Early Nineteenth Century Transfer Prints - ISNAP


Early Nineteenth Century Transfer Prints - ISNAP

Removal Period


How was it made?

When was it made?

The Removal Period

A.D. 1795


circa 1840

Archaeological Challenges

• Removal Period was short (~ 45 years)

• Time of rapid change

• Complex but rapidly changing material


1795 1840

Removal Period was Short

• AD 1795 – 1840, just 45 years!

– Less than a typical human lifetime

• Historical records available, but limited

– Pushes dating methods to the limit.

Complex and Rapidly Changing

Material Culture

Highly Variable Ways of Life


Benack Village

(now in Potawatomi Wildlife Park)

Stephen Benack

Pokagon’s Village

(20 Be 13)

NE Midden

Begin with a surface survey


Pokagon’s Cabin

Cabin Area


Faunal Remains

Removal Period Diagnostics

Collier Lodge

Kankakee Valley Historical Society

Geophysical Survey

2008 GPR Survey


about 30 cm below surface

GPR with units - 2008

Mega-Feature East Edge

No wonder we can see it on


A very large historic feature



Transfer Prints

Patterns can be dated

But we usually don’t know them

Can we date



Douglas, Michael A (1996)

Pb vs Si

First Try

Second Run Results

Elizabeth High

• Beam monitoring did not work

• Normalized to Fe because

– Ubiquitous

– Distinct peak

– Heavier element


• Fe most abundant on chipped spots

– Si, K, and Ca similar

– Ti a minor component

– All components of the body

• Pb in the glaze (absent on chips)

– Is Sulfur also present?

• Red may be produced by Cu

• Co is present in blue print

– Different levels in sherds Bt1 and Bt2

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