br />

surfaces.<br />

Fruits are globose ca 12-15 cm in diameter and <strong>the</strong> flesh is white,<br />

aromatic and sweet. They are eaten fresh and also prepared into<br />

processed products.<br /> Domestication<br />

Unlike chempedak, this species is a canopy dominant which occurs in<br />

secondary <strong>for</strong>ests below 1000 m altitude in <strong>the</strong> wild. It is cultivated in<br />

Sarawak and in many parts of Indonesia, and has been introduced to <strong>the</strong><br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Philippines, especially in Mindoro, Mindanao, Basilan and <strong>the</strong><br />


Sulu Archipelago (Coronel, 1983). It is thought that maximum diversity<br />

occurs in wild <strong>for</strong>ms in Brunei.<br />

1.4.4 Artocarpus rigidus Blume<br />

Syn: A. dimorphophylla Miq.<br /> Description<br />

A tall tree up to 35 m high with a dense dark green spreading crown<br />

supported by several major upward angled branches. The trunk is large<br />

and <strong>the</strong> bark is grey-brown and rough.<br />

Leaves are larger than jackfruit with 11-15 pairs of veins. Leaf blades<br />

are obovate, elliptic, blunt or slightly tipped, narrowed to <strong>the</strong> base, dark<br />

shiny green, stiff and rigid. Blades are 4-9 cm long and <strong>the</strong> petioles have<br />

short hairs on <strong>the</strong>ir undersides but <strong>the</strong>ir upper sides (except midrib) are<br />

glabrous.<br />

Male flower heads are globose and are flattened oval in shape and<br />

yellow in colour.<br />

Fruits are roundish, 7.5-12.5 cm wide, thickly set with stiff conical<br />

spines, greenish yellow becoming dull orange. The stalks are 1-1.5 cm<br />

long, sunk in <strong>the</strong> fruit. The pulp is yellow and has a sweet, pleasant<br />

flavour.<br />

The seeds are covered by <strong>the</strong> waxy pulp and are roasted and eaten in<br />

many parts of tropical Asia.<br />

The wood is yellow to orange red, fairly heavy, durable and resistant to<br />

termites. Its sticky latex is used in batik and <strong>the</strong> wood is used <strong>for</strong><br />

making furniture (Plate 3), native boats and building houses.<br /> Domestication<br />

Artocarpus rigidus is distributed in lowland <strong>for</strong>est in India, Myanmar,<br />

and Malaysia, and in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java in Indonesia where<br />

it is also cultivated in homestead gardens.<br />


1.5 O<strong>the</strong>r Artocarpus species bearing edible fruits<br />

Table 1.2 shows those wild species of Artocarpus from which fruits are<br />

ga<strong>the</strong>red regularly in <strong>the</strong>ir native habitats. Data are from Burkill (1935);<br />

Jarrett (1959 a, b); Sastrapradja (1975); Arora (1985) and Martin et al.<br />

(1987).<br />

Table 1.2 O<strong>the</strong>r Artocarpus species bearing edible fruits<br />

Species<br />

Distribution<br />

Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq.<br />

var. sessilifolius K. M. Kochum.<br />

A. blancoi (Elm.) Merr.<br />

A. chaplasha Roxb.<br />

A. cumingiana Tréc.<br />

A. dudak Miq.<br />

A. elasticus Reinw.<br />

A. fulvicortex Jarrett<br />

A. glauca Blume<br />

A. gomeziana Wall.<br />

A. involucrata K. Schum.<br />

A. kemando Miq.<br />

A. lakoocha Roxb.*<br />

A. lanceaefolius Roxb.<br />

A. lowii King<br />

A. maingayi King<br />

A. nitidus Tré.<br />

A. nobilis Thw.<br />

A. rotundata Merr.<br />

A. sarawakensis Jarrett<br />

Malaysia<br />

Philippines<br />

India, Thailand, Myanmar, Indo-<br />

China<br />

Philippines<br />

Sumatra, Malaysia<br />

Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines<br />

Malaysia, Indonesia<br />

Java<br />

Malaysia<br />

Papua New Guinea<br />

Indonesia, Malaysia<br />

India, Nepal, Malaysia, Bangladesh<br />

Malaysia, Thailand<br />

Thailand, Penisular Malaysia<br />

Malaysia<br />

China, IndoChina, Thailand,<br />

Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra<br />

Sri Lanka<br />

India, Malaysia<br />

Sumatra, Malaysia<br />

*Also occasionally cultivated<br />


1.6 Origin and distribution of jackfruit<br />

There is a controversy in <strong>the</strong> literature about <strong>the</strong> exact region of origin<br />

of jackfruit. Some authors believed that Malaysia could be <strong>the</strong> possible<br />

centre of origin (Ruehle, 1967), while Martin et al. (1987) reported that<br />

jackfruit is indigenous to tropical Asia. However, most authors believe<br />

that it originated in <strong>the</strong> rain <strong>for</strong>est of <strong>the</strong> Western Ghats of India (Hayes,<br />

1953; Ochse et al., 1961; Purseglove, 1968; Popenoe, 1974; Rowe-<br />

Dutton, 1985; Singh, 1985; Morton, 1987; Soepadmo, 1992). It <strong>the</strong>n<br />

spread in cultivation to neighbouring South and Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asian<br />

countries and to Sou<strong>the</strong>rn China.<br />

It is believed to have been introduced to <strong>the</strong> Philippines during <strong>the</strong><br />

twelfth century AD, when <strong>the</strong> coastal Filipinos started to trade<br />

commodities, including plant produce with India, Malaysia and China<br />

(Pelzar, 1948).<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is now widely grown in many Asian countries especially<br />

Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia,<br />

Indonesia, India and <strong>the</strong> Philippines. It is also grown in Sou<strong>the</strong>rn China<br />

and in <strong>the</strong> Indo-Chineese region in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam<br />

(Manjunath, 1948; Morton, 1987; Narasimham, 1990; Gunasena et al.,<br />

1996). From Asia it spread to tropical Africa especially <strong>the</strong> eastern part:<br />

Zanzibar, Kenya, Uganda and Madagascar. It is also grown in<br />

Mauritius.<br />

From <strong>the</strong> mid-seventeenth century to <strong>the</strong> late nineteenth century, <strong>the</strong><br />

species spread fur<strong>the</strong>r to tropical and subtropical America (Brazil,<br />

Surinam, <strong>the</strong> Caribbean and USA) and Australia (Morton, 1965;<br />

Purseglove, 1968; Popenoe, 1974). Morton (1987) reported that in 1782,<br />

plants captured from a French ship bound <strong>for</strong> Martinique were taken to<br />

Jamaica where <strong>the</strong> tree is now common. In Australia it is grown mostly<br />

in <strong>the</strong> tropical regions of north Queensland and around Darwin in <strong>the</strong><br />

Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Territory where its fruits are available <strong>for</strong> most of <strong>the</strong> year.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> trees which might have been introduced from Sri Lanka were<br />

grown in Florida in <strong>the</strong> 1880s. Many seedlings were planted and <strong>the</strong>y<br />

survived in South Florida. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> was introduced into nor<strong>the</strong>rn Brazil<br />

in <strong>the</strong> mid-nineteenth century and is more popular <strong>the</strong>re and in Surinam<br />

than elsewhere in <strong>the</strong> New World. Prior to 1888 it was planted in<br />

Hawaii but it is rare in o<strong>the</strong>r Pacific islands, as it is in most of tropical<br />


America. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> has been dispersed even fur<strong>the</strong>r to o<strong>the</strong>r tropical and<br />

warm subtropical regions where it is widely cultivated at low and<br />

medium elevations.<br />

A compilation of <strong>the</strong> distribution from all known references is shown in<br />

Table 1.3 and Figure 1.3.<br />

Table 1.3 Distribution of jackfruit by country<br />

Indigenous Introduced<br />

Bangladesh<br />

India<br />

Malaysia<br />

Algeria, Angola, Australia<br />

Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi<br />

Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,<br />

Chad, China, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire<br />

Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti<br />

Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia<br />

Fiji<br />

Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau<br />

Honduras<br />

Indonesia, Ivory Coast<br />

Jamaica<br />

Kenya<br />

Lesotho, Liberia, Libya<br />

Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco,<br />

Mozambique, Myanmar<br />

Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria<br />

Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,<br />

Philippines<br />

Rwanda<br />

São Tomé et Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,<br />

Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, St. Vincents, Sudan,<br />

Surinam, Swaziland<br />

Tanzania, Thailand, Timor, Togo, Tunisia<br />

Uganda, United States (Florida, Hawaii)<br />

Vietnam<br />

Zambia, Zimbabwe<br />

Sources: ICRAF Database, Bowe (pers.comm.)<br />


Fig. 1.3 Indigenous and introduced areas of Artocarpus heterophyllus<br />

Source: ICRAF database and Bowe (pers. comm.)<br />


1.6.1 Climate and ecology<br />

The jackfruit is adapted to humid tropical and sub-tropical<br />

climates. It thrives from sea level to an altitude of 1600 m. The<br />

species extends also into much drier and cooler climates than that<br />

of o<strong>the</strong>r Artocarpus species (Popenoe, 1974) such as breadfruit.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> can be grown in a wide range of climates from<br />

intermediate to wet and moist types in India and Sri Lanka. The<br />

tree bears good crops particularly between latitudes of up to 25º N<br />

and S of <strong>the</strong> equator, and up to 30º N and S (Soepadmo, 1992).<br />

Trees grown above 1330 m grow poorly and <strong>the</strong> fruits if any are of<br />

poor quality. The quality is better at <strong>the</strong> lower elevation, from 152-<br />

213 m (Crane et al., 2003).<br />

For optimum production, jackfruit requires warm, humid, climates<br />

and evenly distributed rainfall of at least 1500 mm (Baltazar,<br />

1984; Concepcion, 1990). Growth will be retarded if rainfall is<br />

less than 1000 mm. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> trees are not tolerant of continuously<br />

wet and/or flooded soil conditions and trees may decline or die<br />

after 2-3 days of wet soil conditions. For <strong>the</strong> production of<br />

jackfruit <strong>the</strong> annual rainfall should be 1000-2400 mm or more.<br />

Although it thrives in a moist tropical climate jackfruit is adapted<br />

to a wider range of conditions. It is tolerant of lower temperatures,<br />

and indeed mature trees are reported to have survived a<br />

temperature of -3º C in Florida. The leaves of <strong>the</strong> tree may be<br />

damaged at 0º C, branches at -1º C, and branches and trees may be<br />

killed at -2º C. The trees are tolerant of mild to moderately windy<br />

conditions. They have been observed to survive and recover from<br />

hurricane <strong>for</strong>ce winds when some branches have been damaged.<br />

The tree prefers well-drained soils. It is grown on a variety of<br />

soils: deep alluvial, sandy loam, or clay loam of medium fertility,<br />

calcareous or lateritic soil, shallow limestone or stony soil with a<br />

pH of 5.0-7.5. In shallow soil <strong>the</strong> growth of <strong>the</strong> tree can be slow<br />

and <strong>the</strong> tree may not be tall, robust or vigorous. The tree exhibits<br />

moderate tolerance to saline soils.<br />


Chapter 2. Properties and uses<br />

The primary economic product of jackfruit is <strong>the</strong> fruit, used both<br />

when immature and when mature. The fruit pulp is sweet and tasty<br />

and used as dessert or preserved in syrup. The seeds contained in<br />

<strong>the</strong> ripe fruits are also cooked. The fruits and seeds are also<br />

processed in a variety of ways <strong>for</strong> food and o<strong>the</strong>r products.<br />

Processed products are described in Chapter 6. Additionally<br />

jackfruit is used in traditional medicine (leaves, bark,<br />

inflorescences, seeds and latex). The wood of <strong>the</strong> tree is used <strong>for</strong> a<br />

range of purposes.<br />

2.1 Fruits<br />

Immature green fruits are widely harvested <strong>for</strong> use as a vegetable<br />

and are cooked and used like potato, often sautéed with chicken,<br />

fish or egg. However, <strong>the</strong> bulk of fruits are allowed to mature to be<br />

harvested <strong>for</strong> dessert fruits despite a somewhat pungent odour.<br />

The composition of ripe fruits and seeds is shown in Table 2.1.<br />

The texture of <strong>the</strong> pulp varies according to variety. The sweetest<br />

varieties tend to have juicy soft flesh. Less sweet varieties have<br />

firm and crisp pulp.<br />

2.1.2 Pulp<br />

Apart from use as a dessert fruit, ripe pulp is used to flavour<br />

products such as ice cream and beverages. The pulp can also be<br />

made into concentrate or powder to be used to prepare drinks.<br />

Fresh pulp is used to prepare jams, chutneys, jellies or candies. It<br />

can be canned in syrup, sometimes on its own, but especially with<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r mixed fruits. “Pulp lea<strong>the</strong>r” is popular in many countries.<br />

Canned pulp can be mixed with ethyl and n-butanol esters of 4-<br />

hydroxybutyric acid at 100 ppm to improve <strong>the</strong> flavour.<br />

In some areas fresh pulp is mixed with milk, and <strong>the</strong>n drained off<br />

to leave an orange coloured custard. In Malaysia pulp is<br />

sometimes fermented and distilled to produce liquor.<br />


The pulp of young raw fruits can be canned in brine, canned in<br />

curried <strong>for</strong>m or mixed with o<strong>the</strong>r vegetables. These products are<br />

<strong>the</strong>n used <strong>for</strong> sour or sweet pickles in oil or in vinegar. If<br />

dehydrated, <strong>the</strong> powder can be used to flavour papadams. Dried<br />

pulp is made into chips.<br />

Table. 2.1 Composition of <strong>the</strong> edible parts (100 g edible<br />

portion) of jackfruit (on <strong>the</strong> basis of fresh weight).<br />

Composition Young fruit Ripe fruit Seed<br />

Water (g) 76.2-85.2 72.0-94.0 51.0-64.5<br />

Protein (g) 2.0-2.6 1.2-1.9 6.6-7.04<br />

Fat (g) 0.1-0.6 0.1-0.4 0.40-0.43<br />

Carbohydrate (g) 9.4-11.5 16.0-25.4 25.8-38.4<br />

Fibre (g) 2.6-3.6 1.0-1.5 1.0-1.5<br />

Total sugars (g) - 20.6 -<br />

Total minerals (g) 0.9 0.87-0.9 0.9-1.2<br />

Calcium (mg) 30.0-73.2 20.0-37.0 50.0<br />

Magnesium (mg) - 27.0 54.0<br />

Phosphorus (mg) 20.0-57.2 38.0-41.0 38.0-97.0<br />

Potassium (mg) 287-323 191-407 246<br />

Sodium (mg) 3.0-35.0 2.0-41.0 63.2<br />

Iron (mg) 0.4-1.9 0.5-1.1 1.5<br />

Vitamin A (IU) 30 175-540 10-17<br />

Thiamine (mg) 0.05-0.15 0.03-0.09 0.25<br />

Riboflavin (mg) 0.05-0.2 0.05-0.4 0.11-0.3<br />

Vitamin C (mg) 12.0-14.0 7.0-10.0 11.0<br />

Energy (Kj) 50-210 88-410 133-139<br />

Sources: Arkroyd et al, (1966); Narasimham (1990); Soepadmo<br />

(1992); Gunasena et al, (1996); Azad (2000).<br />


2.1.3 Rind<br />

Rind from <strong>the</strong> fruits (including <strong>the</strong> perianths of unfertilised fruits)<br />

is often mechanically processed <strong>for</strong> syrups and jellies. It can also<br />

be <strong>the</strong> basis <strong>for</strong> pectin extracts.<br />

Rinds and o<strong>the</strong>r waste parts of <strong>the</strong> fruits have high value as a<br />

nourishing feed <strong>for</strong> livestock, especially <strong>for</strong> sheep (Sudiyani et al.,<br />

2002). The digestibility is optimised when supplemental nitrogen<br />

is provided. For cattle, molasses-urea cake is fed along with <strong>the</strong><br />

jackfruit waste <strong>for</strong> this purpose.<br />

2.2 Seeds<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> seeds are nutritious, rich in potassium, fat, carbohydrates<br />

and minerals. They are ingredients <strong>for</strong> many culinary preparations.<br />

The seeds are eaten after boiling or roasting, or dried and salted as<br />

table nuts, or ground to make flour which is blended with wheat<br />

flour <strong>for</strong> baking. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> seeds can be used in brine alone or in<br />

curried <strong>for</strong>m, similar to <strong>the</strong> use made of immature fruits, by<br />

eliminating trypsin inhibitors through heating (Siddappa, 1957)<br />

2.3 Leaves and flowers<br />

The leaves are not eaten by humans but are used as food wrappers<br />

in cooking and fastened toge<strong>the</strong>r to make plates in many parts of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Indian subcontinent. However, young leaves are readily eaten<br />

by cattle and o<strong>the</strong>r livestock. Sole feeding of jackfruit tree leaves<br />

can meet <strong>the</strong> maintenance requirements of goats (Plate 4). Similar<br />

results have been reported from <strong>the</strong> evaluation of digestibility of<br />

leaves <strong>for</strong> pigs (Ly et al., 2001).<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> leaves are good sources of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na)<br />

and if combined with rice bran give better growth <strong>for</strong> ruminants.<br />

Islam et al. (1997) reported that <strong>the</strong> digestibility was higher when<br />

jackfruit leaves were supplemented with black gram bran <strong>for</strong><br />

goats. Thanh Van et al. (2005) found that mixtures of jackfruit<br />


foliage with Flemingia macrophylla gave higher intake than<br />

jackfruit foliage alone when fed to cattle.<br />

Flowers are used as food in salads and <strong>the</strong>y can also be cooked as<br />

vegetables <strong>for</strong> humans.<br />

2.4 Use of jackfruit in traditional medicine<br />

Although several authors have mentioned <strong>the</strong> use of various parts<br />

of <strong>the</strong> jackfruit tree in local medicine (Fernando et al., 1991;<br />

Blasco et al., 1996; Sato et al. 1996; Uniyal, 2003 and Tirkey et<br />

al., 2001) its use <strong>for</strong> such purposes is not substantiated nor<br />

common. The recommendations of a range of medical<br />

practitioners in tropical Asia are shown in Table 2.2. However no<br />

major clinical evidence is available.<br />

Current in<strong>for</strong>mation on <strong>the</strong> possible efficacy of some of <strong>the</strong><br />

remedies might be based upon some limited phytochemical<br />

screening and <strong>the</strong> very limited amount of clinical testing that has<br />

been done (Tirkey et al., 2001).<br />

Extracts of leaves have been found to promote glucose tolerance<br />

when tested on diabetics. Khan et al. (2003) reported that <strong>the</strong><br />

butanol fraction of root bark and fruit extracts were active against<br />

a range of bacteria and protozoa. Hot water extraction of leaves<br />

contains flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins, and proanthocyanidin<br />

which increase <strong>the</strong> glucose tolerance of diabetics.<br />

The heartwood shows 2 active compounds : 6-(3methyl-lbutenyl)-5,2’,4’-trihydroxy-3-isoprenyl-7-methoxyflavone<br />

and<br />

5,7,2’, 4’-tetrahydroxy-6-isoprenylflavone. These<br />

isoprenylflavones are potent compounds <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> prevention of<br />

dental caries (Sato al., 1996).<br />


Table 2.2 Putative use of jackfruit in local medicine (no<br />

clinical evidence is available)<br />

Plant Use<br />

part<br />

Roots<br />

Leaves<br />

Flowers<br />

Fruits<br />

Pulp<br />

Seed<br />

Bark<br />

Latex<br />

Wood<br />

An extract of roots is used in treating skin diseases,<br />

asthma and diarrhoea.<br />

An extract from leaves and latex cures asthma,<br />

prevents ringworm infestation and heals cracking of<br />

feet.<br />

Leaf extract is given to diabetics as a control measure.<br />

Heated leaves are reported to cure wounds, abscesses<br />

and ear problems and to relieve pain.<br />

An infusion of mature leaves and bark is used to treat<br />

gall stones.<br />

A tea made with dried and powdered leaves is taken to<br />

relieve asthma.<br />

The ash of jackfruit leaves burned with maize and<br />

coconut shells is used alone or mixed with coconut oil<br />

to heal ulcers.<br />

Crushed inflorescences are used to stop bleeding in<br />

open wounds.<br />

Ripe fruits are laxative.<br />

The Chinese consider jackfruit pulp and seeds to be a<br />

nutritious tonic and “useful in overcoming <strong>the</strong><br />

influence of alcohol on <strong>the</strong> system”.<br />

The seed starch is given to relieve biliousness.<br />

Roasted seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac.<br />

Increased consumption of ripe jackfruit kernels<br />

alleviates vitamin A deficiency.<br />

Extract from fresh seeds cures diarrhoea and dysentery.<br />

Extract from seeds (or bark) helps digestion.<br />

An extract from bark and rags (non-edible portion of<br />

ripe fruits) or roots helps cure dysentery.<br />

The bark is made into poultices.<br />

Ash produced by burning bark can cure abscesses and<br />

ear problems.<br />

Mixed with vinegar, <strong>the</strong> latex promotes healing of<br />

abscesses, snakebites and glandular swellings.<br />

The wood has a sedative property, its pith is said to aid<br />

abortion.<br />


Seeds contain two lectins, jacalin and artocarpin. These have<br />

attracted considerable attention <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir diverse biological<br />

activities and have been recognised as a Gal beta 1-3GalNAc (T)<br />

specific lectin. Jacalin has been seen to inhibit <strong>the</strong> herpes simplex<br />

virus type 2 and has proved to be useful <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> evaluation of <strong>the</strong><br />

immune status of patients infected with human immunodeficiency<br />

virus 1 (HIV1). The abundant source of materials <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

production of jacalin, its ease of purification and its yield and<br />

stability have made it an attractive cost-effective lectin. This is<br />

used <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> isolation of human plasma glycoproteins (IgA1, Clinhibitor,<br />

hemopexin, alpha 2-HSCG), <strong>the</strong> investigation of IgAnephropathy,<br />

<strong>the</strong> analysis of 0-linked glycoproteins and <strong>the</strong><br />

detection of tumours (Kabir, 1998).<br />

2.5 <strong>Jackfruit</strong> wood<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> trees are an important source of timber throughout <strong>the</strong><br />

whole of <strong>the</strong> Indian subcontinent. The timber is easily seasoned<br />

and resembles mahogany. It takes polish beautifully and a smooth<br />

surface can be achieved with appropriate tools.The wood tends to<br />

change colour with age from yellow or orange to rich brown red. It<br />

is classed as a medium hardwood. The natural durability of <strong>the</strong><br />

timber against fungi, bacteria and termites is very high (Soyza,<br />

1973). The timber has a high market demand, second to teak in<br />

many Asian countries (Gunasena et al., 1996). India exports<br />

jackfruit timber to Europe.<br />

Wood from four to seven year old trees is often used <strong>for</strong> furniture,<br />

house construction and a range of wooden products such as masts,<br />

doors, chairs and musical instruments. In Indonesia <strong>the</strong> timber is<br />

valued <strong>for</strong> use in chieftains’ palaces and in Indochina it has often<br />

been used in temple constructions.<br />

In Sri Lanka small holders recognise <strong>the</strong> multi-purpose uses of <strong>the</strong><br />

jackfruit tree when deciding which trees to plant in homegardens.<br />

In that country jackfruit tree is included in a special commercial<br />

class and <strong>the</strong>re is an official requirement to obtain a permit to cut<br />


or to transport jackfruit timber although much is used at <strong>the</strong> farm<br />

level without obtaining such a permit. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> timber commands<br />

a good price, similar to that of mahogany but lower than that of<br />

teak, in <strong>the</strong> local market. Use <strong>for</strong> timber is not part of <strong>the</strong> survival<br />

strategy by small-scale farmers (Wickramasinghe, 1992). If felled<br />

<strong>for</strong> timber, smallholders consider <strong>the</strong> need to regenerate trees, in<br />

relation to <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r, mostly food uses of <strong>the</strong> jackfruit. However, in<br />

some homegardens jackfruit trees make up to 17-29% of <strong>the</strong> trees<br />

in <strong>the</strong> gardens (Wickramasinghe, 1992).<br />

The composition of jackfruit wood has been determined<br />

(Komarayati, 1995). It contains 56% cellulose, 28.7% lignin and<br />

18.64% pentosan. When used as fuelwood it can yield 38.74%<br />

charcoal with a calorific value of 7183.37 cal/g (Komarayati,<br />

1995). Charcoal briquette properties are also good, with 5.10%<br />

moisture, 3.06% ash, 71.23% fixed carbon, 25.51% volatile<br />

matter, density 0.63% g/cm³, compression strength 350kg/cm³ and<br />

a calorific value 6487.28 cal/g.<br />

The tree bark produces a dark, water-soluble, resinous gum that<br />

contains ca 3.3% tannin. The inner part of <strong>the</strong> bark is occasionally<br />

made into cordage or cloth (Purseglove, 1968).<br />

Heartwood chips or sawdust yield a yellow dye when boiled with<br />

alum. Buddhist priests use this to colour silk and cotton robes. In<br />

addition to <strong>the</strong> yellow colourant, morin, <strong>the</strong> wood contains <strong>the</strong><br />

colourless cyanomaclurin and a newly discovered yellow<br />

colouring matter, artocarpin.<br />

Splinters of heartwood are stored in bamboo tubes and used to<br />

colour sugar yellow in Indonesia.<br />


2.6 Latex<br />

The latex contains 71.8% resins consisting of 63.3% yellow<br />

fluavilles and 8.5% white albanes) which are valuable in<br />

varnishes. The latex is used to mend ear<strong>the</strong>nware and o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

utensils, to seal leaks in boats and <strong>for</strong> trapping birds (<strong>the</strong> use of<br />

which should be discouraged in <strong>the</strong> interests of biodiversity<br />

conservation). The latex has been used as a substitute <strong>for</strong> rubber in<br />

India and Brazil. The dried latex yields artostenone, convertible to<br />

artosterone, a compound with androgenic action (Morton, 1987),<br />

(<br />

MJ:<strong>pdf</strong>+artosteron<br />

e&hl=en&gl=uk&ct=clnk&cd=6).<br />

2.7 Use in agro<strong>for</strong>estry<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> has become a component of village gardens in many<br />

parts of <strong>the</strong> tropics including countries where introduced and as<br />

such has been documented e.g. in Brazil and Costa Rica. (Falacao<br />

and Clement, 2001)<br />

There is currently a great deal of interest in expanding <strong>the</strong> use of<br />

jackfruit in agro<strong>for</strong>estry and household farming systems. <strong>Jackfruit</strong><br />

is often planted in coconut groves in <strong>the</strong> Philippines (Acedo,<br />

1992) and has been used as an intercrop in durian (Durio<br />

ziberthinus) orchards in Malaysia (Acedo, 1992). In <strong>the</strong> Indian<br />

subcontinent it is intercropped with o<strong>the</strong>r fruit trees such as<br />

mango, Mangifera indica, and Citrus species. The trees are also<br />

used as shade <strong>for</strong> coffee or areca nut and as living supports <strong>for</strong><br />

black pepper (Piper nigrum) vines (Hossain and Haq, 2006). In<br />

Bangladesh it is a dominant tree on household farms where it is<br />

grown with many perennial trees and annual crops (Mannan,<br />

2000). Haq (2003a) recommended jackfruit use in <strong>the</strong> high and<br />

medium highlands in Asia as well as in homesteads in association<br />

with different species. Differing systems are however needed <strong>for</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> different agro-climatic conditions in Bangladesh. For example,<br />

jackfruit trees have been planted on bunds or dykes surrounding<br />

rice or wheat field margins on small farms to increase <strong>the</strong> land use.<br />

Although both crops grow well, <strong>the</strong> results of trials show that this<br />


production system is not economic as <strong>the</strong> loss of annual crop yield<br />

near <strong>the</strong> borders is not compensated by <strong>the</strong> income from <strong>the</strong><br />

jackfruit (Hocking et.al., 1997). However, fur<strong>the</strong>r work in<br />

developing this system is justified be<strong>for</strong>e a final conclusion can be<br />

reached. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> trees around margins are found in many<br />

traditional systems in Asia. A favoured one in Arunachal Pradesh<br />

in India is a range of trees interspersed with bamboos ei<strong>the</strong>r<br />

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii or Bambusa tulda (Deb et al., 2005).<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> as a component of village <strong>for</strong>ests or homegardens is seen<br />

in <strong>the</strong> Kebun of Malaysia and <strong>the</strong> Kampong of Indonesia<br />

(Soepadmo, 1992). The village multi-storey tree orchards are<br />

called Pekarangan and may account <strong>for</strong> 40% of <strong>the</strong> land. <strong>Jackfruit</strong><br />

trees <strong>for</strong>m part of <strong>the</strong> middle layer of <strong>the</strong> upper canopy along with<br />

fruits such as rambutan, mangosteen and several palm species. In<br />

this species combination, it is a seasonal producer.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is reported to be a good tree to use on degraded lands in<br />

Asia and Africa where it can benefit re<strong>for</strong>estation programmes<br />

intended to protect watersheds (Haq, 2003a).<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is sometimes found growing near <strong>the</strong> sea shore in<br />

Bangladesh indicating that some ecotypes are moderately tolerant<br />

to saline conditions and can <strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e be grown on saline areas if<br />

truly tolerant genotypes are available (Mannan, 2000; Haq, 2002).<br />

2.8 Socio-cultural aspects<br />

There is an old saying in Sri Lanka that “with a jak and a coconut<br />

in your backyard you will never starve”. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> leaves are often<br />

used in Hindu temple worship.<br />

The following fable indicates <strong>the</strong> long association of jackfruit with<br />

human culture:<br />

(www.ecolanka.net/gmsl/heraliya/legends_and_society.htm)<br />


Long ago, be<strong>for</strong>e historic times, a severe famine occurred and a<br />

large number of men, women and children died due to starvation<br />

in <strong>the</strong> country which is now called Sri Lanka. The chief of all<br />

Gods, Sakkra Deva, realised that this was a signal of some sort of<br />

impending calamity in <strong>the</strong> human society. Deva, became watchful<br />

and saw <strong>the</strong> dreadful devastation caused by <strong>the</strong> famine. He <strong>the</strong>n<br />

disguised himself as a beggar and quietly stepped into a cottage in<br />

a village where he saw a very feeble, starving old woman. The<br />

beggar asked <strong>for</strong> something to eat and <strong>the</strong> woman said that she<br />

did not have any food at home. The beggar <strong>the</strong>n asked her to pluck<br />

one of those thorny nuts, peel it and boil <strong>the</strong> axils <strong>for</strong> him. The<br />

woman did as she was told but was so hungry she served herself<br />

and kept on eating and finished all of it. The beggar came back<br />

and found nothing in <strong>the</strong> pot and cried “Heraliya! Herilaya!”<br />

(thief woman! thief woman!). This thorny fruit is known as Herilya<br />

and today <strong>the</strong> jackfruit is called Heralia in Sri Lanka.<br />

In Nepal, people refrain from travelling in <strong>the</strong> vehicle in which<br />

jackfruit is transported as <strong>the</strong>y believe that accidents will occur<br />

because of <strong>the</strong> jackfruit smell. This superstitious belief hinders<br />

transportation of fresh fruits <strong>for</strong> marketing (Shakya, pers. comm.).<br />

2.9 Environmental value<br />

The jackfruit canopy provides perennial cover to <strong>the</strong> soil, acting as<br />

a shade tree and absorbing <strong>the</strong> impact of rain on <strong>the</strong> soil. In upland<br />

situations jackfruit trees are usually planted on slopes and hills to<br />

help control soil erosion (Hossain and Haq, 2006). They can also<br />

be planted to help absorb groundwater to minimise flooding, as <strong>the</strong><br />

tree has a widespread root system.<br />

The rate of decomposition of jackfruit leaves is rapid, adding to<br />

soil organic matter and helping to maintain soil moisture through<br />

<strong>the</strong> mulching effect. The trees are tolerant of mild to moderately<br />

windy conditions and have been observed to survive and recover<br />

from hurricane <strong>for</strong>ce winds with only minor damage to branches.<br />

The trees are occasionally planted as windbreaks in orchards in<br />

Peninsular India. The trees can reduce <strong>the</strong> effects of wind, if<br />

planted around a homestead.<br />


3.1 Field establishment<br />

Chapter 3. Agronomy<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is often planted in homestead gardens, in orchards, or as<br />

an intercrop in o<strong>the</strong>r plantations such as a shade tree in coffee,<br />

arecanut, cardamom and pineapple plantations and as a support <strong>for</strong><br />

black pepper vines. It per<strong>for</strong>ms well as a part of many agro<strong>for</strong>estry<br />

systems. However, it grows at its best in open areas in full<br />

sunshine. It can be planted in any tropical or sub-tropical soil type<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r than in saline, waterlogged or flood prone soils.<br />

The intended scale of production and <strong>the</strong> condition of <strong>the</strong> land<br />

determine <strong>the</strong> type of field preparation required. For homestead<br />

gardens and small orchards land preparation only requires <strong>the</strong><br />

digging of planting holes large enough to accommodate <strong>the</strong> ball of<br />

soil and roots that goes with <strong>the</strong> planting material (Coronel, 1983).<br />

For commercial or large scale plantations on virgin sites <strong>the</strong> areas<br />

should be cleared, <strong>the</strong>n ploughed and harrowed several times until<br />

a desired tilth is attained. Where <strong>the</strong> land has secondary <strong>for</strong>est<br />

growth <strong>the</strong> trees should be cut down, <strong>the</strong> stumps removed or<br />

burned, and <strong>the</strong> whole area cleared be<strong>for</strong>e digging holes.<br />

Under average conditions jackfruit can begin fruiting three to five<br />

years after planting, but most cultivars take about seven to eight<br />

years to reach good levels of production. In Bangladesh, in vitro<br />

propagated plants begin fruiting at three years and <strong>the</strong> fruiting<br />

season lasts about four months.<br />

3.2 Direct seeding<br />

Direct seeding is a common practice in homestead gardens. Small<br />

holes or planting pits approximately 50 x 50 x 50 cm in size are<br />

dug and <strong>the</strong>n filled with soil mixed well with cowdung or compost<br />

at <strong>the</strong> rate of 20-30 kg per pit. The pits are <strong>the</strong>n watered liberally<br />

to settle <strong>the</strong> soil in <strong>the</strong> planting pit.<br />


Two or three freshly extracted seeds from ripe fruits collected<br />

from a desirable mo<strong>the</strong>r tree are planted 2-3 cm deep into <strong>the</strong> soil,<br />

<strong>the</strong> soil is pressed firm with <strong>the</strong> thumb and watered lightly. The<br />

seeds should be planted in a triangular <strong>for</strong>mation 30 cm apart.<br />

