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Challenges to Tribal Culture in the Context of Globalisation

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<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 29<br />

3. CHALLENGES TO TRIBAL CULTURE IN<br />

THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALISATION<br />

Walter Fernandes<br />

Cultural revival among <strong>the</strong> tribal communities <strong>of</strong> India has<br />

become a major <strong>to</strong>ol <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir awaken<strong>in</strong>g. Some oppose this<br />

movement because it is a political assertion <strong>of</strong> tribal identity and<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir right <strong>to</strong> be human. They would like <strong>the</strong> tribals <strong>to</strong> only claim<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir external forms <strong>of</strong> song and dance and <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir languages<br />

as a neutral <strong>to</strong>ol. This reaction comes from most State leaders and<br />

even some Church circles. However, more and more tribal<br />

communities <strong>to</strong>day realise that <strong>the</strong>ir culture is not merely <strong>the</strong> externals<br />

but <strong>the</strong> <strong>to</strong>tal expression <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood and identity. They also<br />

know that <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood is under attack, because <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong><br />

national development <strong>the</strong>y are be<strong>in</strong>g deprived <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir land, forest<br />

and water sources <strong>to</strong> which <strong>the</strong>ir culture is closely l<strong>in</strong>ked.<br />

For many tribal communities, cultural revival has <strong>the</strong>refore<br />

become a way <strong>of</strong> reassert<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>mselves as a people with a right<br />

<strong>to</strong> an identity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir own and a life with dignity, which <strong>in</strong>cludes<br />

demand<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir right over <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood. We shall discuss some<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se questions <strong>in</strong> this chapter, particularly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> context <strong>of</strong><br />

globalisation which has become a new and aggressive attack on <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

livelihood. We shall look at tribal cultures not as static but as liv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

expressions <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir chang<strong>in</strong>g communities.<br />

The Nature <strong>of</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong>s<br />

To realise <strong>the</strong> implications <strong>of</strong> cultural revival, one has first <strong>to</strong><br />

understand <strong>the</strong> nature <strong>of</strong> tribal cultures. Even some tribal leaders focus<br />

Fr. Walter Fernandes SJ, is <strong>the</strong> Direc<strong>to</strong>r <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> North Eastern Social Research<br />

Centre, P.B. 200, Uzan Bazar, Jahaz Ghat, Guwahati, Assam, 780 001; Email:<br />

. W. Fernandes was formerly <strong>the</strong> Direc<strong>to</strong>r <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

Indian Social Institute (ISI), Delhi. He is well known for his contribution <strong>to</strong><br />

research <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> socio-economic field. For <strong>the</strong> sake <strong>of</strong> brevity, some references<br />

have been omitted. The Box on page 35 has been added by <strong>the</strong> Edi<strong>to</strong>r.<br />

only on <strong>the</strong> externals <strong>of</strong> languages, dances and songs and ignore <strong>the</strong><br />

kernel or <strong>the</strong> values and <strong>the</strong> worldview on which <strong>the</strong>y are based. The<br />

core that <strong>the</strong> externals express comb<strong>in</strong>es <strong>the</strong>ir values, social system,<br />

identity and sustenance. Because it is <strong>in</strong>tr<strong>in</strong>sic <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir identity, <strong>the</strong><br />

tribals resent any imposition on <strong>the</strong>m. For example, <strong>the</strong> communities<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast feel that <strong>the</strong> “one State one nation” th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g tends<br />

“<strong>to</strong> take <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong> Aryanisation as <strong>the</strong> measure <strong>of</strong> Indianisation”<br />

(Datta 1990: 41).<br />

Similar resentment has been expressed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past <strong>in</strong> Jharkhand<br />

and o<strong>the</strong>r tribal areas aga<strong>in</strong>st <strong>the</strong> type <strong>of</strong> <strong>in</strong>culturation practised <strong>in</strong><br />

some Church circles. The tribals felt that it had become an adaptation<br />

<strong>to</strong> Brahmanic philosophical, cultural and ritual expressions. They<br />

considered <strong>the</strong>ir culture different and wanted <strong>in</strong>culturation <strong>to</strong> express<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir own ethos and not <strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant one. They wanted it <strong>to</strong> express<br />

Jesus who was sent <strong>to</strong> br<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> good news <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor. He had <strong>to</strong> be<br />

<strong>in</strong>carnated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir communities which are fac<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> challenges <strong>of</strong><br />

protect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood <strong>to</strong> which are l<strong>in</strong>ked <strong>the</strong>ir culture and<br />

identity. This was <strong>the</strong>ir way <strong>of</strong> assert<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> au<strong>to</strong>nomy <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir his<strong>to</strong>ry<br />

and culture. So revival <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong>m is an expression <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir search for<br />

a world which is different from <strong>the</strong> one <strong>the</strong>y are experienc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

(Munda 1988).<br />

This expla<strong>in</strong>s why <strong>to</strong> many tribals, culture has become a rally<strong>in</strong>g<br />

po<strong>in</strong>t <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir organisation and a way <strong>of</strong> reassert<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir identity.<br />

