chemical characterization, stability of liquid organic fertilizer and its ...

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chemical characterization, stability of liquid organic fertilizer and its ...

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION, STABILITY OF LIQUID ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND

ITS INFLUENCE ON PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS AND UPTAKE BY

MAIZE [Zea mays (L)]

BY

IBIJOLA, TOLUWASE OREOLUWA (PG 08/0287)

B. Agric, Soil Science (Abeokuta)

A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Soil Science and Land Management.

College of Plant Science and Crop Production, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, in Partial Fulfilment

of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Agriculture in Soil Fertility.

June, 2011

ABSTRACT

The problems of nutrient availability and accumulation of salts caused by direct application of poultry

manure necessitated the need to evaluate alternative ways of using it. This study was designed to

evaluate the stability of liquid poultry manure fertilizer (tea) and determine its influence on phosphorus

sorption and uptake by maize. Chemical characterization of the tea was done by standard procedures

while the stability was evaluated by incubating it with or without formalin for 8 weeks in the laboratory.

The tea was analyzed weekly for pH, organic carbon and nutrients (N, P and K). Sorption studies were

carried out using different soils (acid, alkaline and neutral). The treatments were: simultaneous addition

of phosphate and tea (PT); phosphate before tea (PBT) and tea before phosphate (TBP). Different

concentrations of phosphate ranging from 0 to 320 mg kg -1 were applied in 0.01 M KCl. The effect of

the treatments on the yield and P uptake by maize was evaluated using a completely randomized design

and randomized complete block design in the greenhouse and on the field, respectively. Phosphorus

fertilizer was applied as single super phosphate at the rate of 0.134 g pot -1 of 5 kg soil and 4.5 g plant -1

while the tea was applied at the rate of 50 ml pot -1 of 5 kg soil and 3.5 ml plant -1 . Results showed that

poultry manure tea contained 400 mg N kg -1 , 155.80 mg K kg -1 , 10.48 mg P kg -1 , 2,150.00 mg organic

carbon kg -1 and pH value of 8.20. Results also indicated that tea could be stable for up to 8 weeks, but

the best quality was at second week of storage. The sorption data conformed to Freundlich adsorption

model and the S-shape of the adsorption isotherm curve of this model indicated that the soil affinity for P

was lower than that of the aqueous solution at low solution P concentration. The K value in neutral soil

was 78 % and 94 % higher than in acid and alkaline soils, respectively. Lowest sorption efficiency

Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB)

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(37.19 %) and highest standard phosphate requirement (SPR) of 12.51 mg P kg -1 were recorded in acid

soil. Treatment with PT had the least values of K and n constants followed by TBP and PBT. The SPR

value (4.41mg P kg -1 ) of PBT was the least compared with the values of 5.24 mg P kg -1 and 7.49 mg P

kg -1 for TBP and PT respectively. Maize P uptake in PBT was 12.70 mg kg -1 and 6.52 mg kg -1 in the

greenhouse and on the field, respectively. Treatment with TBP had the highest grain yield of 2.75 t ha -1

followed by PT (2.70 t ha -1 ) and PBT (2.66 t ha -1 ). Regression analysis indicated that iron (Fe) content of

the soil contributed significantly to the dry matter yield while clay content influenced P uptake by maize.

It was concluded that tea enhances P availability and reduces P fixation.

Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB)

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