After sowing, pits are covered with mulch and regularly watered,<br />

depending upon <strong>the</strong> soil moisture conditions and <strong>the</strong> wea<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

However, excess watering needs to be avoided as this may cause<br />

rotting of seeds and germinating seedlings.<br />

Shortly after germination <strong>the</strong> most vigorous seedling should be<br />

retained in each pit and o<strong>the</strong>rs should be removed. In order to<br />

protect <strong>the</strong> young plants from grazing damage, fencing is<br />

necessary as illustrated in Plate 5.<br />

Seed propagation is still <strong>the</strong> most popular method of reproduction<br />

in all jackfruit growing countries. However, due to variation in <strong>the</strong><br />

growth and per<strong>for</strong>mance of seedlings, this is being discouraged.<br />

Seed propagation is also necessary to raise rootstocks <strong>for</strong><br />

vegetative propagation (see section 3.4) which removes such<br />

variation in planted trees. Also, trees produced from seed take a<br />

longer time to bear fruit and grow taller (making <strong>the</strong>m more<br />

difficult to manage and harvest) than do trees produced by<br />

vegetative propagation (see section 3.9.2). There are some<br />

advantages gained from seed propagation. The method is simple<br />

and easy to repeat; <strong>the</strong> new trees are also generally deep rooted<br />

with a strong tap root, facilitating firm anchorage, access to a<br />

wider nutrient base and greater resistance to drought. The tall trees<br />

grown from seed tend to produce a substantial trunk which is<br />

valuable <strong>for</strong> timber.<br />

3.2.1. Seed germination<br />

In Sri Lanka seeds are germinated in coconut husks containing<br />

sufficient soil to cover <strong>the</strong>m and <strong>the</strong>n planted in <strong>the</strong> field along<br />

with <strong>the</strong> husks after one or two years (Gunasena et al., 1996).<br />

Seeds cannot survive desiccation and cannot be stored <strong>for</strong> long<br />

periods since <strong>the</strong>y lose viability. It is advisable to sow seeds as<br />

soon as possible after extraction from <strong>the</strong> fruit. Seeds should be<br />

washed to remove <strong>the</strong> slimy coating. Storage in bags <strong>for</strong> as little as<br />


21 days can cause loss of viability. Where seed storage is<br />

necessary, seeds should be stored at 40% of <strong>the</strong>ir original moisture<br />

content in airtight poly<strong>the</strong>ne containers at 20 0 C, when <strong>the</strong>y can<br />

remain viable <strong>for</strong> about three months. Seeds can also be stored <strong>for</strong><br />

a short period if <strong>the</strong>y are buried in dry sand or coir dust <strong>for</strong> a<br />

month (Soepadmo, 1992) but <strong>the</strong>ir viability deteriorates rapidly<br />

<strong>the</strong>reafter. If <strong>the</strong>y have been extracted <strong>for</strong> some days <strong>the</strong>y should<br />

be soaked in water <strong>for</strong> 24 hours (Singh, 1969).<br />

Eighty-five percent of seeds germinate if planted within 15 days of<br />

extraction. Under suitable conditions germination begins within 10<br />

days and 100% germination is achieved within 35-40 days after<br />

sowing. Germination rate declines to 40% if planted after 30 days<br />

of storing. Large seeds tend to germinate better and produce more<br />

vigorous seedlings (Sonwalker, 1951; Khan, 2004).<br />

Various authors have shown that various growth regulators at<br />

different concentrations can promote germination. Ninety-eight<br />

percent germination has been obtained with seed soaking in<br />

gibberellic acid. The time required <strong>for</strong> maximum germination was<br />

about 11 days (Maiti et al., 2003). When seeds were soaked <strong>for</strong> 24<br />

hours in 25 ppm 1-naphthalenacetic acid NAA (Sinha and Sinha,<br />

1968) 76.7% germination was obtained and 100% germination<br />

was obtained when seeds were soaked in up to 500 ppm<br />

gibberellic acid GA 3 (Shanmugavelu, 1971). GA 3 is found to be<br />

more effective <strong>for</strong> promoting germination than 3-Indolebutyric<br />

acid IBA and p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid CPA. Singh and<br />

Bhatacharya (2003) recorded 85% germination when seeds were<br />

pre-treated with 10 - ³ M ferulic acid.<br />

Germination of jackfruit seed is ei<strong>the</strong>r sub-epigeal (Corner, 1938)<br />

or hypogeal (Soepadmo, 1992). Poly-embryony also occurs in<br />

jackfruit and <strong>the</strong> phenomenon is induced by presoaking <strong>the</strong> seeds<br />

in gibberellic acid.<br />

A jackfruit seedling is shown in Plate 6.<br />


3.3 Transplanting<br />

Seedlings raised in polybags in a nursery or vegetatively<br />

propagated (grafted) plants are increasingly being used <strong>for</strong> field<br />

planting. Pit planting is <strong>the</strong> accepted and common method of<br />

planting jackfruit trees. For grafted plants <strong>the</strong> spacing is 8 x 8 m.<br />

A square pattern is usually adopted but this may be hexagonal on<br />

less fertile soil. The pits are dug at least four weeks be<strong>for</strong>e<br />

planting, kept open <strong>for</strong> two weeks and <strong>the</strong>n filled in as described<br />

<strong>for</strong> direct seeding. One to two year old seedlings or grafted plants<br />

about 1-2 m tall are planted in <strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> pits with <strong>the</strong> root<br />

collar at ground level ensuring that <strong>the</strong>y are planted at <strong>the</strong> same<br />

depth as <strong>the</strong>y were grown in <strong>the</strong> nursery.<br />

During transplanting <strong>the</strong> nursery polybags should be completely<br />

removed be<strong>for</strong>e planting and care must be taken not to disturb <strong>the</strong><br />

delicate root systems. It is recommended that leafy branches and<br />

unwanted shoots or leaves be pruned by about half or two-thirds to<br />

avoid excessive transpiration of <strong>the</strong> newly planted trees. After<br />

planting, <strong>the</strong> soil in <strong>the</strong> pit is firmly pressed and flattened around<br />

<strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> tree and watered immediately. A circular bund<br />

about half a metre away from trunk will facilitate retention and<br />

distribution of irrigation and rain water into <strong>the</strong> root zone (Hossain<br />

and Haq, 2006).<br />

A stake should be inserted by <strong>the</strong> side of each tree to provide<br />

support making sure that <strong>the</strong> tree tie does not damage <strong>the</strong> stem of<br />

<strong>the</strong> young plant. The tree stake should be removed when <strong>the</strong> plant<br />

is established and able to support itself, usually after about one<br />

year. The saplings need to be protected from animals by fencing<br />

ei<strong>the</strong>r individual trees or <strong>the</strong> whole area. Banana leaves or o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

materials are used in many countries to protect <strong>the</strong> transplanted<br />

trees from scorching in strong sunlight.<br />

Transplanting time varies due to climate and wea<strong>the</strong>r but is best<br />

done at <strong>the</strong> start of <strong>the</strong> rainy season. However, planting can be<br />

done at any time of <strong>the</strong> year if water is available.<br />


3.4 Propagation<br />

The selection of quality mo<strong>the</strong>r plants is important <strong>for</strong> propagating<br />

jackfruit. Seed and/or vegetative material should be collected from<br />

trees selected <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir desirable characteristics. The desirable<br />

characteristics of mo<strong>the</strong>r plants (Table 3.1) are that <strong>the</strong> trees<br />

should be older than 15 years and should show good growth with a<br />

strong trunk and a good crown. Trees should have no signs of<br />

insect pest infestations or diseases. Trees should have regular<br />

bearing and high production of fruits and <strong>the</strong> fruit shape should be<br />

uni<strong>for</strong>m and attractive with excellent quality.<br />

Table 3.1: Characteristics of selected superior phenotypes of<br />

jackfruit<br />

Characteristics<br />

Requirements<br />

Vigour and health of<br />

mo<strong>the</strong>r plants<br />

Yield<br />

Fruit characteristics<br />

Good quality<br />

Flesh colour<br />

Flesh texture<br />

Sweetness of fruits<br />

Seasons<br />

Seeds<br />

The tree should be vigorous and<br />

older than 15 years and have <strong>the</strong><br />

reputation of abundant bearing of<br />

fruits every year.<br />

Fruit shape is uni<strong>for</strong>m and quality is<br />

excellent.<br />

Free from any diseases and pests<br />

50-300 fruits/tree/season<br />

(variability exists in different<br />

locations)<br />

2-5 kg in weight<br />

Highly juicy and sweet<br />

Golden colour of flesh<br />

Medium soft to soft texture<br />

>20% Brix<br />

Early and late<br />

Small in proportion to pulp<br />


3.4.1 Raising seedlings as rootstocks <strong>for</strong> vegetative<br />

propagation<br />

Seeds are sown in <strong>the</strong> nursery, ei<strong>the</strong>r in flat seedbeds or in various<br />

types of containers/pots. When seedlings are at <strong>the</strong> four-leaf stage<br />

in seedbeds <strong>the</strong>y should be potted on into large polybags (15 x 23<br />

cm) to avoid injury to <strong>the</strong> long and fragile tap roots during<br />

planting.<br />

3.4.2 Methods of vegetative propagation<br />

Vegetative propagation produces progeny which are genetically<br />

identical to <strong>the</strong> mo<strong>the</strong>r plant. The most common vegetative<br />

propagation methods include: taking cuttings, layering and air<br />

layering, budding and grafting onto seedling rootstocks and in<br />

vitro tissue culture. The success of <strong>the</strong> different vegetative<br />

propagation methods varies and it also depends on <strong>the</strong> local<br />

climate, water availability and, in <strong>the</strong> case of grafting, on suitable<br />

rootstocks (see figure 3.1).<br />

Vegetatively propagated plants tend to be relatively shorter in<br />

stature than those propagated from seed, which makes<br />

management and harvesting easier. Trees produced from<br />

physiologically mature vegetative material bear fruits earlier than<br />

trees grown from seed. Disadvantages of vegetative propagation<br />

may include trees which are shallow rooted and which <strong>for</strong>m<br />

branches from a low level, thus affecting <strong>the</strong> trunk length if good<br />

quality timber is a major requirement <strong>for</strong> growing <strong>the</strong> tree.<br />

Vegetative propagation should be carried out at <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> rest<br />

period of vegetative growth during spring and summer, or<br />

alternatively in <strong>the</strong> autumn.<br /> Cuttings<br />

Cuttings are parts of a plant separated from <strong>the</strong> parent and treated<br />

in various ways to encourage production of a new complete plant.<br />

The cuttings may be a piece of leaf, stem, branchlet or root.<br />


Mowry et al. (1941), Bailey (1949) and Dhua et al. (1996)<br />

reported successful propagation by jackfruit cuttings. Morton<br />

(1965) also reported growing cuttings from young wood of<br />

jackfruit under mist, but detailed results were not given. Khan<br />

(1946) and Naik (1963) reported that hardwood cuttings of<br />

jackfruit failed to root from heeled, slit or ordinary shoots when<br />

<strong>the</strong> cuttings were made in November and February. Rowe-Dutton<br />

(1985) reviewed investigations on using current, previous season’s<br />

or old wood throughout <strong>the</strong> year to determine <strong>the</strong> most suitable<br />

stage <strong>for</strong> faster rooting.<br /> Growth regulators to promote rooting<br />

Many scientists note that stem cuttings of jackfruit are not<br />

successful unless <strong>the</strong>y are treated with growth regulators<br />

(Mukherjee and Chatterjee, 1978, 1979; Chatterjee and<br />

Mukherjee, 1980; Dhua et al., 1983 and Biswas and Kobayashi,<br />

1989). The most common growth regulators used <strong>for</strong> rooting of<br />

cuttings and in layering (layering is a method by which<br />

adventitious roots are encouraged to <strong>for</strong>m on an aerial stem while<br />

it is still attached to <strong>the</strong> parent plant) are: Indole-3-butyric acid<br />

(IBA), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), α-naphthalene acetic acid<br />

(NAA) ferulic acid and Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ).<br />

Mukherjee and Chatterjee (1978) and Chatterjee and Mukherjee<br />

(1980, 1982) used 1000 and 5000 ppm IBA, followed by etiolation<br />

and reported success of over 75% rooting and 70% survival. Dhua<br />

et al. (1983), and Dhua and Sen (1984) established that ringing,<br />

etiolation <strong>for</strong> 15-30 days and <strong>the</strong>n striking cuttings using<br />

combined growth regulators, 3000 ppm IBA and 2000 ppm ferulic<br />

acid gave 90% success of rooting with 100% survival, when<br />

planted in a ventilated mist. They concluded that etiolation and<br />

treatment with IBA could increase <strong>the</strong> survival rate. Stem cuttings<br />

of jackfruit produced roots when treated with 750 ppm IBA <strong>for</strong><br />

two minutes on ringed or etiolated healthy shoots (35 cm long)<br />

from 15-month old seedlings (Rahman and Blake, 1988a). Biswas<br />

and Kobayashi (1989) reported that rooting of jackfruit stem<br />

cuttings was not possible without <strong>the</strong> use of IBA. They girdled <strong>the</strong><br />

branch of semi-hard wood using 10,000 ppm of IBA to promote<br />

<strong>the</strong> rooting of cuttings and confirmed that wounding had no effect<br />

on rooting. Soepadmo (1992) was successful in propagating<br />


jackfruit through cuttings (from <strong>for</strong>ced, etiolated shoots treated<br />

with 5 gl -1 IBA) but he did not record <strong>the</strong> success rate. Dhar<br />

(1998) reported 37.5% rooting when stem cuttings were treated<br />

with 0.5% (5000 ppm) of IBA. He suggested that <strong>the</strong> success rate<br />

could be increased to 60% by using juvenile shoots obtained by<br />

heading back of branches of <strong>the</strong> tree. The above results are<br />

summarised in Table 3.2.<br /> Air layering<br />

As mentioned earlier, air layering is a method by which<br />

adventitious roots are encouraged to <strong>for</strong>m on an aerial stem while<br />

it is still attached to <strong>the</strong> parent plant. Little in<strong>for</strong>mation is available<br />

on air-layering <strong>for</strong> jackfruit, unlike its wider use in fruits such as,<br />

citrus, mango and litchi.<br />

The air layering method involves removing a ring of bark from a<br />

stem. It is covered with a moist rooting medium such as moss or<br />

moistened soil and held in place with poly<strong>the</strong>ne. Roots develop<br />

from <strong>the</strong> girdled stem, which can <strong>the</strong>n be cut off and planted.<br />

Growth regulators to promote rooting of air layers<br />

Several authors have attempted to determine <strong>the</strong> effects of<br />

different levels of IBA <strong>for</strong> air layering of jackfruit. Singh (1951)<br />

obtained 72% rooting in air-layers of jackfruit when treated with<br />

0.025% (250 ppm) IBA. He reported 100% rooting with 1%<br />

(10000 ppm) IBA (Singh and Sharma, 1995).<br />

Sen and Bose (1959) also reported 100% rooting using 5000 ppm<br />

IBA when <strong>the</strong> air layers were prepared in <strong>the</strong> rainy season. When<br />

a combination of 7500 ppm of IBA with 7500 ppm of NAA <strong>for</strong> air<br />

layering of jackfruit was used and 100% rooting was obtained in<br />

<strong>the</strong> dry season but <strong>the</strong> success was much lower in <strong>the</strong> rainy season.<br />

Singh and Singh (2004) also reported rooting of air layers with<br />

5000 ppm IBA.<br />


IBA<br />

concentration<br />

(ppm)<br />

Table 3.2 Use of growth regulators to promote rooting<br />

Ferulic acid<br />

concentration<br />

(ppm)<br />

Percentage<br />

rooting<br />

Investigators<br />

750 0 Not stated Rahman and Blake (1988b)<br />

1000 0 75% Mukherjee and Chatterjee (1978)<br />

Chatterjee and Mukherjee (1980, 1982)<br />

5000 0 75% Mukherjee and Chatterjee, (1978)<br />

Chatterjee and Mukherjee (1980, 1982)<br />

3000 2000 90% Dhua et al. (1983)<br />

3000 2000 90% Dhua and Sen (1984)<br />

5000 0 Not stated Soepadmo (1992)<br />

5000 0 37.5% Dhar (1998)<br />

10,000 0 Not stated Biswas and Kobayashi (1989)<br />


Data from Singh et al. (1995) and Lavania et al. (1995) show that<br />

IBA concentrations need to be high (over 5000 ppm) <strong>for</strong> jackfruit<br />

layering but Dhar (1998) obtained better results at 3000 ppm. Also<br />

Azad (2000) reported that application of 2000 ppm of IBA on 3-4<br />

months old shoots of <strong>the</strong> current year’s growth of jackfruit by air<br />

layering gave 86% rooting success and he recommended this<br />

treatment as <strong>the</strong> optimal use of growth regulator <strong>for</strong> vegetative<br />

propagation of jackfruit.<br />

Dutta and Mitra (1992) reported that pre-treatment of layers of<br />

stock trees of jackfruit with cycocel (1000 ppm) followed by<br />

treatment with IBA (5000 ppm) and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate PHB<br />

(200 ppm) gave 100% rooting after 60 days. Seventy percent plant<br />

survival was noted six months after planting of <strong>the</strong> rooted layers.<br />

The original plants may be cut back to encourage many new<br />

shoots to grow from <strong>the</strong> base. After <strong>the</strong> new shoots grow, soil is<br />

mounded around <strong>the</strong> base. Roots will grow into <strong>the</strong> surrounding<br />

soil from <strong>the</strong> new growth. This is described as mound layering.<br />

IBA helped rooting (Alia et al., 1997).<br />

Hore and Sen (2004) reported success in rooting during air<br />

layering in <strong>the</strong> period of June-July in India when <strong>the</strong>y used a<br />

combination of 5000 ppm IBA + 1000 ppm p-hydroxybenzoic<br />

acid, or 5000 ppm IBA + 1000 ppm ferulic acid applied to <strong>the</strong> air<br />

layering.<br />

The above findings on <strong>the</strong> use of growth regulators are<br />

summarised in Table 3.3.<br />


Table 3.3 Use of growth regulators in air layering<br />

IBA conc. (ppm) O<strong>the</strong>r chemicals Percentage rooting Percentage<br />

survival<br />

Investigators<br />

250 None 72% n/a Singh (1951, 1995)<br />

2000 None 86% n/a Azad (2000)<br />

3000 None 73.3% n/a Dhar (1998)<br />

5000 None 100% n/a Sen and Bose (1959)<br />

5000 None n/s n/s Singh and Singh (2004)<br />

5000 None 33.3% 38.1% Dhar (1998)<br />

5000 cycocel 1000 ppm<br />

PHB 200 ppm<br />

100% 60% Dutta and Mitra (1992)<br />

5000 p-hydroxybenzoic acid 1000 ppm n/s n/s Hore and Sen (2004)<br />

5000 ferulic acid 1000 ppm n/s n/s Hore and Sen (2004)<br />

7500, (0, 2500, 5000,<br />

None Ns 52.5% Lavania et al. (1995)<br />

10000 also tested)<br />

10000 None 100% n/a Singh (1951)<br />

8000, 12000, 16000 None n/s ns Singh et al. (1995)<br />

n/s- not stated; n/a-not applicable<br />

39 Grafting<br />

Grafting is <strong>the</strong> joining toge<strong>the</strong>r of parts of two plants that will<br />

continue <strong>the</strong>ir growth after union as one plant. The part above <strong>the</strong><br />

point of grafting is known as <strong>the</strong> scion and <strong>the</strong> lower part as <strong>the</strong><br />

rootstock. A number of factors including <strong>the</strong> season, physiological<br />

age, dormancy of scions, age of source tree <strong>for</strong> scions, length of<br />

storing of scions after collection and age and growth of rootstocks,<br />

might influence <strong>the</strong> success of grafting. The common methods of<br />

grafting are veneer, cleft, splice, epicotyl (Plate 7) and inarching<br />

(or approach) grafting. Different methods of grafting have been<br />

used in jackfruit and several workers reported different grafting<br />

techniques <strong>for</strong> jackfruit with variable success. However, it is<br />

concluded that <strong>the</strong>se methods still need to be fur<strong>the</strong>r refined<br />

(Soepadmo, 1992).<br />

Veneer and epicotyl grafting are <strong>the</strong> methods most commonly<br />

practised <strong>for</strong> jackfruit (Reddy et al. 1998). Veneer grafting<br />

involves collection of a 4-5 month old terminal shoot from a<br />

selected mo<strong>the</strong>r tree and grafting it onto a one year old rootstock.<br />

Epicotyl grafting is done on a 20-25 day old seedling with slightly<br />

thicker stock and 4-5 leaves. Rootstocks selected are headed back<br />

to 8-10 cm height from <strong>the</strong> ground level. The exuded latex is<br />

removed with tissue paper. A 5 cm slit is made vertically on <strong>the</strong><br />

root stock. Scions with a growing bud present are prepared by<br />

making a wedge cut on both sides. The scion stick is inserted into<br />

<strong>the</strong> slit made in <strong>the</strong> rootstock and tied with poly<strong>the</strong>ne tape.<br />

Grafting carried out during April-May had variable success (50-<br />

90%) and grafts were of saleable size within a year (Gunjatee et<br />

al., 1982). Epicotyl grafting on a 15 day old rootstock resulted in<br />

46% sprouting but only 3% of <strong>the</strong> grafts survived (BARI, 1990).<br />

Epicotyl grafting with a 3-4 month old scion gave 29.5% success<br />

and 21.6% survival when grafted on a five day old rootstock in <strong>the</strong><br />

month of June in Bangladesh. However, <strong>the</strong> success rate in India<br />

was found to be up to 90%. Deshai and Deshai (1989) reported 33<br />

-80% success when <strong>the</strong>y used softwood <strong>for</strong> grafting in jackfruit.<br />

Jose and Velsalakumary (1991) investigated soft wood and<br />

epicotyl grafting on 5, 10 and 15 day old root stocks under<br />

intermittent mist. The soft wood grafting gave 83.3% sprouting<br />


and 61.6% survival when a 3-4 month old scion was used <strong>for</strong><br />

grafting.<br />

Dhar (1998) made a comparative study of epicotyl, cleft, splice<br />

grafting and veneer methods in jackfruit and obtained higher<br />

success (68.8%) using splice grafting. Vijayakumar et al. (1991)<br />

concluded that green wood cleft grafting was a quick and easy<br />

method of vegetative propagation of jackfruit compared to o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

methods.<br />

Azad (2000) compared veneer, cleft, splice and epicotyl grafting<br />

throughout <strong>the</strong> year in Bangladesh to determine <strong>the</strong> optimum<br />

method and <strong>the</strong> best time of <strong>the</strong> year <strong>for</strong> high success. He obtained<br />

80% success with veneer in April and 70-73% success with cleft<br />

and splice grafting when tried in November. He concluded that in<br />

Bangladesh higher success could be achieved by epicotyl grafting<br />

in October and by veneer grafting in April (Fig.3.1).<br />

Naik (1952) achieved 60-70% success when jackfruit was<br />

inarched onto seedling rootstocks of <strong>the</strong> related species A. hirsutus<br />

and A. champedak. Raman (1957) selected seven superior varieties<br />

of jackfruit and attempted inarching on seedlings of six of <strong>the</strong>se<br />

varieties onto rootstocks <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir multiplication and recorded up<br />

to 90% success. Kannan and Nair (1960) established that<br />

inarching on rootstocks of A. heterophyllus gave better success<br />

and growth than on A. hirsutus. Quasem (1982) reported 90%<br />

success from modified inarching on 3-4 month old rootstock of<br />

jackfruit. Quasem and Shakur (1984) also reported 81% success<br />

<strong>for</strong> veneer grafting when it was carried out on one year rootstocks<br />

of jackfruit during <strong>the</strong> month of April. Swaminathan and<br />

Ravindran (1989) reported 60-90% success <strong>for</strong> inarching in<br />

jackfruit. In Thailand <strong>the</strong> inarching method produced good results<br />

and this can be used at any time of <strong>the</strong> year (Haq, 2003b).<br />

In Australia good results were obtained <strong>for</strong> wedge grafting onto<br />

young vigorous rootstalks in enclosed poly<strong>the</strong>ne covers.<br />


Fig. 3.1 Percentage success in grafting using different graft types (Source: Azad 2000)<br />


Maiti and Sen (1999) looked at <strong>the</strong> effect of different pretreatments<br />

of <strong>the</strong> scion to improve grafting success in India. They<br />

found scion ringing and blanching <strong>for</strong> three days followed by<br />

dipping in 1% Banistin (benomyl) gave 60% success in grafting.<br /> Budding<br />

Budding is <strong>the</strong> insertion of a single scion bud into a rootstock in<br />

such a manner that growth continues as one plant. The common<br />

methods of budding are: patch, shield (T-budding), flute (or chip),<br />

ring budding and <strong>for</strong>ked budding. The success rate reported by<br />

various authors are summarised in Table 3.4 and below.<br />

Table 3.4 Results of success rates using different budding<br />

methods<br />

Graft<br />

type<br />

Success Month Investigators<br />

Patch 100% unknown Teaotia et al. (1963)<br />

Patch 60% unknown Ahmad and Quasem (1969)<br />

Patch 41% unknown Samaddar and Yadav<br />

(1970)<br />

Patch 90% June Singh et al. (1982)<br />

Ring 80% May Biswas and Hossain (1984)<br />

Ring 20% June Biswas and Hossain (1984)<br />

Patch 80% July-<br />

August<br />

Konhar et al. (1990)<br />

Patch, chip and T-budding were investigated by Singh et al.<br />

(1982) from February to September and <strong>the</strong> highest success (90%)<br />

was obtained with patch methods in June to July. Chip budding<br />

carried out in March was not very successful. T-budding appears<br />

to be <strong>the</strong> most unsuccessful method.<br />

Biswas and Hossain (1984) experimented with five methods of<br />

budding viz. ring budding, patch budding, flute budding and T-<br />

budding using scions from selected trees budded onto one year old<br />

seedlings. They obtained 80% success with ring budding in <strong>the</strong><br />

month of May but <strong>the</strong> success was reduced to 20% in June.<br />


Konhar et al. (1990) reported <strong>the</strong> effect of different seasons, from<br />

July to December on different budding methods (shield, patch,<br />

chip) and recorded <strong>the</strong> highest (80%) success from patch budding<br />

during <strong>the</strong> months of July and August.<br />

Kelasker et al. (1991) investigated <strong>the</strong> physical and environmental<br />

requirements <strong>for</strong> patch budding. They observed that retention of<br />

leaves on <strong>the</strong> rootstock during budding had no effect on <strong>the</strong><br />

success rate. They concluded that greenhouse conditions and open<br />

sunlight versus partial or complete shade had no effect on <strong>the</strong><br />

success rate. They recommended poly<strong>the</strong>ne strips <strong>for</strong> tying <strong>the</strong> bud<br />

in place in order to maintain high humidity at <strong>the</strong> graft.<br />

3.5 Recommended methods<br />

Based on diverse results on <strong>the</strong> application of different grafting<br />

methods and differences exhibited between regions, Haq (2003b)<br />

recommended specific methods of vegetative propagation suited to<br />

different countries (Table 3.5).<br />

Table 3.5 Recommendations <strong>for</strong> vegetative propagation<br />

methods of jackfruit in Asia<br />

Country Methods<br />

Bangladesh Veneer, cleft and epicotyl grafting<br />

India Softwood and epicotyl grafting<br />

Indonesia Top grafting<br />

Nepal Splice and cleft grafting<br />

Pakistan Stem cuttings<br />

Philippines Modified cleft grafting<br />

Sri Lanka Wedge grafting<br />

Thailand Modified inarching grafting<br />

Vietnam Cleft, epicotyl grafting<br />

Source: Haq (2003b)<br />


3.6 In vitro propagation<br />

In vitro propagation is <strong>the</strong> development of a large number of<br />

plants from very small pieces of tissue, such as shoot tips, root<br />

tips, embryos, o<strong>the</strong>r parts of seeds, stems, callus or single cells, in<br />

a culture medium under aseptic conditions. The methods involve<br />

three distinct steps, namely shoot proliferation, rooting of<br />

regenerated shoots, and <strong>the</strong> establishment of rooted plantlets in <strong>the</strong><br />

nursery. Each step needs to be fully functional <strong>for</strong> any successful<br />

propagation. Data on growth regulators needed in <strong>the</strong> medium in<br />

relation to explant are shown in Tables 3.6, 3.7.<br />

3.6.1 Rooting of regenerated shoots<br />

It has been found that regenerated shoots grow best when cultured<br />

on half strength MS medium supplemented with auxins.<br />

Rahman and Blake (1988a) reported that a high level of agar<br />

reduced <strong>the</strong> humidity in <strong>the</strong> culture and affected <strong>the</strong> rooting but<br />

that did not affect <strong>the</strong> establishment of plantlets in <strong>the</strong> glasshouse.<br />

Rahman and Blake (1988b) also reported that a low level or<br />

absence of nutrients in <strong>the</strong> substrate <strong>for</strong> at least 20 days resulted in<br />

significantly more growth and survival of plantlets in ex vitro<br />

conditions. Nutrient feeding after 20 days improved fur<strong>the</strong>r growth<br />

and survival. Nitrogen, particularly as ammonium, was shown to<br />

be <strong>the</strong> most inhibitory nutrient during <strong>the</strong> early stages of<br />

establishment. (Table 3.7).<br />

The transfer of plantlets out of <strong>the</strong> aseptic conditions of <strong>the</strong> culture<br />

room involves getting <strong>the</strong>m acclimatised to ex vitro conditions.<br />

There are two important steps: hardening and establishment<br />

(Susiloadi et al., 2002b). The protocols <strong>for</strong> hardening and<br />

establishment of in vitro plantlets of different plant species are<br />

variable as <strong>the</strong>y are transferred to soil.<br />


Table 3.6 Results of different in vitro methods <strong>for</strong> multiple<br />

shoot regeneration<br />

Explant Media additives Investigators<br />

Axillary buds BAP<br />

Rao et al. (1981)<br />

NAA<br />

Nodes BAP Rahman and Blake<br />

(1988a)<br />

Nodes 1.0 mg l -1 BAP<br />

Roy et al. (1990)<br />

0.5 mg l -1 kinetin<br />

n.s<br />

1.0 mg l -1 BAP<br />

Roy et al. (1991)<br />

0.5 mg l -1 NAA or IAA<br />

n.s<br />

8.8 µM 6-benzyladenine<br />

(BA)<br />

2.7 µM NAA<br />

Roy et al. (1993)<br />

Shoot tips and<br />

axillary buds<br />

1.0 mg l -1 BAP<br />

0.05 mg l -1 NAA<br />

Roy and<br />

Hadiuzzaman<br />

(1991)<br />

Shoot tips,<br />

apical bud<br />

Shoot apices<br />

n.s<br />

Shoot apices<br />

n.s - not stated<br />

4.5, 9.0, 18.0, 36.0 µM<br />

BAP<br />

kinetin<br />

1.0-2.0 mg l -1 of BAP<br />

kinetin<br />

TDZ (N-phenyl-N’-1,2,3-<br />

thaidiazol-5-ylurea)<br />

2.0 mg l -1 of BAP<br />

0.5 mg l -1 of TDZ<br />

GA 3<br />

NAA<br />

Amin and Jiswal<br />

(1993)<br />

Dhar (1998)<br />

Murthy et al.<br />

(1998)<br />

Azad (2000)<br />


Table 3.7 Results of regeneration using different methods <strong>for</strong><br />

rooting of regenerated shoots<br />

Media additives Percentage<br />

rooting<br />

Investigators<br />

IBA and NAA (0.1,0.5,<br />

1.0,0.5 and 10.0 ppm)<br />

sucrose level of 20 g l -1<br />

10 -6 M indole butyric<br />

acid (IBA)<br />

Rao et al. (1981)<br />

Rahman and Blake<br />

(1988a)<br />

(Rahman and Blake<br />

1988b).<br />

IBA 2mg/l, NAA 2 mg<br />

l -1 , sucrose 30 mg l -1<br />

and agar 6 g l -1 80% Rajmohan and<br />

Mohanakumaran<br />

(1988)<br />

1.0mg l -1 of NAA or<br />

IBA.<br />

Roy et al. (1990)<br />

½ MS + 0.05 mg l -1 ,<br />

kinetin + 1.5 mg l -1 IBA<br />

0.1 mg l -1 each of IAA,<br />

IBA and NAA<br />

98.6% Roy and Hadiuzzaman<br />

(1991)<br />

Roy et al. (1992)<br />

10µM of IBA or NAA 60-80% Amin and Jiswal<br />

(1993)<br />

1.0 mg l -1 each of IAA,<br />

IBA and NAA<br />

Dhar (1998)<br />

Roy and Hadiuzzaman (1991) reported about 80% survival of<br />

plantlets when rooted plantlets were transferred from culture tubes<br />

to ear<strong>the</strong>nware pots containing sterile sand, soil and humus (1:2:1)<br />

and covered with a transparent plastic bag.<br />

Amin and Jiswal (1993) reported that <strong>the</strong> survival of regenerated<br />

plantlets under ex vitro conditions was 5%. Dhar (1998) failed to<br />

establish plantlets due to poor rooting in vitro.<br />


By contrast, Azad (2000) obtained 88.2% success in <strong>the</strong><br />

establishment of plantlets. The plantlets were routinely sprayed<br />

with fungicide to overcome <strong>the</strong> potential problem of diseases.<br />

Much more work is needed to establish <strong>the</strong> protocols <strong>for</strong><br />

successful in vitro propagation.<br />

3.6.2 Establishing and using a nursery<br />

The nursery is where young plants are raised ei<strong>the</strong>r from seed or<br />

vegetatively propagated plantlets, including tissue culture<br />

materials. Seedlings raised in <strong>the</strong> nursery may be planted later in<br />

<strong>the</strong> field, sold or used as rootstocks <strong>for</strong> grafting. The size of <strong>the</strong><br />

nursery depends on <strong>the</strong> number of trees required.<br />

While selecting a site <strong>for</strong> a nursery <strong>the</strong> following factors need to<br />

be taken into account. Nurseries should be:<br />

• On a raised site with good drainage and not liable to<br />

waterlogging or flooding.<br />

• Close to a good water source since frequent watering is<br />

necessary <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> young trees.<br />

• Located in a sunny place and protected from high wind.<br />

• Located in or near <strong>the</strong> homestead in order to facilitate easy<br />

and frequent participation of <strong>the</strong> family members in<br />

nursery activities.<br />

• Suitably fenced to protect <strong>the</strong> planting materials from<br />

trespassers and stray animals.<br />

The land should be cleared of vegetation, dug over or ploughed to<br />

a depth of 30 cm and levelled to make <strong>the</strong> area suitable <strong>for</strong><br />

preparing nursery beds. Individual nursery beds should be 1 m<br />

wide, but may be as long as it is convenient. Beds should be 50 cm<br />

apart from one ano<strong>the</strong>r and raised approximately 10 cm above<br />

ground level. About 10 kg well rotten farmyard manure or<br />

compost should be thoroughly mixed into <strong>the</strong> soil of each bed.<br />


