Atoms - ISNAP

Atoms - ISNAP


Chapter 8

Examination #1

Range was 0-109 pts…………Maximum pts =119 with the extra credit problem

Average grade of Examination #1 =89.7 or 90 pts out of 109

Average of 82.6%

Number of students that scored above 100 pts on exam…21

Highest grades…..>108

Julia Zanotelli

Kevin Salat

Jennifer Poth

Christian Metzier

Bridget Mooney

Nicolas Montoya

Jameson Crawford

Genevieve Bellon

Meteors typically cause sonic booms when they enter the Earth’s atmosphere, and the one that

occurred over Chelyabinsk was forceful enough to sha=er dishes and televisions in people’s

homes. Car alarms were triggered for miles around, and the roof of a zinc factory par@ally


Video clips, uploaded by the hundreds star@ng early Friday morning, showed ordinary mornings

interrupted by a blinding flash and the sound of sha=ering glass.

• As residents of Chelyabinsk began their day on Friday,

a 10-­‐ton meteor around 10 feet in diameter was

hurtling toward the Earth at a speed of about 10 to 12

miles per second, experts from the Russian Academy

of Sciences reported in a statement released Friday.

Scien@sts believe the meteor exploded upon hiLng

the lower atmosphere and disintegrated at an al@tude

of about 20 to 30 miles above the Earth’s surface —

not an especially unusual event, the statement said.

NY Times…Friday February 15, 2013

Asteroid: A rela@vely small, inac@ve body, composed of rock,

carbon or metal, which is orbi@ng the Sun.

Comet: A rela@vely small, some@mes ac@ve object, which is

composed of dirt and ices. Comets are characterized by dust and

gas tails when in proximity to the Sun. Far from the Sun it is

difficult to dis@nguish an asteroid from a comet.


the Sun.

A small par@cle from an asteroid or comet orbi@ng

Meteor: A meteoroid that is observed as it burns up in the Earth's

atmosphere -­‐ a shoo@ng star.

Washington Post

Meteorite: A meteoroid that survives its passage

through the Earth's atmosphere and impacts the

Earth's surface.


Energy Transfer by Waves

• Wave

– A traveling disturbance

• Properties of waves

– Wavelength

– Frequency

– Velocity

– Amplitude

The Doppler Effect



Sonic Boom

An echocardiogram uses sound waves to

produce images of your heart. This commonly

used test allows your doctor to see how your

heart is bea@ng and pumping blood. Your

doctor can use the images from an

echocardiogram to iden@fy various

abnormali@es in the heart muscle and valves.


Evidence that everything is moving away from us

The Electromagnetic



The Electromagnetic


Heat Escaping from People

Visible Light

• Visible light

– Range: 700nm–400nm

• Colors

– Slices of electromagnetic spectrum

A Glass Prism Separa@ng

White Light

Path of Light through

the Human Eye

The Atom

Chapter 8

Great Idea:

All of the matter around us is made of atoms, the

chemical building blocks of our world

Chapter Outline

• The Smallest Pieces

• The Structure of the Atom

• When Matter Meets Light

• The Periodic Table of the Elements

Dividing a Bar of Gold


• John Dalton

– Father of modern atomic theory

– Cannot break down elements

– Elements composed of atoms

• Example: Water molecule is 1 oxygen atom and

2 hydrogen atoms

Everyday Elements

• Helium, carbon, aluminum, copper,


The Structure of the Atom

The Nuclear Regulatory


• Logo: highly stylized atomic model

Bohr Atom

Electron Energy Levels

Atomic Model

Photons: Particles of Light

• Photon absorbed

– Used to move electron to a higher

energy state

• Photon emitted as electron moves to

lower energy state

Photons: Par@cles of Light

• Quantum leap

or jump -



from original

location and

reappears in

final locationnever


positions in


Photons -­‐ cont.


Atoms emit and absorb different


• Depends on differences between energy


• Each atom has distinct set of photons

• Spectrum: all photons emitted by an


– Used for identification

Na, K, and Li – Give

Distinctive Colors to a Flame

• Glass


Spectroscopy – cont.

Spectroscopy – cont.

• Line spectra for H, Na, and Ne


The Periodic Table of the


The Science of Life

• Spectra of lifes chemical reactions

– Used to determine how enzymes work

– Used to identify pollutants emitted from

automobile exhaust pipes


• Lasers

– Produce a beam of light

The term "laser" originated as an

acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated

Emission of Radiation. The emitted laser light is

notable for its high degree of spatial and

temporal coherence.

Ac@on of a Laser

Lasers Have Many Uses

Periodic Table of the Elements

• Systematizes elements

• Columns contain similar elements

– Alkali metals: soft, silvery metals

– Noble gases: colorless, odorless, and inert

Periodic Table of the Elements

Why the Periodic Table Works:

Electron Shells

• Patterns mirror arrangement of electrons

in shells

• Pauli exclusion principle

• First shell 2 electrons, second shell 8,


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