Early Nineteenth Century Transfer Prints - ISNAP

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Early Nineteenth Century Transfer Prints - ISNAP

Removal Period

Pottery

How was it made?

When was it made?


The Removal Period

A.D. 1795

to

circa 1840


Archaeological Challenges

• Removal Period was short (~ 45 years)

• Time of rapid change

• Complex but rapidly changing material

culture


1795 1840


Removal Period was Short

• AD 1795 – 1840, just 45 years!

– Less than a typical human lifetime

• Historical records available, but limited

– Pushes dating methods to the limit.


Complex and Rapidly Changing

Material Culture


Highly Variable Ways of Life


Sites


Benack Village

(now in Potawatomi Wildlife Park)

Stephen Benack


Pokagon’s Village

(20 Be 13)


NE Midden

Begin with a surface survey


Artifacts


Pokagon’s Cabin


Cabin Area

Midden


Faunal Remains


Removal Period Diagnostics


Collier Lodge

Kankakee Valley Historical Society


Geophysical Survey


2008 GPR Survey


GPR

about 30 cm below surface


GPR with units - 2008


Mega-Feature East Edge


No wonder we can see it on

radar!


A very large historic feature

•A

Cellar?


Transfer Prints


Patterns can be dated


But we usually don’t know them


Can we date

by

composition?

Douglas, Michael A (1996)


Pb vs Si


First Try


Second Run Results

Elizabeth High

• Beam monitoring did not work

• Normalized to Fe because

– Ubiquitous

– Distinct peak

– Heavier element


Observations

• Fe most abundant on chipped spots

– Si, K, and Ca similar

– Ti a minor component

– All components of the body

• Pb in the glaze (absent on chips)

– Is Sulfur also present?

• Red may be produced by Cu

• Co is present in blue print

– Different levels in sherds Bt1 and Bt2

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