When planting seeds in <strong>the</strong> nursery it is sensible to plant 30%<br />

more seed than <strong>the</strong> number of plants required, to account <strong>for</strong> any<br />

reduced germination.<br />

Seeds are sown 2-3 cm deep in rows. Seeds germinate within 15-<br />

20 days and seedlings should be nurtured <strong>for</strong> 8-10 months. An<br />

overhead low-cost shade structure can be built over <strong>the</strong> nursery<br />

bed to reduce sunlight intensity, to prevent leaf scorch and rapid<br />

moisture loss as illustrated in Plate 8. For vegetatively propagated<br />

trees, it is also advisable to prepare a slightly larger area than <strong>for</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> final number of trees required. Seeds should be sown in situ in<br />

<strong>the</strong> beds or preferably in containers as bare rooted jackfruit<br />

seedlings are difficult to transplant.<br />

If potting in polybags <strong>the</strong> following practices should be followed:<br />

• The polybags are usually filled with a mixture of top soil, sand<br />

and compost in <strong>the</strong> ratio of 2:1:1. The mixture depends on <strong>the</strong><br />

availability and composition of medium available. However,<br />

care should be taken to select top soil with good physicochemical<br />

properties e.g. washed sand free from silt and<br />

compost or manure which is well rotted. Care should be taken<br />

to avoid air gaps in <strong>the</strong> bags and <strong>the</strong> bags should be kept moist<br />

until <strong>the</strong> seeds are sown. NPK can be added to <strong>the</strong> mixture.<br />

Once <strong>the</strong> polybags are ready, one seed is sown per bag and<br />

covered lightly with potting mixture.<br />

• Planted polybags should be kept under 75% shade <strong>for</strong> 2-3 days<br />

and <strong>the</strong>n 50% shade <strong>for</strong> about 60 days. Watering is needed<br />

twice a day until <strong>the</strong> seedlings are about 10-15 cm in height.<br />

Additional nitrogen fertiliser may be added as required.<br />

• The bags have to be kept free of weeds and watering and<br />

shading should be reduced after 30 days. Diseased and weak<br />

seedlings should be discarded and <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs kept in <strong>the</strong><br />

nursery <strong>for</strong> up to 10 to 12 weeks be<strong>for</strong>e being used.<br />


• Nursery raised seedlings have to be carefully handled during<br />

lifting from <strong>the</strong> beds, packing, transporting and transplanting<br />

in <strong>the</strong> field to ensure a good survival rate.<br />

3.7 Spacing<br />

A design layout is to be prepared <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> area to be planted, <strong>the</strong><br />

land is <strong>the</strong>n cleared, ploughed, harrowed and leveled. Pits of 1 x 1<br />

x 1 m size are opened at a spacing of 8 x 8 to 12 x 12 m <strong>for</strong><br />

orchards. Spacing in homestead gardens invariably depends on <strong>the</strong><br />

o<strong>the</strong>r species grown.<br />

A spacing of 12 x 12 m between plants and rows may be given <strong>for</strong><br />

both direct seeded and transplanted seedlings of jackfruit trees in<br />

fertile soils and 10 x 10 m spacing in poor soils. These spacings<br />

result in <strong>the</strong> recommended populations of 70 and 100 trees per<br />

hectare of land, respectively. However, a closer spacing of 8 x 8<br />

m is recommended <strong>for</strong> grafted trees. At this spacing more than 150<br />

trees can be accommodated per hectare.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> Philippines a spacing of 7.5-12 m on a square or triangle is<br />

used <strong>for</strong> plantations or orchards (BPI, 1991). For vegetatively<br />

propagated materials a closer spacing in <strong>the</strong> rows, creating a<br />

rectangular pattern, is often used. When trees are used as a<br />

windbreak a spacing of about 5.5 m apart set in double rows in<br />

alternating order is used. A closer spacing is also used <strong>for</strong> timber<br />

production to minimise branching and to promote development of<br />

straight and long trunks. In Australia spacing is generally given at<br />

6 x 12 m (Alexander et al., 1983)<br />

Trees planted in 11 litre pots are easy to handle. A handful or two<br />

of a well-decomposed organic matter can be mixed with <strong>the</strong> soil in<br />

<strong>the</strong> planting hole which should be 60-80 cm wide and 40-50 cm<br />

deep in <strong>the</strong> pot. After planting, it is advised to make a circular<br />

barrier about half a metre away from <strong>the</strong> trunk to facilitate<br />

watering and holding rain water around <strong>the</strong> root system.<br />


3.8 Time of planting<br />

The best time in Asia <strong>for</strong> planting, whe<strong>the</strong>r direct seeding or<br />

transplanting, is at <strong>the</strong> beginning of <strong>the</strong> rainy season. If water is<br />

available, direct seeding may be done in early summer so that <strong>the</strong><br />

seedlings are established be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> beginning of <strong>the</strong> rainy season.<br />

The rainy season ensures plenty of water and generates a<br />

favourable environment <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> establishment of trees in <strong>the</strong> field.<br />

In addition, transplanting is best when carried out in <strong>the</strong> late<br />

afternoon to early evening ra<strong>the</strong>r than in <strong>the</strong> heat of <strong>the</strong> day<br />

In south Florida, planting may be done at any time provided<br />

irrigation is available <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> newly planted trees and <strong>the</strong>y can be<br />

protected from any cold wea<strong>the</strong>r or frosts (Morton, 1987).<br />

O<strong>the</strong>rwise <strong>the</strong> best time to plant in Florida is in late spring or early<br />

summer.<br />

3.9 Management<br />

3.9.1 Weeding and mulching<br />

The young trees must be kept weed free during <strong>the</strong> first three to<br />

four years. Weeding is best done manually where <strong>the</strong>re are few<br />

trees in household gardens or small orchards. In larger plantations<br />

or orchards, inter-row and circle weeding is practised and can be<br />

done using herbicides or mechanically. The space between <strong>the</strong><br />

trees may be ploughed and harrowed twice a year at <strong>the</strong> beginning<br />

and end of <strong>the</strong> rainy season. If cover crops are not grown, interrow<br />

weed control may involve shallow cultivation by hoeing,<br />

ploughing or disking. Circle weed control consists of hand<br />

weeding or hoeing a ring at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> tree with a diameter<br />

equivalent to that of <strong>the</strong> lower canopy. The tree base can be<br />

mulched with straw or with o<strong>the</strong>r mulching materials. A 5-10 cm<br />

mulch will be good <strong>for</strong> suppression of weeds as well as to<br />

maintain soil moisture, particularly during <strong>the</strong> dry period. Weeds<br />

compete <strong>for</strong> water and nutrients and may slow tree establishment.<br />

Prior to planting trees in household farms a ring of sod of 45-91cm<br />

diameter should be removed. After planting, grass should be kept<br />


away from <strong>the</strong> tree trunk. The canopy will also suppress weed and<br />

grass growth and hold soil moisture.<br />

3.9.2 Pruning and training<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> does not respond well to indiscriminate pruning and it is<br />

not commonly practised. Young trees do not need pruning in <strong>the</strong><br />

first year. However, when older trees are not pruned a strong<br />

central leader usually develops which is desirable <strong>for</strong> its timber<br />

value. None<strong>the</strong>less, where fruit production is <strong>the</strong> main purpose<br />

pruning of <strong>the</strong> first lateral branches should be carried out in year<br />

two to slow upward growth and enhance <strong>the</strong> spreading of <strong>the</strong><br />

canopy. One or two prunings of shoot tips during summer causes<br />

lateral bud break and makes <strong>the</strong> tree more compact. Grafted trees<br />

have a dwarfing tendency but produce a large number of branches<br />

from <strong>the</strong> beginning. These branches should be continuously<br />

pruned to get a reasonable trunk. Thereafter, branches may be<br />

allowed to remain but removal of vigorously growing upright<br />

shoots is recommended. Inner branches of <strong>the</strong> canopy should be<br />

removed to allow more light and air within <strong>the</strong> canopy.<br />

Regular pruning of weak, dead and diseased branches, and<br />

removal of parasitic plants at <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> rainy season is<br />

recommended. This prevents insect infestation and disease<br />

infection. Tree height and size may also be controlled, if desired,<br />

by pruning. Plates 9 and 10 illustrate pruned and non-pruned<br />

grafted trees.<br />

Old flowering shoots should be removed after harvesting, and<br />

after <strong>the</strong> harvest is complete branches should be thinned out to<br />

increase light penetration to <strong>the</strong> inner canopy. The height of <strong>the</strong><br />

tree might be maintained at about 4-5 m by periodic selective<br />

pruning. Selective pruning is also effective <strong>for</strong> equipment<br />

movement and o<strong>the</strong>r management operations. Trees may also be<br />

mechanically topped at about 4-5 m and hedged at a 5-10º angle<br />

from <strong>the</strong> vertical.<br />

Fruit thinning is also recommended to prevent damage to branches<br />

as heavy fruit loads break branches and can result in death or<br />


stunting of <strong>the</strong> tree. Limiting <strong>the</strong> number of fruits per limb may<br />

also improve <strong>the</strong> quality of <strong>the</strong> fruits and increase <strong>the</strong>ir size.<br />

3.10 Intercropping<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> requires a long time be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> canopy closes and it fully<br />

occupies <strong>the</strong> land. It makes good sense <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> space between trees<br />

to be utilised by growing intercrops such as short duration pulses,<br />

spices and vegetables, particularly if irrigation is available. The<br />

selection and growing of intercrops should be well planned so that<br />

<strong>the</strong>re is no interference with orchard operations. If <strong>the</strong> cultivation<br />

of field crops is not possible a leguminous cover crop can be<br />

planted to help control weeds and conserve soil fertility and<br />

moisture. However care should be taken that <strong>the</strong> growth of any<br />

cover crop is not too thick. A well timed tree relay planting or<br />

replanting scheme can maximise productivity of <strong>the</strong> trees and <strong>the</strong><br />

farm as a whole. Since jackfruit takes about eight to ten years to<br />

attain full bearing, intercropping will benefit <strong>the</strong> growers and<br />

encourage <strong>the</strong>m to plant more trees.<br />

3.11 Nutrition<br />

Generally jackfruit trees are not given fertilisers and thus little is<br />

known about <strong>the</strong> fertiliser requirements of jackfruit. Farmyard<br />

manure (FYM) or home produced compost is sometimes used to<br />

advantage, especially in homegardens. However, <strong>the</strong> trees need<br />

good nutrition to promote regular and good bearing. The quantity<br />

and type of fertiliser required depends on <strong>the</strong> vigour and age of<br />

trees, and <strong>the</strong> fertility of <strong>the</strong> soil. The recommended amounts of<br />

manure and fertilisers in Bangladesh are presented in table 3.8.<br />

The yearly amount should be applied in two doses. The first dose<br />

is applied at <strong>the</strong> beginning of rainy season and <strong>the</strong> second<br />

instalment soon after <strong>the</strong> rainy season is over. For mature trees,<br />

fertiliser should be applied from onset of flowering until after<br />

harvesting and pruning have been completed.<br />


Table 3.8 Yearly amounts of manure and fertilisers <strong>for</strong><br />

jackfruit trees (per tree) in Bangladesh.<br />

Doses of manure and<br />

Age of tree in years<br />

fertilisers per tree per year 2-4 5-7 8-10 11-20 >20<br />

FYM (kg) 10 15 20 25 30<br />

Urea (g) 200 250 300 350 500<br />

Triple super phosphate (g) 250 250 500 750 1000<br />

Mauriate of potash (g) 100 200 250 300 500<br />

Gypsum (g) 100 100 200 300 500<br />

Source: Hossain and Haq (2006)<br />

In India recommendations <strong>for</strong> applications to bearing trees are<br />

shown in Table 3.9.<br />

Table 3.9 Application of fertilisers in four states of India<br />

(kg/tree)<br />

State Distance<br />

(m)<br />

N P 2 0 5 K 2 O FYM<br />

Assam 10 x 20 210 150 1000 20-30<br />

Karanatka 10 x 10 600 300 240 50<br />

Maddya 10 x 10 800 430 1050 100<br />

Pradesh<br />

Tamil<br />

Nadu<br />

6 x 6 750 400 500 50<br />

Source: Tandon (1987)<br />

In <strong>the</strong> Philippines three recommendations <strong>for</strong> fertilisers have been<br />

made as follows (Yap, 1972; BPI, 1991):<br />

• 100-150 g ammonium sulphate (20-0-0) per tree in <strong>the</strong><br />

first year, increasing to growing trees 0.5-1.0 kg complete<br />

fertiliser (14-14-14) per tree at <strong>the</strong> start of fruiting and 2-3<br />

kg complete fertiliser <strong>for</strong> a full grown tree (15-20 years<br />

old).<br />

• 50-60 g ammonium sulphate in <strong>the</strong> first year increasing to<br />

200-300 g and 400 g ammonium sulphate on 2 nd 3 rd and 4 th<br />


year respectively. 1 kg complete fertiliser (5-10-5 or 6-12-<br />

6) in <strong>the</strong> 5 th year and <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> growing trees 1.5 kg complete<br />

fertiliser (12-24-12) is applied.<br />

• 200-300 g complete fertiliser (14-4-14) per tree at planting<br />

time, 300-500 g complete fertiliser (14-14-14) plus 200-<br />

300 g urea (45-0-0) per young trees; 1.5-3 kg complete<br />

fertiliser and 200-300 g of muriate of potash (0-0-60) <strong>for</strong><br />

full bearing trees.<br />

Fertiliser can be applied in a 5-10 cm deep trench or in holes made<br />

along <strong>the</strong> periphery of <strong>the</strong> tree canopy and <strong>the</strong>n covered with soil.<br />

However, fur<strong>the</strong>r studies are needed to determine <strong>the</strong> optimal<br />

fertilisation requirements of jackfruit.<br />

At planting 113 g of fertiliser per tree (i.e. 6-6-6 with minor<br />

elements and 30% of nitrogen from organic sources) is<br />

recommended. After one year fertiliser application needs to be<br />

repeated, and <strong>the</strong>reafter a gradual annual increase in <strong>the</strong> amount is<br />

needed. Application of a soil drench of chelated iron once or twice<br />

per year per tree is recommended. For calcareous soils apply<br />

EDDHA (sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(oydroxyphenylaceatte)<br />

iron chelate and <strong>for</strong> neutral and acid soils<br />

EDTHA (sodium ferric diethylenetriamine pentaacetate) iron<br />

chelate.<br />

In Florida chelated iron drenches are most effective from May to<br />

September and foliar sprays from April to September (see table<br />

3.10).<br />

All <strong>the</strong> manure and fertilisers should be applied around <strong>the</strong> tree<br />

between <strong>the</strong> trunk and <strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> canopy in two equal<br />

installments, at <strong>the</strong> beginning and at <strong>the</strong> end of rainy season. It is<br />

also recommended that gypsum should be applied in alternate<br />

years.<br />


Year Time of<br />

year<br />

Table 3.10 Fertiliser recommendations <strong>for</strong> jackfruit in Florida<br />

Amount per<br />

tree<br />

Total amount<br />

per tree<br />

No. of minor element<br />

sprays per year<br />

Chelated iron soil drenches<br />

(oz/tree/year)<br />

1 6 0.25-0.5 1.5-3.0 6 0.5-.75<br />

2 6 0.5-1.0 3.0-6.0 6 0.75-1.0<br />

3 6 1.0-1.5 6.0-9.0 6 1.0-1.5<br />

4 4 1.5-2.5 9.0-10.0 6 1.5-2<br />

5 4 2.5-3.5 10.0-14.0 4-6 2-4<br />

6 4 3.5-4.0 14.0-16.0 4-6 2-4<br />

7 4 4.0-4.5 16.0-18.0 4-6 2-4<br />

8 4 4.5-5 18.0-20.0 4-6 2-4<br />

Source: Crane et al. (2003)<br />


3.12 Fruiting<br />

Varieties of jackfruit trees differ widely in <strong>the</strong>ir bearing age. Early<br />

varieties such as "Singapore Jak" bear in 2-3 years in India and Sri<br />

Lanka. O<strong>the</strong>r vegetatively propagated trees also bear in 4-5 years.<br />

In Bangladesh tissue culture propagated plants bear fruits from<br />

three years after transplanting (Azad et al., 2006). Some varieties<br />

however may take 8-10 years to bear fruits. Regional differences<br />

in <strong>the</strong> fruiting habit exist. In south India trees mature in 6-7 years<br />

but in <strong>the</strong> cool wea<strong>the</strong>r of north India fruiting is delayed and<br />

bearing is also delayed at higher elevations.<br />

A well-grown tree will produce up to 200-250 fruits, each<br />

weighing 5-35 kg, but under good conditions, fruits can weigh 55<br />

kg (Ghosh, 1996). Because jackfruit is an underutilised species<br />

<strong>the</strong>re are no reliable statistical data on its production from<br />

producing countries. Table 3.11 below shows data that are<br />

available from various sources in Asia.<br />

The yield of fruits per tree differs greatly on <strong>the</strong> basis of plant age,<br />

cultivars, season and localities. On an average 100-250 fruits/plant<br />

are harvested by most farmers. However, some cultivars give more<br />

fruiting because <strong>the</strong>y grow through all seasons.<br />

In Nepal 50-300 and sometimes 3000 fruits per tree have been<br />

harvested, however, <strong>the</strong>re is no developed cultivar in Nepal and<br />

fruits are mostly collected from <strong>the</strong> wild (Chaudhary and Khatari,<br />

1997).<br />

In Vietnam <strong>the</strong> most popular variety is cv. MIT GIAI and it is<br />

widely grown from <strong>the</strong> north to <strong>the</strong> south of <strong>the</strong> country. It is a<br />

large sized, sweet flavoured variety and its yield is about 238 ±<br />

21.7 kg/tree (45 t/ha from 200 trees at a spacing of 7 x 7 m). This<br />

also provides almost 5.8 t of seeds <strong>for</strong> food and animal feeding<br />

(Lai, 2002). The o<strong>the</strong>r cultivar Cv Mit MAT is characterised by a<br />

special taste as it is sweeter and juicy but its yield is low (213 ±<br />

17.8 kg/tree).<br />


Hence yield per hectare varies greatly. Some estimates are<br />

provided in Table 3.12.<br />

Table 3.11 Annual production of jackfruit in Asia<br />

Country Area in hectares<br />

(ha)<br />

Production in metric tonnes<br />

(MT)<br />

India 102,552 1,436,570<br />

Bangladesh 24,958 257,360<br />

Philippines 13,286 67,500<br />

Malaysia 24,186 1,126,284<br />

Indonesia Not available 6,000,000<br />

Nepal 1479 17,161<br />

Thailand Not available 450,000<br />

Vietnam 23,730 Not available<br />

Sources: Ghosh (1996), AEC (2003), Osman (M. bin Osman,<br />

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, pers. comm.)<br />

Table 3.12 Yield of fruits in tonnes per hectare in major<br />

jackfruit producing countries in Asia<br />

Country<br />

Yield (t/ha)<br />

Bangladesh 10.5<br />

India 2-27<br />

Philippines 4.8<br />

Malaysia 3-19<br />

Indonesia 2.4-14<br />

Nepal 1.5-3.7<br />

Thailand 3-20<br />

Vietnam 1.4-2.3<br />

Source: Haq (2003b)<br />


3.13 Irrigation<br />

The species is intolerant to poor drainage (Soepadmo, 1992) and<br />

roots fail to grow under flooded conditions. Unless drainage<br />

canals are constructed, waterlogged areas cannot be used <strong>for</strong><br />

growing jackfruit. The soil at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> plant should be raised<br />

to prevent water stagnation.<br />

In dry areas, however, <strong>for</strong> optimum tree growth and fruit<br />

production trees should be irrigated during dry periods to enhance<br />

growth. Costa et al. (2000) reported <strong>the</strong> effects of shade and water<br />

stress on growth in jackfruit.<br />

In household gardens and small orchards jackfruit is not normally<br />

irrigated in spite of <strong>the</strong> fact that it suffers from drought. Newly<br />

planted trees should be irrigated regularly during dry periods <strong>for</strong><br />

three to four years after planting until <strong>the</strong> roots have penetrated<br />

deep enough and <strong>the</strong> plants are fully established. Hand watering is<br />

necessary during <strong>the</strong> first one to two years. To economise in <strong>the</strong><br />

use of water a ring system or a drip system may be adopted. For<br />

mature trees irrigation is recommended during <strong>the</strong> dry periods if<br />

<strong>the</strong>y occur between onset of flowering and until <strong>the</strong> fruit is fully<br />

developed. The frequency and quantity of irrigation will depend<br />

on <strong>the</strong> wea<strong>the</strong>r and soil moisture conditions, but jackfruit responds<br />

well to irrigation between flowering and fruiting. Irrigation timing<br />

and rates can be improved by monitoring <strong>the</strong> soil moisture using a<br />

tensiometer or o<strong>the</strong>r measuring equipment.<br />

3.14 Pests and diseases<br />

Diseases and pests are not a serious problem in jackfruit. IPGRI<br />

has issued a list of descriptors <strong>for</strong> characterisation and evaluation<br />

of germplasm (IPGRI, 2000) and this list includes pests and<br />

diseases. However, Gunasena et al. (1996) reported that <strong>the</strong><br />

jackfruit is relatively free from serious diseases. Soepadmo (1992)<br />


stated that crop protection is not a major concern <strong>for</strong> growers of<br />

jackfruit.<br />

Never<strong>the</strong>less, <strong>the</strong>re are some diseases and pests, such as fruit rot<br />

(Rhizopus artocarpi) and fruit borers (Ochyromera artocarpi,<br />

Diaphania caesalis) which commonly occur in jackfruit (Butani,<br />

1978; IPGRI, 2000) and can reduce <strong>the</strong> price <strong>for</strong> fruits. The<br />

reported pests and diseases occurring on jackfruit in <strong>the</strong> major<br />

production countries are discussed below:<br />

3.14.1 Pests<br />

Thirty five species of insect pests have been recorded on jackfruit<br />

from India. Major pests can be shoot and trunk borer, brown<br />

weevil, mealy bug and jack scale. Pests are summarised in<br />

Table 3.14: <strong>the</strong>se are those found to be associated generally<br />

with jackfruit (Tandon 1998).<br />

In Bangladesh <strong>the</strong> most important pest is <strong>the</strong> caterpillars of<br />

Diaphania caesalis, <strong>the</strong> shoot borer, which tunnel into buds,<br />

young shoots and fruits (Azad, 2000). Eggs of <strong>the</strong> borers are laid<br />

on <strong>the</strong> tender shoots and flower buds. The reddish brown<br />

caterpillars of Diaphania cause <strong>the</strong> affected parts to show signs of<br />

wilt and subsequently to dry up and severe infestation may cause<br />

fruit drop.<br />

The bark eating caterpillars (Indrabela tetraonis and Batocera<br />

rufomaculata) are also found to attack jackfruit. (Azad, 2000).<br />

A number of wood borers that attack trunks and branches are<br />

reported from Florida. These are Elaphidion mucronatum,<br />

Nyssordrysina haldemani and Leptostylopsdis terraecolor. In<br />

Asia, <strong>the</strong>y include Apriona germani (Soepadmo, 1992).<br />

The simple remedy <strong>for</strong> controlling borers is to remove <strong>the</strong> affected<br />

parts and destroy <strong>the</strong>m as soon as <strong>the</strong> attack is first noticed. Fruits<br />

should be covered with poly<strong>the</strong>ne bags to protect <strong>the</strong>m from<br />


oviposition. Fumigating <strong>the</strong> holes in trees can also destroy <strong>the</strong><br />

borers.<br />

Jack scales is <strong>the</strong> name given to a number of different species: <strong>the</strong><br />

lesser snow scale (Pinnaspis strachan)i, coconut scale (Aspidiotus<br />

destructor), mango shield scale (Protopulvinaria mangiferae), and<br />

pyri<strong>for</strong>m scale (Protopulvinaria pyrifomis).These can be found on<br />

leaves, stems and fruits.<br />

The brown weevil, (Ochyromera artocarpi) is a specific pest to<br />

jackfruit. The small whitish grubs bore into tender flower buds and<br />

fruits and induce premature drop. Two more weevils, namely<br />

Ocychocenemis careyae and Telurops ballardi have been reported<br />

feeding on leaves in South India (Tandon, 1998). To control <strong>the</strong>se<br />

weevils, <strong>the</strong> affected shoots, leaves, flower buds and fruits should<br />

be removed and destroyed.<br />

Aphids, such as Greenidia artocarpi and Toxopetra aurantii have<br />

been found feeding in clusters on tender shoots and leaves which<br />

are covered with sooty mould. Dry wea<strong>the</strong>r followed by rains<br />

favours <strong>the</strong> multiplication of aphids, resulting in severe<br />

infestation.<br />

To control aphids, spraying of mahua oil (2%) or dimethoate<br />

(0.03%) or monocrotophos (0.05%) can be effective but<br />

harvesting should not be done until at least 15 days after spraying.<br />

(Tandon, 1998).<br />

O<strong>the</strong>r pests affecting jackfruit include sucking insects such as<br />

mealy bugs, fruit flies and thrips (Soepadmo, 1992).<br />

Reddy (1998) reported Crossononema malabaricium and<br />

Neolobocrilonema palamiensis from soil around <strong>the</strong> roots of<br />

jackfruit in India.<br />


Common<br />

name<br />

Table 3.13 Pests which generally affect jackfruit<br />

(Gaps in in<strong>for</strong>mation show that recommendations have not clearly been made)<br />

Scientific name Nature of damage Bio-control Chemical control<br />

Shoot borer Diaphania caesalis Developing fruit, buds, young<br />

shoots<br />

Stem borer Mangaronia<br />

caesalis<br />

Stem borer Batocera<br />

rufomaculata<br />

Removal of affected<br />

shoots and branches<br />

Shoot borer mainly in nursery stock Pruning out infested<br />

tree parts, sanitation,<br />

fruit bagging<br />

Bores in wood<br />

Fruit fly Dacus umbrosus Attacks maturing fruit<br />

Trunk borer Apriona germari Trunks, branches.<br />

Affected parts show signs of wilt<br />

and subsequently dry up and severe<br />

infestation may cause fruits to<br />

drop<br />

Brown weevil Ochyromera<br />

atrocarpi<br />

Brown weevil bores into buds,<br />

shoots and fruits and causes fruit<br />

drop.<br />

Affected shoots,<br />

flower buds and fruits<br />

should be removed<br />

0.5% malathion, 0.5%<br />

methomyl, or 0.1%<br />

endosulfan<br />


Common<br />

name<br />

Aphids Greenidia<br />

artocarpi,<br />

Toxapetra aurentii<br />

Mealy bug Malabrys<br />

Short-horned<br />

grasshopper<br />

Citrus green<br />

locust<br />

Scientific name Nature of damage Bio-control Chemical control<br />

pustalata,<br />

Lymantria grandis,<br />

Planococcus<br />

lilacinus<br />

Root grub Anomala species.<br />

Leucopholics<br />

irrorata<br />

Termites Nasutitermes<br />

luzonicus<br />

Fruit fly Chaetodacus<br />

ferrugineus<br />

Melicodes Affects leaves<br />

tenebrosa<br />

Melicodes species Affects leaves<br />

Source: Azad (2000), Tandon (1998)<br />

Aphids feed on tender shoots and<br />

leaves and honeydew leads to<br />

growth of sooty mould<br />

Mealy bugs feed on sap and cause<br />

leaf defoliation<br />

Affects roots<br />

Affect trunk and branches<br />

Maggots feed on ripe and rotten<br />

fruits<br />

Remove <strong>the</strong> affected<br />

parts<br />

2% mahua oil, 0.03%<br />

dimethoate, 0.05%<br />

monocrotophos<br />

Lime sulphur wash or<br />

dusting with sulphur<br />


3.14.2 Diseases<br />

Major diseases of jackfruit are: leaf spots, die-back, fruit rot and pink<br />

disease (see Table 3.14).<br />

Leaf spots are caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare, Phyllosticta<br />

artocarpina and Septoria artocarpi and are common on jackfruit. These<br />

are characterised by dark brown to brick red spots on both surfaces of <strong>the</strong><br />

leaf. Later, <strong>the</strong> spots turn greyish white in <strong>the</strong> centre and dark brown at<br />

<strong>the</strong> edges. Dark coloured acervuli of <strong>the</strong> fungus, which ooze out profuse<br />

spore masses are observed on <strong>the</strong> greyish region. The fungus has been<br />

seen to infect <strong>the</strong> young tender shoots and petioles of <strong>the</strong> leaves. The<br />

disease is effectively checked through spraying of carbendazim (0.1%),<br />

methyl thiophanate (0.1%), captafal (0.2%) or chlorothaloni (0.2%)<br />

(Rawal and Saxena, 1997).<br />

Die-back is caused by Botryodiplodia <strong>the</strong>obromae or Erwinia<br />

carotovora. The fungus affects growing shoots and spreads downwards<br />

and eventually kills <strong>the</strong> tree. The onset of die-back becomes evident by<br />

discolouration and darkening of <strong>the</strong> bark at some distance from <strong>the</strong> tip.<br />

The affected leaves turn brown and <strong>the</strong>ir margins roll upwards. At this<br />

stage, <strong>the</strong> twigs or branches die, shrivel and fall, and <strong>the</strong>re may be an<br />

exudation of gum from affected branches. Such branches have also been<br />

found to be affected by shoot borers and shot hole borers. The infected<br />

twigs show internal discolouration when split open. In <strong>the</strong> early stages,<br />

epidermal and sub-epidermal cells of twigs are often slightly shrivelled.<br />

To control <strong>the</strong> disease, remove <strong>the</strong> infected twigs and follow with a spray<br />

of carbendazim (0.1%), Topsin M (0.1%) or chlorothalonil (0.2%),<br />

which have been found effective (Rawal and Saxena, 1997).<br />

Fruit rot or blossom rot, caused by Rhizopus artocarpi is reported as a<br />

serious disease in jackfruit (Soepadmo, 1992) which results in a 15-32%<br />

crop loss. The inflorescence or tip of <strong>the</strong> flowering shoots, or <strong>the</strong> stalks<br />

of <strong>the</strong> tender fruits are infected and blackened by sporangia. As a result<br />

<strong>the</strong>y rot and drop.<br />

Pink disease in jackfruit is widespread in tropical and subtropical<br />

regions. It is a pinkish powdery coating on <strong>the</strong> stem caused by<br />

Botryobasidium salmonicolor, Botryodiplodia salmonicolor, Rhizopus<br />

stolonifer, or Pellicularia salmonicolor. The pink colour is that of <strong>the</strong><br />


profuse conidial spores. Young woody branches of <strong>the</strong> affected trees lose<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir leaves and show die-back.<br />

In Florida, flowers and fruits are attacked by Rhizopus fruit rot (Rhizopus<br />

artocarpi) and fruits by grey mould (Botrytis cinerea). Trees are also<br />

susceptible to root rot (Pythium splendens, Phytophthora spp., Fusarium<br />

spp., Rhizoctonia spp.) especially when subjected to flooding. Several<br />

fungi such as Gloeosporium spp. and Phyllostica artocarpi can cause<br />

leaf spotting.<br />

In Bangladesh a number of jackfruit diseases are reported. Among <strong>the</strong>m,<br />

Rhizopus artocarpi is reported to be <strong>the</strong> major disease. Ghosh (1994)<br />

reported that 18.9% female spikes dropped due to infestation of<br />

Rhizopus, but it can be treated with <strong>the</strong> application of Folicur or Tilt.<br />


Common<br />

name of<br />

disease<br />

Table 3.14 Diseases which affect jackfruit<br />

(Gaps in in<strong>for</strong>mation represent <strong>the</strong> lack of specific recommendations)<br />

Scientific name of<br />

causal pathogen<br />

Leaf spot Botryodiplodia<br />

<strong>the</strong>obromae,<br />

Cercospora species,<br />

Colletotrichum<br />

orbiculare,<br />

Gleosporium species,<br />

Phomopsis species,<br />

Septoria species,<br />

Phyllosticta artocarpina,<br />

Alternaria species<br />

Nature of damage Bio-control Chemical control<br />

Dark brown to brick red spots<br />

on both surfaces of leaf which<br />

later turn into greyish white in<br />

<strong>the</strong> centre and dark brown in<br />

<strong>the</strong> boundary<br />

Leaf spot Phomopsis artocarpi Attacks <strong>the</strong> leaf causing<br />

defoliation<br />

Leaf disease Curvularia species. Infects <strong>the</strong> young tender<br />

shoots and petioles of <strong>the</strong><br />

leaves.<br />

Dry rot Phellinus species<br />

0.1% carbendazim, 0.1%<br />

methyl thiophanate or<br />

0.2% captafal or 0.2%<br />

chlorothalonil<br />


Common<br />

name of<br />

disease<br />

Scientific name of<br />

causal pathogen<br />

Gray blight Pestalotia elasticola<br />

Charcoal rot Ustilina zonata<br />

Anthracnose Colletotrichum species.<br />

Die-back Botryodiplodia species,<br />

Erwinia carotovora<br />

Fruit rot Rhizopus artocarpi,<br />

Phyllosticta species,<br />

Phytophthora species,<br />

Rhizoctonia solani,<br />

Physalospora rhodina<br />

Nature of damage Bio-control Chemical control<br />

Affects growing shoots and<br />

spreads downwards and<br />

eventually kills <strong>the</strong> tree<br />

Affects <strong>the</strong> flowering shoots<br />

or <strong>the</strong> stalk of <strong>the</strong> tender fruits<br />

so affected fruits develop soft<br />

rot.<br />

Fruit soft rot Rhizoctonia artocarpi Rot of inflorescence, young<br />

fruits and ripening fruits<br />

To check <strong>the</strong><br />

disease, prune<br />

infected twigs<br />

Collect<br />

affected fruits<br />

and destroy<br />

0.1% carbendazim, 0.1%<br />

Topsin M, or 0.2%<br />

chlorothalonil. Also trunk<br />

injection with antibiotics<br />

Application of Folicur or<br />

Tilt 250 EC at 0.5 ml per<br />

litre of water or Bordeaux<br />

mixture 6:6:100 spray<br />

Bordeaux mixture 2:2:50<br />

spray<br />

Spray Dithane M-45<br />

(Mancozeb 75% WP) at<br />

0.2% and Bavistin at<br />

0.05% 3 times at 1 day<br />

intervals.<br />


Common<br />

name of<br />

disease<br />

Scientific name of<br />

causal pathogen<br />

Rust Uredo artocarpi<br />

Pink disease Botryobasidium<br />

salmonicolor<br />

Botryodiplodia<br />

salmonicolor,<br />

Rhizopus stolonifer,<br />

Pellicularia<br />

salmonicolor<br />

Nature of damage Bio-control Chemical control<br />

Young woody branches of <strong>the</strong><br />

affected trees lose <strong>the</strong>ir leaves<br />

and show die-back<br />

Affected<br />

branches<br />

should be<br />

pruned<br />

Canker Corticium salmonicolor Twig blight and stem canker Affected<br />

branches<br />

should be<br />

pruned<br />

Stinking root<br />

disease<br />

Sphaerostible repens<br />

Bordeaux paste or copper<br />

oxychloride<br />

Bordeaux paste or copper<br />

oxychloride<br />


Common<br />

name of<br />

disease<br />

Scientific name of<br />

causal pathogen<br />

Root rot Pythium splendens,<br />

Phytophthora species,<br />

Fusarium species,<br />

Rhizoctonia species,<br />

Gonoderma species,<br />

Macrophomina<br />

phaseolina, Rosellinia<br />

arcuata, Rosellinia<br />

bunodes<br />

Root disease Fomes durissimus<br />

Sources: Azad (2000), IPGRI (2000)<br />

Nature of damage Bio-control Chemical control<br />

Affects roots and <strong>the</strong> stem<br />

base of seedlings<br />

Improving<br />

cultural<br />

practices<br />


4.1 Introduction<br />

Chapter 4. Reproductive biology<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> trees are monoecious. In Asia, in general, flowering in jackfruit<br />

starts in December and continues until March (Samaddar, 1985; Azad,<br />

1989). Flowering in off-season, September to October, is not uncommon<br />

(Singh, 1992) and geographical differences affect flower initiation.<br />

Attempts have been made to induce flowering. For example, chemicals,<br />

such as E<strong>the</strong>phon, at 550 ppm, sprayed onto <strong>the</strong> foliage in early October<br />

improves <strong>the</strong> number of female spikes (Das et al., 1981) and <strong>the</strong><br />

application of potassium nitrate at 1% by trunk injection induces<br />

flowering (Angeles, 1983).<br />

Due to uneven wind pollination <strong>the</strong> fruits develop unevenly. Fruit setting<br />

can be improved by hand pollination. However, stigmas are only<br />

receptive <strong>for</strong> about 1½ days (Sambamurthy and Ramalingam 1954).<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> trees start bearing fruits about four to eight years after planting<br />

although some local genotypes and <strong>the</strong> recorded variety “Singapore<br />

