INHIBITION SENSITIVITY & ANXIETY DISORDER SYMPTOMS ...

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INHIBITION SENSITIVITY & ANXIETY DISORDER SYMPTOMS ...

INHIBITION SENSITIVITY & ANXIETY

DISORDER SYMPTOMS:

Interaction with emotion regulation

Andrew T. Asquith

Dr. Carolyn M. Pepper

Danielle J. Maack

Department of Psychology

University of Wyoming


Anxiety

• Benefits

• Detriments

• Anxiety disorders affect over 18.1 % of U.S.

population (NIMH, 2008)


Behavioral Inhibition Sensitivity (BIS)

• Body’s motivation system (Gray, 1991)

• Activating BIS

• Strength & sensitivity varies

– low to high


Cognitive Emotional Regulation

• Coping strategies

- Maladaptive strategy

• (self-blame for negative events)

+ Adaptive strategy

• (putting negative events into perspective)


Statement of Purpose

Relationship?

• Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)

• Anxiety

» - Coping

» + Coping


Participants

• 35 students

• 73% female (n=27)

• 78.4 % Caucasian (n=29)

• Mean age 22.86 (range 17-50)


Measures

• Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation

System Scales (Carver & White, 1994)

• 24 items: 1-4 scale

• “I feel worried when I think I have done poorly at something important”

• Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (Heidenreich & Stangier)

• 20 items: 0-4 scale

• “I am nervous mixing with people I don’t know well”

• Obsessive Compulsive Inventory–Revised (Foa,

Huppert, Leiberg, Langner, Kichic, & Hajcak, 2002)

• 18 items: 0-4 scale:

• “I find it difficult to control my own thoughts”


Measures

• Penn State Worry Questionnaire (Meyer, Miller, Metzger, &

Borkovec, 1990)

• 16 items: 1-5 scale

• “I am always worrying about something”

• Anxiety Sensitivity Index - 3 (Reiss et al., 1986)

• 18 items: 0-4 scale

• “When I tremble in the presence of others, I fear what people might think of me”

• Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire

(Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V. & Spinhoven, Ph., 2001)

• 36 items: 1-5 scale

• “I feel like I am the one responsible for what has happened”

• “I tell myself there are worse things in life”


Hypotheses/Results

• (I) High BIS scores will correlate with a number of Anxiety Symptoms

Anxiety

BIS

BIS 1

SIAS .48**

OCI-R .37*

PSWQ .73**

ASI .44**

Note. BIS= Behavioral Inhibition Scale; SIAS=Social Interaction Anxiety Scale; OCI-R=Obsessive

Compulsive Inventory-Revised; PSWQ=Penn State Worry Questionnaire; ASI= Anxiety Sensitivity

Index;

* p


Hypotheses/Results Continued

• (II) High BIS scores and High Anxiety Symptoms will correlate with

maladaptive emotional regulation

Anxiety MCER

BIS .34*

SIAS .29

OCI-R .58**

PSWQ .54**

ASI .49**

Note. BIS= Behavioral Inhibition Scale; MCER= Maladaptive Cognitive Emotional Regulation;

SIAS=Social Interaction Anxiety Scale; OCI-R=Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised;

PSWQ=Penn State Worry Questionnaire; ASI= Anxiety Sensitivity Index;

* p


Hypotheses/Results Continued

• (III) High BIS & High Anxiety will not be related to Adaptive CER

Anxiety

ACER

BIS -.36*

SIAS -.27

OCI-R -.26

PSWQ -.32

ASI -.28

Note. BIS= Behavioral Inhibition Scale; ACER= Adaptive Cognitive Emotional Regulation;

SIAS=Social Interaction Anxiety Scale; OCI-R=Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised;

PSWQ=Penn State Worry Questionnaire; ASI= Anxiety Sensitivity Index;

* p


Conclusion

What does it all mean????

• (I) BIS positively correlated w/ Anxiety

• (II) MCER positively correlated w/ Anxiety

• (III) ACER not significantly correlated w/ Anxiety


• Clinical Sample

Future studies

• CER Interactions


• Collegiate sample & size

Limitations

• Generalizability

• Disorder vs. Symptoms

• CER Interaction?


Acknowledgments

• Dr. Carolyn M. Pepper

• Danielle Maack

• McNair Program

• Zackie Salmon & Susan Stoddard


Questions?


References

• Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature of treatment of anxiety and panic. New York: Guilford Press.

• Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending

reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. [Electronic Version]. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 67,

319-333.

• Comer, R. J., (2005). Abnormal Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.

• Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Leiberg, S., Langner, R., Kichic, R. & Hajcak, G. (2002). The obsessive–compulsive

inventory: development and validation of a short version. [Electronic Version]. Psychological Assessment, 14 (2002),

485–496.

• Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P., (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional

problems, 30, 1311, 1327.

• Gonner, S. Leonhardt, R. & Ecker, W., (2007). The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R): Validation of the

German version in a sample of patients with OCD, anxiety disorders, and depressive disorders [Electronic Version].

Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 734-749.

• Grabhorn, R., Stenner, H., Stangier, U. & Kaufhold, J. (2006). Social anxiety in anorexia nervosa: the mediating role of

shame. [Electronic Version]. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13, 12-19.


References continued

• Gray, J. A. (1991). The neuropsychology of temperament. In J. Strelau & A. Angleitner (Eds.), Explorations in

temperament: International perspectives on theory and measurement. Perspectives on individual differences (pp. 105–

128). New York: Plenum.

• Martin, R.C., & Dahlen E. R., (2005). Cognitive emotion regulation in the prediction of depression, anxiety, stress, and

anger. [Electronic Version]. Personality & Individual Differences, 39, 1249-1260.

• McWilliams, L. A., & Cox, B. J., (2000). How distinct is anxiety sensitivity from trait anxiety? A re-examination from a

multidimensional perspective. [Electronic Version]. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 813-818.

• Meyer, T.J., Miller, M. L., Metzger R. L. & Borkovec, T.D., (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry

Questionnaire, [Electronic Version]. Behaviour Research and Therapy 28, 487–495.

• National Institute of Mental Health. (2008, June 17). Anxiety Disorders. Bethesda, MD: Retrieved June 30, 2008 from

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/anxiety-disorders/summary.shtml

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