This also means that a culture is not neutral but is l<strong>in</strong>ked <strong>to</strong> a society<br />

and reproduces its value system. Thus, <strong>the</strong> choice <strong>of</strong> a culture is an<br />

option for a class. This is one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> reasons why <strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant classes<br />

try <strong>to</strong> monopolise culture, use it <strong>to</strong> legitimate dom<strong>in</strong>ation and consider<br />

<strong>the</strong> subaltern peoples without a his<strong>to</strong>ry and culture. It is reason enough<br />

for <strong>the</strong> subalterns <strong>to</strong> assert <strong>the</strong>ir difference and au<strong>to</strong>nomy from <strong>the</strong><br />

dom<strong>in</strong>ant cultures. The revival <strong>of</strong> tribal cultures is <strong>in</strong>tr<strong>in</strong>sic <strong>to</strong> this<br />

assertion.<br />

There is moreover a danger that a few bigger tribes consider<br />

<strong>the</strong>mselves representative <strong>of</strong> all and even speak <strong>of</strong> a s<strong>in</strong>gle tribal<br />

culture. Some small tribes thus emphasise that India has many tribal<br />

cultures and that no tribe or group <strong>of</strong> tribes can claim <strong>to</strong> represent<br />

all <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m. There is a wide variety among <strong>the</strong>m because culture is an<br />

expression <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> way <strong>in</strong> which a community adapts itself <strong>to</strong> its social


30 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

and material environment. Indian tribes live <strong>in</strong> a variety <strong>of</strong> social<br />

situations and material environments and belong <strong>to</strong> at least four ma<strong>in</strong><br />

ethnic groups, Dravidian, Australoid, Negroid and Mongoloid.<br />

Because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se differences, <strong>the</strong>ir worldview also differs. S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

languages, dances and songs as well o<strong>the</strong>r cus<strong>to</strong>ms are external forms<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir social and natural environment, each tribe expresses itself <strong>in</strong><br />

its own way. War songs and dances predom<strong>in</strong>ate among some, hunt<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> a few and harvest<strong>in</strong>g among o<strong>the</strong>rs. These differences account for<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir diversity and richness (Kumar 1998: 103-7).<br />

This self-expression is seen not merely <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> externals but also<br />

<strong>in</strong> sustenance-related forms such as technology, methods <strong>of</strong><br />

cultivation, food habits, social relations, resource shar<strong>in</strong>g, social<br />

control mechanisms, beliefs and practices. Based on its surround<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

a community evolves a worldview and a value system <strong>to</strong> which it<br />

attaches a religious mean<strong>in</strong>g. Toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>y form a culture that<br />

conditions a community’s social relations and th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g patterns.<br />

<strong>Culture</strong> is thus an external expression <strong>of</strong> a community’s social and<br />

economic situation. Its core is <strong>the</strong> worldview and value system on<br />

which it is built.<br />

The differences <strong>in</strong> worldview are reflected <strong>in</strong> systems such as<br />

marriage. Some tribes have marriage by personal choice, a few by<br />

elop<strong>in</strong>g and o<strong>the</strong>rs through arrangement. The woman’s role also<br />

differs. Though all tribal societies are patriarchal, some like <strong>the</strong> Khasi,<br />

Garo and Ja<strong>in</strong>tia <strong>of</strong> Meghalaya are matril<strong>in</strong>eal. A few, for example<br />

<strong>the</strong> Rabha, Lalung and Dimasa <strong>of</strong> Assam, show different degrees <strong>of</strong><br />

matril<strong>in</strong>y or parallel l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>of</strong> succession, while most tribes are<br />

patril<strong>in</strong>eal.<br />

The Foundation <strong>of</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong>s<br />

Amid such diversity <strong>the</strong>re are commonalities <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> foundation<br />

and value system <strong>of</strong> tribal communities, but rarely <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir external<br />

expressions. First, all <strong>the</strong> tribal cultures have <strong>the</strong> natural resources <strong>of</strong><br />

land, forest and water as <strong>the</strong>ir foundation. Around <strong>the</strong>m <strong>the</strong>y have<br />

built a worldview, social system, set <strong>of</strong> cus<strong>to</strong>ms, economy and<br />

sustenance. Toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>se form <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood and give <strong>the</strong>m an<br />

identity which is expressed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir culture. So one cannot separate<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir culture from <strong>the</strong> <strong>to</strong>tality <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood. The second<br />

commonality is <strong>the</strong> set <strong>of</strong> values on which <strong>the</strong>ir cultures are built,<br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 31<br />

<strong>in</strong>tra- and <strong>in</strong>ter-generational equity be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> first <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m. In order<br />

<strong>to</strong> ensure <strong>the</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able use <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood, <strong>the</strong> tribals kept it<br />

under <strong>the</strong> control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> community and developed <strong>the</strong> myths and<br />

social control mechanisms required <strong>to</strong> meet <strong>the</strong> needs <strong>of</strong> every family<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present generation and prevent its over exploitation by anyone.<br />