Jack” always bear early and some can start bearing at three years.<br />

Clonally propagated stocks usually bear earlier than those raised from<br />

seed.<br />

Fruit set is normally 70-75% through open pollination. The fruits<br />

develop during Spring (February) or Summer (June). The fruiting season<br />

of about four months means ripe fruits are generally harvested from June<br />

onwards in most Asian countries. Geographical differences in harvest<br />

periods tend to be from April to August or September to December in<br />

Malaysia, January to May in Thailand, July to October in Nepal, and<br />

June to October in India (Soepadmo 1992).<br />


4.2 Flowering habit<br />

Male and female inflorescences are borne on footstalks which appear on<br />

branches or stems initially as yellow-green, bud like structures (see p. 5-<br />

6).<br />

The ratio of male to female inflorescences varies. Samaddar and Yadav<br />

(1982) reported 96% male inflorescences while Srivastava (1961)<br />

reported 80% male inflorescences per tree. Azad (1989) reported very<br />

low numbers of female inflorescences (3-5%) while Sahadevan et al.<br />

(1950) reported 3-40%. There is always a higher proportion of male<br />

than female inflorescences. The spike can easily be identified when<br />

small, as <strong>the</strong> length and diameter of female inflorescences are larger than<br />

those of males. The surface of a young male spike is smooth while that<br />

of <strong>the</strong> female is granular. Male and female inflorescences develop more<br />

or less simultaneously but male spikes tend to reach maturity 3-5 days<br />

be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> female ones. On any one tree male and female flowers open<br />

over a long period (Soepadmo, 1992).<br />

4.2.1 Male flowering<br />

The stamen has four an<strong>the</strong>rs and emits a sweet scent (Purseglove, 1968).<br />

This splits to expose a mass of sticky, spherical, yellow, pollen grains. A<br />

few inter-floral bracts are shed immediately after an<strong>the</strong>sis. The peak of<br />

an<strong>the</strong>sis is between 2-3 pm (Samaddar andYadav, 1982).<br />

Among <strong>the</strong> male flowers, sterile ones are also found. The sterile male<br />

flower has a solid unlobed perianth, whereas <strong>the</strong> fertile male flower is<br />

tubular and bi-lobed.<br />

The abscission of male spikes starts with a change in colour from green<br />

to yellow, turning to brownish yellow, and finally brown to black. Spikes<br />

generally fall off two to four weeks after emergence (Querijero, 1988).<br />

However, <strong>the</strong>y may remain on <strong>the</strong> tree longer, be<strong>for</strong>e falling to <strong>the</strong><br />

ground as a black mass.<br />


4.2.2 Female flowering<br />

Creamy white stigmas protrude out of <strong>the</strong> surface of <strong>the</strong> spike when<br />

receptive, usually 4-6 days after opening of <strong>the</strong> spa<strong>the</strong>s. Stigmas tend to<br />

be receptive <strong>for</strong> 28-36 hours (Sambamurthy and Ramalingam, 1954,<br />

Azad, 1989).<br />

4.3 Pollination<br />

The production of more male than female flowers in jackfruit is a<br />

characteristic of a typical anemophilous species (Purseglove, 1968).<br />

Pushpakumara et al. (1996) from <strong>the</strong>ir studies of pollination biology in<br />

Sri Lanka suggested that jackfruit is most likely to be wind-pollinated.<br />

Pollen grains are not shed readily if <strong>the</strong>re is a light physical disturbance,<br />

as would be expected from a wind-pollinated plant (Moncur, 1985). The<br />

flowering male inflorescences have a sweet scent of honey and burnt<br />

sugar which attracts small flies and beetles and o<strong>the</strong>r insects. Their<br />

activity promotes <strong>the</strong> release of pollen grains from <strong>the</strong> protruding<br />

an<strong>the</strong>rs. None<strong>the</strong>less, very few insects visit <strong>the</strong> female flowers and this<br />

reduces <strong>the</strong> chances of direct pollination by insects. The wind and insect<br />

activity toge<strong>the</strong>r may act as a pollination mechanism.<br />

If <strong>the</strong> flowers of <strong>the</strong> female spikes are not adequately pollinated, fruits do<br />

not develop normally: fruit size is small and <strong>the</strong> shape may be irregular.<br />

Lack of pollination may lead to <strong>the</strong> dropping of female spikes (Azad,<br />

1989), but this should not be confused with early fruit drop which<br />

appears to be a natural physiological thinning mechanism.<br />

Sinha (1973) reported that pollen viability in jackfruit is affected by<br />

different ranges of relative humidity and temperature. Gopinath et al.<br />

(1983) reported on pollen fertility of 94.5% when kept on 1% agar and<br />

10% sucrose. Pollination can be improved by hand pollination.<br />

4.4 Fruiting<br />

Fruits are syncarps composed of <strong>the</strong> individual fertilised ovaries each<br />

developing into a fruitlet with soft, yellow, fleshy perianths developing<br />

into pulp and surrounding <strong>the</strong> seeds. The fruitlets, or true fruits, are<br />

sometimes called bulbs, pods or pips. Unfertilised female flowers<br />


develop into tough, strap or string-like structures, called perigones, white<br />

pulp or rags. They occupy spaces between fruitlets. Whereas <strong>the</strong><br />

perianths of fertilised flowers <strong>for</strong>m edible pulp, <strong>the</strong> ovary wall does not<br />

become fleshy and it develops into a pericarp.<br />

Initially, fruitlets appear as tape-like structures. The ovary enlarges and<br />

<strong>the</strong> embryo becomes distinct after one week of fertilisation. In some<br />

genotypes <strong>the</strong> fruitlet becomes highly visible and differentiated only at<br />

<strong>the</strong> eighth week of flower emergence (Laserna, 1988). Each fruitlet<br />

develops to 4-11 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, and weighs 6-53 g. It is<br />

composed of <strong>the</strong> fleshy aril and <strong>the</strong> seed. The aril is <strong>the</strong> part which is<br />

usually consumed fresh and is sometimes referred to as flesh. It can be<br />

waxy, firm or soft. Its colour ranges from yellow to yellow orange.<br />

The whole fruit, depending on <strong>the</strong> genotype, varies from 20-100 cm in<br />

length and 15-50 cm in diameter and weighs 0.5-50 kg. Each fruitlet is<br />

large and oblong or reni<strong>for</strong>m and <strong>the</strong> overall fruit’s shape may be oval,<br />

oblong or oblong-ellipsoid (Plates 11a and b). The white pulp is firmly<br />

attached to a core. The core or receptacle is pithy and 4.2-10.5 cm thick.<br />

The fruit colour is pale or dark green at <strong>the</strong> immature stage but it<br />

becomes greenish yellow, yellow or brownish when ripe. The fruit has a<br />

green stalk or peduncle 2-10 cm long and 1.2-3.5 cm thick. It is covered<br />

by rubbery rind and spines that are hard, pyramidal, and ei<strong>the</strong>r pointed or<br />

blunt. The spine is <strong>for</strong>med from <strong>the</strong> tip part of <strong>the</strong> perianth. Spine lengths<br />

vary from 1.5-10 cm, with about 3-12 spines per cm 2 surface area. The<br />

rind is <strong>for</strong>med from <strong>the</strong> hardening of <strong>the</strong> distal tip of <strong>the</strong> tubular perianth.<br />

4.4.1 Tissues of <strong>the</strong> fruits/ fruit morphology<br />

According to Manjunath (1948) <strong>the</strong>re are two well-defined groups of<br />

jackfruit cultivars, based on fruit size, ei<strong>the</strong>r small or large. Dissection of<br />

several fruits of A. heterophyllus revealed that on average <strong>the</strong> larger type<br />

had 10,000-12,000 florets in <strong>the</strong> composite fruit and <strong>the</strong> number of<br />

normal seeds produced varied from 50-200 per fruit. Additionally <strong>the</strong>re<br />

are about 200 or more ill-developed seeds, intermixed with <strong>the</strong> normal<br />

ones. The smaller type has 8000-10,000 florets per composite fruit and<br />

only 20-50 seeds are produced in a fruit. In one underdeveloped fruit of<br />

about 12.5 x 7.5 cm in size, <strong>the</strong>re were only four normal and about 10<br />

poorly developed seeds found and <strong>the</strong>se were all in <strong>the</strong> upper half of <strong>the</strong><br />

fruit.<br />


Each syncarp or fruit contains three sections as follows:<br />

(i) The fruit axis is <strong>the</strong> modified mature axis of <strong>the</strong> inflorescence and is<br />

dome-shaped. It is rigid and slightly fleshy. It measures about 30 x 8 cm<br />

or more when <strong>the</strong> fruit is mature. The bulk of <strong>the</strong> fruit axis is made of<br />

elongated broad parenchymatous tissues and <strong>the</strong> dimension of <strong>the</strong> axis<br />

increases mainly due to <strong>the</strong> enlargement of cortical cells.<br />

Sclerenchyma is well developed in <strong>the</strong> cortical region of <strong>the</strong> axis. The<br />

central pith and <strong>the</strong> peripheral cortical region of <strong>the</strong> axis have numerous<br />

large laticiferous tissues. The latex from <strong>the</strong>se tissues is milky when<br />

fresh but becomes yellowish brown on exposure to <strong>the</strong> air.<br />

The axis region of <strong>the</strong> fruit is non-palatable and useless <strong>for</strong> food because<br />

of <strong>the</strong> absence of sufficient starch and <strong>the</strong> presence of enormous amounts<br />

of latex.<br />

(ii) The pulp and structures derived from <strong>the</strong> flower perianths constitute<br />

<strong>the</strong> bulk of <strong>the</strong> fruit. In <strong>the</strong> early stages, <strong>the</strong> perianth tubes are entirely<br />

free from one ano<strong>the</strong>r but are deeply bi-lobed at <strong>the</strong> tips. During <strong>the</strong><br />

development process <strong>the</strong>y begin to fuse in <strong>the</strong> middle region leaving <strong>the</strong><br />

upper and lower regions free. Thus <strong>the</strong> perianth has three regions: (a) <strong>the</strong><br />

lower free and fleshy region, (b) <strong>the</strong> middle fused region, and (c) <strong>the</strong><br />

upper free and horny region. The first one is exclusively fleshy and<br />

edible while <strong>the</strong> second and third regions become <strong>the</strong> outer rind of <strong>the</strong><br />

fruit.<br />

(iii) The true fruits or fruitlets, strictly known as achenes, are large,<br />

oblong in shape; glabrous and armed with short triangular-hexagonal,<br />

pyramidal, and acuminate spines. Each achene is indehiscent and has<br />

only one seed, which is separable from <strong>the</strong> ovary walls.<br />

The rind thickness increases from about (0.4-) 1(-2) cm (Angeles, 1983)<br />

at maturity. Similarly <strong>the</strong> pithy core or receptacle enlarges from about<br />

1.9-7.5 cm in width. However, <strong>the</strong> core constitutes only about 16% of<br />

<strong>the</strong> total fruit width. The amount of latex in <strong>the</strong> core increases as <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

matures but decreases as <strong>the</strong> fruit ripens. As <strong>the</strong> fruit grows larger and<br />

heavier it becomes pendulous (Moncur, 1985).<br />


4.4.2 Fruit maturation<br />

The fruit can mature in 79-163 days or may be as long as 180-240 days<br />

after <strong>the</strong> emergence of flowering spikes (Yap, 1972). The criteria <strong>for</strong><br />

maturity are given in Chapter 6.<br />

Fruit maturation can be divided into 10 stages according to growth<br />

parameters (Narasimham, 1990). The increase in fruit size and its<br />

different parts during maturation indicates that <strong>the</strong> growth rate from<br />

stage to stage is more or less uni<strong>for</strong>m as shown in Table 4.1. However,<br />

<strong>the</strong>re is a slight indication of slow growth in fruit length between stages<br />

five and six. At <strong>the</strong> maturity of <strong>the</strong> fruit <strong>the</strong> whole fruit and its edible<br />

region increases in size at a faster rate between stages 9 and10. The<br />

perianths of <strong>the</strong> non-fertilised flowers have similar growth rates as<br />

fertilised ones but <strong>the</strong>y do not increase much in breadth and thickness<br />

whereas <strong>the</strong> perianth of <strong>the</strong> fertilised flowers attains a size of 3-5 cm in<br />

breadth and 0.5-1 cm in thickness.<br />

4.5 Seeds<br />

The seeds originate from a meristematic tissue of <strong>the</strong> ovary wall called<br />

ovule primordium (Copeland, 1976). The seed is firm and waxy, oval,<br />

oblong or oblong ellipsoid in shape (Corner, 1938). There are are<br />

numerous seeds in each fruit.<br />

The development of <strong>the</strong> seeds occurs in parallel with <strong>the</strong> development of<br />

<strong>the</strong> ovary which begins with <strong>the</strong> successful pollination of <strong>the</strong> flower. A<br />

seed-like structure coated with a white, loose covering starts to fill <strong>the</strong><br />

ovary a month after pollination. Its subsequent growth in weight, length<br />

and thickness follows a linear pattern up to maturity. The seed and testa<br />

may become very distinct two months after pollination. The seed may<br />

become fully developed within four months of pollination. The<br />

developed single large seed remains free from <strong>the</strong> fruit wall and is<br />

attached to <strong>the</strong> pericarp at one point only, i.e. <strong>the</strong> funicle.<br />


Stage of<br />

growth<br />

Length of perianth<br />

Length of<br />

fruit<br />

Table 4.1 Growth stages of parts of jackfruit (in cm).<br />

Diameter of<br />

fruit<br />

Diameter of<br />

fruit axis<br />

Total length<br />

Length of<br />

bulb<br />

Length of<br />

rind<br />

Length of<br />

spikes<br />

1 4.5 2.5 1.2 0.35 0.1 0.07 0.2<br />

2 7.8 3.6 2.2 0.7 0.2 0.37<br />

3 12.5 7.5 2.7 2.4 1.0 0.8 0.6<br />

4 16.0 10.0 8.8 3.1 1.6 0.9 0.6<br />

5 26.0 14.0 6.0 4.0 2.5 0.9 0.6<br />

6 28.0 16.0 7.0 4.5 2.9 1.0 0.6<br />

7 35.0 18.5 8.0 5.25 3.5 1.0 0.75<br />

8 40.0 22.5 9.0 6.5 4.5 1.2 0.75<br />

9 44.0 25.0 10.0 7.5 5.6 1.2 0.7<br />

10 50.0 34.0 10.0 12.0 10.0 1.3 0.7<br />

Source: Narasimham (1990)<br />


Chapter 5. Genetic resources and crop<br />

improvement<br />

5.1 Introduction<br />

As pointed out in Chapter 1 jackfruit is largely a cultigen found only<br />

under cultivation. Due to its spread over very wide areas of Asia long<br />

ago it is important that an assessment is made of <strong>the</strong> patterns of genetic<br />

diversity that exist so that genetic resources can be identified <strong>for</strong><br />

conservation and current or future utilisation.<br />

Genetic diversity can be defined as <strong>the</strong> extent to which heritable<br />

materials differ within a group of plants (van Hintum, 1995). The<br />

diversity of <strong>the</strong> population of a cultigen is <strong>the</strong> result of evolution and<br />

domestication. It is also <strong>the</strong> result of natural selection, spontaneous<br />

mutation, dispersion (geographical distribution) and selection by human<br />

beings whe<strong>the</strong>r consciously or subconsciously. Modern plant breeding<br />

plays an important role in modifying patterns of genetic diversity in<br />

major crops and scientists are interested in studying <strong>the</strong>ir genetic<br />

diversity <strong>for</strong> its better utilisation and conservation. However, in <strong>the</strong> case<br />

of underutilised crops <strong>the</strong>se activities have been overlooked by<br />

scientists, possibly due to a lack of knowledge of <strong>the</strong> crop. It will be<br />

noted from <strong>the</strong> rest of this chapter that <strong>the</strong> primary and secondary<br />

genepools of A. heterophyllus have not been identified.<br />

5.2 Cytology<br />

Artocarpus heterophyllus is a tetraploid and <strong>the</strong> somatic chromosome<br />

number is (2n) 56 (2n=4x=56), hence <strong>the</strong> basic chromosome number (x)<br />

is 14 (Darlington and Wylie, 1956; Habib, 1965). Although it is an outcrossing<br />

species, it freely crosses with A. integer. Artocarpus<br />

lanceaefolius and A. rigidus are closely linked to A. heterophyllus<br />

according to Kanzaki et al. (1997) whereas A. nitidus appears to be<br />

quite separate. No reports have been found on interspecific crosses<br />

involving <strong>the</strong>se species or any clear chromosome counts. However in A.<br />

integer <strong>the</strong>re are both diploid and tetraploid representatives.<br />


This means that, at present, with hardly any in<strong>for</strong>mation on <strong>the</strong> cytology<br />

within <strong>the</strong> Artocarpus genepool scientists have considered relationships<br />

based on morphological variation and assessment of numerous<br />

characteristics that are likely to be polygenic. Much more research is<br />

needed.<br />

5.3 Current in<strong>for</strong>mation on diversity<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> trees are cross-pollinated and are mostly propagated by seed.<br />

They exhibit a wide range of variation in morpho-agronomic<br />

characteristics (Table 5.1). Variation exists in <strong>the</strong> fruits (Tables 5.2,<br />

5.3) density, size and <strong>the</strong> shape of spines on <strong>the</strong> rind. Their fruits vary in<br />

sweetness, flavour and taste (Azad, 2000).<br />

IPGRI in 2000 issued a list of descriptor and descriptor states covering<br />

those <strong>for</strong> characterisation of germplasm, also those <strong>for</strong> fur<strong>the</strong>r<br />

evaluation. The summary of ranges of variation relates to traits of<br />

major interest to local producers (Tables 5.2, 5.3).<br />

A few attempts have been made to understand <strong>the</strong> extent of genetic<br />

diversity in jackfruit from <strong>the</strong> study of morphological characters, and to<br />

select superior types of jackfruit. There has been limited collection of<br />

jackfruit germplasm <strong>for</strong> evaluation and selection in India, Indonesia,<br />

Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, <strong>the</strong> Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and<br />

Bangladesh (IPGRI, 2000; Bhag Mal and Rao, 2001; Haq, 2002) and<br />

thus limited in<strong>for</strong>mation is available on per<strong>for</strong>mance of <strong>the</strong> accessions.<br />

Germplasm introduced to Australia and Florida has also been evaluated<br />

(Crane et al., 2003). Hossain and Haque (1977) studied <strong>the</strong><br />

morphological characteristics of a few selected jackfruit trees in one<br />

location in Bangladesh. Azad (1989) reported on <strong>the</strong> variation of fruit<br />

characteristics in different jackfruit trees which originated from seeds.<br />

Saha et al. (1996) also studied <strong>the</strong> morphological variability of some<br />

selected jackfruits from one location in Bangladesh but <strong>the</strong>se studies did<br />

not consider environmental factors. Bashar and Hossain (1993) carried<br />

out a survey in Bangladesh to identify diversity in jackfruit through<br />

farmers’ interviews. In Nepal <strong>the</strong> variation estimated was based on<br />

early, mid season and late season flowering, and of fruiting all <strong>the</strong> year<br />

round. Mitra and Mani (2000), Susiloadi et al. (2002a), Mitra and Maity<br />

(2002), Reddy et al. (2001), Crane et al. (2003) and Haq (2003b)<br />

summarised in<strong>for</strong>mation on <strong>the</strong> diversity of jackfruit in South Asia and<br />


Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia and also <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> introduced accessions in Florida (see<br />

Tables 5.1, 5.2, 5.3).<br />

Variation exists between and among populations and this can be<br />

selected <strong>for</strong> clonal propagation. There<strong>for</strong>e, <strong>the</strong>re is ample scope to<br />

identify genetic diversity and to select superior clones from existing<br />

jackfruit trees.<br />

Table 5.1. Variation in morpho-agronomic characters<br />

Tree habitat<br />

Open, spreading, low spreading, sparse<br />

upright<br />

Tree growth rate Fast, moderate, slow<br />

Canopy<br />

Dense, mostly dome-shaped, slightly<br />

pyramidal or flat topped. It ranges from<br />

3.5-6.7m<br />

Leaf shape<br />

Elliptic, elliptic-obovate, obovate, oblong,<br />

lanceolate, oval<br />

Leaf size<br />

4-25 cm in length; 2-12 cm in width<br />

Leaf petiole<br />

1.2-4.0 cm long<br />

Fruit maturity Variable<br />

Fruiting seasons Variable<br />

Fruit shape<br />

Oblong, ellipsoid, triangular, spheroid,<br />

clavi<strong>for</strong>m, round<br />

Fruit numbers/kg 9-30<br />

Fruit weight (g) 280-985<br />

Fruit thickness Thin, medium and thick<br />

Fruit texture<br />

Fibrous, firm, course, melting, crisp<br />

Seed shape<br />

Oblong, ellipsoid, irregular, reni<strong>for</strong>m,<br />

elongate, spheroid<br />

Seed weight (g) 250-1230<br />


Table 5.2. Variation of qualitative characteristics of jackfruit<br />

accessions (N=70) in Bangladesh<br />

Characteristics Types Frequency Percentage<br />

Fruit shape Round 22 31.4<br />

Roundish 8 11.4<br />

Oblong 33 47.1<br />

Long oblong 7 10.0<br />

Fruit colour Deep green 2 2.9<br />

Greenish yellow 3 4.3<br />

Greenish brown 4 5.7<br />

Yellowish<br />

4 5.7<br />

brown/straw<br />

Reddish 2 2.9<br />

Light brown 1 1.4<br />

Brown 1 1.4<br />

Deep brown 17 24.3<br />

Bottle green 6 8.6<br />

Green 1 1.4<br />

Light green 9 12.90<br />

Greenish 9 12.9<br />

Green with yellow 1 1.4<br />

patches<br />

Yellowish green 3 4.3<br />

Brownish green 3 4.3<br />

Yellowish 4 5.7<br />

Flesh aroma None 1 1.4<br />

Mild 48 68.6<br />

Strong 19 27.1<br />

Bad aroma 2 2.9<br />

Flesh colour Creamy white 1 1.4<br />

Light yellow 24 34.3<br />

Yellow 30 42.9<br />

Deep yellow 12 17.1<br />

Reddish 2 2.9<br />


Red/golden 1 1.4<br />

Characteristics Types Frequency Percentage<br />

Flesh texture Crisp 19 27.1<br />

Coarse 3 4.3<br />

Fibrous/coarse 2 2.9<br />

Fibrous 31 44.3<br />

Smooth 15 21.4<br />

Quantity of fibre Nil 13 18.6<br />

Scarce 7 10.0<br />

Medium 29 41.4<br />

Abundant 21 30.0<br />

Juiciness of Very juicy 1 1.4<br />

pulp: Juicy 29 41.4<br />

Medium juicy 20 28.60<br />

Less juicy 16 22.9<br />

Dry 4 5.7<br />

Shape of seeds Ellipsoid 40 57.14<br />

Semi-ellipsoid 9 12.86<br />

Semi-spheroid 11 15.71<br />

Spheroid 10 14.29<br />

Source: Azad (2000)<br />


Table 5.3 Variation in fruit characteristics<br />

Characteristics Range Mean ±SE CV%<br />

Min. Max.<br />

Fruit weight (kg) 2.44 21.00 7.49±0.45 46.32<br />

Fruit length (cm) 20.5 60.6 36.10±0.97 22.46<br />

Fruit diameter (cm) 16.42 29.50 21.89±0.35 13.47<br />

Fruit girth (cm) 50.5 95.8 68.83±1.13 13.71<br />

No.of bulbs/fruit 24.2 580.2 140.41±10.93 65.21<br />

Pulp (%) 18.39 60.97 37.07±1.17 26.51<br />

Seed (%) 2.58 23.14 9.40±0.47 41.75<br />

Rachis (%) 1.54 21.37 6.37±0.38 49.45<br />

Rind (%) 20.62 71.90 47.16±1.39 24.72<br />

Wt. of 100 bulbs 1.02 5.87 2.72±0.12 36.90<br />

Wt. of 100 seeds 290.0 1068.0 529.20±20.22 31.98<br />

Brix (%) 13.80 25.20 18.74±0.34 15.36<br />

Source: Azad (2000)<br />

5.4 Germplasm collections<br />

Several jackfruit producing countries have attempted sporadically to<br />

collect germplasm. The collection, characterisation, documentation and<br />

evaluation of accessions (or provenances) from <strong>the</strong> region of origin and<br />

centre of diversity are far from complete. There is an urgent need to<br />

establish targeted collections from <strong>the</strong> Indian sub-continent and also<br />

from Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia.<br />

Haq (2003b) reported on participatory collecting of jackfruit germplasm<br />

and preliminary work on its characterisation by member countries of <strong>the</strong><br />

Underutilised Tropical Fruits in Asia Network (UTFANET). A list of<br />

collections of jackfruit germplasm held in different countries be<strong>for</strong>e<br />

1995 and after 1995 is provided in Table 5.4. Collections held by<br />

different institutions/organisations are listed in Appendix 2.<br />


Table 5.4 <strong>Jackfruit</strong> collections held in different countries<br />

Country<br />

No. of accessions<br />

Bangladesh 70<br />

Brazil 45<br />

Costa Rica 15<br />

India 347<br />

Indonesia 155<br />

Malaysia 60<br />

Nepal 350<br />

Pakistan 10<br />

Papua New Guinea 8<br />

Philippines 178<br />

Seychelles 4<br />

Sri Lanka 77<br />

Thailand 87<br />

Vietnam 202<br />

USA (Florida) 3<br />

Sources: IBPGR (1986), IPGRI Database and Haq (2003b), Campos<br />

(pers.comm.)<br />

5. 5 Cultivars<br />

Samaddar (1990) reported that <strong>the</strong>re is no distinct cultivar of jackfruit.<br />

Hossain (1996) also reported that <strong>the</strong>re is no recommended variety of<br />

jackfruit <strong>for</strong> cultivation. Different types of jackfruit have come into<br />

commercial cultivation with different local names <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> cultivars. In<br />

reality, <strong>the</strong>re is little comprehensive or reliable in<strong>for</strong>mation on any true<br />

variety of jackfruit which has been developed through any breeding<br />

programme anywhere. However, <strong>the</strong> cultivars ‘Rudrakshki’ and<br />

‘Singapore Jack’ (‘Ceylon Jack’) in India are known to breed more or<br />

less true to type from seed (Soepadmo, 1992). These produce 5-20 kg in<br />

weight within 2-5 years of planting <strong>the</strong> seedlings.<br />

In most jackfruit producing countries <strong>the</strong>re are many local names given<br />

to clonal selections which are propagated (e.g. in India <strong>the</strong> cultivars are<br />

known as ‘Gulabi’, ‘Chamooa’, ‘Hazari’; in Bangladesh ‘Gala’,<br />

‘Khaja’,<br />


‘Hazari’ etc.) but how <strong>the</strong>se are to be distinguished from each o<strong>the</strong>r is<br />

not yet established. Selections from one country moved to ano<strong>the</strong>r have<br />

been given separate names. This causes confusions. In Sri Lanka a<br />

variety called ‘Vela’ with characteristic soft pulp is <strong>the</strong> same as one<br />

described by da Costa as ‘Gerisssa’ in India and he classified ‘Barica’ as<br />

a firm and harder fleshed type. Under <strong>the</strong>se two names <strong>the</strong>re are many<br />

sub-types which differ in taste, colour, fibrousness and sweetness and<br />

<strong>the</strong>y have <strong>the</strong>ir local names. Many of <strong>the</strong> local names relate to attributes<br />

ra<strong>the</strong>r than places e.g ‘Gulabi’ means ‘rose scented’; ‘Champa’ means<br />

taste like champedak, ‘Hazari’ means ‘producing a large number of<br />

fruits’ (Samaddar, 1990) (Table 5.5).<br />

Manjunath (1948) also classified jackfruit into two types on <strong>the</strong> basis of<br />

size, (i) ‘Barka’- a smaller fruit and (ii) ‘Kapa’- large fruit. The ‘Barka’<br />

is locally (in Uttar Pradesh of India) called ‘Katahali’ and yields small<br />

fruits which are somewhat sour in taste and weigh 2-8 kg each. ‘Kapa’<br />

is called ‘Kathal’ in Uttar Pradesh and neighbouring regions, yields<br />

large fruits weighing up to 40 kg and at ripening has fleshy sweet bulbs.<br />

Srinivashan (1970) reported a local cultivar, ‘Muttam Varikha’, with an<br />

average weight of 7 kg in Tamil Nadu (India) produced at ground level<br />

and with a large fruit weighing up to 55 kg. Singh (1985) also reported<br />

local selected strains, ‘Hairialyalva’, ‘Bhadunha’, ‘Zarda’ and ‘Bhusala’<br />

from nor<strong>the</strong>rn India. Morton (1987) reported selected cultivars of<br />

jackfruit and <strong>the</strong>se are, ‘Safeda’, ‘Khaja’, ‘Bhusila’, ‘Bhadaiyan’,<br />

‘Handa’, ‘T-Nagar Jack’. She also reported ‘Velipala’ as a local<br />

selection from <strong>the</strong> <strong>for</strong>est having large fruits with superior quality large<br />

bulbs.<br />


Plate 1. Whole fruit and bulbs<br />

Plate 2. Fruits<br />


Plate 3. High quality furniture<br />

Plate 4. Goat fodder<br />


Plate 5. Protective bamboo fencing<br />

Plate 6. A seedling raised in a polybag<br />


10 day old<br />

rootstock<br />

Uprooted<br />

rootstock<br />

Scion Defoliated scion<br />

Plate 7a. Steps of epicotyl grafting<br />


Plate 7b. Steps of epicotyl grafting<br />


Plate 8. Polybags with shading<br />

Plate 9. Grafted tree without pruning<br />

Plate 10. Grafted tree<br />

pruned and trained to<br />

have a longer trunk<br />


Plate 11a.<br />

Plate<br />

Fruits<br />

3. Fruits<br />

of different<br />

of<br />

sizes<br />

Plate 11b. Fruits of different shapes<br />


Plate 12. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> products<br />

Plate 13. High quality fruits at market<br />


Table 5.5 Cultivars of jackfruit<br />

Country Cultivar names<br />

Australia Golden nugget, Black gold, Honey gold, Lemon gold,<br />

Cheena*, Chompa Gob, Coching, Galaxy, Fitzroy,<br />

Nahen, Kapa, Mutton, Varikkha<br />

Bangladesh Topa, Hazari, Chala, Goal, Koa, Khaja<br />

India Kooli, Varika, Gerissal, Barica, Ghila, Karcha,<br />

Rudrakshi, Champa, Hazari, Gulabi, Safeda, Khaja,<br />

Bhusila, Bhadaiyan, Handia, T-Nagar jak, Velipala,<br />

Gulabi, Champa, Hazari<br />

Indonesia Kandel, Mini, Tabouey<br />

Malaysia J-30, J-31, NS-1, Na2, Na29, Na31<br />

Myanmar Talaing, Kala<br />

Philippines J-01, J-02, TVC, Torres<br />

Sri Lanka Vela, Varaka (Waraka), Peniwaraka, Kuruwaraka,<br />

Singapore Jak/Ceylon jak<br />

Thailand Dang rasimi, Kun Wi Chan, Kha-num nang, Kha-num<br />

lamoud<br />

USA: Black gold, Cheena, Dang Rasimi, Galaxy, Golden<br />

Florida Nugget, Honey Gold, Lemon Gold, J-30, J-31, NS-1,<br />

Tabouey, Delightful<br />

Sources: www.fairchildgarden.org/research/jackfruit-cultivars.html;<br />

Morton (1987), Samaddar (1990), Soepadmo (1992), Mitra and Maity<br />

(2002)<br />

* hybrid<br />

However, <strong>the</strong>se names are based on three groups of fruit characters: i)<br />

Flesh soft when ripe, <strong>the</strong> pulp is thin, fibrous, soft, juicy and <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

yields easily to <strong>the</strong> thrust of a finger, ii) Flesh firm <strong>the</strong> pulp is thick, firm<br />

and crispy and <strong>the</strong> taste is variable (Table 5.6) and iii) There are some<br />

cultivars which are intermediate between <strong>the</strong> two and are known as<br />

