Problem Management Accross Qualification Levels -

Problem Management Accross Qualification Levels -

management strategies could be adopted in an organization across different

qualification levels/groups. Problem is a potential source of stress and

managing the problem is the same as coping with stress. Coping Strategy

Framework (Pareek, 1987) for dealing with role stress is therefore relevant

for the study of problem management in organizations.


Avinash Kumar Srivastav 111

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Stress is the result of a mismatch between a person and his/her environment, if

the individual cannot cope with the constraints or demands encountered (Harrison,

1976). Stress is the outcome of imbalance that internal or external demands

create for an individual, affecting his/her physical and/or psychological wellbeing

(Lazarus and Cohen, 1977). Coping means ways of dealing with a stressor or a

potential stressor. Effective coping dissipates a potential stressor (Igodan and

Newcomb, 1986). It eliminates, reduces or minimizes the harmful consequences

of the stressor for the individual (Srivastav, 2006b). Strategy adopted for coping

with stress is known as ‘Coping Strategy’ (Taylor, et al., 1998).


Personality test was used for the assessment of coping strategy until

Folkman and Lazarus (1980) started observing individual behaviour in stressful

situations for the assessment of ‘coping strategy’. They developed ‘Ways of

Coping (WOC)’, an instrument comprising 68 items for the measurement of

‘coping strategy’ based on observing individual behaviour. Extensive testing of

WOC followed by factor analysis resulted in the development of an improved

version of WOC. The new instrument called ‘Ways of Coping Checklist

(WCCL)’ (Folkman and Lazarus, 1985) had 50 items. Eight types of ‘coping

strategy’, viz., Constructive Coping, Distancing, Self-Control, Seeking Social

Support, Accepting Responsibility, Escape - Avoidance, Planful Problem -

Solving, and Positive Reappraisal are measured by WCCL.

Rosenzweig (1978) used cartoon like pictures for the study of frustration.

Pareek (1987; 2002, p.487-491) also used a similar approach for measuring

coping strategy in roles. His instrument was called ‘Projective Instrument for

Coping Strategy (PICS)’ in Roles or Role-PICS. Three versions of the

instruments, namely, Role-PICS (G), Role-PICS (E) and Role–PICS (O)

Management & Change, Volume 11, Number 2 (2007)

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