Atoms - ISNAP

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Atoms - ISNAP

Waves….

Chapter 8


Examination #1

Range was 0-109 pts…………Maximum pts =119 with the extra credit problem

Average grade of Examination #1 =89.7 or 90 pts out of 109

Average of 82.6%

Number of students that scored above 100 pts on exam…21

Highest grades…..>108

Julia Zanotelli

Kevin Salat

Jennifer Poth

Christian Metzier

Bridget Mooney

Nicolas Montoya

Jameson Crawford

Genevieve Bellon


Meteors typically cause sonic booms when they enter the Earth’s atmosphere, and the one that

occurred over Chelyabinsk was forceful enough to sha=er dishes and televisions in people’s

homes. Car alarms were triggered for miles around, and the roof of a zinc factory par@ally

collapsed.

Video clips, uploaded by the hundreds star@ng early Friday morning, showed ordinary mornings

interrupted by a blinding flash and the sound of sha=ering glass.

• As residents of Chelyabinsk began their day on Friday,

a 10-­‐ton meteor around 10 feet in diameter was

hurtling toward the Earth at a speed of about 10 to 12

miles per second, experts from the Russian Academy

of Sciences reported in a statement released Friday.

Scien@sts believe the meteor exploded upon hiLng

the lower atmosphere and disintegrated at an al@tude

of about 20 to 30 miles above the Earth’s surface —

not an especially unusual event, the statement said.

NY Times…Friday February 15, 2013


Asteroid: A rela@vely small, inac@ve body, composed of rock,

carbon or metal, which is orbi@ng the Sun.

Comet: A rela@vely small, some@mes ac@ve object, which is

composed of dirt and ices. Comets are characterized by dust and

gas tails when in proximity to the Sun. Far from the Sun it is

difficult to dis@nguish an asteroid from a comet.

Meteoroid:

the Sun.

A small par@cle from an asteroid or comet orbi@ng

Meteor: A meteoroid that is observed as it burns up in the Earth's

atmosphere -­‐ a shoo@ng star.

Washington Post

Meteorite: A meteoroid that survives its passage

through the Earth's atmosphere and impacts the

Earth's surface.

h=p://www.universetoday.com/99950/watch-­‐live-­‐as-­‐asteroid-­‐2012-­‐da14-­‐whizzes-­‐past-­‐earth/


Energy Transfer by Waves

• Wave

– A traveling disturbance

• Properties of waves

– Wavelength

– Frequency

– Velocity

– Amplitude


The Doppler Effect

h=p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZRGg7e9b5wY&NR=1&feature=fvwp

h=p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-­‐d9A2oq1N38

Sonic Boom

An echocardiogram uses sound waves to

produce images of your heart. This commonly

used test allows your doctor to see how your

heart is bea@ng and pumping blood. Your

doctor can use the images from an

echocardiogram to iden@fy various

abnormali@es in the heart muscle and valves.

h=p://youtu.be/4cCk1MXJHm0

Evidence that everything is moving away from us


The Electromagnetic

Spectrum

h=p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=58fs5yI8K9I


The Electromagnetic

Spectrum


Heat Escaping from People


Visible Light

• Visible light

– Range: 700nm–400nm

• Colors

– Slices of electromagnetic spectrum


A Glass Prism Separa@ng

White Light


Path of Light through

the Human Eye


The Atom

Chapter 8

Great Idea:

All of the matter around us is made of atoms, the

chemical building blocks of our world


Chapter Outline

• The Smallest Pieces

• The Structure of the Atom

• When Matter Meets Light

• The Periodic Table of the Elements


Dividing a Bar of Gold


Elements

• John Dalton

– Father of modern atomic theory

– Cannot break down elements

– Elements composed of atoms

• Example: Water molecule is 1 oxygen atom and

2 hydrogen atoms


Everyday Elements

• Helium, carbon, aluminum, copper,

gold


The Structure of the Atom


The Nuclear Regulatory

Commission

• Logo: highly stylized atomic model


Bohr Atom


Electron Energy Levels


Atomic Model


Photons: Particles of Light

• Photon absorbed

– Used to move electron to a higher

energy state

• Photon emitted as electron moves to

lower energy state


Photons: Par@cles of Light


• Quantum leap

or jump -

electron

disappears

from original

location and

reappears in

final locationnever

at

positions in

between

Photons -­‐ cont.


Spectroscopy

Atoms emit and absorb different

photons

• Depends on differences between energy

levels

• Each atom has distinct set of photons

• Spectrum: all photons emitted by an

atom

– Used for identification


Na, K, and Li – Give

Distinctive Colors to a Flame


• Glass

prism

Spectroscopy – cont.


Spectroscopy – cont.

• Line spectra for H, Na, and Ne

h=p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4yg4HTm3uk


The Periodic Table of the

Elements


The Science of Life

• Spectra of lifes chemical reactions

– Used to determine how enzymes work

– Used to identify pollutants emitted from

automobile exhaust pipes


Technology

• Lasers

– Produce a beam of light


The term "laser" originated as an

acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated

Emission of Radiation. The emitted laser light is

notable for its high degree of spatial and

temporal coherence.


Ac@on of a Laser


Lasers Have Many Uses


Periodic Table of the Elements

• Systematizes elements

• Columns contain similar elements

– Alkali metals: soft, silvery metals

– Noble gases: colorless, odorless, and inert


Periodic Table of the Elements


Why the Periodic Table Works:

Electron Shells

• Patterns mirror arrangement of electrons

in shells

• Pauli exclusion principle

• First shell 2 electrons, second shell 8,

etc.

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