Adarsha types (Azad and Haq, 1999). Samaddar (1990), Narasimham<br />

(1990) and Soepadmo (1992) also made a similar classification of<br />

jackfruit. More work is needed on <strong>the</strong> geographical dispersion of<br />

cultivars and <strong>the</strong>ir relationships.<br />


Table 5.6 Names of principal types of fruits in different countries<br />

Country Firm-fleshed type Soft-fleshed type<br />

Bangladesh Khaja, Chaula Gala, Gila<br />

India<br />

Karcha, Khaja, Khuja, Koozha<br />

puzham, Varaka, Kapa, Kapiya,<br />

Varikha, Barica, Kooza-xhala,<br />

Kooza puzham, Khujja or<br />

Karcha<br />

Ghula, Ghila,<br />

Koozha chakka,<br />

Tsjakapa, Barka,<br />

Berka, Koolai,<br />

Gerrisal<br />

Indonesia Nangka salak Nangka bubur<br />

Malaysia Nangka bilulang Nangka bubur<br />

Myanmar Kala Talaing<br />

Philippines Tinumbaga Sinaba<br />

Sri Lanka Waraka Vela, Peniwaraka<br />

Thailand Kha-num nang Kha-nun lamoud<br />

West Indies - Vela<br />

Of <strong>the</strong> diverse types described some bear fruits of superior quality while<br />

o<strong>the</strong>rs bear fruits of inferior quality. There are trees which bear fruits<br />

round <strong>the</strong> year or two or three times a year. Much more needs to be done<br />

to substantiate <strong>the</strong>se cultivars and note which are <strong>the</strong> more promising.<br />

5.6 Breeding<br />

Little is known about breeding of jackfruit. This may be due to its status<br />

as a “minor” fruit although it has high nutritive value and a wide range of<br />

uses. Any attempts to produce improved jackfruit cultivars would be<br />

targeted at commercial production but would also be of value <strong>for</strong><br />

homegardens. To initiate improvement requires a basic understanding of<br />

<strong>the</strong> existing clones. Farmers have selected <strong>the</strong> clones from natural<br />

populations <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir desirable characters but <strong>the</strong> selection has not been<br />

rigorous. Hence, some trees produce sweet aromatic fruits; o<strong>the</strong>rs are<br />

nearly dry and sour. Better selection and vegetative propagation of<br />

clones is practicable and ef<strong>for</strong>ts should be made also to extend <strong>the</strong><br />

fruiting season. Although little work has been done on rootstock and<br />

scion compatibility <strong>the</strong> evidence so far is that <strong>the</strong>re is a wide variability<br />

in scion per<strong>for</strong>mance with different rootstocks (Azad et al. 2006).<br />


5.6.1 Current improvement ef<strong>for</strong>ts<br />

A major ef<strong>for</strong>t has been made to initiate selection by carrying out<br />

standard characterisations and identification of trees with desirable<br />

characteristics.<br />

Table 5.7 Collection, characterisation, evaluation and selection of<br />

promising lines of jackfruit<br />

Country Collection<br />

characterisation<br />

evaluation<br />

Selection<br />

Bangladesh 70 10<br />

India 281 54<br />

Indonesia 28 4<br />

Nepal 350 47<br />

Pakistan 10 5<br />

Philippines 148 1<br />

Sri Lanka 77 3<br />

Thailand 81 2<br />

Vietnam 202 8<br />

This was done under <strong>the</strong> auspices of UTFANET (Underutilised Tropical<br />

Fruits in Asia Network). The ef<strong>for</strong>t was intended to be participatory with<br />

farmers. Table 5.7 shows <strong>the</strong> number of accessions of germplasm, which<br />

were characterised and evaluated in <strong>the</strong> participating countries of<br />

UTFANET. Selection of “superior” mo<strong>the</strong>r plants is shown in <strong>the</strong> second<br />

column. These were <strong>the</strong>n used <strong>for</strong> vegetative propagation by grafting to<br />

produce relatively large numbers of plants <strong>for</strong> homegardens and<br />

commercial use (Table 5.8). These trees can be grown with ease and with<br />

little or no care and it should prove to be profitable <strong>for</strong> farmers.<br />


Table 5.8 Number of planting materials produced in each country<br />

Bangladesh 130<br />

India 59<br />

Indonesia 20<br />

Nepal 48<br />

Pakistan 100<br />

Philippines 280<br />

Sri Lanka 11<br />

Thailand 117<br />

Vietnam 300<br />

The selection of superior mo<strong>the</strong>r trees and <strong>the</strong>ir clonal development may<br />

be faster and may have greater impact than conventional breeding.<br />

5.6.2 Focus on genetic diversity<br />

Most morphological traits are influenced by environmental factors and<br />

many quantitative traits are of polygenic inheritance and expressed only<br />

after several years of growth (Hamrick et al., 1992). As a result, <strong>the</strong> level<br />

and pattern of genetic diversity determined by morphological traits and<br />

characterisation are not very accurate, although characterisation should<br />

be based on high heritability of characters. In recent years, <strong>the</strong> isozyme<br />

techniques and molecular markers have been used to assess <strong>the</strong> genetic<br />

diversity more accurately (Gan et al., 1981; Weeden and Lamb, 1987;<br />

Islam, 1996; Anand, 1998; Azad, 2000). Molecular methods will also<br />

allow <strong>the</strong> identification of cultivars as well as determining <strong>the</strong> parentage.<br />

Azad (2000) studied four isozymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH),<br />

glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), malate dehydogenase<br />

(MDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP), and found variation in enzymatic<br />

patterns in jackfruit populations. He indicated that this may be due to<br />

genetic differences. Schnell et al. (2001) who studied genetic diversity of<br />

26 accessions from eight countries using AFLP markers provided a<br />

picture of <strong>the</strong> diversity within <strong>the</strong> accessions. The results showed that<br />

49.2% are polymorphic based on 12 primer pairs.<br />


Fur<strong>the</strong>r variation might be due to hybridisation as jackfruit is known to<br />

cross with chempedak (Artocarpus integer). This is supported by<br />

chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) studies by Kanzaki et al. (1997).<br />

By RFLP and cpDNA analyses, Kanzaki et al. (1997) confirmed that A.<br />

heterophyllus and A. integer were monomorphic <strong>for</strong> all restrictions.<br />

Schnell et al. (2001) analysed a known hybrid of <strong>the</strong> two species using<br />

AFLP markers, showing it was clearly separate from A. heterophyllus<br />

cultivars but related. Hence it would appear that A. integer is in <strong>the</strong><br />

primary genepool of A. heterophyllus.<br />

With <strong>the</strong> present in<strong>for</strong>mation available it should be justifiable to<br />

undertake surveys and collecting of wild species from <strong>the</strong> Western<br />

Ghats, <strong>the</strong> Andaman Islands and <strong>the</strong> south eastern part of India to<br />

achieve a better understanding of <strong>the</strong>ir distribution. More Indian wild<br />

species need to be analysed <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir relationships.<br />

However, in terms of genetic resources, collecting of wild species to put<br />

into germplasm collections will not be justified unless <strong>the</strong>y are known to<br />

be genetic resources of major importance and <strong>the</strong> material is likely to be<br />

used in crop improvement.<br />

5.6.3 Fur<strong>the</strong>r selection<br />

The genetic improvement of a tree species is time consuming as it<br />

requires 15-20 years to provide a cultivar <strong>for</strong> farmer use. There are two<br />

reasons <strong>for</strong> this. Firstly, jackfruit trees require 4-8 years to reach <strong>the</strong><br />

fruiting stage, and secondly <strong>the</strong> germplasm has to undergo several stages<br />

of screening including on-station and on-farm evaluation. Farmers’<br />

participation must be considered during <strong>the</strong> screening process because<br />

<strong>the</strong> farmers are <strong>the</strong> producers as well as <strong>the</strong> consumers.<br />

Cultivars mentioned in table 5.5 have been recommended <strong>for</strong> cultivation<br />

in several countries. The recommendations have been based on farmers’<br />

participatory evaluations.<br />

Azad (2000) studied <strong>the</strong> diversity of jackfruit in five regions of<br />

Bangladesh to select potential superior tree types based on farmers’<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation and on field observations. Farmers’ criteria included high<br />


yield, fruit quality, sweetness, early fruiting types and off-season types.<br />

It has been found from <strong>the</strong> study that those considered superior by<br />

farmers also received high scores from laboratory analysis <strong>for</strong> quality<br />

(Azad, 2000). On <strong>the</strong> basis of this analysis and scoring, 10 trees were<br />

selected. Two were early maturing (one is also high-yielding), one was<br />

late-maturing and one belonged to <strong>the</strong> off-season type. Five were highyielders<br />

(one is highly sweet) and two were quality fruit types. Among<br />

<strong>the</strong>m, three are from high rainfall lowland areas and two are from high<br />

rainfall hilly areas. Two are from mid-rainfall areas and two are from<br />

low rainfall areas. Specific types are now recommended <strong>for</strong> cloning.<br />

(Haq, 2003b)<br />

5.6.4 Desirable criteria <strong>for</strong> improvement<br />

The desirable criteria are shown in Table 5.9.<br />

Table 5.9 Criteria used in jackfruit selection<br />

Fruit production<br />

Moderate canopy<br />

Regular bearing<br />

Early fruiting<br />

High yield<br />

Fruiting season<br />

Small fruit size<br />

Fruit quality<br />

Sweetness (Brix %)<br />

Timber<br />

Tree height<br />

Good diameter/thickness<br />

Clear trunk height<br />

Straight trunk<br />

Good branching pattern<br />

Good quality<br />

In future, fur<strong>the</strong>r attention will have to be given to developing improved<br />

fruiting cultivars with good timber characteristics, especially <strong>for</strong><br />

homegardens. In many cases <strong>the</strong> use requirements can conflict since<br />

good timber types are not necessarily also good fruiting types.<br />

5.6.5 Ideotypes<br />

It is advisable to identify ideotypes <strong>for</strong> different purposes, localities,<br />

environments and cultural practices. The several characters considered<br />

important in a superior cultivar of jackfruit have been noted above.<br />

Never<strong>the</strong>less, ideotype identification should focus on specific services<br />


and products that could be marketed, ei<strong>the</strong>r locally and internationally.<br />

According to Haq (1995) <strong>the</strong> most important characteristics of a jackfruit<br />

ideotype are:<br />

(a) architecture of canopy with acceptable <strong>for</strong>m which is easy to manage<br />

and requires less or no pruning <strong>for</strong> fruit production. In <strong>the</strong> case of timber,<br />

long straight trunks would be appropriate. This would be acceptable <strong>for</strong><br />

crop diversification and agro<strong>for</strong>estry systems.<br />

(b) vigorous and prolific plants compatible with one or more rootstocks<br />

with early flowering and regular bearing.<br />

(c) good quality fruits with acceptable flesh colour and texture, good<br />

flavour and sweetness.<br />

(d) fruits with symmetrical <strong>for</strong>m and acceptable size types and fruit borer<br />

and die-back and flood resistant.<br />

(e) wider adaptation.<br />

(f) time of fruit maturity.<br />

(g) off-season type.<br />

(h) long post-harvest life. and<br />

(i) above all, high yield.<br />

5.7 Genetic conservation<br />

The wealth of genetic diversity of jackfruit is <strong>the</strong> basis <strong>for</strong> present and<br />

future use. Any erosion of germplasm resources will not only result in<br />

loss of genetic materials, but also hinder <strong>the</strong> improvement of <strong>the</strong> crop.<br />

Conservation of jackfruit and related genepool diversity thus needs more<br />

attention.<br />

Moderate genetic erosion of jackfruit was indicated by Sastrapradja<br />

(1975) to be occurring in Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia, as a result of <strong>the</strong> replacement<br />

of seedlings by clonal cultivars. Haq (2002) reported that <strong>the</strong>re is some<br />

erosion of diversity because of persistent flooding in Bangladesh.<br />

However, <strong>the</strong> majority of <strong>the</strong> variation is not yet threatened.<br />

5.7.1 In situ conservation<br />

Based on studies carried out by Reddy et al. (2001), Haq (2002) <strong>the</strong>re is<br />

a need to identify/locate precise areas of diversity and possible natural<br />

wild populations of A. heterophyllus in <strong>for</strong>est habitats such as <strong>the</strong><br />


Western Ghats of India <strong>for</strong> in situ conservation. Such wild populations<br />

will in several cases <strong>for</strong>m parts of large natural areas of ecosystems<br />

demarcated as biosphere reserves.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong>, as a cultigen, is mostly grown throughout its range in<br />

homegardens and a few in small orchards. Here in situ conservation is<br />

possible but not practised. In order to develop “on-farm” conservation<br />

farmers will need to be persuaded to conserve trees which <strong>the</strong>y find<br />

useful. There should be some <strong>for</strong>m of incentive to <strong>the</strong>se small farmers to<br />

do so as <strong>the</strong> economic environment determines <strong>the</strong> will of farmers <strong>for</strong><br />

conservation. It may be necessary to encourage farmers to continue to<br />

grow trees in traditional agro-ecologies.<br />

5.7.2 Ex situ conservation<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> seeds are recalcitrant (IPB, 1990), i.e. <strong>the</strong>y cannot be dried and<br />

stored <strong>for</strong> more than about five weeks at low or ambient temperatures<br />

(Sonwalker, 1951). As <strong>the</strong>y lose viability quickly; seed storage is not<br />

possible.<br />

In vitro storage of vegetatively propagated clonal material can be done<br />

by using slow growth techniques <strong>for</strong> medium-term conservation. In vitro<br />

methods also help to eliminate pathogens and thus conserve disease-free<br />

samples; exchange of <strong>the</strong>se materials will also be disease-free. Some<br />

recent work has been carried out by IPGRI (see<br />

http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/index.htm).<br />

Cryogenic storage of embryos has been investigated <strong>for</strong> jackfruit. This<br />

technique involves <strong>the</strong> selection of fruits of correct maturity and <strong>the</strong><br />

subsequent processing of seeds and embryos prior to treatment. Lowered<br />

moisture content (16-26%) of seeds is essential <strong>for</strong> cryogenic storage (Fu<br />

and Xia, 1993). Chandel et al. (1995) showed changes in physiological<br />

characteristics, desiccation and freezing sensitivity <strong>for</strong> embryonic axes<br />

with increasing seed maturity. Problems occur when <strong>the</strong> embryo is not<br />

uni<strong>for</strong>m within <strong>the</strong> fruit. Embryos measuring 4-5 mm from mature,<br />

unripe fruits are best <strong>for</strong> survival and can be regenerated repeatedly. The<br />

selected fresh embryos have to be partially desiccated (to 60% moisture<br />

content) prior to treatment with dimethysulphoxide (DMSO) and 0.5%<br />

proline mixture. Freezing has to be carried out in stages i.e. pre-freeze<br />


slowly at 1° C per minute down to -40° C after which <strong>the</strong>y are plunged<br />

directly into liquid nitrogen at -196° C.<br />

In <strong>the</strong>ory seeds under cryogenic storage are in a state of suspended<br />

animation and should survive <strong>for</strong> infinity. However, long-term effects<br />

after storage need fur<strong>the</strong>r study. Thamsiri (1999) reported a 50% survival<br />

rate of cryopreserved axes extracted from jackfruit seeds and <strong>the</strong>y could<br />

be developed into whole plants. Cryogenic storage techniques offer<br />

many advantages besides longer storage life, such as <strong>the</strong> need <strong>for</strong> less<br />

labour and lower running costs.<br />

Although techniques <strong>for</strong> cryogenic storage are available, limited work<br />

has been done on developing protocols and a great deal more work is<br />

needed to standardise methods <strong>for</strong> in vitro storage of jackfruit (Mandal,<br />

1997).<br />

5.7.3 Field genebanks<br />

The majority of jackfruit germplasm is maintained in field<br />

genebanks/orchards (also called repositories or collections of living<br />

plants). These face risks of disease and pest infestation and natural<br />

disasters.<br />

The basic principle of <strong>the</strong> field genebank/orchard is to establish a<br />

collection in an area where jackfruit germplasm can be grown and<br />

managed. The advantage of a field orchard is <strong>the</strong> accessibility of <strong>the</strong><br />

germplasm, because evaluation can be carried out on <strong>the</strong> growing plants.<br />

Disadvantages are <strong>the</strong> high costs of establishment and maintenance and<br />

<strong>the</strong> risks of losing skilled personnel and loss of germplasm. Recently<br />

several field orchards <strong>for</strong> jackfruit conservation have been established by<br />

government institutions in India, (at IIHR), Bangladesh (at HRC), Sri<br />

Lanka (at HORDI), Thailand (at Plew and Chantaburi Research<br />

Stations), Philippines (at Babatngon, Leyte and IPB, Los Banos) and<br />

Vietnam (at RIFAV). In addition to this, some universities in <strong>the</strong>se<br />

countries have also maintained field orchards, such as <strong>the</strong> Agricultural<br />

University in Maymensingh (Bangladesh) and Kalyani Agricultural<br />

University (West Bengal, India) and o<strong>the</strong>r state university field stations<br />

in India. These collections are a valuable source of genetic materials to<br />

initiate improvement programmes and/or testing.<br />


Chapter 6. Harvesting, post-harvest handling<br />

and processing products<br />

6.1 Ripening and maturity<br />

The age at which jackfruit trees bear fruit varies with cultivar. Early<br />

<strong>for</strong>ms and vegetatively propagated trees can fruit at two to five years.<br />

Some however, may take 8-10 years to bear fruits. There are regional<br />

differences in <strong>the</strong> age at which trees bear fruit. In South India trees can<br />

mature in six to seven years but in North India it is later. Similarly<br />

bearing is delayed at higher elevations.<br />

In Asia, jackfruit ripens primarily from March to June, April to<br />

September or June to August depending on <strong>the</strong> climatic region, with<br />

some off-season crops from September to December or even a few fruits<br />

at o<strong>the</strong>r times of <strong>the</strong> year (Gunasena et al.,1996; Azad, 2000). In South<br />

India <strong>the</strong> fruit harvesting season lasts about 4 months, May-August. In<br />

<strong>the</strong> West Indies, it ripens in June and in Florida it is in late summer or<br />

autumn. In Darwin, Australia it ripens any time from June to April. In<br />

Jamaica <strong>the</strong> apex of jackfruit is cut to speed ripening and improve<br />

flavour.<br />

In Sri Lanka <strong>the</strong> tree flowers in November to December and fruit ripens<br />

from March to June, depending on genetic and environmental factors<br />

(Gunasena et al., 1996). At higher elevations off-season fruits ripen<br />

during October to December. Some trees at lower elevations may bear a<br />

few fruits during <strong>the</strong> off season. Normally <strong>the</strong> fruits mature in two and a<br />

half to five and half monthsafter flowering. This variation may be due to<br />

varietal differences or growing conditions.<br />

The fruit ripens normally at tropical ambient temperatures (20-35º C) in<br />

three to ten days depending on <strong>the</strong> stage of maturity at harvest and with<br />

no problems to delay ripening. Starch is <strong>the</strong> principal storage material in<br />

<strong>the</strong> bulb and during ripening it is converted to sugars. The colour of <strong>the</strong><br />

bulbs changes from pale to light yellow to an attractive golden yellow<br />

colour and is accompanied by <strong>the</strong> characteristic, sweet aroma. Fruit<br />

growth and maturation normally takes 5 months after fruit set but<br />


harvesting can be done even after 4 months. In cooler places and higher<br />

altitudes fruit maturation takes longer.<br />

Three stages of maturation are distinguished here: immature; mature <strong>for</strong><br />

cooking; and ripe <strong>for</strong> eating fresh. Immature fruits, those that are dark<br />

green with closely spaced spines, are usually cooked as vegetables. In<br />

Nepal 60% of jackfruit is consumed as green vegetables.<br />

The fruits are harvested at different stages of maturity depending on <strong>the</strong><br />

intended use. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> matures 3-8 months after flowering. Since <strong>the</strong><br />

ripening proceeds normally even when <strong>the</strong> fruits are harvested a little<br />

earlier than at <strong>the</strong> optimum mature stage, it is not essential to wait until<br />

<strong>the</strong> fruits are fully mature be<strong>for</strong>e harvesting. There is however, some<br />

differences in <strong>the</strong> taste from fruit to fruit, probably due to variation in<br />

maturity. Larger fruits give bulbs tastier than smaller ones. Young fruits<br />

which are green to yellowish in colour and with well expanded spines,<br />

are harvested <strong>for</strong> use as vegetables during <strong>the</strong> first two to three months<br />

after fruit-set, be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> seeds harden, and mature fruits are harvested<br />

after four months <strong>for</strong> dessert purposes. However, <strong>the</strong> timing depends on<br />

<strong>the</strong> date of emergence of <strong>the</strong> inflorescence.<br />

There are several characteristics of <strong>the</strong> fruit that can be used as indicators<br />

of maturity, ei<strong>the</strong>r on <strong>the</strong>ir own or toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>for</strong> a particular cultivar<br />

(Palang and Cajes, 2000). The best indicator may be a solid sound when<br />

tapped. This indicates readiness <strong>for</strong> harvesting as green fruit whereas<br />

ripe fruits have a hollow sound. In many cultivars <strong>the</strong> skin colour<br />

changes from green to light green or yellow and usually develops a<br />

strong aroma, and <strong>the</strong> spines on <strong>the</strong> skin become flattened and wider.<br />

The characteristics of fruit maturity were described by Yap, 1972:<br />

• Rind changes colour from green to yellow or greenish yellow<br />

• Spines become well-developed and well-spread and yield to<br />

moderate pressure<br />

• Last leaf on <strong>the</strong> footstalk turns yellow, and<br />

• Fruit produces a dull hollow sound when tapped by a finger.<br />


Among <strong>the</strong>se indicators of maturity, <strong>the</strong> last is claimed to be <strong>the</strong> most<br />

reliable. The o<strong>the</strong>r indicators, particularly <strong>the</strong> yellowing of <strong>the</strong> last leaf<br />

of <strong>the</strong> footstalks, appear to be inadequate as sole indices. Angeles (1983)<br />

observed that some footstalks with no remaining leaves still had<br />

developing fruit. Likewise, <strong>the</strong> change in rind colour as a basis <strong>for</strong><br />

determining fruit maturity is not a dependable indicator. Some cultivars<br />

turn light green, greenish-yellow, yellow, yellowish-brown or rusty<br />

brown at <strong>the</strong> mature stage. At maturity, <strong>the</strong> flag leaf on <strong>the</strong> fruit stalk<br />

turns yellow.<br />

Teaotia and Awasthi (1968) reported that with advancement of fruit<br />

maturity <strong>the</strong> ratio of edible to non-edible portions improves. It was<br />

reported that <strong>the</strong> first harvested fruit at 135 days after appearance of<br />

spike had only a 45.8% edible bulb, while <strong>the</strong> yield of edible bulb was<br />

60.4% of <strong>the</strong> fruit at 195 days maturity (Table 6.1). In nor<strong>the</strong>rn India <strong>the</strong><br />

optimum maturity period is around 180 days from <strong>the</strong> spike emergence,<br />

and <strong>the</strong>se fruit give good finished products (Teaotia and Awasthi 1968).<br />

6.2 Harvesting<br />

Harvesting is carried out by cutting <strong>the</strong> peduncle with a sharp knife and<br />

by traditional methods, such as <strong>the</strong> use of ropes and sickles <strong>for</strong> upper<br />

fruit harvesting and hand picking <strong>for</strong> lower fruits. If fruits fall on <strong>the</strong><br />

ground <strong>the</strong>y will bruise and deteriorate, unless consumed immediately.<br />

They should be harvested into a sack or lowered by a rope to avoid<br />

damage. If not harvested at maturity <strong>the</strong> fruits ripen fur<strong>the</strong>r on <strong>the</strong> tree<br />

giving a characteristic aroma. These fruits should be consumed soon<br />

after harvest.<br />

De<strong>for</strong>med fruits are harvested early because <strong>the</strong> flesh will not develop<br />

well. Harvesting of <strong>the</strong> fruits as soon as <strong>the</strong>y reach maturity facilitates<br />

handling and transport. For <strong>the</strong> processing of jackfruit a uni<strong>for</strong>m<br />

maturity of harvest is needed to obtain a quality processed product.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> taste is substandard if harvested from young plants. Old trees<br />

are preferred. Sweetness and taste increasingly improve with <strong>the</strong><br />

advancing age of <strong>the</strong> tree. Fruit growth and maturation normally takes<br />

five months after fruit set but harvesting of immature fruits can take<br />

place as early as four months. In cooler places and higher altitudes fruit<br />


maturation takes longer. For culinary purposes tender jackfruits are<br />

harvested within two to three months after fruit set, be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> seeds<br />

harden. Under North Indian conditions <strong>the</strong> optimum maturity <strong>for</strong><br />

harvesting good quality ripe fruit is about 180 days from <strong>the</strong> date of<br />

spike emergence (Teaotia and Awasthi, 1968). In South India <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

harvesting season lasts about four months, from May through to August.<br />


Table 6.1 Yield of bulbs and non-edible portions and physical variations in bulbs at harvest at six stages of<br />

maturity<br />

Harvest date and age of fruit Edible-non-edible parts (%) Variations in bulb quality______<br />

No. of days Colour of Yield of Non-edible Texture Colour Flavour<br />

after spike rind bulbs portion<br />

emergence<br />

_______________________________________________________________________________________<br />

135 Dark green 45.8 54.2 Hard White Poor<br />

150 Dark green 49.5 50.5 Hard to firm White Fairly good<br />

165 Green 55.0 45.0 Firm Yellowish white Good<br />

180 Green 58.0 42.0 Firm Yellowish white Good<br />

195 Light green 60.4 39.6 Firm to Soft Whitish Good<br />

210 Light straw 60.0 40.0 Soft Yellowish Ripe<br />

(slightly yellow)<br />

_____________________________________________________________________________________<br />

Source:Ghosh(1996)<br />


6.3 Postharvest handling<br />

Harvested fruits are carried individually by holding <strong>the</strong> stalk, and are<br />

generally loaded into bullock-carts or push-carts and transported to<br />

nearby town or village markets <strong>for</strong> retail sales, or wholesale to visiting<br />

tradesmen from larger towns. However, during <strong>the</strong> peak production<br />

season jackfruits are carried by trucks to markets or towns. The fruit is<br />

sometimes transported over 1000 km in order to attain better market<br />

prices. Generally, <strong>for</strong> transporting no packaging material is used. Fruits<br />

are carried manually in baskets or bags up to <strong>the</strong> road point. Post-harvest<br />

losses can be as much as 30-34%.<br />

There are several steps that can be taken to improve <strong>the</strong> quality of<br />

jackfruit and reduce post-harvest losses. The first of <strong>the</strong>se is careful<br />

handling and packaging to avoid bruising during transport and storage.<br />

For efficient marketing and utilisation of <strong>the</strong> fruits, harvested fruits<br />

should be stored according to <strong>the</strong> stage of maturity and ripeness. This<br />

allows <strong>the</strong> most mature and ripest fruits to be sold first. The less ripe<br />

fruits can be put aside and allowed to ripen. For marketing, <strong>the</strong> fruits<br />

should also graded according to size, large fruits weighing over 16 kg,<br />

medium fruits weighing between 8-16 kg and small fruits below 8 kg.<br />

Prior to use, fruits should be washed to remove latex stains and dust. It is<br />

not appropriate or necessary to wash <strong>the</strong> fruits prior to transport.<br />

ICUC (2005) recommended that post-harvest operations of jackfruit<br />

should be practised in seven steps: (i) post-harvest operation, (ii)<br />

packaging and storage of fresh fruits, (iii) ripening, (iv) pre-processing<br />

into fruitlets, (v) packaging and storage of jackfruit fruitlets, (vi) preprocessing<br />

into pulp, and (vii) packaging and storage of pulp. There is a<br />

need to wash fruits be<strong>for</strong>e processing to remove dirt, latex stains and any<br />

field contamination and drain <strong>the</strong>m properly to remove excess moisture<br />

from <strong>the</strong> surface of <strong>the</strong> fruit.<br />


6.4 Storage<br />

As mentioned earlier, jackfruit has a storage life of three to ten days<br />

depending on <strong>the</strong> maturity, ambient temperature and relative humidity<br />

(RH) conditions. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> is not normally stored in cold storage.<br />

.<br />

Mathur et al. (1952) studied a range of temperatures from 0-28° C and<br />

relative humidity (RH) ranging from 85-90% and reported that 11-13° C<br />

85-90% RH is <strong>the</strong> optimum <strong>for</strong> storing jackfruit. Singh (1972) also<br />

reported a storage life of six weeks at 11-12.7° C and 86-90% RH.<br />

During storage <strong>the</strong> sucrose content decreases from an initial value of<br />

9.5% to around 5% and is accompanied by a rise in reducing sugars from<br />

2% to 6%. However, <strong>the</strong> ascorbic acid reduction from an initial 8.2 to<br />

3.5% also occurs.<br />

Selvaraj (1993) summarised <strong>the</strong> metabolic changes which take place<br />

during ripening of jackfruit. These relate to storability and are outlined<br />

below.<br />

Sugars: The edible bulb contains fructose, glucose and sucrose.<br />

Sucrose is <strong>the</strong> major sugar besides fructose and glucose in<br />

varikka type fruits. 20.6% total sugar was reported by Ghosh<br />

(1996). A threefold increase in sucrose content is observed<br />

during ripening. The concentration of glucose and fructose<br />

increases six- and five-fold respectively from <strong>the</strong> mature to ripe<br />

stage.<br />

Acids: The total titrable acidity in jackfruit is low (0.13% as<br />

citric acid) and it shows little change during ripening. Citric and<br />

malic acids are <strong>the</strong> non-volatile acids present. Their<br />

concentration declines, more <strong>for</strong> malic acid, and results in an<br />

increased citric:malic acid ratio in <strong>the</strong> ripe fruit (Selvaraj and<br />

Pal, 1989)<br />

Proteins and amino acids: Protein content ranges from 1.5-2.3%<br />

in edible pulp at <strong>the</strong> ripe stage. The total soluble amino acids are<br />

270-670 µg and <strong>the</strong>ir concentration decreases during ripening.<br />


Sixteen amino acids, namely α-aminobutyric acid, asparatic acid,<br />

asparagines, cystein, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine,<br />

lysine, methionine, phenylamine, proline, serine, threomine and<br />

tyrosine were identified and <strong>the</strong>ir concentrations change<br />

markedly during ripening. Asparangine, α-aminobutyric acid,<br />

aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine<br />

and praline are <strong>the</strong> major soluble amino acids in jackfruit.<br />

Vitamins and minerals: At <strong>the</strong> ripe stage 100 g edible pulp<br />

contains 5.8-10 mg vitamin C, 30-90 µg thiamine, 126 µg<br />

riboflavin, 400 µg niacin and 5.3 µg folic acid. Vitamin A<br />

content is moderate (540 IU) and increases during ripening<br />

(Selvaraj and Pal, 1989). The fruit has 30 mg magnesium, 35 mg<br />

sodium, 0.5 to 1.1 mg iron and 220 µg copper in 100 g edible<br />

pulp (Selvaraj and Pal, 1989)<br />

Lipids: Total lipids, total fatty acids, unsaponifiables and total<br />

sterols increase whereas phospholipids and free fatty acids<br />

decrease during ripening (Selvaraj and Pal, 1989). The fatty<br />

acids identified are lauric, myristic, palmitic, palmitotelic,<br />

linoleic and linolenic.<br />

Aroma: The mild aroma of jackfruit is due to <strong>the</strong> predominance<br />

of esters. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> contains, in addition to <strong>the</strong> sixteen esters, four<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r components including aliphatic alcohols. The volatiles<br />

(0.02%) extracted from ripe fruit have been resolved into 38<br />

components (Selvaraj and Pal, 1989). Sensory evaluation of<br />

ripening fruit revealed that <strong>the</strong> fruit had no aroma at harvest<br />

maturity. The characteristic aroma is noticed on <strong>the</strong> second day<br />

after harvest and increases considerably on <strong>the</strong> fourth day<br />

reading a maximum at <strong>the</strong> ripe stage (8 th day).<br />

Pectins and Tannin: Appreciable amounts of pectins are found in<br />

all parts of <strong>the</strong> fruit. The pectin content (as % calcium pectate) is<br />

3.2 - 5.8 in bulbs, 1.02-2.66 in aborted flowers (fleshy ribbonlike<br />

structure), 3.06-4.6 in seeds, 2.86-3.64 in rind and 1.95-2.23<br />

in cores. Low ester pectins can <strong>for</strong>m into gels in <strong>the</strong> presence of<br />

a small quantities of divalent ions (Vilasachandran et al., 1982).<br />

The pulp contains very little tannin and its concentration<br />

decreases during ripening.<br />


At <strong>the</strong> farmers’ level, harvested mature fruits are stored in <strong>the</strong> corner of<br />

houses to ripen <strong>for</strong> one week. Some farmers insert common salt into <strong>the</strong><br />

floral stalk <strong>for</strong> quicker ripening. Sometimes farmers dig holes in <strong>the</strong><br />

ground and store jackfruit if it is not yet ripe.<br />

6.5 Processing<br />

A large proportion of fruits are lost through spoilage. To overcome this,<br />

producers sell <strong>the</strong>ir marketable surplus within a short time from harvest<br />

at low prices. However, income can be increased significantly if produce<br />

is stored correctly or processed, since fruit prices double or even triple<br />

only a few months after <strong>the</strong> harvest (Roy, 2000).<br />

Oliveros et al. (1971) reported that <strong>the</strong> demand <strong>for</strong> ripe jackfruit has<br />

increased 100-fold in <strong>the</strong> Philippines following modern advances in food<br />

technology. Reduced post-harvest losses, increased shelf-life and<br />

preserved fruit <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> out of season period can improve <strong>the</strong> use of fruits<br />

through processing. Raw materials trans<strong>for</strong>med into edible products can<br />

increase food security and add variety to <strong>the</strong> diet improving nutrition and<br />

health. Creation of employment opportunities in production areas is an<br />

added bonus.<br />

The bulbs possess a desirable texture and a rich appetizing taste. In<br />

shredded <strong>for</strong>m <strong>the</strong>y may be eaten raw or used as an ingredient of ice<br />

cream, candies and o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>for</strong>ms of desserts. Local demand has made <strong>the</strong><br />

fruits very expensive in many jackfruit growing countries.<br />

Oliveros et al. (1971) extracted an essential oil from <strong>the</strong> rind by steam<br />

distillation. However, <strong>the</strong> yield was low (0.03%). It was colourless with<br />

a refractive index (np)25=1.48 and density (d)25=0.912. They concluded<br />

that <strong>for</strong> profitable commercial extraction of <strong>the</strong> essential oil more work<br />

was needed in <strong>the</strong> food and perfumery industries. Abraham (1971)<br />

suggested that steam distillation destroys <strong>the</strong> aroma and possibly is not<br />