Thus it was renewed and preserved for posterity (Fernandes, Menon<br />

and Viegas, 1988: 158-63).<br />

The second value is <strong>the</strong> role <strong>of</strong> women. Most tribes kept an almost<br />

<strong>to</strong>tal separation between <strong>the</strong>ir family and <strong>the</strong> social spheres, with <strong>the</strong><br />

woman be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> charge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> family and <strong>the</strong> man represent<strong>in</strong>g it <strong>in</strong><br />

society. For example, once a boy and a girl decide <strong>to</strong> get married,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y first get <strong>the</strong>ir mo<strong>the</strong>rs’ consent <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir union and <strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong>ir fa<strong>the</strong>rs<br />

take <strong>the</strong> decision <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> village council for its permission. The woman<br />

was also <strong>in</strong> charge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> family economy and production. As a result,<br />

as long as <strong>the</strong> resources belonged <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> community, she had some<br />

control over <strong>the</strong>m. Thus <strong>the</strong> commonality is that <strong>the</strong> tribal woman<br />

has more decision-mak<strong>in</strong>g power and a higher social status than her<br />

caste counterparts. The nature <strong>of</strong> her status and <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong> her<br />

au<strong>to</strong>nomy varied. However, <strong>in</strong> no case did her relatively high status<br />

make her equal <strong>to</strong> men. The tribal societies rema<strong>in</strong>ed patriarchal<br />

but <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong> women’s dependence on men was lower than <strong>in</strong><br />

non-tribal societies (Fernandes and Barbora 2002: 15-17).<br />

<strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong>s and <strong>Globalisation</strong><br />

Because a culture <strong>in</strong>volves adaptation <strong>to</strong> its surround<strong>in</strong>gs, it cannot<br />

be static but keeps chang<strong>in</strong>g accord<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> situation. An important<br />

change <strong>to</strong>day is globalisation, which impacts every facet <strong>of</strong> life <strong>in</strong><br />

India and <strong>the</strong> world over. It affects <strong>the</strong> tribal communities more than<br />

<strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs because <strong>the</strong>ir regions are rich <strong>in</strong> natural and m<strong>in</strong>eral<br />

resources, which are exploited more than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past for pr<strong>of</strong>it alone,<br />

without <strong>the</strong> tribals gett<strong>in</strong>g any benefit. So <strong>the</strong> tribal communities<br />

run <strong>the</strong> risk <strong>of</strong> greater marg<strong>in</strong>alisation than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past.<br />

The process <strong>of</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>alisation did not beg<strong>in</strong> with <strong>the</strong> present<br />

form <strong>of</strong> globalisation, which is its third phase. It started <strong>in</strong> its first<br />

phase <strong>of</strong> colonialism, <strong>the</strong> military and political control exercised by<br />

European countries over those <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> global South. It was an economic<br />

enterprise meant <strong>to</strong> turn <strong>the</strong> colonies <strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong> suppliers <strong>of</strong> cheap raw<br />

material and capital for <strong>the</strong> European Industrial Revolution, and <strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong>


32 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

captive markets for its f<strong>in</strong>ished products. The land laws and ownership<br />

patterns were changed <strong>to</strong> suit this need. Besides, no colonialism is<br />

possible without <strong>in</strong>ternal collabora<strong>to</strong>rs. The colonialist thus chose<br />

<strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant classes <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> colonies <strong>to</strong> adm<strong>in</strong>ister <strong>the</strong> masses on his<br />

behalf and reproduced <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> his own culture and value system.<br />

The first phase ended with political <strong>in</strong>dependence and <strong>the</strong> second<br />

followed with <strong>the</strong> Cold War. This phase is also termed neocolonialism.<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g this age, <strong>the</strong> rich countries cont<strong>in</strong>ued <strong>the</strong>ir control<br />

over <strong>the</strong> economies <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> South without be<strong>in</strong>g physically present.<br />

They did it through foreign aid, trade and military alliances and<br />

through <strong>the</strong> Bret<strong>to</strong>n Woods <strong>in</strong>stitutions such as <strong>the</strong> World Bank.<br />

<strong>Culture</strong> was <strong>in</strong>tr<strong>in</strong>sic <strong>to</strong> colonialism. The colonial myth <strong>of</strong><br />

‘civilis<strong>in</strong>g education’ presented <strong>the</strong> colonised people as be<strong>in</strong>g without<br />

a culture, wait<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> be civilised. The colonialist ‘civilised’ <strong>the</strong>m by<br />

‘form<strong>in</strong>g’ <strong>the</strong>ir leaders <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> colonial value system, which was <strong>in</strong><br />

fact meant <strong>to</strong> popularise <strong>the</strong> products <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Industrial Revolution.<br />

The local technology, culture and economy were delegitimised and<br />

through <strong>the</strong> new value system, culture was turned <strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong> a <strong>to</strong>ol <strong>of</strong><br />

colonialism. Of equal importance is <strong>the</strong> fact that <strong>the</strong> foreigner ruled<br />

