Approaches to Solving Global Warming
Approaches to Solving Global Warming Background The Idea Going through the steps Summary
The Solution to Global Warming What is the solution to Global Warming? Biofuels such as ethanol? Mass transit replacing individual automobiles? Wind and solar power? Nuclear power? Carbon sequestration? None of these and possibly all of these.
The Solution to Global Warming There is no one solution to Global Warming. There is no one cause of Global Warming. There are still respected scientists who believe the current warming is part of the natural cycle.
Approaches to Solving Global Warming But what if the Global Warming skeptics are right? We are still nearing the peak of crude oil production and worldwide demand continues to increase. We are using our resources at an unsustainable rate.
Approaches to Solving Global Warming We can’t take the sprinter’s view of using our resources. We’re in a marathon – we can’t deplete our resources and have nothing for the end of the race (or to pass on to future generations).
Approaches to Solving Global Warming So what can we do? You as the major energy consumer of the world can have a huge impact.
Per Capita Electricity Consumption Author: Frank van Mierlo. Graph was produced from data in the 2006 Key World Energy Statistics from the International Energy Agency.
Your actions will: have twice the impact of a person in England or South Korea (and twice the CO 2 emissions)
Your actions will: have 8 times the impact of a person in China. (5 times the CO 2 emissions.)
Your actions will: have 29 times the impact of a person in India. (19 times the CO 2 emissions.)
Approaches to Solving Global Warming “Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the next 50 Years with Current Technologies” S. Pacala and R. Socolow, 2004 Science 305 968-972
Approaches to Solving Global Warming In this paper Pacala and Socolow present a set of wedges each of which represents a way to offset 1 billion tons of carbon emissions per year by 2054. The authors assume the process currently is unused, but the application will be increased linearly over the next 50 years.
Modified figure from S. Pacala and R. Socolow, 2004 Science 305 968-972 Stabilization of carbon emissions at current levels – need 7 wedges
More “wedges” could be applied to reduce emissions further – can adjust to meet priorities. Modified figure from S. Pacala and R. Socolow, 2004 Science 305 968-972
Application of some “wedges” may decrease the effectiveness of others. Modified figure from S. Pacala and R. Socolow, 2004 Science 305 968-972
All the wedges represent current technologies. Modified figure from S. Pacala and R. Socolow, 2004 Science 305 968-972
I. Efficiency and Conservation 1. Double automobile fuel efficiency (that’s less than 2% increase in fuel efficiency per year) – Buy a more efficient vehicle (when you can) http://www.toyota.com/prius/exterior.html and asmartcar.com http://www.caranddriver.com/carmodel/hummer-h3.htm
I. Efficiency and Conservation 2. Decrease reliance on cars (same fuel efficiency, but cut use by 50%) Walk, ride or at least be smarter with your trips. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walking www.Metroareatransit
I. Efficiency and Conservation ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/pictures/tv.film/Muppet_Show/kermit.gif
I. Efficiency and Conservation 3. Increase efficiency in buildings (especially in developing countries) Do what you can to make your living space more efficient – insulate, turn off lights, computers, etc. http://www.boldstarinfrared.com/homeimages.html www.remax.com (a house in omaha) http://www.unomaha.edu/enotes/2006/0119.php
I. Efficiency and Conservation 4. Increase coal power plant efficiency by 50% http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil_fuel_power_plant
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 5. Substitute natural gas for coal. Carbon emissions are about half those of coal plants. Increase use 4-fold http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil_fuel_power_plant
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 6. Carbon sequestration Capture power plant emissions and sequester underground. Support efforts to limit allowable CO 2 emissions. Chemical and Engineering News, Sept 24, 2007, Bette Hillman and Jeff Johnson
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 7. Carbon sequestration from hydrogen plants http://www.getenergysmart.org/Files/ HydrogenEducation/6HydrogenProduction SteamMethaneReforming.pdf
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 8. Carbon sequestration from synfuel plants. Large scale production of synthetic fuel from coal (similar to current work in South Africa) http://sasol.investoreports.com/sasol_mm_2006/html/sasol_mm_2006_9.php
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 9. More nuclear fission power plants Roughly a doubling of current nuclear power use worldwide Seriously consider pros and cons. http://wesupportlee.blogspot.com/2006/10/m ajor-renovations-at-fort-calhoun.html
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 10. More wind generated electricity Assume turbine operate at 1/3 peak capacity. Increase about 50 times current capacity. Requires land mass about equal to 3% of U.S. http://www.nytimes .com/2006/08/02/u s/02wind.html; of wind farm in Kansas
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 11. Solar power (photovoltaic) Increase about 700 times current capacity. This requires less than one tenth the land needed for the wind “wedge” http://www.soultek.com/blog/labels/solar%20powe r.html http://www.evworld.com/article.cfm?storyid=856
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 12. Renewable Hydrogen Use Wind or Solar electricity for electrolysis of water to make hydrogen fuel for vehicles. http://hydrogencommerce.com/ind exa2.htm
II. Decarbonization of Electricity and Fuels 13. Biofuels If ethanol, need to increase production about 50-fold Would require an area equal to 1/6 current cropland. (About 10 times the land requirement for a wind “wedge”.) National Geographic October 2007
III. Natural Sinks 14. Forest Management Reduce the rate tropical deforestation so it is zero in 50 years. Reforestation of some tropical and temperate areas Photo © Mark Godfrey/TNC
III. Natural Sinks 15. Agricultural soils management Adopt conservation tillage so agricultural land is not tilled. (Decreasing release of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere.) Conservation tillage would have to be increased about 10-fold. http://www.agry.purdue.edu/cti/images/
Approaches to Solving Global Summary Warming – There is no one solution to address carbon dioxide release or sustainable energy production.
The Solution to Global Warming Summary – Employ best practices to conserve energy, apply current technologies to energy generation and increase biomass through better land management Can help mitigate carbon emissions and propel us toward sustainable energy production.
The Solution to Global Warming YOU can help more than most any other individuals on this planet. Start with conservation – You can eliminate a lot of waste. – Support renewable energy. We need to use our energy wisely so we can finish the race!
The Solution to Global Warming What will you do??