<strong>the</strong> best method <strong>for</strong> extracting <strong>the</strong> flavour components of jackfruit.<br />

Nataranjan and Karunanithy (1974) have shown that <strong>the</strong> natural aroma<br />

could be added back in preserved products, i.e. canned products and<br />

nectars, by <strong>the</strong> addition of a few milligrams per litre of two esters<br />


syn<strong>the</strong>sised from gamma-butyrolactone. Swords et al., (1978) and later<br />

Rasmussen (1983) identified 20 major flavour components from<br />

jackfruit.<br />

Freezing: Singh and Mathur (1954) investigated <strong>the</strong> freezing of<br />

jackfruit bulbs. The edible bulbs from ripe fruits (excluding <strong>the</strong><br />

seeds) were sliced and packed (i) with dry sugar, and (ii) in 50%<br />

sugar syrup with 0.5% citric acid (on <strong>the</strong> basis of syrup), into<br />

jam cans. The product was frozen at -29° C and subsequently<br />

stored at -18°C. Slices packed in 50% sugar syrup containing<br />

0.5% citric acid gave excellent results. The colour, taste and<br />

flavour of <strong>the</strong> product were preserved <strong>for</strong> one year. Moreover,<br />

<strong>the</strong> individuality of <strong>the</strong> slices was maintained <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> year. The<br />

product prepared with dry sugar had a lower quality.<br />

Processed products: A number of products have been developed<br />

from raw, tender and ripe fruits and seeds (Plate 12). There are at<br />

least five products prepared from tender fruits. They are (i)<br />

canned in brine, (ii) canned in curried <strong>for</strong>m (in combination with<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r vegetables), (iii) made into dehydrated products, (iv)<br />

papadam or papad, (v) sweet or sour pickles in oil and (vi) sweet<br />

and sour pickle in vinegar. These products have been<br />

standardised (Bhattacharjee, 1981).<br />

The ripe fruit bulbs (excluding seed) and <strong>the</strong> rind of <strong>the</strong> ripe fruit<br />

(including perianth and unfertilised flowers) have been used <strong>for</strong><br />

processing in a number of products. Ripe jackfruit bulbs are<br />

canned in syrup, made into jams ei<strong>the</strong>r pure or mixed with<br />

dehydrated bulbs, chutney, preserves, candy, and concentrate<br />

and powder. Rinds of ripe fruit are made into syrup, pectin, jelly,<br />

pectin extracts, biscuits and papadam.<br />

The seeds of ripe fruits are used as vegetables when cooked with<br />

grated coconut, chilli, salt and spices and are a popular side dish<br />

with rice (Thomas, 1980). Roasted or fried seeds are tasty to eat<br />

when stewed with meat. Seeds can be processed: (i) canned in<br />

brine, (ii) canned in a curried style such as in combination with<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r vegetables, (iii) canned in tomato sauce, (iv) dried to make<br />

flour, and (v) roasted.<br />


6.5.1. Recipes<br />

Gunasena et al. (1996) have given <strong>the</strong> recipes and ingredients <strong>for</strong> some<br />

food preparations (<strong>for</strong> 8 persons) and <strong>the</strong>se are as follows:<br />

Young jackfruit curry:<br />

TYPE 1<br />

Ingredients<br />

1 medium sized young jackfruit<br />

1 dessertspoon coriander powder<br />

2 teaspoons cumin powder<br />

2 teaspoons sweet cumin powder<br />

8 peppercorns<br />

a sprig of curry leaves<br />

10-15 dry chillies or 2-3 dessertspoons chilli powder<br />

2-3 cardamoms<br />

2-3 cloves<br />

¼ teaspoon Maldive fish<br />

6 pieces of goraka (fruit)<br />

7 g garlic<br />

4 teaspoons salt<br />

850 ml second extract of coconut milk<br />

½ teaspoon fenugreek<br />

60 g red onions<br />

280 ml first extract of coconut milk<br />

Method<br />

Peel jackfruit and cut into convenient pieces. Score deep on skin side of<br />

pieces and put into water. Chop <strong>the</strong> onion. Roast <strong>the</strong> spices except <strong>the</strong><br />

chilli powder to golden brown.<br />


Put <strong>the</strong> jackfruit pieces with all <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r ingredients, and second extract<br />

of coconut milk into a pan. Bring to boil and simmer until <strong>the</strong> gravy has<br />

reduced and <strong>the</strong> jackfruit is soft.<br />

Add <strong>the</strong> first extract of coconut milk bring to <strong>the</strong> boil and simmer till<br />

gravy is reduced. Remove <strong>the</strong> goraka (a fruit).<br />

(Use a small pan so that <strong>the</strong> coconut milk covers <strong>the</strong> fruit. The first<br />

extract of coconut milk may also be added with o<strong>the</strong>r ingredients.)<br />

TYPE 2<br />

Ingredients<br />

450 g young jackfruit<br />

¼ teaspoon turmeric powder<br />

4½ teaspoons salt<br />

40 g onions and a thin slice of ginger<br />

2½ dessertspoons chilli powder<br />

4 teaspoons coriander powder<br />

2 teaspoons cumin powder<br />

2 teaspoons fenugreek<br />

2 teaspoons sweet cumin powder<br />

2 pieces goraka<br />

15 g garlic<br />

4 cardamoms<br />

2 cloves<br />

2½ cm cinnamon<br />

coconut milk (extract of one coconut)<br />


Method<br />

Peel fruit and cut into big pieces. Chop <strong>the</strong> onions.<br />

Put all <strong>the</strong> ingredients toge<strong>the</strong>r and mix well. Bring to boil and simmer<br />

till <strong>the</strong> fruit is soft and <strong>the</strong> gravy is thick.<br />

TYPE 3<br />

Ingredients<br />

450 g fruit pulp and seeds<br />

2 ounces onions<br />

1 teaspoon pepper<br />

½ teaspoon turmeric<br />

2 teaspoons salt<br />

2 cardamoms<br />

1 teaspoon fenugreek<br />

½ dessertspoon Maldive fish<br />

2½ cm of cinnamon<br />

7 g of green chillies<br />

280 ml second extract of coconut milk<br />

110 ml first extract of coconut milk<br />

Method<br />

Cut flesh into strips. Clean seeds. Wash well<br />

Chop onions and green chillies<br />

Boil all <strong>the</strong> ingredients except <strong>the</strong> first extract of coconut milk, until <strong>the</strong><br />

seeds are partially cooked<br />

Add pulp and cook on a slow fire till tender<br />

Add <strong>the</strong> first extract of coconut milk. Bring to <strong>the</strong> boil, cook <strong>for</strong> five<br />

minutes.<br />


TYPE 4<br />

Ingredients<br />

450 g fruit pulp<br />

55 g onions<br />

3 teaspoons chilli powder<br />

¼ teaspoon turmeric<br />

1½ teaspoons salt<br />

a sprig of curry leaves<br />

2½ cm rampe (pandan leaf used <strong>for</strong> flavouring)<br />

2 green chillies<br />

4 dessertspoons oil<br />

Method<br />

Wash and cut <strong>the</strong> pulp into strips. Chop <strong>the</strong> onions and green chillies.<br />

Heat <strong>the</strong> oil in a pan till very hot, add <strong>the</strong> rampe, curry leaves, and<br />

onions. When <strong>the</strong> onions are light brown, mix all <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r ingredients<br />

with <strong>the</strong> pulp and keep tossing until cooked.<br />

Cover with a lid and lower <strong>the</strong> heat. Stir occasionally.<br />

TYPE 5<br />

Ingredients<br />

450 g seeds<br />

1 teaspoon salt<br />

55 g coconut roasted to a dark colour<br />

2 teaspoons coriander powder<br />

2 teaspoons chilli powder<br />

570 ml second extract of coconut milk<br />

1 piece goraka<br />

Method<br />

Wash <strong>the</strong> seeds. Cover with cold water, add 1 teaspoon salt and boil till<br />

tender. Remove <strong>the</strong> outer skins.<br />


Add all <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r ingredients and simmer <strong>for</strong> about half an hour till gravy<br />

has reduced and is thick.<br />

TYPE 6<br />

Ingredients<br />

450 g seeds<br />

4 teaspoons chilli powder<br />

1 teaspoon cumin powder<br />

2 teaspoons coriander powder<br />

¼ teaspoon turmeric<br />

1½ teaspoons fenugreek<br />

Small piece of cinnamon<br />

1 clove<br />

1 cardamom<br />

1½ teaspoons salt<br />

a sprig of curry leaves<br />

570 ml second extract of coconut milk<br />

Method<br />

Crack <strong>the</strong> seeds with a hard object to break <strong>the</strong> skins. Boil, but do not<br />

make <strong>the</strong>m pulpy. Remove <strong>the</strong> skins.<br />

Mix all <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r ingredients toge<strong>the</strong>r. Add <strong>the</strong> boiled seeds and cook<br />

until <strong>the</strong> gravy is thick. Reduce <strong>the</strong> gravy to half or less. This curry<br />

should be cooked on a slow fire throughout.<br />

TYPE 7<br />

Ingredients<br />

450 g pulp<br />

2 green chillies<br />

2 cloves of garlic<br />

2 teaspoons chilli powder<br />

1 teaspoon cumin powder<br />


1 teaspoon salt<br />

1 teaspoon sweet cumin powder<br />

1 pint toge<strong>the</strong>r of second and third extracts of coconut milk<br />

1 teaspoon fenugreek<br />

¼ teaspoon turmeric<br />

110 ml first extract of coconut milk<br />

a sprig of curry leaves<br />

55 g onions<br />

Method<br />

Wash and cut pericarps into strips and put in pan. Chop <strong>the</strong> onions and<br />

chilli. Add <strong>the</strong>m with all <strong>the</strong> dry ingredients and <strong>the</strong> second and third<br />

extracts of coconut milk. Bring to <strong>the</strong> boil and cook.<br />

Add <strong>the</strong> first extract of coconut milk. Bring to <strong>the</strong> boil and simmer <strong>for</strong><br />

five minutes.<br />

TYPE 8<br />

Ingredients<br />

450 g young fruit<br />

25 g green chillies<br />

110 g onions<br />

1 teaspoon chilli powder<br />

¼ teaspoon cumin powder<br />

1-2 dessertspoons Maldives fish<br />

3-4 teaspoons lime juice<br />

Add salt to taste<br />

¼ teaspoon pepper powder<br />

a pinch of turmeric<br />

a sprig of curry leaves<br />

bread crumbs<br />

flour and water batter<br />

oil <strong>for</strong> deep frying<br />


Method<br />

Peel and cut <strong>the</strong> fruit into small pieces, cover with water, add one<br />

teaspoon of salt and boil till tender. Mince finely.<br />

Chop <strong>the</strong> onions and green chillies. Heat one dessertspoon oil and fry<br />

onions and curry leaves. Add Maldives fish, curry powder, chillies, salt<br />

and pepper and minced fruit, and fry <strong>for</strong> a few minutes mixing well.<br />

Form into cutlets; dip in a medium batter, crumb and deep fry until<br />

golden brown.<br />

Pickles<br />

Ingredients<br />

1 kg peeled jackfruit<br />

salt to prepare 5% brine solution (50 g/l)<br />

2.5 g turmeric powder<br />

25 g coriander seeds<br />

10-20 g chilli powder<br />

10 g salt<br />

150 g sugar<br />

10 ml vinegar<br />

Method<br />

Small tender green jackfruits are cut into several pieces, <strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong> bulbs<br />

are removed by hand, <strong>the</strong> seeds may be removed and <strong>the</strong> bulbs are sliced<br />

into pieces. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> slices are required to be cured in brine solution <strong>for</strong><br />

8-10 days prior to pickling. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> pickle in oil is possible. Different<br />

types of pickles (sweet, spiced, sour) prepared from raw jackfruits have<br />

been described by ICUC (2005).<br />

Peel <strong>the</strong> skin<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> peeled fruits into 12-18 mm thick slices<br />

Prepare a 5% common salt solution by mixing salt with water, 50 g salt/l.<br />

Place <strong>the</strong> slices in a container and cover with brine solution. Weigh <strong>the</strong>m<br />

down to keep <strong>the</strong>m submerged in <strong>the</strong> brine.<br />


Drain <strong>the</strong> slices after 24 hours using a stainless steel sieve and wash<br />

<strong>the</strong>m to remove <strong>the</strong> excess salt.<br />

Grind and mix <strong>the</strong> following spices (<strong>for</strong> 1 kg peeled jackfruit): 2.5 g<br />

turmeric powder, 25 g coriander seeds, 10-20 g chilli powder, 10 g salt.<br />

150 g sugar. Add <strong>the</strong> spice mix and vinegar (10 ml/kg) to <strong>the</strong> jackfruit<br />

slices and cook <strong>the</strong> mix in a stainless steel boiling pan <strong>for</strong> 30 minutes<br />

while stirring. Pour <strong>the</strong> pickle into pre-sterilised jars and seal. Cool <strong>the</strong><br />

jars at room temperature, <strong>the</strong>n label.<br />

Jam<br />

Ingredients<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> pulp<br />

Sugar<br />

Citric acid<br />

Pineapple essence<br />

Orange essence<br />

1 kg<br />

1 kg<br />

2½ g<br />

½ kg<br />

½ ml<br />

Method<br />

Ripe fruits are cut into several pieces and <strong>the</strong> bulbs are removed by hand.<br />

The bulbs are <strong>the</strong>n cooked <strong>for</strong> 15 minutes and pulped, <strong>the</strong> core being<br />

removed. Cut <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> bulb to remove <strong>the</strong> seeds, and grind <strong>the</strong><br />

bulbs to pulp using a blender. The pulp is mixed with o<strong>the</strong>r fruit pulp<br />

(jackfruit: o<strong>the</strong>r fruits=1:1). Dissolve 10 g pectin per kg mixed fruit pulp<br />

in some water and add to <strong>the</strong> mixture. Add 1 kg sugar per kg mixed fruit<br />

pulp and mix. Heat <strong>the</strong> mixture in a stainless steel vessel while stirring<br />

continuously until <strong>the</strong> total sugar content is 68-70º C, pour into presterilised<br />

jam jars and seal. The ideal pouring temperature is 82-85º C.<br />

Cool jars at room temperature, <strong>the</strong>n label.<br />

The colour of <strong>the</strong> final product is yellow, TSS is 68° Brix, <strong>the</strong><br />

consistency is semi solid, and <strong>the</strong> flavour is pleasant. But <strong>the</strong> product is<br />

somewhat sticky, so fur<strong>the</strong>r refinement of <strong>the</strong> process is needed to<br />

develop a marketable product.<br />


Jelly<br />

Jelly is a product of gelatinous consistency prepared by boiling strained<br />

fruit extract with sugar. It is a sparkling product which is transparent<br />

with an attractive colour.<br />

Ingredients <strong>for</strong> jackfruit extract<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> extract<br />

1 kg<br />

(perigones and rind of ripe jackfruit)<br />

Water<br />

1½ kg<br />

Boiling time<br />

40 minutes<br />

TSS<br />

100º Brix<br />

Ingredients <strong>for</strong> jelly preparation<br />

Quantity of extract<br />

1kg<br />

Quantity of sugar<br />

1kg<br />

TSS<br />

75º Brix<br />

Final weight<br />

1.02 kg<br />

Number of bottles 500 x 2<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> beverages (ICUC, 2005)<br />

Ingredients<br />

Pulp<br />

150 g<br />

Sugar<br />

140 g<br />

Water<br />

710 ml<br />

KMS (Potassium metabisulphite)140 mg<br />

Final weight of <strong>the</strong> product 1 kg<br />

Fruit TSS<br />

14º Brix<br />

Taste<br />

Refreshing<br />

Colour<br />

Yellow orange<br />

Method<br />

Cut ripe fruit in half lengthwise<br />


Carve out <strong>the</strong> core of <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

Scoop out <strong>the</strong> bulbs<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> bulbs to remove <strong>the</strong> seeds<br />

Homogenise <strong>the</strong> pulp using a pulper or blender<br />

Boil <strong>the</strong> pulp <strong>for</strong> 5 minutes in a stainless steel boiling pan<br />

Cool <strong>the</strong> pulp<br />

Add pectin-degrading enzyme according to instructions on <strong>the</strong> packet<br />

Keep <strong>the</strong> mixture at room temperature overnight<br />

Filter <strong>the</strong> extract using a muslin cloth or stainless steel filter<br />

Prepare a 50% sugar syrup solution at 90º C by dissolving 500 g sugar in<br />

a small amount of water and make <strong>the</strong> volume up to 1 litre.<br />

Combine <strong>the</strong> fruit juice (30%) and sugar syrup (70%). To obtain 1 litre<br />

of <strong>the</strong> beverage mix 300 ml juice and 700 ml sugar syrup<br />

Add a preservative such as sodium meta-bisulphite (concentration up to<br />

0.05%) (optional)<br />

Pour into pre-sterilised bottles by using ei<strong>the</strong>r a jug and funnel or a<br />

stainless steel bucket with an outer tap.<br />

Cap <strong>the</strong> bottles<br />

Pasteurise <strong>the</strong> sealed bottles at 80-95ºC <strong>for</strong> 10-20 minutes<br />

Cool <strong>the</strong> bottles to room temperature by immersing in cool water<br />

Label<br />

Candy (ICUC, 2005)<br />

Candies can be prepared from ripe jackfruit pulp by putting <strong>the</strong>m in<br />

sugar syrup and gradually raising its TSS to 70º Brix.<br />

Ingredients<br />

Pulp<br />

Water<br />

Sugar<br />

KMS<br />

Citric acid<br />

500 g<br />

1250 ml<br />

750 g<br />

2 g<br />

3 g<br />


Method<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> fruit in half lengthwise<br />

Carve out <strong>the</strong> core of <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

Scoop out <strong>the</strong> bulbs<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> bulbs to remove <strong>the</strong> seeds<br />

Prepare a brine solution containing 15% salt (150 g/l) and 1% calcium<br />

chloride (10 g/l)<br />

Soak <strong>the</strong> bulbs in a brine solution <strong>for</strong> 2 days. Place a wooden plate with a<br />

weight on top of <strong>the</strong> fruit to keep <strong>the</strong>m submerged in <strong>the</strong> brine.<br />

Remove <strong>the</strong> bulbs from <strong>the</strong> brine, wash <strong>the</strong>m to remove <strong>the</strong> salt and drain<br />

using a stainless steel sieve. Check <strong>the</strong> flavour to ensure that all salt has<br />

been removed.<br />

Prepare sugar syrup of 40º Brix.<br />

Boil <strong>the</strong> deseeded bulbs <strong>for</strong> 5 minutes in <strong>the</strong> syrup.<br />

Keep <strong>the</strong> mixture at room temperature (28-31º C) <strong>for</strong> 24 hours.<br />

Remove <strong>the</strong> bulbs from <strong>the</strong> syrup. Add sugar to <strong>the</strong> syrup until it is 50º<br />

Brix (use a refractometer).<br />

Immerse <strong>the</strong> bulbs in <strong>the</strong> syrup and keep at room temperature <strong>for</strong> 24<br />

hours.<br />

Remove bulbs from <strong>the</strong> syrup again. Add more sugar to <strong>the</strong> syrup until it<br />

is 62º Brix.<br />

Re-immerse <strong>the</strong> bulbs in <strong>the</strong> syrup and keep at room temperature <strong>for</strong> 24<br />

hours.<br />

Remove <strong>the</strong> bulbs and quickly rinse in water to remove surface syrup.<br />

Drain off <strong>the</strong> syrup by spreading <strong>the</strong> bulbs on wire trays.<br />

Dry drained fruits <strong>for</strong> about 1 day in a solar or tray dryer.<br />

Pack <strong>the</strong> candies in jars, tins, cardboard cartons or in poly<strong>the</strong>ne pouches<br />

and seal <strong>the</strong>m.<br />

Label<br />

N.B. Citric acid was added when strength of <strong>the</strong> syrup was 50° Brix.<br />

Final TSS<br />

70° Brix<br />

Colour<br />

yellow<br />

Candying of bulbs is practised to extend <strong>the</strong>ir utilisation. It was prepared<br />

by conventional syruping at 70°C Brix, with subsequent oven drying at<br />


60° Brix <strong>for</strong> one day. The moisture level of <strong>the</strong> fruit was reduced to 20%<br />

after drying.<br />

Fruit bars<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> bars are prepared by mixing sugar and citric acid with pulp and<br />

drying to a moisture content below 30%.<br />

Ingredients<br />

Pulp<br />

Sugar<br />

Citric acid<br />

KMS<br />

Essence<br />

Weight of <strong>the</strong> final product<br />

300 g<br />

60 g<br />

0.6 g<br />

a pinch<br />

1.5 ml<br />

150 g<br />

Method<br />

Three methods of drying <strong>for</strong> fruit bars were attempted - sun drying,<br />

drying in a cabinet drier at 60° C, and microwave dehydration. The<br />

product dried in a microwave oven had an undesirable dark colour. The<br />

colour of <strong>the</strong> product dried by sun drying and <strong>the</strong> cabinet drier were<br />

good.<br />

Weight of <strong>the</strong> final product:<br />

Sun drying<br />

155 g<br />

Cabinet drying<br />

150 g<br />

Recover %<br />

Sun drying 43<br />

Cabinet drying 42<br />

Dehydrated products (ICUC 2005)<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> can be preserved by dehydration of <strong>the</strong> bulbs, seeds, perigones<br />

and used to make products like papads. Pectins can also be extracted <strong>for</strong><br />


use in processing (Jain and Lal, 1954). <strong>Jackfruit</strong> bulbs can be dried in <strong>the</strong><br />

sun or in a cabinet drier at 50-55°C after sulphuring <strong>the</strong>m in a closed<br />

chamber. Teaotia and Awasthi (1968) carried out detailed studies in <strong>the</strong><br />

dehydration of jackfruit bulbs and reported that fruits harvested between<br />

165-195 days from spike appearance with 0.2% SO 2 treatment <strong>for</strong> 15<br />

minutes gave a good quality dehydrated product.<br />

Method<br />

Cut fruit in half lengthwise<br />

Carve out <strong>the</strong> core of <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

Scoop out <strong>the</strong> bulbs<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> bulbs to remove <strong>the</strong> seeds<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> deseeded bulb into 2 or 4 pieces<br />

Blanch <strong>the</strong> fruit segments by plunging into boiling water <strong>for</strong> 2 minutes<br />

and cool <strong>the</strong>m rapidly under clean cold water<br />

Place <strong>the</strong> blanched segments in a single layer on mesh dryer trays. Put<br />

<strong>the</strong>m close toge<strong>the</strong>r but not touching to achieve <strong>the</strong> maximum capacity<br />

and an even rate of drying.<br />

Load trays into <strong>the</strong> drying cabinet and dry at 55º C <strong>for</strong> 6-7 hours until <strong>the</strong><br />

moisture content is reduced to 5%. Remove trays and pack dried fruits<br />

immediately in moisture proof containers e.g. 400 gauge poly<strong>the</strong>ne or<br />

polypropylene pouches, and heat-seal <strong>the</strong>m. Label.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> lea<strong>the</strong>r (ICUC 2005)<br />

Ingredients<br />

1 kg fruit bulbs<br />

100-150 g/kg sugar<br />

0.1 g/kg potassium or sodium meta-bisulphite<br />

Method<br />

Cut fruit in half lengthwise<br />

Carve <strong>the</strong> sticky core<br />

Scoop out <strong>the</strong> bulbs<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> bulbs to remove <strong>the</strong> seeds<br />


Add sugar (10-15% <strong>the</strong> weight of <strong>the</strong> bulbs = 100-150 g/kg) according to<br />

variety used and taste.<br />

Blend <strong>the</strong> bulbs<br />

Dissolve preservative e.g. potassium or sodium meta-bisulphite (0.1<br />

g/kg) in water and add to <strong>the</strong> product<br />

Concentrate mixture in a stream-jacketed pan.<br />

Spread concentrate on stainless steel trays lined with grease proof paper<br />

in 3 mm thickness.<br />

Dry lea<strong>the</strong>r using a solar (2 days) or mechanised dryer (18-20) hours.<br />

Turn it over after 1 day in a solar dryer or 5 hours in an artificial dryer<br />

until <strong>the</strong> moisture content is 9-12%.<br />

Canning of raw jackfruit<br />

Bhatia et al. (1956) described a procedure <strong>for</strong> canning raw jackfruit in<br />

brine in which tender jackfruit flesh cubes were used in 2% brine in cans.<br />

Bhatia et al. (1955) also described methods <strong>for</strong> canning of raw jackfruit<br />

packed in curried style, ei<strong>the</strong>r alone or in combination with o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

vegetables like potato, tomato, cauliflower, beans etc. In this case, <strong>the</strong><br />

product is canned in spiced gravy instead of brine.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> seeds<br />

Sun dried or oven dried (cabinet drier) seeds can be preserved in airtight<br />

containers <strong>for</strong> over a year. The dehydrated seeds after soaking in water<br />

<strong>for</strong> about 18 hours can be used as fresh seeds <strong>for</strong> canning or can be<br />

cooked and consumed (Bhatia et al., 1956).<br />

Flour prepared from dried jackfruit seeds mixed at a 25% level with<br />

wheat flour was found to be useful <strong>for</strong> “Chapati” making.<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> pectin<br />

Good quality pectin can be prepared from jackfruit waste.<br />

Krishnamurthy and Giri (1949) reported that pericarps and kernels of<br />

jackfruit are rich in pectin. Bhatia et al. (1959) prepared pectin and also<br />

pectin extracts from jackfruit rind.<br />


<strong>Jackfruit</strong> powder (ICUC, 2005)<br />

Method<br />

Cut fruit in half lengthwise.<br />

Carve out <strong>the</strong> core of <strong>the</strong> fruit. Scoop out <strong>the</strong> bulbs<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> bulbs to remove seeds<br />

Cut <strong>the</strong> deseeded bulb into 2-4 pieces<br />

Blanch fruit segments by plunging into boiling water <strong>for</strong> 2 minutes and<br />

cooling <strong>the</strong>m rapidly under clean cold water.<br />

Place <strong>the</strong> blanched segments in a single layer on <strong>the</strong> mesh dryer trays.<br />

Put <strong>the</strong>m close toge<strong>the</strong>r but not touching to achieve <strong>the</strong> maximum<br />

capacity and an even rate of drying.<br />

Load trays into <strong>the</strong> drying cabinet and dry at 55º C <strong>for</strong> 6-7 hours until <strong>the</strong><br />

moisture content is reduced to 5%.<br />

Grind <strong>the</strong> pieces into a powder using a grinder or by pounding <strong>the</strong>m<br />

using a pestle and mortar<br />

Sieve <strong>the</strong> powder to remove lumps and unground material.<br />

Pack powder in moisture-proof containers, e.g. 400 gauge poly<strong>the</strong>ne or<br />

polypropylene pouches, and heat-seal <strong>the</strong>m.<br />

Label<br />

Fur<strong>the</strong>r recipes are available at<br />

www. fairchildgarden.org/horticulature/jackfruit-recipes.html<br />


Chapter 7. Economics of production and<br />

marketing<br />

7.1 Economics of production<br />

7.1.1 Cost of cultivation<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is not considered a major fruit by most national research<br />

programmes and because of this, actual production areas, total<br />

production and production cost data are difficult to obtain. As a result<br />

<strong>the</strong>re is a lack of in<strong>for</strong>mation on <strong>the</strong> economics of jackfruit, a situation<br />

which is ra<strong>the</strong>r surprising considering that <strong>the</strong> fruit is valued as a staple<br />

in times of scarcity in some countries particularly of South and Sou<strong>the</strong>ast<br />

Asia. From <strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation available, it is noted that production from<br />

Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand exceeds 7.5 million tonnes (see Table<br />

3.11).<br />

Bangladesh produces over 250,000 metric tonnes of fruits from almost<br />

25,000 hectares of land, with about 30% of fruits being grown as a<br />

monoculture. In India, <strong>the</strong> total area under jackfruit cultivation is thought<br />

to be approximately 102,000 hectares of which an estimated 100,000<br />

trees are grown in backyards and as intercrops amongst o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

commercial crops. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> is also grown commercially in Sri Lanka<br />

over an area of about 4500 hectares, primarily <strong>for</strong> timber although <strong>the</strong><br />

fruit is greatly appreciated and well-consumed.<br />

A few orchards <strong>for</strong> commercial production are found elsewhere in South<br />

and Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia owned by large farmers and in some cases by<br />

multinational companies. An example of <strong>the</strong> latter is <strong>the</strong> Unilever<br />

Plantation in Malaysia (M. bin Osman, pers.comm.).<br />

Farmers in some jackfruit producing countries are getting a good return<br />

from <strong>the</strong> crop. Many farmers claim that because of its regular and good<br />

fruiting habit and high market price, jackfruit is even more profitable<br />

than mango or o<strong>the</strong>r major fruits. Farmers get more return/income from<br />

early and late produce than from peak season production.<br />


7.1.2 Tree establishment costs in household farms and small<br />

orchards<br />

Since jackfruit trees are mostly grown in small farms/orchards, no<br />

estimates are available <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> costs of establishment of jackfruit trees at<br />

<strong>the</strong> farm level. In general, little cost is incurred <strong>for</strong> establishment and<br />

management by farmers: some cost is incurred <strong>for</strong> harvesting, storing<br />

and transportation and marketing. However, based on <strong>the</strong><br />

recommendation of Research Stations and Agricultural Universities<br />

regarding spacing, manuring and fertiliser application, <strong>the</strong> cost <strong>for</strong><br />

planting 100 trees has been estimated to be around US$ 54 in India.<br />

However, this depends on <strong>the</strong> region as labour and planting material<br />

costs differ within <strong>the</strong> country (Table 7.1). This estimate is based on 100<br />

plants grown in a hectare, following 10 x 10 m spacing, and pits of 1 x 1<br />

m filled with a mixture of top soil and FYM or compost. The estimate<br />

also includes <strong>the</strong> cost <strong>for</strong> seedlings/ grafted plants.<br />

Table 7.1 Estimated cost of establishment (in Indian Rs.) of a<br />

jackfruit orchard in India<br />

Item Quantity Rate Amount<br />

Planting materials 100 20/plant 2000<br />

FYM applied in<br />

pits (kg) 1000 0.3 kg 300<br />

Labour cost <strong>for</strong><br />

planting, manure<br />

application - - 400<br />

Total<br />

Rs. 2700 (US$54)<br />

7.1.3 Maintenance cost<br />

No special care is taken by cultivators on small farms to maintain<br />

jackfruit trees and <strong>the</strong>re is little maintenance cost incurred by <strong>the</strong><br />

growers o<strong>the</strong>r than pruning costs.<br />


7.1.4 Returns<br />

Generally <strong>the</strong> trees start yielding well 7-8 years after planting and peak<br />

yield is obtained within 15-16 years. Grafted plants are expected to yield<br />

from 3-4 years onwards.<br />

The exact yield varies greatly. For example, in India, <strong>the</strong> expected yield<br />

is around 250-300 fruits/plant in Kerala, whereas in Karnataka it varies<br />

from 50-250 fruits/plant. On an average one can expect 150-250 fruits<br />

per year per tree in India, however, a mature tree produces up to 700<br />

fruits per year, each weighing from 0.5 kg to as high as 50 kg. On<br />

average one can expect a yield of around 10 t /ha.<br />

7.2 Marketing<br />

In a recent survey in Asia (ICUC, 2005), jackfruit marketing involved<br />

three groups: producers, traders (middlemen) including wholesalers, and<br />

retailers. The marketing of jackfruit hinges not only on <strong>the</strong> development<br />

of suitable cultivars, production, post-harvest management strategies,<br />

processing and utilisation systems but importantly on marketing and<br />

market development. A marketing programme should include:<br />

(i) determining market channels, outlets and pricing<br />

(ii) assessing supply and demand of market potentials and<br />

corporate marketing systems, and<br />

(iii) establishing workable marketing in<strong>for</strong>mation systems and<br />

quality standards.<br />

7.2.1 Marketing channels<br />

The marketing channels involved in <strong>the</strong> movement of jackfruit produce<br />

are complex. The channels may vary between large, medium and small<br />

farmers. Large farmers sell <strong>the</strong>ir produce long be<strong>for</strong>e fruits are mature. It<br />

helps cash flow and reduces risk. Wholesalers in <strong>the</strong> city and large towns<br />

are typical buyers who may assume all <strong>the</strong> risks associated with poor<br />

fruit production, including damage due to natural hazards (Anon, 1986).<br />

On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rhand, medium sized farmers sell <strong>the</strong>ir fruits to local markets<br />

or sell surplus fruits to relatives and neighbours, or to small traders and<br />

local retailers.<br />


A production to consumption chain <strong>for</strong> commercialisation of fruits is<br />

shown in Figure 7.1.<br />

Where <strong>the</strong>re is an export market, <strong>the</strong> exporters have designated suppliers<br />

or commission agents, who visit <strong>the</strong> production areas, examine <strong>the</strong> fruits<br />

and buy only those that meet <strong>the</strong> exporter’s specification.<br />

In general, <strong>the</strong> buyers purchase <strong>the</strong> entire fruit crop of a tree and take<br />

responsibility <strong>for</strong> protection of fruits and harvesting <strong>the</strong>m at <strong>the</strong> time of<br />

required maturity.<br />

7.2.2 Products<br />

The following products of jackfruit are considered <strong>for</strong> marketing:<br /> Planting materials<br />

There is a shortage of quality planting materials although <strong>the</strong> demand <strong>for</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong>m has been increasing. As a result <strong>the</strong> number of saplings produced<br />

by farms and nurseries has been increasing. The price <strong>for</strong> a grafted<br />

sapling and <strong>for</strong> a tissue culture propagated plant is high (varying between<br />

US$ 0.75-2.0, depending on <strong>the</strong> country) and small farmers mostly plant<br />

seedlings because grafted planting materials are too expensive <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>m.<br />

It is estimated that a small nursery, selling seedlings and grafted planting<br />

materials, can earn on an average US$120-150 a month.<br />


Fig. 7.1 Producer to consumer chain <strong>for</strong> commercialization of fruits<br />

Source: Hossain, unpublished<br /> Unripe fruits (green vegetables)<br />

Tender raw jackfruit and seeds are popular products of <strong>the</strong> jackfruit tree.<br />

These are marketed mainly by <strong>the</strong> producers. In some countries, like Sri<br />

Lanka and Nepal <strong>the</strong>se products are more popular than <strong>the</strong> ripe fruits and<br />

are sold ei<strong>the</strong>r as whole fruits or in sliced <strong>for</strong>m. Price is determined on<br />

