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electro-optics and ir

electro-optics and ir

electro-optics and

ELECTRO-OPTICS INTRODUCTION There are many electro-optical (EO) electronic warfare (EW) systems which are analogous to radio frequency (RF) EW systems. These EO EW systems operate in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electro-optics (EO), as the name implies, is a combination of electronics and optics. By one definition EO is the science and technology of the generation, modulation, detection and measurement, or display of optical radiation by electrical means. Most infrared (IR) sensors, for example, are EO systems. In the popularly used term "EO/IR," the EO is typically used to mean visible or laser systems. The use of EO in this context is a misnomer. Actually, almost all "EO/IR" systems are EO systems as defined above. Another often used misnomer is referring to an EO spectrum. EO systems operate in the optical spectrum, which is from 0.01 to 1000 micrometers. EO includes lasers, photometry, infrared, and other types of visible, and UV imaging systems. OPTICAL SPECTRUM The optical spectrum is that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the extreme ultraviolet (UV) through the visible to the extreme IR (between 0.01 and 1000 micrometers (Fm)). Figure 1 shows the optical spectrum in detail. Figure 2 shows the entire spectrum. The end points of the optical spectrum are somewhat arbitrary. On the long wavelength end of the spectrum IR radiation and microwaves overlap. Similarly, x-rays and the extreme UV overlap on the short wavelength end of the spectrum. How the division is made depends on one's point of reference. For example, radiation having a wavelength of 1000 Fm which is emitted from a very hot body and is detected by an energy measuring device such as a super-cooled bolometer is called IR radiation. However, radiation of the same wavelength (or 300 gigahertz) which is generated by an electric discharge and is detected by a bolometer in a waveguide is called microwave radiation. Older texts may refer to the terms near, middle, far, and far-far IR, the frequency limits of which differ from the newer divisions shown below. Notice that the preferred terminology no longer uses the term "middle IR". Frequency 10 16 1015 10-2 10-1 Wavelength 1 0.37 0.75 V ULTRAVIOLET I S N I E B EXTREME FAR A L NEAR R E 1014 1013 1012 INTER- MEDIATE 10 10 2 3 10 INFRARED FAR EXTREME L - sec -1 8 - Fm M I C R O W A V E S UV A = 315 to 400 nm UV B = 280 to 315 nm UV C = 100 to 280 nm OLDER IR BAND TERMINOLOGY Near Mid Far Extreme Long Wave 0.37 VISIBLE SPECTRUM Y 0.75 O RAN G E NEAR UV VIOLET BLUE GREEN E LL O W RED N EA R IR 0.3 Fm 0.4 Fm 0.5 Fm 0.6 Fm 0.7 Fm Figure 1. Optical Spectrum 0.8 Fm 7-1.1

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