<strong>the</strong> people through leaders from <strong>the</strong> locally dom<strong>in</strong>ant classes. In <strong>the</strong><br />

tribal areas zam<strong>in</strong>dars from <strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant castes and classes <strong>to</strong>ok<br />

control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> land and legitimised <strong>the</strong>ir collaboration with <strong>the</strong><br />

foreigner by treat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> tribes as communities without a culture and<br />

his<strong>to</strong>ry, as such unfit <strong>to</strong> rule <strong>the</strong>mselves (Fernandes and Choudhury<br />

1993). This process cont<strong>in</strong>ued <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> age <strong>of</strong> neo-colonialism. The<br />

two ideologies <strong>of</strong> capitalism and socialism which were used <strong>to</strong><br />

legitimise it represented two sets <strong>of</strong> values, productivity and pr<strong>of</strong>it<br />

versus distributive justice. The blocs were also <strong>in</strong>tegral <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> efforts<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> two superpowers <strong>to</strong> take control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>eral and o<strong>the</strong>r raw<br />

material sources <strong>of</strong> Africa and Asia.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> blocs won <strong>in</strong> 1989. With this began <strong>the</strong> third phase<br />

and <strong>the</strong> focus shifted <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> imposition <strong>of</strong> a s<strong>in</strong>gle economy on <strong>the</strong><br />

world <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> free market. While raw materials cont<strong>in</strong>ue<br />

<strong>to</strong> matter, this economy based on pr<strong>of</strong>it alone gives much importance<br />

<strong>to</strong> bio-resources and <strong>in</strong>tellectual property rights. These are also <strong>the</strong><br />

resources around which <strong>the</strong> tribal communities have built <strong>the</strong>ir identity<br />

and knowledge systems. The WTO Agreement on Agriculture, a <strong>to</strong>ol<br />

<strong>of</strong> globalisation, <strong>in</strong>cludes <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> common doma<strong>in</strong>, thus legalis<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 33<br />

<strong>the</strong> pirat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se resources and <strong>the</strong> knowledge systems based on<br />

<strong>the</strong>m. A change <strong>of</strong> culture is basic <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> globalised economy and<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>to</strong>ol used <strong>to</strong>day is <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>formation technology. The ma<strong>in</strong> value<br />

projected is consumerism. It is assumed that this is <strong>the</strong> only possibility<br />

and that <strong>the</strong>re is no alternative (Am<strong>in</strong> 1999: 23-4).<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> last five decades, many tribal communities not properly<br />

conversant with <strong>the</strong> monetary economy were pushed <strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> new<br />

culture without adequate preparation. S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong>y were unable <strong>to</strong> cope,<br />

outsiders <strong>to</strong>ok control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir economy and legitimised this <strong>in</strong>vasion<br />

by devalu<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir culture and worldview. In <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast where <strong>the</strong><br />

Sixth Schedule recognised <strong>the</strong> community-based culture and<br />

cus<strong>to</strong>mary laws <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribals, outsiders superimposed <strong>in</strong>dividualbased<br />

adm<strong>in</strong>istrative rules, thus enabl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir leaders <strong>to</strong> appropriate<br />

all powers and transfer community lands and o<strong>the</strong>r resources <strong>to</strong> tribal<br />

and non-tribal <strong>in</strong>dividuals. They justified such appropriation and class<br />

formation and <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>equalities <strong>the</strong>y cause <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> equitable tribal<br />

societies, by present<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dividual ownership as civilised (Fernandes<br />

and Barbora 2002: 115-6).<br />

The tribal resources were also <strong>the</strong> source <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> women’s relatively<br />

high status. With <strong>the</strong>ir loss, <strong>the</strong> tribals <strong>in</strong>ternalise <strong>the</strong> ideology <strong>of</strong><br />

women’s subord<strong>in</strong>ation and develop a new culture which streng<strong>the</strong>ns<br />

patriarchy, as can be seen among many tribal men and women<br />

displaced by development projects <strong>in</strong> Orissa. With her status<br />

deteriorat<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>the</strong> woman <strong>of</strong>ten accepts <strong>the</strong> caste cus<strong>to</strong>m <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

housewife eat<strong>in</strong>g last, after feed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> elders, her husband, o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

men and <strong>the</strong> boy/girl children. In a context <strong>of</strong> shortages, girls and <strong>the</strong><br />

housewife get very little food and are malnourished. Impoverishment<br />

also forces many young girls <strong>to</strong> go <strong>to</strong> middle-class families as domestic<br />

workers, as found among Adivasis <strong>in</strong> Orissa (Fernandes and Raj 1992:<br />

135-8), Assam tea gardens, Jharkhand and elsewhere (Fernandes and<br />

Barbora 2002).<br />

<strong>Globalisation</strong> and Impoverishment<br />

<strong>Globalisation</strong> <strong>in</strong>tensifies such processes. It comb<strong>in</strong>es<br />

<strong>in</strong>dividualism which is basic <strong>to</strong> it with <strong>the</strong> selfishness <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle<br />

class. It results <strong>in</strong> a changeover from <strong>the</strong> tribal community ethos <strong>to</strong> a<br />

<strong>to</strong>tally new culture and system, and this without adequate preparation.<br />

Slowly <strong>the</strong> tribal communities absorb <strong>the</strong> value system <strong>of</strong> this culture.