<strong>the</strong> basis of size, weight and condition of fruits and varies (US$ 0.2-0.5<br />

per kg) in <strong>the</strong>se countries and fluctuates depending on season and<br />

localities. These products are also canned by industries in some countries<br />

(e.g. Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines) where <strong>the</strong> procurement of raw<br />

materials is mostly done by wholesalers. The mechanism of procurement<br />


<strong>for</strong> unripe fruits is similar to ripe fruits <strong>for</strong> processed products. Price<br />

fluctuations are found to be very high depending on cultivars, season,<br />

localities and market demand. It was reported that in Nepal, 200 kg/day<br />

of jackfruit is sold in Illam as a vegetable, 650 kg/day in Dharan, and<br />

800 kg/day in Biratnagar. The vegetable was marketed at <strong>the</strong> price of<br />

NRs 45 (US$ 0.9) per kg in Biratnagar, NRs35 (US$ 0.7) per kg in<br />

Dharan, and NRs 55 (US$ 1.1) per kg in Illum (AEC, 2003). The<br />

wholesalers make profits of 20-25% on wholesale trading.<br /> Ripe fruits<br />

In a large jackfruit producing country most of <strong>the</strong> owners sell <strong>the</strong>ir trees<br />

on a contract basis and <strong>the</strong> amount is fixed based on <strong>the</strong> number and size<br />

of fruits: it varies between US$ 8-20/tree (Hossain and Haq, 2006). On<br />

this basis, a mature jackfruit plantation can fetch on average US$ 1500<br />

per hectare (based on 100 plants per hectare). The market chains (Fig.<br />

7.1) <strong>for</strong> ripe fruits operate in two ways in many countries: ei<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong><br />

producers bring <strong>the</strong>ir produce <strong>the</strong>mselves to <strong>the</strong> market, or collectors<br />

assemble <strong>the</strong> farmers’ produce. Sometimes wholesalers also per<strong>for</strong>m a<br />

secondary role as collector.<br />

In o<strong>the</strong>r cases <strong>the</strong> traders or <strong>the</strong>ir agents visit market centres <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

requirements. These market centres include weekly markets (sometimes<br />

twice a week) which facilitate local trade (See Plate 13). Traders<br />

(collector, wholesaler, retailer and vendor) determine <strong>the</strong> price <strong>for</strong><br />

producers by means of bargaining. Once <strong>the</strong> price is fixed an immediate<br />

cash payment is made.<br />

Big traders/contractors generally sell <strong>the</strong> whole fruits to ei<strong>the</strong>r consumers<br />

or to retailers and this fetches <strong>the</strong>m a margin of about US$ 0.5 per fruit<br />

depending upon <strong>the</strong> size and quality.<br />

The contractors/traders who have bought whole trees on a contract basis,<br />

harvest <strong>the</strong> fruits as and when <strong>the</strong>y become mature, bring <strong>the</strong>m to <strong>the</strong><br />

market and sell <strong>the</strong>m directly to retailers or consumers. Some small<br />

contractors around cities cut <strong>the</strong> whole fruit and sell individual bulbs.<br />

When <strong>the</strong> fruits are sold in this way, <strong>the</strong> profit margin <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> whole fruit<br />

may total US$0.55 depending upon <strong>the</strong> size of <strong>the</strong> bulbs and <strong>the</strong> number<br />

of bulbs per fruit. Despite <strong>the</strong> strategy. during peak season wholesalers<br />

purchase fruits from <strong>the</strong> primary and secondary markets.<br />


The supply and marketing of jackfruit largely depend on <strong>the</strong> fruiting<br />

season (Table 7.2) and <strong>the</strong> time of maturity which varies with <strong>the</strong> agroclimatic<br />

conditions and ecosystems. The jackfruit season is divided into:<br />

early, peak and off-peak depending on <strong>the</strong> availability in <strong>the</strong> market.<br />

This seasonality has also been noted in Australia, Zanzibar, Hawaii and<br />

Florida where <strong>the</strong> trees have been introduced.<br />

Table 7.2 Availability of jackfruit in different countries<br />

Countries Main season(s) of availability<br />

Australia June-April<br />

Bangladesh June-August<br />

Brazil January-March, August-October<br />

Colombia January-December<br />

India April-July<br />

Indonesia August-January<br />

Jamaica January-July<br />

Kenya June-October<br />

Malaysia April-August, September-December<br />

Philippines March-August<br />

Sri Lanka February-November<br />

Thailand January-May, October-December<br />

Uganda January-December<br />

USA (Florida) May-August, September-October<br />

Zanzibar June-December<br />

Source: Soepadmo, 1992; Crane et al., 2003<br /> Processed products marketing<br />

Underutilised fruit products develop country-wide demand only when<br />

good marketing has been established. Products like chips and papads in<br />

India are produced at <strong>the</strong> village level and marketed by producers as<br />

ei<strong>the</strong>r individuals or as cooperatives, such as self-help women’s groups<br />

in India. Pickles, lea<strong>the</strong>r, candy, dry pulp and juice are also produced at<br />

<strong>the</strong> village level <strong>for</strong> local marketing. These products may have brand<br />

names of <strong>the</strong>ir own or be marketed through cooperatives under <strong>the</strong><br />

cooperative brand name. The products do not in general follow strict<br />


quality assessment or packaging systems <strong>for</strong> market channels. However,<br />

most countries now require certificates from Food Standards<br />

Departments, and cooperatives in India and Sri Lanka have started to<br />

market jackfruit products with certification.<br />

Although <strong>the</strong>re is recent interest in underutilised fruit products, <strong>the</strong> small<br />

scales of operation, irregular availability of raw material, limited<br />

markets, and continued use of traditional processing make this<br />

unorganised sector of minor economic importance. There<strong>for</strong>e, marketing<br />

chains of growers-processors-wholesalers-retailers do not always exist.<br />

Sometimes processors have problems in marketing because of <strong>the</strong><br />

limited outreach <strong>for</strong> products and concentration by processors in a small<br />

area. Never<strong>the</strong>less, <strong>the</strong> underutilised fruit products hold promise <strong>for</strong><br />

expansion with appropriate promotional ef<strong>for</strong>ts which could include<br />

trade-fares, exhibitions, and door to door sales. In addition, value added<br />

products from <strong>the</strong> fruit, such as jacalin, will encourage industries to use<br />

<strong>the</strong> crop as a raw material.<br />

Currently production of processed products is extremely small and<br />

utilises less than one tonne of fruit per month in total in most producing<br />

countries. This is due to several constraints, such as:<br />

• Lack of technical know-how and training.<br />

• Limited availability of raw materials, particularly in <strong>the</strong> offseason<br />

period resulting in processing units not being fully used.<br />

• Non-availability of suitable machinery and equipment.<br />

• Small entrepreneurs, with inadequate machinery and equipment,<br />

who do not want to take risks in new production ventures and<br />

marketing of products.<br />

• Poor storability of fruits.<br />

• Difficulties in sun drying due to <strong>the</strong> monsoon season occurring<br />

during peak fruit harvesting time.<br />

• Lack of capital.<br />

• Products are not yet known to consumers and <strong>the</strong>re is risk in <strong>the</strong><br />

market as well as a lack of marketing facilities.<br />

• Lack of improved packaging materials <strong>for</strong> processed products.<br />

134 Timber and leaves<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> timber is popular in many producing countries and is highly<br />

prized. The timber price in Bangladesh varies between Tk 900-1200<br />

(US$ 18-26 per cubic feet or US$ 640-929 per cubic metre). India and<br />

Sri Lanka export jackfruit timber to Europe but trading prices are not<br />

known.<br />

Timber has been sold particularly to make guitars in <strong>the</strong> Philippines but<br />

it was considered inferior to o<strong>the</strong>r species. In <strong>the</strong> chain, woodworkers<br />

make <strong>the</strong> parts of <strong>the</strong> instrument and <strong>the</strong>se are sold to<br />

wholesalers/retailers/or factories <strong>for</strong> finishing.<br />

The dried leaves are sold <strong>for</strong> fuel. A full sack is sold <strong>for</strong> Tk 30-50 (US$<br />

0.6-1.0) in Bangladesh, depending on <strong>the</strong> season and <strong>the</strong> production area.<br />

The green leaf is also sold <strong>for</strong> fodder by <strong>the</strong> small van load (rickshaw)<br />

<strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> price of Tk 120-150 (US$ 2.4-3.0), again depending on <strong>the</strong><br />

season and <strong>the</strong> area.<br /> Pricing<br />

The pricing of jackfruit largely depends on demand and supply, with<br />

consumers paying higher prices <strong>for</strong> early and off-peak season fruits.<br />

Early and off-peak types may be of inferior quality and of a different size<br />

to <strong>the</strong> fruits from <strong>the</strong> main season. Pricing of jackfruit also depends on<br />

<strong>the</strong> quality and size of <strong>the</strong> fruits.<br /> Packaging<br />

Generally no packaging is used when transporting whole fruits. At <strong>the</strong><br />

village level, processed products, both fresh and dried bulbs including<br />

chips and papads are packed in poly<strong>the</strong>ne bags. Pickles and jam are<br />

packed in glass bottles. Candies and lea<strong>the</strong>r are packed in plastic bags <strong>for</strong><br />

local markets. Bulbs are canned in brine by industries <strong>for</strong> local and<br />

export markets. In some producing countries, pickles and jam are<br />

marketed in small sealed pouches but considerable promotion is needed<br />

to make <strong>the</strong> products popular in markets.<br />

135 Transport<br />

In many countries, jackfruits are brought to <strong>the</strong> market manually by<br />

carrying on <strong>the</strong> shoulder or head. <strong>Jackfruit</strong>s are also transported loosely<br />

by tempoes (rickshaw van) or by loading <strong>the</strong>m in available space on<br />

already loaded lorries. The transport cost is generally fixed by bargaining<br />

with <strong>the</strong> transport/truck drivers as only a small quantity is transported by<br />

contractors, and estimated to be US$ 0.06 per fruit depending on <strong>the</strong> size<br />

and <strong>the</strong> distance to market. In <strong>the</strong> Terai region of Nepal, as well as in<br />

Bangladesh and India, bicycles or bullock carts are used to transport <strong>the</strong><br />

produce to <strong>the</strong> road-head, collection or market centres, whereas in <strong>the</strong><br />

hills it is carried as a back-load in a “Doko” (basket). From <strong>the</strong> roadhead,<br />

<strong>the</strong> local buses are mostly used as <strong>the</strong> preferred means of transport.<br />

7.2.3 Domestic marketing<br />

A study by Ahmed and Islam (1996) showed <strong>the</strong>re are typically six types<br />

of middlemen involved in marketing jackfruits and seeds in domestic<br />

markets; (i) retailer, (ii) wholesaler-retailer, (iii) assembler-wholesaler,<br />

(iv) assembler-retailer, (v) wholesaler-shipper, (vi) wholesaler and<br />

processor. The retailers paid <strong>the</strong> highest prices <strong>for</strong> mature and immature<br />

fruits also receive <strong>the</strong> highest selling prices. The movement of jackfruits<br />

from producer to consumers passes through wholesalers and retailers.<br />

There are also commissioning agents of wholesalers who sometimes also<br />

act as wholesalers. They provide short-term finance, find buyers and<br />

sellers <strong>for</strong> wholesalers and retailers and provide storage. A fixed<br />

commission is charged, about 15% of <strong>the</strong> sale proceeds. In general, <strong>the</strong><br />

stages of movement <strong>for</strong> jackfruits are as follows:<br />

• producers sell to consumers at primary market<br />

• producers sell to retailers at primary market<br />

• producers sell to <strong>the</strong> wholesalers at primary and secondary<br />

market<br />

• retailers sell to <strong>the</strong> consumers at primary market<br />

• wholesalers sell to retailers at primary market<br />

• wholesalers sell to retailers through commission agents<br />

• wholesalers of one area sell to o<strong>the</strong>r areas or at terminal markets<br />

• retailers sell to consumers at terminal markets.<br />


Local industry in Bangladesh uses jackfruit <strong>for</strong> pickles at a rate of 500-<br />

1100 kg/month. In a market study in Bangladesh, it was shown that <strong>the</strong><br />

marketing margin of retailers (Tk 571/100 fruits) was higher than that of<br />

wholesalers (Tk 164/100 fruits, US$ 1=Tk 55) (Ahmed and Islam, 1996).<br />

In India, in addition to fresh fruit, processed products like chips and<br />

papads (sold locally <strong>for</strong> US$ 0.30-0.60) in a plastic bag of 100-300 g.<br />

In Nepal, fruits are sold <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> price of NRs 50-70/fruit (US$ 1=NRs 70)<br />

and <strong>the</strong> farmers earn a net income of NRs 6000-8000/tree (US$ 120-160)<br />

<strong>for</strong> ripe fruits (Chaudhary and Khatari, 1997).<br />

In Bangladesh, <strong>the</strong> usual suppliers again are <strong>the</strong> middlemen and <strong>the</strong>y<br />

collect orders from exporters, collect crops from farmers/local markets<br />

and deliver <strong>the</strong>se to <strong>the</strong> exporters on <strong>the</strong> day of shipment. No standard<br />

post-harvest handling practices are followed. As a result, post-harvest<br />

loss is enormous in particular because <strong>the</strong> packaging materials are of<br />

very poor quality, generally consisting of bamboo baskets or secondhand<br />

cartons.<br />

At present, <strong>the</strong>re is no standard phytosanitary certificate, con<strong>for</strong>mity<br />

certificate and food safety certificate, but as globalisation proceeds under<br />

WTO systems, <strong>the</strong> EU has already enacted a regulation including<br />

traceability norms. Many countries like Bangladesh are not yet ready to<br />

accord with this. Such regulating will also affect <strong>the</strong> production and<br />

marketing of jackfruit in o<strong>the</strong>r producing countries.<br />

7.2.4 International marketing<br />

Haq and Hughes (2002) estimated that <strong>the</strong> production of jackfruit will<br />

expand mostly due to an expanding market <strong>for</strong> processed products. It is<br />

also estimated that <strong>the</strong> demand <strong>for</strong> fresh fruits will expand in countries<br />

such as Japan, Malaysia, and <strong>the</strong> United Kingdom in addition to<br />

Singapore and Hong Kong and some Middle Eastern countries.<br />

Bangladesh exported 54,340 kg of jackfruit to <strong>the</strong> United Kingdom at a<br />

price of £1.23/kg. In <strong>the</strong> United Kingdom a fresh fruit is sold at £2.45<br />

per kg and a medium size fruit may cost £16-£20. Canned tender raw<br />

jackfruit and seeds can be sold in international markets, mostly <strong>for</strong> ethnic<br />

consumers. One can containing 250 g of bulbs in brine is sold in <strong>the</strong><br />

United Kingdom retail market <strong>for</strong> £1.39. In Bangladesh <strong>the</strong>re is no<br />


government support <strong>for</strong> exporters from <strong>the</strong> Export Promotion Bureau,<br />

but <strong>the</strong> Malaysian Government has recently signed a contract with<br />

Bangladesh to supply jackfruit which will be processed in Malaysia <strong>for</strong><br />

re-export.<br />

The main exporters of jackfruit in Asia are Thailand, China and<br />

Malaysia, and among <strong>the</strong>m, Thai products are considered to be <strong>the</strong><br />

market standard, followed in quality by Malaysia and China. Malaysia<br />

exports to Singapore (almost 85%) and Hong Kong, where grading <strong>for</strong><br />

uni<strong>for</strong>mity in shape is not required as strictly as in <strong>the</strong> United Kingdom.<br />

In Thailand, <strong>the</strong> jackfruit has a long season, April to October, and it<br />

exports to <strong>the</strong> USA year round.<br />

Colombia, India, Malaysia, Uganda, Jamaica, Thailand, Sri Lanka,<br />

Bangladesh and Kenya export jackfruit to <strong>the</strong> United Kingdom market.<br />

Among <strong>the</strong>se, Colombia, India, Malaysia and Uganda supply throughout<br />

<strong>the</strong> year. Thailand exports throughout <strong>the</strong> year except <strong>for</strong> July-September<br />

and Sri Lanka exports during all calendar months except December and<br />

January. The UK retailer Sainsbury is increasing its range of fruits as<br />

customers are prepared to try an increasing variety, and jackfruit has now<br />

reached 15 of its stores (www.just-food.com, 2002). The jackfruit is <strong>the</strong><br />

most expensive fruit on sale in Britain costing about £25.00 per fruit.<br />

The jackfruit has regional and international markets because it is<br />

available as a fresh fruit as well as a processed product. Malaysia<br />

exported more than 4633 tonnes of fresh fruits to Singapore and Hong<br />

Kong in 1995 (Azad, 2000) and earned about US$ 740,000. <strong>Jackfruit</strong> is<br />

popular in Hong Kong and <strong>the</strong> fruits are supplied from Thailand,<br />

Malaysia and particularly from o<strong>the</strong>r parts of China (Vinning and<br />

Moody, 1997). The Philippines has also exported jackfruit to <strong>the</strong> value of<br />

US$ 324,000 (Acedo, 1992).<br />

The jackfruit is available in <strong>the</strong> wholesale markets of Australia, supplied<br />

from Queensland and <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Territory. The fruits are sold in <strong>the</strong><br />

Sydney market, most frequently ranging from A$ 3-4 /kg. In addition to<br />

Sydney, jackfruit is traded in Melbourne and Brisbane. The fruits are<br />

consumed by ethnic groups such as Pacific Island communities and<br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asian communities resident in Australia.<br />


Whereas <strong>the</strong> large, heavy and perishable fruits will have limited fresh<br />

export capacity from producing countries, <strong>the</strong>re is a clear niche <strong>for</strong><br />

canned and o<strong>the</strong>r processed products as exports and due attention should<br />

be focused on <strong>the</strong>m.<br />

7.3 Socio-economics and marketing<br />

Socio-economic in<strong>for</strong>mation relates to jackfruit being primarily a<br />

backyard crop whose fruits are mainly consumed fresh or processed<br />

(Espino, 1987; Gatchailan, 1978). Very little socio-economic<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation is available on <strong>the</strong> role of women or children or <strong>the</strong> results<br />

of added off-farm income.<br />

As <strong>for</strong> marketing, little is known of <strong>the</strong> factors that affect consumers<br />

purchasing capability, user preferences, beliefs and consumption-related<br />

practices. Such in<strong>for</strong>mation would help policy makers, researchers and<br />

development workers in <strong>for</strong>mulating technological and nontechnological<br />

interventions in <strong>the</strong> jackfruit industry. A continuing<br />

research ef<strong>for</strong>t must be undertaken to exploit <strong>the</strong> considerable potential<br />

of jackfruit and make <strong>the</strong> industry a viable component of economic<br />

development and socio-economic change.<br />

There have been important studies on <strong>the</strong> role of Artocarpus in <strong>the</strong> rural<br />

economy of Nepal where two species, A. heterophyllus and A. lakoocha<br />

are cultivated on-farm in three of <strong>the</strong> six climatic zones of <strong>the</strong> country<br />

(Pandey, 1981; Jackson, 1987). Kaki and Kaki (1994) provided a socioeconomic<br />

profile of Artocarpus growers (Table 7.3). All <strong>the</strong> areas are<br />

relatively well-developed with diverse rich agriculture and good roads.<br />

Selection by farmers of <strong>the</strong> species is based on (i) ease of propagation,<br />

(ii) site suitability, (iii) effect on milk yield of animals, (iv) market value<br />

of main and secondary products, (v) preferences <strong>for</strong> fruit, (vi) rapid tree<br />

growth, (vii) use in agro<strong>for</strong>estry, (viii) need <strong>for</strong> fodder and fruits in <strong>the</strong><br />

dry seasons, (ix) ease of harvesting, and (x) multipurpose uses (Rustey<br />

and Gold, 1991). <strong>Jackfruit</strong> is of particular value <strong>for</strong> fodder as well as<br />

fruits.<br />


Table 7.3 Socio-economic profile of Artocarpus growers in Nepal<br />

Region Family<br />

size<br />

%<br />

Literacy<br />

No. of<br />

Livestock<br />

Size of<br />

holding<br />

(ha)<br />

Per capita<br />

food<br />

production<br />

(kg)<br />

Eastern 7.4 53 2.6 7.6 492<br />

Central 8.7 62 1.5 4.8 234<br />

Western 7.7 50 1.6 6.3 339<br />

Kaki and Kaki (1994) showed, by survey and rapid rural appraisal that<br />

data were available <strong>for</strong> prices and marketing. Farmers sold fruits on a per<br />

tree basis or per 100 pieces or per wooden cart to dealers. Dealers <strong>the</strong>n<br />

sold fruits by <strong>the</strong> mound in markets. Some fruits were sold to<br />

neighbours; some farmers also went to weekly markets. On <strong>the</strong> whole,<br />

marketing of jackfruit is dominated by contract buyers including agents.<br />

This system is entrenched in <strong>the</strong> sociocultural fabric of rural society<br />

where farmers get partial payment in advance and risks are transferred to<br />

buyers. Middlemen make <strong>the</strong> large profits and <strong>the</strong> price differential from<br />

farm gate to market is 1:6.<br />

On being asked about production, farmers cited lack of land, lack of<br />

markets and lack of government support and proper prices as serious<br />

concerns about production, but <strong>the</strong>re were differences between regions<br />

(Table 7.4)<br />


Table 7.4 Farmer cited suggestions <strong>for</strong> market management<br />

(from Kaki and Kaki 1994)<br />

Item<br />

Percentage of farmers citing <strong>the</strong> item by<br />

region<br />

Eastern Central Western<br />

Create markets 80 81 88<br />

Form cooperative 33 25 29<br />

Provide transport subsidies 93 85 75<br />

Provide price guarantee 73 71 50<br />

Provide cold storage<br />

67 48 83<br />

facilities<br />

Fix fodder prices 27 46 38<br />

Price differentials per fruit were less when compared to local markets or<br />

nearby towns than <strong>for</strong> urban markets. The big difference from farm to<br />

market is seen <strong>for</strong> urban markets. This is similar <strong>for</strong> jackfruit timber<br />

where farmgate:weekly market:nearby town:urban market is 1:1.5:3:6.7.<br />

A study in marketing was carried out in <strong>the</strong> Philippines and this was<br />

related to marketing of immature and mature fruits, dried fruits, seeds<br />

and wood (Salabao and Layola, 1994). Traders reported that fruit<br />

spoilage and high transportation costs were <strong>the</strong> major constraints.<br />

However at <strong>the</strong> farm level <strong>the</strong> lack of reliable price in<strong>for</strong>mation and<br />

reliance on buyers was acute. Better market intelligence is a pre-requisite<br />

<strong>for</strong> farmers to take shorter routes to final consumers and keep consumer<br />

prices reasonable. For example, dried fruits were marketed directly to<br />

processing firms and a clear chain is <strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e recognisable. However<br />

lack of grading standards <strong>for</strong> fresh fruit and poor packaging are<br />

conducive to current spoilage/waste.<br />


Chapter 8. Conclusions and future research<br />

needs<br />

Rapid increases in population growth coupled with limitations on<br />

resources are creating serious problems <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> steady supply of food and<br />

adequate nutrition in many developing countries. Both <strong>the</strong> quality and<br />

quantity of food have become important international issues in view of<br />

widespread malnutrition. Carbohydrates, proteins and fat are in general<br />

supplied from cereals, pulses and oilseeds respectively but <strong>the</strong>re are<br />

notable vitamin and mineral deficiencies in many regions. In this<br />

context, high levels of vitamins and minerals have been recorded in a<br />

number of underutilised fruits. Table 8.1 compares jackfruit (and ber or<br />

jujube, ano<strong>the</strong>r underutilised fruit) to more widely grown tropical fruits.<br />

This table highlights <strong>the</strong> jackfruit as being nutritionally rich.<br />

Fruits<br />

Table 8.1 Comparison of properties of tropical fruits<br />

Cal<br />

.<br />

Prot.<br />

(g)<br />

Ca<br />

(mg)<br />

Fe<br />

(mg)<br />

Vit. A<br />

(IU)<br />

Thiam.<br />

(mg)<br />

Vit. C<br />

(mg)<br />

Orange 53 0.8 22 0.5 - 0.05 40<br />

Banana 116 1.0 7 0.5 100 0.05 10<br />

Mango 63 0.5 10 0.5 600 0.03 30<br />

Pineapple 57 0.4 20 0.5 100 0.08 30<br />

Papaya 39 0.6 20 0.5 1000 0.03 50<br />

Ber 21 1.75 - 0.5-1 - - 166<br />

Ripe 98 2.0 37 1.1 540 0.09 10<br />

jackfruit<br />

Tender 50 2.0 53 0.4 30 0.12 12<br />

jackfruit<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong><br />

seeds<br />

139 7.04 50 1.5 17 0.25 11<br />

Cal.- calorie, Prot.- protein, Ca - calcium, Fe - iron, Vit - vitamin,<br />

Thiam.-thiamine. Source: Azad (2000), Pareek (2001).<br />

Recent commercial interest in several tropical underutilised fruits has<br />

resulted in an increased cultivated area in Asia and o<strong>the</strong>r regions of <strong>the</strong><br />


developing world. The export of fruits from Asia alone has been<br />

increasing by a little over 10% annually (Singh, 1993).<br />

<strong>Jackfruit</strong> is grown mainly on homestead farms and produces multiple<br />

products <strong>for</strong> food, feed, and industry as well as contributing towards soil<br />

management <strong>for</strong> sustainable environments. Although <strong>the</strong> importance of<br />

jackfruit <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>se purposes has been recognised little research has been<br />

done. There is a lack of understanding of <strong>the</strong> taxonomy and origins of<br />

jackfruit, of <strong>the</strong> needs <strong>for</strong> quality planting materials, and in particular of<br />

<strong>the</strong> non-availability of appropriate technologies <strong>for</strong> propagation,<br />

production, post-harvest handling, processing of products and <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

marketing.<br />

In recent decades, a number of scientific and economic interests have<br />

emerged to promote and commercialise jackfruit commodities. The<br />

primary reason <strong>for</strong> this is that <strong>the</strong> crop is already well-suited to <strong>the</strong><br />

household and farming systems of small farmers vulnerable to food<br />

shortages and nutritional deficiencies. Diversification within <strong>the</strong>se<br />

systems, through enhanced use of jackfruit could lead to increased<br />

production of new products which can be sold to raise income as well as<br />

satisfying subsistence needs.<br />

The following sections highlight <strong>the</strong> approaches needed by policy<br />

makers, researchers, extension workers, food processors and traders to<br />

improve <strong>the</strong> crop. Suggestions are made in particular <strong>for</strong> research<br />

requirements and <strong>for</strong> technology transfer to remove <strong>the</strong> constraints which<br />

have been identified in <strong>the</strong> earlier chapters.<br />

8.1 Taxonomy<br />

Chaper 1 pointed out <strong>the</strong> lack of knowledge related to <strong>the</strong> taxonomy of<br />

<strong>the</strong> genus Artocarpus, although <strong>the</strong> work of Jarrett (1959a, 1959b, 1960)<br />

has helped to clarify some confusion. More recent molecular research<br />

has provided important pointers as to which species might <strong>for</strong>m <strong>the</strong><br />

primary and secondary genepools of jackfruit. (Kanzaki et al., 1997;<br />

Schnell et al., 2001).<br />


It is thought that jackfruit originated in <strong>the</strong> Western Ghats region of<br />

India, whe<strong>the</strong>r it is still found wild or not is debatable. We are thus not<br />

sure of <strong>the</strong> original progenitor of <strong>the</strong> cultigen and precisely whe<strong>the</strong>r truly<br />

wild material of this still exists.<br />

8.2 Genetic resources and crop improvement<br />

Scientists are interested in studying genetic diversity of a species <strong>for</strong> its<br />

efficient utilisation and conservation. Underutilised crops have been<br />

overlooked <strong>for</strong> improvement by scientists possibly due to lack of<br />

knowledge of <strong>the</strong> crop. In jackfruit, collecting, characterisation,<br />

documentation and evaluation from <strong>the</strong> region of origin and centres of<br />

diversity have been sporadic and are far from complete. There is an<br />

urgent need to establish targeted collections from <strong>the</strong> Indian subcontinent<br />

and o<strong>the</strong>r jackfruit growing countries of Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia to use<br />

to improve germplasm. In terms of genetic resources, collecting of wild<br />

species will not be justified unless <strong>the</strong> genetic resources and <strong>the</strong><br />

cultivated material are better understood and are likely to be used in crop<br />

improvement. However, pointers can be derived from data recorded on<br />

local knowledge and ethnic uses.<br />

To initiate improvement, a basic understanding of <strong>the</strong> existing clones is<br />

required. Some trees produce sweet aromatic fruits; o<strong>the</strong>rs are nearly dry<br />

and sour. Better selection and vegetative propagation of clones is<br />

practicable and ef<strong>for</strong>ts should also be made to extend <strong>the</strong> fruiting season.<br />

Although little work has been done on rootstock and scion compatibility<br />

<strong>the</strong> evidence so far is that <strong>the</strong>re is a wide variability in scion per<strong>for</strong>mance<br />

with different rootstocks.<br />

To <strong>the</strong> present, selection in jackfruit has not been rigorous. Farmers’<br />

selection criteria include high yield, fruit quality, sweetness, early<br />

fruiting types and off-season types. However <strong>the</strong>re are no true cultivars<br />

developed as such, but local types have been identified which have been<br />

given names. Little is known about <strong>the</strong> breeding of jackfruit. This may<br />

be due to it being a long-lived tree and a minor fruit. Any attempt to<br />

produce improved jackfruit cultivars needs to be targeted both <strong>for</strong><br />

commercial production and <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir value in homegardens and <strong>for</strong> small<br />

growers, thus adding substantially to <strong>the</strong> latter’s income generation and<br />

food requirement.<br />


There is a lack of strategic planning by official agencies <strong>for</strong><br />

improvement of jackfruit <strong>for</strong> different purposes, localities, environments<br />

and cultural practices.<br />

The wealth of genetic diversity of jackfruit is <strong>the</strong> basis <strong>for</strong> present and<br />

future use. Due to its dispersal over very wide areas of Asia it is<br />

important that an assessment is made of <strong>the</strong> patterns of genetic diversity<br />

that exist. Such a study will help planning <strong>for</strong> national genetic<br />

conservation activities, ei<strong>the</strong>r in natural ecosystems or on-farm sites, or<br />

in well-known, well-described and focused ex situ collections.<br />

8.3 Crop management<br />

For homestead gardens and small orchards land preparation requires few<br />

skills (Coronel, 1983) but <strong>for</strong> commercial or large scale plantations land<br />

preparations require much more attention to attain <strong>the</strong> desired tilth.<br />

Most cultivated material is of seedling origin which often represents<br />

relatively inferior genetic material. There is a need to promote<br />

vegetatively propagated material thus improving uni<strong>for</strong>mity and also<br />

earlier coming-into-bearing. Extension to improve nursery techniques<br />

and provision of better planting materials is urgent.<br />

Agronomic practices <strong>for</strong> jackfruit are not well established as little<br />

research has been carried out in this area. Systematic experimentation is<br />

needed to develop optimum agronomic packages <strong>for</strong> jackfruit in different<br />

agroecological areas. The potential of <strong>the</strong> crop in different cropping<br />

systems has not yet been adequately investigated. The crop can be more<br />

widely grown once <strong>the</strong> combination of crops in agro<strong>for</strong>estry systems has<br />

been established.<br />

8.4 Post-harvest and processing<br />

Possibilities and opportunities exist <strong>for</strong> small food producers to process<br />

jackfruit <strong>for</strong> local income generation and employment. In rural areas of<br />

jackfruit producing countries, food processing is a major source of<br />


employment. It is not only important to <strong>the</strong> national micro-economy but<br />

also is one of <strong>the</strong> fastest growing sectors and is particularly relevant to<br />

marginalised and vulnerable women. Added income allows this group of<br />

women to spend extra on education, nutrition, and health. As a result it<br />

increases <strong>the</strong>ir income capacity and raises <strong>the</strong>ir status so that women<br />

command increased respect from families and communities.<br />

The present status of post-harvest handling and processing of jackfruit is<br />

very poor. There is high wastage because seasonal production causes<br />

gluts in <strong>the</strong> market and low prices. A major constraint is <strong>the</strong> lack of<br />

accessible practical in<strong>for</strong>mation, in particular on post-harvest handling<br />

and processing. Individual problems have been identified in Chapter 7.<br />

However, <strong>the</strong> policy environment is also important. Agro-processing<br />

sectors involved with major crops receive government support in <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>for</strong>m of subsidies, <strong>for</strong>eign exchange allowances, price stabilisation or<br />

guarantees, and access to specialists and consultants. Small-scale<br />

processors involved with underutilised fruits do not have such<br />

advantages.<br />

8.5 <strong>Future</strong> research<br />

As a result of <strong>the</strong> recognition that jackfruit is underutilised but has<br />

considerable potential <strong>for</strong> alleviating malnutrition, income generation<br />

and contributing to sustainability, ICUC has organised a series of<br />

meetings over <strong>the</strong> last five years in Asia with researchers, farmers (in<br />

particular smallholders) and stakeholders, including industries, to<br />

promote and commercialise underutilised tropical fruits including<br />

jackfruit. The specific focus has been on <strong>the</strong> utilisation of this tree <strong>for</strong><br />

rural improvement. The following suggestions and recommendations<br />

emerged from <strong>the</strong>se meetings:<br />


Table 8.2 Suggestions <strong>for</strong> research requirements and technology<br />

transfer<br />

Disciplines<br />

Requirements<br />

Taxonomy<br />

1. Identify close relatives and species<br />

relationships and throw light on <strong>the</strong> taxonomy<br />

of <strong>the</strong> genus, Artocarpus.<br />

2. Location of putative progenitors could lead<br />

to better improvement of <strong>the</strong> crop.<br />

Genetic resources and<br />

crop improvement<br />

1. Strategic plans based on <strong>the</strong> results of<br />

research and cooperation between<br />

neighbouring countries or regions, <strong>for</strong> genetic<br />

conservation of <strong>the</strong> jackfruit genepool.<br />

2. Collect, characterise (including use of DNA<br />

markers as a tool), evaluate, and document <strong>the</strong><br />

genetic diversity. Through farmer’s<br />

participatory studies identify quality planting<br />

materials, in particular to meet <strong>the</strong> needs of<br />

marketing.<br />

3. Suitable types <strong>for</strong> specific needs <strong>for</strong> fruit and<br />

timber production could be developed<br />

including those <strong>for</strong> multipurpose use.<br />

Agronomy<br />

1. Develop optimum and standard vegetative<br />

methods of propagation <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> use of small<br />

farmers who can develop small businesses<br />

through <strong>the</strong> establishment of nurseries.<br />

2. Development of appropriate methods <strong>for</strong> in<br />

vitro propagation to multiply promising<br />

planting materials.<br />


Discipline<br />

Requirements<br />

3. Systematic study of wild species to assess<br />

grafting compatibility to identify vigorous and<br />

genetically stable rootstocks.<br />

4. Continued cultivar selections to be carried<br />

out.<br />

5. Investigate agronomic requirements<br />

(including irrigation) to develop agronomic<br />

packages including organic production<br />

techniques <strong>for</strong> better crop management.<br />

Post-harvest and<br />

processing<br />

1. Appropriate methods <strong>for</strong> post-harvest<br />

handling, processing and product development<br />

<strong>for</strong> local and regional markets should be<br />

considered.<br />

2. At <strong>the</strong> local level, technology needs to be<br />

transferred to promote products, packaging<br />

techniques and better long distance transport.<br />

Marketing<br />

1. To improve income of growers and product<br />

producers. Government agencies and<br />

institutions should carry out policy research and<br />

stimulate <strong>the</strong> <strong>for</strong>mation of co-operatives,<br />

women’s self help groups, or o<strong>the</strong>r such<br />

associations so that <strong>the</strong>y can reach regional and<br />

international markets.<br />

2. Systematic in<strong>for</strong>mation ga<strong>the</strong>ring and its<br />

dissemination to all concerned, including those<br />

involved in rural development, growers,<br />

product producers and small entrepreneurs.<br />


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Halder, N.K. and Haque, A.F.M.E. (1996) Viability in jackfruit. A paper<br />

presented at <strong>the</strong> Internal Research Review Workshop. Horticulture<br />

