international SEMINAR CompetingMemoriesOfCommunistAndNaziCrimesInUkraine by Roman Serbyn Université du Québec à Montréal ■ presented at the Third Annual Danyliw Research Seminar on Contemporary Ukraine 12-13 October 2007 DRAFT—NOT FOR CITATION ■ The most destructive periods in modern Ukrainian history were the Great Famine of the 1930s and the German-Soviet War of the 1940s. Both disasters ravaged the country and destroyed millions of human lives. Stalin’s Communists perpetrated the first calamity. Hitler’s Nazis were responsible for the larger part of the second catastrophe, even though the part of the Soviet authorities was not negligible. Both ills were inflicted upon Ukraine by outside governments in pursuit of imperialist ambitions, but while the two totalitarian powers imposed repressive measures on the whole country, their genocidal policies were directed against selected segments of the population. Both regimes elicited fear and hatred and were thoroughly detested by the population, particularly during the waves of mass killings. The crimes were concealed from the outside world and even obscured from that part of the native population that was not directly affected by them. Yet it was with the help of willing accomplices and coerced assistants from among the local people that the crimes were accomplished. Those turbulent and confusing times left deep impressions and conflicting memories. The purpose of this paper is to examine these memories, trace their fate in Soviet and independent Ukraine and analyze their reception by the outside world.