34 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

They <strong>in</strong>ternalise selfishness, not because <strong>of</strong> an abundance <strong>of</strong> consumer<br />

goods as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> case <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle class, but because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> shortage<br />

<strong>of</strong> resources caused by <strong>the</strong>ir alienation <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong> national<br />

development. One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> consequences is <strong>the</strong> demand for exclusive<br />

rights over land and jobs <strong>in</strong> Jharkhand, many regions <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast<br />

and elsewhere (Baruah 1999).<br />

These processes get a new <strong>in</strong>terpretation <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> context <strong>of</strong><br />

globalisation. On one hand <strong>the</strong> tribals are exposed <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> consumerist<br />

ideology, and on <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>y experience more deprivation and<br />

joblessness. So, greater disillusionment enters <strong>the</strong>ir culture. The basis<br />

<strong>of</strong> globalisation is an economy purs<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> highest pr<strong>of</strong>it at any cost.<br />

Consumerism, <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> goods based on artificially created needs, is<br />

its way <strong>of</strong> ensur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> producer’s high pr<strong>of</strong>it. <strong>Globalisation</strong> is also<br />

natural resource-<strong>in</strong>tensive. It results <strong>in</strong> a greater impoverishment <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> majority, but <strong>the</strong> middle class gets its benefits (Kurien, 1996: 4-<br />

6). To create more money and goods for itself, <strong>the</strong> middle class cannot<br />

but deprive <strong>the</strong> majority <strong>of</strong> its basic needs.<br />

For example, accord<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> some estimates, <strong>the</strong> middle class <strong>in</strong><br />

India has grown from around 10% <strong>of</strong> a population <strong>of</strong> 300 million at<br />

Independence <strong>to</strong> about 30% <strong>of</strong> 800 million <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> 1980s, when <strong>the</strong><br />

process <strong>of</strong> liberalisation began. The needs <strong>of</strong> this class have also<br />

grown. So, more resources belong<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor are be<strong>in</strong>g transferred<br />

<strong>to</strong> it. This causes greater poverty. Some researchers estimate that <strong>the</strong><br />

number <strong>of</strong> families below <strong>the</strong> poverty l<strong>in</strong>e has gone up from 36% <strong>to</strong><br />

47% dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> 1990s. Accord<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> International Labour<br />

Organisation (ILO), 12 million jobs were lost dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> first six<br />

years <strong>of</strong> liberalisation, and more later. An important result is that <strong>the</strong><br />

alternatives <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> neo-colonial economy developed dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> last<br />

four decades have been sidel<strong>in</strong>ed. While impos<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir value system,<br />

<strong>the</strong> rich countries tell <strong>the</strong> poor that <strong>the</strong>re is no alternative <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> market<br />

economy. Today, <strong>the</strong>re is thus a sense <strong>of</strong> powerlessness among those<br />

who are pay<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> price <strong>of</strong> globalisation, because this economy can<br />

cater only <strong>to</strong> a small m<strong>in</strong>ority.<br />

This apparent absence <strong>of</strong> alternatives <strong>in</strong>creases <strong>the</strong> sense <strong>of</strong><br />

helplessness <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribals who are among <strong>the</strong> worst victims <strong>of</strong><br />

globalisation, and legitimises <strong>the</strong> consumerist society which<br />

impoverishes <strong>the</strong>m. Till <strong>the</strong> 1980s, around 40% (8.52 mn!) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 35<br />

21.3 mn persons displaced or o<strong>the</strong>rwise deprived <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong> national development were tribals (Fernandes 1998:<br />

251). This has deteriorated because even <strong>the</strong> Government <strong>of</strong> India<br />

takes for granted that more land has <strong>to</strong> be acquired for Indian and<br />

foreign private companies. For example, <strong>the</strong> 1994 draft rehabilitation<br />

policy states: “With <strong>the</strong> advent <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> New Economic Policy, it is<br />

expected that <strong>the</strong>re will be large-scale <strong>in</strong>vestments... creat<strong>in</strong>g an<br />

enhanced demand for land <strong>to</strong> be provided with<strong>in</strong> a shorter time-span<br />

<strong>in</strong> an <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly competitive market-ruled economic structure…,<br />

much <strong>of</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribal areas” (MRD 1994: 1.1 & 4.1).<br />

Of equal importance is <strong>the</strong> reduction <strong>in</strong> employment due <strong>to</strong><br />

mechanisation, portfolio <strong>in</strong>vestments <strong>in</strong>volv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> closure <strong>of</strong> many<br />