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abnormalities in Jack. Madras Agricultural Journal 37:497-498.<br />

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Appendix 1. Specialists and institutions<br />

engaged in jackfruit research and development<br />

Dr A.K. Azad<br />

Principal Scientist<br />

Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council<br />

Framgate, Dhaka<br />

Bangladesh<br />

Dr Amzad Hossain<br />

Former Director Horticulture Research Centre<br />

Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)<br />

Joydebpur<br />

Gazipur 1701<br />

Bangladesh<br />

Dr S. Islam<br />

Director General<br />

Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)<br />

Joydebpur<br />

Gazipur -1701,<br />

Bangladesh<br />

00-8802-9252529<br />

00-8802-9252713<br />

Email: baridg@bttb.net.bd<br />

Mr Alamgir Kabir<br />

HRC, BARI<br />

Joydebpur<br />

Gazipur 1701<br />

Bangladesh<br />

Dr M.A. Mannan<br />

Department of Extension<br />

Khamarbari<br />

Framgate, Dhaka<br />

Bangladesh<br />


Director<br />

Horticultural Research Centre<br />

Joydebpur, Gazipur-1701,<br />

Bangladesh<br />

00-8802-9252529<br />

00-8802-9252713<br />

Emails: hrcbari@citechco.net<br />

baridg@bttb.net.bd<br />

Ms S.S. Annapurna<br />

Department of Biochemistry<br />

Andhra University<br />

Visakhapatnam<br />

530 003<br />

India<br />

Tel: 91 891 284 4535<br />

Mr A. Baruah<br />

Department of Animal Physiology<br />

College of Veterinary Science<br />

Assam Agricultural University<br />

Khanapara, Guwahati, 781 022<br />

Assam<br />

India<br />

Tel: 03 763 40001<br />

Email: rc@aau.ren.nic.in<br />

Mr A. V. Bhat<br />

Department of Biochemistry<br />

Kasturba Medical College<br />

Manipal 576 119<br />

India<br />

Mr Bijendra Singh<br />

Division of Horticulture<br />

ICAR Research Complex <strong>for</strong> NEH<br />

Region<br />

Shillong<br />

India<br />


Dr B. K. Chatterjee<br />

Calcutta University<br />

College of Agriculture<br />

India<br />

Dr V. Chikkasubbanna<br />

Department of Horticulture<br />

UAS<br />

GKVK<br />

Bangalore-65<br />

India<br />

Tel: 91 080 3330277<br />

Mr R. T. Gunjate<br />

Kinkan Krishi Vidyapeeth<br />

Department of Horticulture<br />

Dapoli<br />

India<br />

Tel: 02 358 82074<br />

Email: root@kkv.ren.nic.in<br />

Mr P. N. Gupta<br />

Division of Horticulture<br />

ICAR Research Complex <strong>for</strong> NEH Region<br />

Shillong<br />

India<br />

Mr T. R. Guruprasad<br />

Department of Horticulture<br />

University of Agricultural Sciences<br />

GKVK<br />

Bangalore 560 003<br />

India<br />


Mr V. Jamaludheen<br />

College of Forestry<br />

Kerala Agricultural University<br />

Vellanikkara<br />

Thrissur, 680 654, Kerala<br />

India<br />

Tel: 04 873 370019<br />

Email: kauhqr@ren.nic.in<br />

Dr G. Kalloo (DDG, Hort)<br />

Indian Council <strong>for</strong> Agricultural Research (ICAR)<br />

Dr. Rajendrs Prasad Road<br />

New Delhi-110001<br />

India<br />

00-9111-3382534<br />

00-9111-3382534/3387293<br />

Mr D. T. Kolekar<br />

Kinkan Krishi Vidyapeeth<br />

Department of Horticulture<br />

Dapoli<br />

India<br />

Tel: 02 358 82074<br />

Email: root@kkv.ren.nic.in<br />

Mr B. M. Kumar<br />

College of Forestry<br />

Kerala Agricultural University<br />

Vellanikkara<br />

Thrissur, 680 654, Kerala<br />

India<br />

Tel: 04 873 370019<br />

Email: kauhqr@ren.nic.in<br />


Dr K. R. Melanta<br />

Division of Horticulture<br />

University of Agricultural Sciences<br />

Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra<br />

Bangalore-560 065<br />

India<br />

Tel: 91-080-3330153<br />

Fax: 91 080 3330277<br />

Prof. S.K. Mitra<br />

B-10/284<br />

Kalyani<br />

Nadia - 741/235<br />

West Bengal<br />

India<br />

Email: sisir@vsnl.net<br />

Dr S. K. Mukherjee<br />

Calcutta University<br />

College of Agriculture<br />

India<br />

Dr P. Patil<br />

Indian Institute <strong>for</strong> Horticulture Research (IIHR), Bangalore<br />

Hessaraghatt<br />

Lake Post 560 089<br />

Bangalore<br />

India<br />

Dr B.M.C. Reddy<br />

Director<br />

Central Institute of Sub-tropical Horticulture<br />

O.O. Kakori<br />

Luchnow 227107, UP<br />

India<br />

+91-80-8466080<br />

+91-80-8466420<br />

+91-80-8466291<br />


Dr. M. Winarno<br />

Deputy Chairman<br />

Directorate of Horticulture Production<br />

JL Ragunan 19, Pasarminggu<br />

Jakarta, Selatan<br />

Indonesia<br />

00-6121-7806570<br />

00-6121-7806760<br />

Emails: hortina@indo.net.id<br />

M_Winarno@plasa.com<br />

Mr Agus Susiloadi<br />

Research Institute <strong>for</strong> Fruits,<br />

Agency of Agricultural Research and Development<br />

Department of Agriculture<br />

Tln.Raya. Solok-Aripau<br />

PO Box 5,<br />

Solok 27301<br />

Indonesia<br />

Tel: 61-755-22444; 20137<br />

Fax: 61-755-20592<br />

Email: agususiloadi@plasa.com<br />

Dr K. Budathoki<br />

Chief, Horticulture Research Division<br />

Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC)<br />

PO Box 5459, Kathmandu<br />

Nepal<br />

00-9771-525708/525703/523716/523041<br />

00-9721-521197<br />

Email: hrdn@wlink.com.np<br />

Mr Lajpat R. Akhani<br />

Horticulture Research Institute<br />

Mirpurkhas<br />

Pakistan<br />

Tel: 92-231-61843<br />

Fax: 92-2231-5504<br />


Mr. M. Hashim Laghari<br />

Director<br />

Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre (PARC)<br />

Park Road<br />

PO NIH<br />

Islamabad<br />

Pakistan<br />

00-9251-9255027<br />

00-9251-9255034<br />

Email: laghari_pk@yahoo.com<br />

Dr Hafeez U. Rehman<br />

SSO, Fruits<br />

PARC<br />

Park Road<br />

Islamabad<br />

Pakistan<br />

Tel: 92-51-9255027<br />

Fax: 92-51-9255034<br />

Mr Munir Sheikh<br />

Sind Agriculture University<br />

Tandojam<br />

Pakistan<br />

Tel: 92-2231-5505<br />

Fax: 92-2231-5504<br />

Dr. Jocelyn Eusebio<br />

Director<br />

<strong>Crops</strong> Research Division<br />

Paseo de Valmayor<br />

Los Banos<br />

Laguna 4030<br />

Philippines<br />

Tel: 63-049-5360014/5360015/5360017/5360020/536-0024<br />

Fax: 63-049-536-0016/536-0132<br />

Email: jocelyneusebio@yahoo.com<br />


Dr. Patricio S. Faylon<br />

Executive Director<br />

Philippine Council <strong>for</strong> Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources<br />

Research and Development (PCARRD)<br />

Paseo de Valmayor, Los Banos, Laguna 4030<br />

Philippines<br />

63-049-5360014/5360015/5360017/5360020/536-0024<br />

63-049-536-0016/536-0132<br />

Emails: psfaylon@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph<br />

psfaylon@pacific.net.ph<br />

Mr Mario Martinez<br />

DA-RIAC<br />

Balisasayao<br />

Abuyog<br />

Leyte<br />

Philippines<br />

Tel: 63-53-325-7242<br />

Email: daeviarc@tac.webling.com<br />

Dr Kudagamage<br />

Deputy Director Agriculture<br />

Horticultural Research Development Institute (HORDI)<br />

Makadura, Gonawila NWP<br />

Sri Lanka<br />

00-9431-99625<br />

00-9431-99707<br />

Email: hordi11@sltnet.lk<br />

Dr. Songpol Somsri<br />

Horticulture Research Institute<br />

Department of Agriculture (HRI)<br />

10900 Chatuchak<br />

Bangkok<br />

Thailand<br />

00-662-9405484<br />

00-662-5614667<br />

songpol@doa.go.th<br />


Dr Suphap Suntranon<br />

Chanthaburi Horticultural Research Centre<br />

Plew<br />

Lamsing<br />

Thailand<br />

Dr Long Cao<br />

Hanoi Agricultural University No. 1<br />

Trauquy-Gialam-Hanoi<br />

Vietman<br />

Tel: 00 844 8675572<br />

Fax: 00 844 8276149<br />

Prof. Dr Vu Manh Hai<br />

Director<br />

Research Institute of Fruits and Vegetables (RIFAV)<br />

Trauquy, Gialam<br />

Hanoi<br />

Vietnam<br />

00-844-8765572<br />

00-844-8276148<br />

Email: vrqhnvn@hn.vnn.vn<br />

Mr Danh Nguyen<br />

Phuho Fruit Research Center<br />

Phong Chau<br />

Phu Tho<br />

Vietnam<br />

Tel: 84 2108 65278<br />

Mr Hung Nguyen<br />

RIFAV<br />

Trauquy, Gialam<br />

Hanoi<br />

Vietnam<br />

Tel: 84 482 76148<br />

Email: vrqhnvn@hn.vnn.vn<br />


Deputy Director<br />

Tran<br />

Hong Quan<br />

Hue Beer Factory<br />

Vietnam<br />

Dr Ca Do<br />

RIFAV<br />

Trauquy, Gialam<br />

Hanoi<br />

Vietnam<br />

Tel: 00844 8765573<br />

Fax: 00 844 8276149<br />

Email: vrqhnvn@hn.vnn.vn<br />


Appendix 2. Institutions with collections of<br />

jackfruit germplasm<br />

South Asia<br />

Bangladesh<br />

Horticulture Research Centre<br />

BARI<br />

Joydebpur<br />

Horticulture Department,<br />

Agricultural University<br />

Mymensingh<br />

Ramgar Research Centre<br />

BARI<br />

Chittagong Hill Tracts<br />

India<br />

IIHR<br />

Bangalore<br />

IIHR<br />

Trichur<br />

BCKV<br />

West Bengal<br />

Nepal<br />

Horticulture Research Division<br />

Kathmandu<br />

Pakistan<br />

NARC Research Centre<br />

Karachi<br />


Sri Lanka<br />

HORDI<br />

Gannurua<br />

South East Asia<br />

Indonesia<br />

National Biological Institute<br />

Bogor<br />

Horticultural Research Institute<br />

Solok<br />

Malaysia<br />

MARDI<br />

Kuala Lumpur<br />

Papua New Guinea<br />

Lowlands Agriculture Experimental Station<br />

Kevart<br />

Philippines<br />

Institute of Plant Breeding<br />

Los Banos<br />

Department of Agriculture Regional Field<br />

Station<br />

Babatngon<br />

Leyte<br />

Thailand<br />

Plew Horticultural Experimental Station<br />

Chantaburi Province<br />

Vietnam<br />

Research Institute of Fruits and Vegetables<br />

Hanoi<br />


Taiwan<br />

Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station<br />

Chi-Yi<br />

Africa<br />

Ghana<br />

Crop Research Institute<br />

Bunso<br />

Seychelles<br />

Mahè<br />

Tanzania<br />

Tropical Pesticide Research Institute<br />

Arusha<br />

Americas<br />

Brazil<br />

Dept. de Horticultura<br />

Instituto Nacional De Pesquisas Da Amazonia<br />

Costa Rica<br />

CATIE<br />

Turrialba<br />

Guadeloupe<br />

Institute de Recherche sur les Fruits et Legumes<br />

United States of America<br />

Sub-Tropical Horticultural Research Unit<br />

Miami<br />

Florida<br />

National Clonal Germplasm Repository<br />

Hilo<br />

Hawaii<br />

Tropical Agricultural Research Station<br />

Puerto Rico<br />


Europe<br />

Canari, Spain<br />

Canarias Centre <strong>for</strong> Research and Agrarian Technology<br />

La Laguna<br />

Sources: IPBGR (1986), IPGRI database at<br />

http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/system/page.asp?<strong>the</strong>me=4,<br />

UTFANET (2003), Campos (pers.comm.)<br />


Appendix 3. Seed suppliers<br />

The Borneo Collection<br />

TreeFarm<br />

El Arish<br />

North Queensland 4855<br />

Australia<br />

Tel (61/7) 4068 5263<br />

E-mail: dkchandlee@yahoo.com<br />

KMPH Mitra Sesaot<br />

Dusun Jurang Malang<br />

Desa Lebah Sempage<br />

Mataram Lombok 83231<br />

Indonesia<br />

Gautam Global<br />

34 Old Cannought Place<br />

Dehra Dun-248001<br />

India<br />

Tel (91/135) 656222<br />

Fax (91/135) 651108, 650944, 652766<br />

E-mail: npsonudd@nde.vsnl.net.in<br />

Website www.garhwalhimalayas.com/gautamglobal<br />

Neelkan<strong>the</strong>shwar Agro-Seeds and Plantations<br />

Commercial complex, C Block - C-29/X3<br />

Dilshad Garden,<br />

Delhi-110 095<br />

India<br />

Tel 2274277, 2119790, 2119744<br />

Fax (0091-11) 2112974<br />


Shivalik Seeds Corporation<br />

47 - Panditwari P.O.<br />

Prem Nagar<br />

Dehra Dun - 248007, U.P.<br />

India<br />

Tel 91-135 - 773348<br />

Fax 91-135 - 773776<br />

E-mail: hilander@vsnl.com<br />

The Inland & Foreign Trading Co (Pte) Ltd.<br />

Block 79A Indus Road #04-418<br />

Singapore 169589<br />

Tel (65) 2722711 (3 lines)<br />

Fax (65) 2716118<br />

E-mail: iftco@pacific.net.sg<br />

Forestry Research Institute (FORI)<br />

Address PO Box 1752<br />

Kampala<br />

Uganda<br />

Tel (256-41) 255163-5, 244140, 251916/9<br />

Fax (256-41) 234252, 255165<br />

Telex 61186 SHIBSSC UG.<br />


Glossary<br />

A<br />

acute - terminating with a sharp or well defined angle.<br />

acuminate - <strong>the</strong> shape of a tip or base of a leaf or perianth segment where <strong>the</strong><br />

part tapers gradually and usually in a concave manner.<br />

adnate - joined to or attached to.<br />

adventitious - describes an organ growing where it is not normally expected.<br />

alternate - describes leaves that are not opposite to each o<strong>the</strong>r on <strong>the</strong> axis, but<br />

arranged singly and at different heights.<br />

angiosperm - a plant producing seed enclosed in an ovary. A flowering plant.<br />

annual - a plant that completes its life cycle from germination to death within<br />

one year.<br />

an<strong>the</strong>r - <strong>the</strong> pollen-bearing (terminal) part of <strong>the</strong> male organs (stamen), borne at<br />

<strong>the</strong> top of a stalk (filament).<br />

an<strong>the</strong>sis - flower bud opening; strictly, <strong>the</strong> time of expansion of a flower when<br />

pollination takes place, but often used to designate <strong>the</strong> flowering<br />

period; <strong>the</strong> act of flower bud opening.<br />

apex - <strong>the</strong> tip of an organ, <strong>the</strong> growing point.<br />

apical - pertaining to <strong>the</strong> apex.<br />

asexual - lacking sexual characteristics, or when referring to reproduction,<br />

occurring without <strong>the</strong> fusion of egg and sperm.<br />

axil - <strong>the</strong> upper angle <strong>for</strong>med by <strong>the</strong> union of a leaf with <strong>the</strong> stem.<br />

axillary - pertaining to <strong>the</strong> organs in <strong>the</strong> axil, e.g. buds, flowers or inflorescence.<br />

axis - <strong>the</strong> main or central stem of a herbaceous plant or of an inflorescence.<br />

B<br />

basal - borne on or near <strong>the</strong> base.<br />

biotic - refers to any aspect of life, but especially to characteristics of entire<br />

populations or ecosystems.<br />

blade - <strong>the</strong> flattened part of a leaf; <strong>the</strong> lamina.<br />

budding - method of propagating woody plants. A cutting of one variety, called<br />

<strong>the</strong> scion with buds attached, is joined onto ano<strong>the</strong>r related species or<br />

variety called <strong>the</strong> rootstock. As <strong>the</strong> plant grows, <strong>the</strong> two parts graft<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r to <strong>for</strong>m one plant.<br />

C<br />

calyx - <strong>the</strong> outer whorl of floral envelopes, composed of <strong>the</strong> sepals.<br />

chlorosis - a yellowing of <strong>the</strong> leaves, reflecting a deficiency of chlorophyll and<br />

caused by waterlogging or a lack of nutrients, often iron.<br />

clone - a group of plants that have arisen by vegetative reproduction from a<br />

single parent, and which <strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e all have identical genetic material.<br />

coriaceous - of lea<strong>the</strong>ry texture.<br />

cotyledon - seed leaf; <strong>the</strong> primary leaf or leaves in <strong>the</strong> embryo.<br />


cross pollination - <strong>the</strong> transfer of pollen from <strong>the</strong> an<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong> flower of one<br />

plant to <strong>the</strong> flowers of a different plant.<br />

cultivar - a race or variety of a plant that has been created or selected<br />

intentionally and maintained through cultivation.<br />

cuneate - wedge-shaped; triangular with <strong>the</strong> narrow end at <strong>the</strong> point of<br />

attachment, as in <strong>the</strong> bases of leaves or petals.<br />

D<br />

deciduous - falling at <strong>the</strong> end of one season of growth or life, as do <strong>the</strong> leaves of<br />

non-evergreen trees.<br />

decoction - herbal preparation made by boiling a plant part in water.<br />

dehiscence - <strong>the</strong> method or process of opening a seed pod or an<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

derived - originating from an earlier <strong>for</strong>m or group.<br />

dicotyledon - a flowering plant with two cotyledons.<br />

diploid - having two sets of chromosomes.<br />

dorsal - upon or relating to <strong>the</strong> back or outer surface of an organ.<br />

downy - covered with short and weak soft hairs.<br />

E<br />

ecosystem - an interacting complex of a community, consisting of plants and/or<br />

animals and functioning as an ecological unit.<br />

elliptic - oval in outline.<br />

endosperm - <strong>the</strong> starch and oil-containing tissue of many seeds.<br />

explant - a plant part asceptically excised and prepared <strong>for</strong> culture in a culture<br />

medium.<br />

F<br />

filament - thread; particularly <strong>the</strong> stalk of <strong>the</strong> stamen, terminated by <strong>the</strong> an<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

fili<strong>for</strong>m - thread-shaped, long, slender and terete.<br />

G<br />

genotype - <strong>the</strong> genetic constitution of an organism, acquired from its parents and<br />

available <strong>for</strong> transmission to its offspring.<br />

genus - a group of related species, <strong>the</strong> taxonomic category ranking above a<br />

species and below a family.<br />

glabrous - not hairy.<br />

globose - globe-shaped.<br />

glabrescent - becoming glabrous with age.<br />

grafting - a method of propagation, by inserting a section of one plant, usually a<br />

shoot, into ano<strong>the</strong>r, so that <strong>the</strong>y can grow toge<strong>the</strong>r into a single plant.<br />

gynoecium - all <strong>the</strong> female parts of a flower.<br />

H<br />

hybrid - a cross-breed of two species, usually having some characteristics of<br />

both parents.<br />


I<br />

indehiscent - not regularly opening, as a seed pod or an<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

indigenous - native and original to <strong>the</strong> region.<br />

inflorescence - <strong>the</strong> flowering part of a plant and especially <strong>the</strong> mode of its<br />

arrangement.<br />

L<br />

lamina - a blade, <strong>the</strong> leafy portion of a frond or leaf.<br />

lanceolate - shaped like a lance head, several times longer than wide, broadest<br />

above <strong>the</strong> base and narrowed toward <strong>the</strong> apex.<br />

lateral - side shoot, bud etc.<br />

lamellae - a thin, flat plate or laterally flattened ridge.<br />

M<br />

membranous - thin in texture, soft and pliable.<br />

mesocarp - <strong>the</strong> fleshy middle portion of <strong>the</strong> wall of a succulent fruit between <strong>the</strong><br />

skin and <strong>the</strong> stony layer.<br />

micro-propagation - propagation of plants thought tissue culture.<br />

N<br />

naturalised - to cause a plant to become established and grow undisturbed as if<br />

native.<br />

nectar - sweet secretion of glands in many kinds of flower.<br />

O<br />

oblique - slanting, unequal sided.<br />

obovate - inverted ovate; egg-shaped, with <strong>the</strong> broadest part above.<br />

obtuse - blunt or rounded at <strong>the</strong> end.<br />

orbicular - circular.<br />

ovate - egg-shaped, with <strong>the</strong> broader end at <strong>the</strong> base.<br />

ovule - <strong>the</strong> body which after fertilisation becomes <strong>the</strong> seed.<br />

P<br />

pedicel - a tiny stalk; <strong>the</strong> support of a single flower.<br />

pendulous - more or less hanging or declined.<br />

peduncle - a primary flower stalk supporting ei<strong>the</strong>r a cluster or a solitary flower.<br />

perianth - <strong>the</strong> floral envelope consisting of <strong>the</strong> calyx and corolla.<br />

petal - a division of <strong>the</strong> corolla; one of a circle of modified leaves immediately<br />

outside <strong>the</strong> reproductive organs, usually brightly coloured.<br />

petiole - <strong>the</strong> stalk of a leaf that attaches it to <strong>the</strong> stem.<br />

phenology - <strong>the</strong> science of <strong>the</strong> relations between climate and periodic biological<br />

phenomena<br />

phenotype - <strong>the</strong> morphological, physiological, behavioural, and o<strong>the</strong>r outwardly<br />

recognisable <strong>for</strong>ms of an organism that develop through <strong>the</strong> interaction<br />

of genes and environment.<br />


pinnate - a compound leaf consisting of several leaflets arranged on each side of<br />

a common petiole.<br />

pistil - <strong>the</strong> seed-bearing organ of <strong>the</strong> flower, consisting of <strong>the</strong> ovary, stigma and<br />

style when present.<br />

prolate - having flattened sides due to lengthwise elongation.<br />

propagate - to produce new plants, ei<strong>the</strong>r by vegetative means involving <strong>the</strong><br />

rooting or grafting of pieces of a plant, or sexually by sowing seeds.<br />

pubescent - covered with hairs, especially short, soft and down-like.<br />

R<br />

rachis - <strong>the</strong> main stalk of a flower cluster or <strong>the</strong> main leafstalk of a compound<br />

leaf.<br />

radicle - <strong>the</strong> portion of <strong>the</strong> embryo below <strong>the</strong> cotyledons that will <strong>for</strong>m <strong>the</strong> roots.<br />

rootstock - <strong>the</strong> root system and lower portion of a woody plant to which a graft<br />

of a more desirable plant is attached.<br />

S<br />

scarify - to scar or nick <strong>the</strong> seed coat to enhance germination.<br />

scion - a cutting from <strong>the</strong> upper portion of a plant that is grafted onto <strong>the</strong><br />

rootstock of ano<strong>the</strong>r plant, usually a related species.<br />

self pollination - <strong>the</strong> transfer of pollen from <strong>the</strong> an<strong>the</strong>r of a flower to <strong>the</strong> stigma<br />

of <strong>the</strong> same flower, or different flowers on <strong>the</strong> same plant.<br />

sepal - a division of a calyx; one of <strong>the</strong> outermost circle of modified leaves<br />

surrounding <strong>the</strong> reproductive organs of <strong>the</strong> flower.<br />

sheath - a tubular envelop.<br />

stamen - one of <strong>the</strong> male pollen-bearing organs of <strong>the</strong> flower.<br />

stigma - that part of a pistil through which fertilistion by <strong>the</strong> pollen is effected.<br />

stipule - an appendage at <strong>the</strong> base of a petiole, often appearing in pairs, one on<br />

each side, as in roses.<br />

style - <strong>the</strong> usually attenuated portion of <strong>the</strong> pistil connecting <strong>the</strong> stigma and<br />

ovary.<br />

syncarp - an aggregate or multiple fruit produced from coherent or fused pistils,<br />

<strong>the</strong> small single fruits massing and growing toge<strong>the</strong>r into a single fruit.<br />

T<br />

tetraploid - having four sets of chromosomes (twice <strong>the</strong> normal number of<br />

chromosomes).<br />

terete - cylindrical but usually slightly tapering at both ends, circular in cross<br />

section, and smooth-surfaced.<br />

testa - <strong>the</strong> outer seed coat.<br />

transverse - cross-wise in position.<br />

triploid - having three sets of chromosomes.<br />


Index<br />

A. brasiliensis, 4<br />

A. champeden, 11<br />

A. integer, 2, 3, 4, 77, 97<br />

A. integrifolia, 11<br />

A. integrifolius, 4<br />

A. maxima, 4<br />

A. philippinensis, 4<br />

A. polyphema, 11<br />

active compounds, 22<br />

agro<strong>for</strong>estry, i, 26, 156, 164, 169<br />

bamboos, 27<br />

black pepper, 26, 29<br />

citrus, 26, 36<br />

durian, 26<br />

mango, 26, 36, 61, 127, 154<br />

palm, 27<br />

rambutan, 27<br />

amino acids, 108<br />

anthocyanins, 22<br />

artocarpin, 24, 25<br />

Bangladesh, v, 10, 15, 16, 26, 27,<br />

29, 41, 44, 53, 54, 57, 58, 60, 65,<br />

78, 80, 83, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99,<br />

101, 127, 133, 135, 137, 138,<br />

149, 150, 151, 153, 154, 155,<br />

156, 159, 162, 164<br />

budding<br />

chip, 43, 44<br />

flute, 43<br />

<strong>for</strong>ked, 43<br />

patch, 43, 44, 158<br />

ring, 8, 36, 43, 59<br />

shield, 43, 44, 61<br />

cattle, 21, 22<br />

Cauliflori, 3<br />

characteristics, v, vi, 3, 6, 7, 33, 78,<br />

80, 82, 95, 98, 99, 100, 103, 155,<br />

156, 161, 186, 187<br />

Chempedak, 11, 12<br />

chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 31<br />

compost, 29, 48, 49, 53, 128<br />

conservation, i, 26, 77, 99, 100,<br />

101, 144, 145, 147, 159<br />

cultivar, 57, 83, 84, 97, 98, 103,<br />

187<br />

disease, 52, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69,<br />

100, 101<br />

diversity, i, 13, 77, 78, 79, 82, 96,<br />

97, 99, 144, 145, 147, 149, 150,<br />

155, 168<br />

Duricarpus, 3<br />

export, 130, 135, 138, 143<br />

fertilizer, 49, 53, 54, 55, 128<br />

flavonoids, 22<br />

Florida, v, 15, 16, 18, 51, 55, 56,<br />

60, 65, 78, 83, 102, 133, 152,<br />

153, 155, 160, 161, 164<br />

freezing, 100, 111<br />

furniture, vi, 13, 24<br />

germplasm, 59, 78, 82, 95, 97, 99,<br />

101, 144, 159, 163, 165, 180<br />

gibberellic acid, 31<br />

goats, 21, 157<br />

grafting<br />

approach, 40, 164<br />

cleft, 40, 41, 44, 169<br />

epicotyl, vi, 40, 41, 44, 88, 89,<br />

157<br />

inarching, 40, 41, 44<br />

splice, 40, 41<br />

veneer, 40, 41<br />

grazing, 30<br />

homegardens, 24, 53, 95, 100<br />

Hong Kong, 137, 138<br />

ideotype, 98<br />

India, v, 1, 2, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16,<br />

18, 24, 26, 27, 28, 38, 40, 43, 44,<br />

54, 57, 58, 60, 61, 70, 78, 83, 84,<br />

93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102,<br />

104, 105, 127, 128, 129, 133,<br />

135, 136, 137, 138, 144, 153,<br />

155, 156, 159, 160, 161, 163,<br />


164, 166, 168, 171, 172, 173,<br />

174, 184, 185<br />

indole-3-acetic acid, 35<br />

Indole-3-butyric acid, 35<br />

inflorescence, 3, 5, 8, 9, 64, 67, 71,<br />

74, 103, 186, 188<br />

isozymes, 96<br />

jacalin, 24, 134<br />

lectins, 24, 151<br />

lipids, 109<br />

local medicine, v, 22, 23<br />

mahogany, 24, 25<br />

market, v, 24, 25, 92, 107, 127,<br />

129, 130, 132, 133, 134, 136,<br />

137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 146,<br />

157, 169<br />

marketing, 28, 107, 128, 129, 130,<br />

133, 134, 136, 137, 139, 140,<br />

141, 143, 147, 148, 155<br />

maturation, 75, 102, 103, 104<br />

minerals, 20, 21, 109, 142<br />

naphthalenacetic acid, 31<br />

Nepal, v, 2, 10, 14, 15, 16, 28, 44,<br />

57, 58, 70, 78, 83, 95, 96, 103,<br />

131, 136, 137, 139, 140, 157<br />

Pakistan, 16, 44, 83, 95, 96, 175,<br />

176<br />

perianth, 3, 8, 9, 71, 73, 74, 75,<br />

111, 186, 188<br />

pest, 33, 61, 101<br />

Philippines, 2, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16,<br />

26, 44, 50, 54, 58, 78, 83, 94, 95,<br />

96, 101, 110, 133, 135, 138, 141,<br />

149, 150, 153, 154, 156, 159,<br />

161, 164, 169<br />

phytochemical, 22<br />

poly-embryony, 31<br />

proanthocyanidin, 22<br />

products, i, vi, 12, 19, 20, 24, 86,<br />

99, 102, 104, 110, 111, 123, 130,<br />

131, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138,<br />

139, 143, 148, 157, 169<br />

beverages, 19, 120<br />

candy, 121<br />

canning, 125<br />

curry, 112, 115, 116, 117, 118<br />

jam, 119<br />

jelly, 120<br />

lea<strong>the</strong>r, 124, 125, 133, 135<br />

pickles, 118, 133, 135<br />

powder, 19, 20, 111, 112, 113,<br />

115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 126<br />

propagation<br />

air layering, 36<br />

budding, 43, 166<br />

cuttings, 34<br />

grafting, vi, 34, 40, 41, 42, 43,<br />

44, 48, 88, 95, 148, 153, 157,<br />

159, 169, 187, 189<br />

growth regulators, v, 31, 35, 37,<br />

38, 39, 45, 165<br />

In vitro, 45, 100, 149, 164, 168<br />

proteins, 108<br />

Pseudojaca, 3, 157<br />

pulp, 1, 2, 3, 12, 13, 19, 20, 23, 33,<br />

72, 73, 74, 81, 84, 93, 107, 108,<br />

109, 114, 115, 116, 119, 121,<br />

123, 133<br />

retail, 107, 137<br />

rooting, v, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 45,<br />

47, 152, 160, 162, 165, 166, 189<br />

rootstocks, 30, 34, 40, 41, 48, 94,<br />

99, 144<br />

seed, 9, 23, 30, 31, 34, 48, 49, 70,<br />

73, 74, 75, 78, 83, 100, 101, 109,<br />

111, 157, 166, 167, 184, 186,<br />

187, 188, 189<br />

Singapore, 57, 70, 83, 137, 138,<br />

156, 185<br />

Soccus arboreus major, 4<br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>ast Asia, 1, 11, 12, 79, 99,<br />

127, 144, 167<br />

sowing, 30, 31, 166, 189<br />

spikes, 5, 8, 65, 70, 71, 72, 75<br />

Sri Lanka, 2, i, 10, 14, 15, 16, 18,<br />

24, 27, 28, 30, 44, 57, 72, 78, 83,<br />

84, 93, 94, 95, 96, 101, 102, 127,<br />

131, 133, 134, 135, 138, 153,<br />

155, 169<br />

stipules, 5, 11<br />

sugars, 108<br />

syncarp, 2, 3, 9, 74, 189<br />


tannin, 109<br />

tannins, 22<br />

taste, 11, 12, 57, 78, 84, 93, 103,<br />

104, 110, 111, 117, 125<br />

teak, 24, 25<br />

termites, 13, 24<br />

Thailand, 1, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 41,<br />

44, 58, 70, 78, 83, 93, 94, 95, 96,<br />

101, 127, 133, 138, 158, 164,<br />

166, 169<br />

thinning, 52, 72<br />

timber, 24, 25, 30, 34, 50, 52, 98,<br />

99, 127, 135, 141, 147, 169<br />

transplanting, 32<br />

trypsin, 21<br />

vegetable, 19, 132<br />

Vietnam, 10, 15, 16, 44, 57, 58, 78,<br />

83, 95, 96, 101, 151, 178, 179<br />

vitamins, 109<br />

Western Ghats, 1, 11, 15, 97, 100,<br />

144<br />

wholesale, 107, 132, 138<br />

yield, 24, 25, 27, 57, 58, 98, 99,<br />

103, 104, 110, 129, 139, 144,<br />

154, 156, 159<br />


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