Increase <strong>of</strong> Poverty among <strong>Tribal</strong>s<br />

After <strong>the</strong> 1999-2000 National Sample Survey (NSS), it was<br />

claimed that poverty <strong>in</strong> India had decl<strong>in</strong>ed from about 36% <strong>in</strong><br />

1993-94 <strong>to</strong> 26% <strong>in</strong> 1999-2000 – a 60 mn decrease <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> number<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor. These f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs were however “challenged by many<br />

and ultimately even <strong>the</strong> Plann<strong>in</strong>g Commission was forced <strong>to</strong><br />

(admit) that <strong>the</strong> estimates were not comparable with <strong>the</strong> earlier<br />

rounds”, on account <strong>of</strong> major changes <strong>in</strong> survey design and <strong>the</strong><br />

reference period. Fur<strong>the</strong>r studies by Abhijit Sen and Himanshu<br />

Pandey <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Jawaharlal Nehru University showed that <strong>the</strong><br />

decl<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> poverty ratio <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> above period was only around<br />

2.8%, that is, a decrease <strong>of</strong> 5-6 mn <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> number <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor.<br />

Inequalities moreover significantly <strong>in</strong>creased. “Between<br />

1993-94 and 1999-2000, <strong>the</strong> poverty ratios for <strong>the</strong> SCs decl<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

<strong>in</strong> both rural and urban areas but at a slower rate than that for <strong>the</strong><br />

general population. In terms <strong>of</strong> absolute numbers, <strong>the</strong> number <strong>of</strong><br />

poor among <strong>the</strong> SCs <strong>in</strong>creased substantially <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> urban areas.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> (most) distress<strong>in</strong>g aspect is <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> poverty<br />

ratios among <strong>the</strong> STs. In both rural and urban areas, <strong>the</strong><br />

poverty ratio and <strong>the</strong> absolute number <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor <strong>in</strong>creased<br />

significantly” among <strong>the</strong>m. Accord<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> still more recent NSS<br />

estimates, <strong>the</strong> number <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor <strong>in</strong> India as a whole <strong>in</strong>creased<br />

by around 9 mn <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> two years between 1999-2000 and 2001-<br />

02 (H. Pandey, The H<strong>in</strong>du, June 2, 2004).


36 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

small units because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> monopoly <strong>of</strong> a few companies, and<br />

reduction <strong>in</strong> subsidies <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor. Studies and field experiences show<br />

this impact. For example, by <strong>of</strong>ficial count, all <strong>the</strong> subsidiaries <strong>of</strong><br />

Coal India <strong>to</strong>ge<strong>the</strong>r gave a job each <strong>to</strong> 11,901 (36.34%) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> 32,751<br />

families (1,64,000 persons) <strong>the</strong>y displaced <strong>in</strong> 1981-1985. In <strong>the</strong> mid-<br />

1980s, Coal India began <strong>to</strong> mechanise its m<strong>in</strong>es and transfer<br />

employees <strong>to</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r m<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong>stead <strong>of</strong> giv<strong>in</strong>g jobs <strong>to</strong> displaced persons.<br />

In one project alone, <strong>the</strong> first 5 <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> 25 m<strong>in</strong>es under construction <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> Upper Karanpura Valley <strong>of</strong> Jharkhand are expected <strong>to</strong> displace<br />

1,00,000 persons, over 60% <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m Dalits and tribals. But Coal India<br />

gave a job each <strong>to</strong> only 638 (10.18%) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> 6,265 families (32,000<br />

persons) <strong>the</strong>y displaced till 1992 (BJA & NBJK 1993:36).<br />

The location <strong>of</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustries also goes aga<strong>in</strong>st <strong>the</strong> tribals. Till <strong>the</strong><br />

1980s <strong>in</strong>dustries or <strong>the</strong>rmal plants were built close <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>es.<br />

Though <strong>the</strong>y acquired much land, <strong>the</strong>y created at least a few lowpaid<br />

jobs, <strong>of</strong>ten on exploitative terms, for those deprived <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

livelihood. Today <strong>the</strong> private sec<strong>to</strong>r goes where <strong>the</strong> road and railway<br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructure is well developed, most <strong>of</strong> it <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> coastal region. There<br />

is thus a dissociation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g areas, most <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribal<br />

regions, and <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustries. Comb<strong>in</strong>ed with mechanisation, this ensures<br />

that <strong>the</strong> tribals go from exploitation <strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong>tal exclusion. They do not<br />

even get exploitative jobs!<br />

<strong>Globalisation</strong> and New <strong>Culture</strong><br />

The globalisation processes have serious implications for <strong>the</strong><br />

culture <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribals. The alienation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> land and o<strong>the</strong>r resources<br />

which are both <strong>the</strong>ir physical sustenance and <strong>the</strong> centre <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

culture, is an attack on <strong>the</strong>ir very identity. Besides, globalisation<br />

imposes an homogeneous consumerist culture and value system on<br />

society. In order <strong>to</strong> ensure <strong>the</strong> growth <strong>of</strong> consumerism, globalisation<br />

has <strong>to</strong> depoliticise <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>ority which gets its benefits, destroy <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

social conscience and desensitise <strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> impoverishment <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

majority. It thus comb<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong>dividualism with a culture where everyone<br />

looks after his/her own <strong>in</strong>terests at <strong>the</strong> cost <strong>of</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs (Kothari 1991).<br />

Some classes support it because <strong>the</strong>y “see a def<strong>in</strong>ite advantage for<br />

<strong>the</strong>mselves <strong>in</strong> a globalisation which effectively improves <strong>the</strong>ir liv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

standards even as it leaves <strong>the</strong> mass <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> population without any<br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 37<br />

obvious benefit, and, <strong>in</strong> some cases, may even worsen <strong>the</strong>ir material<br />

conditions” (Ghosh 1997: 3).<br />

With <strong>the</strong> upper and middle classes accept<strong>in</strong>g consumerism, <strong>the</strong><br />

talk <strong>of</strong> poverty alleviation all but disappears even as an ideology.<br />

The political leadership moves away from <strong>the</strong> altruistic tradition <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> freedom movement which expressed <strong>the</strong>ir concern for <strong>the</strong><br />

marg<strong>in</strong>alised through relief measures such as reservations. The media<br />

impose <strong>the</strong> value <strong>of</strong> consumerism on <strong>the</strong> desensitised middle class<br />

and make it watch problems from <strong>the</strong> comfort <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> draw<strong>in</strong>g room,<br />

without feel<strong>in</strong>g responsible for <strong>the</strong>m. <strong>Globalisation</strong> thus <strong>in</strong>volves “<strong>the</strong><br />

systematic penetration and dom<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> cultural life <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

popular classes by <strong>the</strong> rul<strong>in</strong>g class <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> West <strong>in</strong> order <strong>to</strong> reorder<br />

(<strong>the</strong>ir) values, behaviour, <strong>in</strong>stitutions and identity… In past centuries<br />

<strong>the</strong> Church, <strong>the</strong> educational system and public authorities played a<br />

major role <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>culcat<strong>in</strong>g native peoples with ideas <strong>of</strong> submission<br />

and loyalty <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong> div<strong>in</strong>e or absolutist pr<strong>in</strong>ciples… In <strong>the</strong><br />

contemporary world, Hollywood, CNN and Disneyland are more<br />

<strong>in</strong>fluential than <strong>the</strong> Vatican, <strong>the</strong> Bible or <strong>the</strong> public relations rhe<strong>to</strong>ric”<br />

(Petras 1994: 2070).<br />

The lack <strong>of</strong> sensitivity is also seen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> approach <strong>to</strong> starvation<br />

deaths. While <strong>the</strong> poor died <strong>of</strong> hunger, India exported 5 mn <strong>to</strong>nnes <strong>of</strong><br />

wheat <strong>in</strong> 2002 (The Statesman, 16/9/2002) and wants <strong>to</strong> become <strong>the</strong><br />

biggest exporter <strong>of</strong> rice (The Times <strong>of</strong> India, 18/9/2002). S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong><br />

WTO prevents food subsidies, food is s<strong>to</strong>cked and wasted. Thus, <strong>of</strong><br />

greater importance than <strong>in</strong>dividualism is <strong>the</strong> culture <strong>of</strong> selfishness<br />

and consumerism. This value system and culture is very far from<br />

<strong>the</strong> tribal culture <strong>of</strong> equity and shar<strong>in</strong>g! The transformation,<br />

already begun with colonialism and “national development, is gett<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>tensified with globalisation. Each one is expected <strong>to</strong> th<strong>in</strong>k only <strong>of</strong><br />

his/her own <strong>in</strong>terests and ignore <strong>the</strong> damage done <strong>to</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs. More<br />

and more <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> limited natural, m<strong>in</strong>eral and f<strong>in</strong>ancial resources are<br />

monopolised by a few. The TV and o<strong>the</strong>r media, especially <strong>the</strong><br />

commercials, propagate <strong>the</strong> culture <strong>of</strong> selfishness through <strong>the</strong> message<br />

that such goods have <strong>to</strong> be got at any cost” (Am<strong>in</strong> 1999: 25).<br />

Amid shortages, <strong>in</strong>dividualism and selfishness take <strong>the</strong> form<br />

<strong>of</strong> hardened ethnic identities. Many tribes claim <strong>to</strong> be <strong>the</strong> sole<br />

representative <strong>of</strong> all, or demand <strong>the</strong> exclusive right over land, forests


38 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

or jobs <strong>in</strong> a given area. For this, each tribe tries <strong>to</strong> create a new<br />

his<strong>to</strong>ry <strong>to</strong> show itself as <strong>the</strong> sole owner <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> depleted resources.<br />

One can see this trend <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> hardened ethnic identities <strong>of</strong> many<br />

<strong>in</strong>digenous movements <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast (Mishra 2000) or <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

assertion <strong>of</strong> many tribes <strong>in</strong> Eastern India that <strong>the</strong>y alone truly represent<br />

<strong>the</strong> whole <strong>of</strong> tribal India. Such attitudes have resulted <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> breakup<br />

<strong>of</strong> many all India tribal organisations, because one or ano<strong>the</strong>r<br />

tribe or region dom<strong>in</strong>ated and failed <strong>to</strong> respect <strong>the</strong> ethos <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> rest.<br />

They have also led <strong>to</strong> many conflicts such as Bodo-Adivasi, Dimasa-<br />

Hmar and o<strong>the</strong>rs <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast.<br />

<strong>Tribal</strong> women add <strong>the</strong> double disadvantage <strong>of</strong> gender and<br />

poverty <strong>to</strong> that <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir tribal identity. The middle class expla<strong>in</strong>s<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir impoverishment through victim-blam<strong>in</strong>g causes like <strong>the</strong>ir not<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g able <strong>to</strong> come up <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> standards <strong>of</strong> a consumer society, which<br />

alone <strong>the</strong>y consider fully human. Patriarchy is moreover gett<strong>in</strong>g<br />

stronger than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past among <strong>the</strong> tribals. As a result, tribal women<br />

are be<strong>in</strong>g fur<strong>the</strong>r marg<strong>in</strong>alised. <strong>Tribal</strong> leadership is also be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

monopolised by women who do not give adequate importance <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

role <strong>of</strong> women <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir society (Barbora 2002). Thus, recent changes<br />

<strong>in</strong> tribal culture <strong>in</strong>volve greater <strong>in</strong>dividualism and stronger<br />

patriarchy.<br />

Br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g Relevant Alternatives <strong>to</strong> Life<br />

We have seen <strong>in</strong> this chapter that tribal culture has changed. This<br />

is not surpris<strong>in</strong>g because, if a culture does not change, it stagnates.<br />

However, recent processes have resulted <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> deterioration <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

tribal lifestyles and cultural changes have become <strong>to</strong>ols <strong>of</strong><br />

legitimisation. Just as “civilis<strong>in</strong>g education” was <strong>the</strong> legitimis<strong>in</strong>g<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciple <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> colonial phase <strong>of</strong> globalisation, productivity and pr<strong>of</strong>it<br />

have become <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> criteria <strong>of</strong> progress <strong>to</strong>day. The human be<strong>in</strong>g is<br />

forgotten and <strong>the</strong> poor completely ignored. The <strong>to</strong>ols <strong>of</strong> cultural<br />

propagation like <strong>the</strong> mass media have become means <strong>of</strong> spread<strong>in</strong>g<br />

this message. Consumerism is <strong>the</strong> basis <strong>of</strong> this culture. The tribal<br />

communities <strong>in</strong> general and <strong>the</strong> women among <strong>the</strong>m have become<br />

its worst victims.<br />

In <strong>to</strong>day’s situation, <strong>the</strong> tribal communities are tempted <strong>to</strong> accept<br />

<strong>the</strong> false set <strong>of</strong> values brought about by globalisation. This is where<br />

one needs <strong>to</strong> look at culture as a political <strong>to</strong>ol. It has <strong>to</strong> be turned<br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 39<br />

<strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong> an <strong>in</strong>strument <strong>of</strong> prevent<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> impoverishment <strong>of</strong> tribal<br />

communities by globalisation. To achieve this, tribal communities<br />

need <strong>to</strong> go back beyond <strong>the</strong> externals <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir songs and dances, though<br />

<strong>the</strong>se can help <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir search for an alternative. They must return <strong>to</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> core value system <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir cultures and choose a new set <strong>of</strong> values<br />

based on it, <strong>in</strong> order <strong>to</strong> f<strong>in</strong>d relevant alternatives <strong>to</strong> consumerism<br />

and <strong>the</strong> selfishness which globalisation generates. In o<strong>the</strong>r words,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y have <strong>to</strong> beg<strong>in</strong> with <strong>the</strong> spirit <strong>of</strong> shar<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>the</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able use<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood and <strong>the</strong> women’s higher status, and take <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

whole community <strong>to</strong>wards equality.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

1. Am<strong>in</strong> Samir, 1999, <strong>in</strong> Walter Fernandes and Anupama Dutta (eds.),<br />

Colonialism <strong>to</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong>..., Vol. 1, Indian Social Institute (ISI), New<br />

Delhi, pp. 22-26. 2. Barbora Sanjay, 2002, Economic and Political Weekly<br />

(EPW), pp. 1285-92. 3. Baruah Sanjib, 1999, India aga<strong>in</strong>st Itself..., Oxford<br />

University Press (OUP), New Delhi. 4. BJA & NBJK, 1993, Social Impact:<br />

Piparwar..., Bharat Jan Andolan & Nav Bharat Jagurti Kendra. 5. Datta B.,<br />

1990, <strong>in</strong> D. Pakem (ed.), Nationality, Ethnicity and Cultural Identity <strong>in</strong> North-<br />

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