Challenges to Tribal Culture in the Context of Globalisation

Challenges to Tribal Culture in the Context of Globalisation

Challenges to Tribal Culture in the Context of Globalisation


You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 29<br />



Walter Fernandes<br />

Cultural revival among <strong>the</strong> tribal communities <strong>of</strong> India has<br />

become a major <strong>to</strong>ol <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir awaken<strong>in</strong>g. Some oppose this<br />

movement because it is a political assertion <strong>of</strong> tribal identity and<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir right <strong>to</strong> be human. They would like <strong>the</strong> tribals <strong>to</strong> only claim<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir external forms <strong>of</strong> song and dance and <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir languages<br />

as a neutral <strong>to</strong>ol. This reaction comes from most State leaders and<br />

even some Church circles. However, more and more tribal<br />

communities <strong>to</strong>day realise that <strong>the</strong>ir culture is not merely <strong>the</strong> externals<br />

but <strong>the</strong> <strong>to</strong>tal expression <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood and identity. They also<br />

know that <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood is under attack, because <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong><br />

national development <strong>the</strong>y are be<strong>in</strong>g deprived <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir land, forest<br />

and water sources <strong>to</strong> which <strong>the</strong>ir culture is closely l<strong>in</strong>ked.<br />

For many tribal communities, cultural revival has <strong>the</strong>refore<br />

become a way <strong>of</strong> reassert<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>mselves as a people with a right<br />

<strong>to</strong> an identity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir own and a life with dignity, which <strong>in</strong>cludes<br />

demand<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir right over <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood. We shall discuss some<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se questions <strong>in</strong> this chapter, particularly <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> context <strong>of</strong><br />

globalisation which has become a new and aggressive attack on <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

livelihood. We shall look at tribal cultures not as static but as liv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

expressions <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir chang<strong>in</strong>g communities.<br />

The Nature <strong>of</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong>s<br />

To realise <strong>the</strong> implications <strong>of</strong> cultural revival, one has first <strong>to</strong><br />

understand <strong>the</strong> nature <strong>of</strong> tribal cultures. Even some tribal leaders focus<br />

Fr. Walter Fernandes SJ, is <strong>the</strong> Direc<strong>to</strong>r <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> North Eastern Social Research<br />

Centre, P.B. 200, Uzan Bazar, Jahaz Ghat, Guwahati, Assam, 780 001; Email:<br />

. W. Fernandes was formerly <strong>the</strong> Direc<strong>to</strong>r <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

Indian Social Institute (ISI), Delhi. He is well known for his contribution <strong>to</strong><br />

research <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> socio-economic field. For <strong>the</strong> sake <strong>of</strong> brevity, some references<br />

have been omitted. The Box on page 35 has been added by <strong>the</strong> Edi<strong>to</strong>r.<br />

only on <strong>the</strong> externals <strong>of</strong> languages, dances and songs and ignore <strong>the</strong><br />

kernel or <strong>the</strong> values and <strong>the</strong> worldview on which <strong>the</strong>y are based. The<br />

core that <strong>the</strong> externals express comb<strong>in</strong>es <strong>the</strong>ir values, social system,<br />

identity and sustenance. Because it is <strong>in</strong>tr<strong>in</strong>sic <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir identity, <strong>the</strong><br />

tribals resent any imposition on <strong>the</strong>m. For example, <strong>the</strong> communities<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast feel that <strong>the</strong> “one State one nation” th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g tends<br />

“<strong>to</strong> take <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong> Aryanisation as <strong>the</strong> measure <strong>of</strong> Indianisation”<br />

(Datta 1990: 41).<br />

Similar resentment has been expressed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past <strong>in</strong> Jharkhand<br />

and o<strong>the</strong>r tribal areas aga<strong>in</strong>st <strong>the</strong> type <strong>of</strong> <strong>in</strong>culturation practised <strong>in</strong><br />

some Church circles. The tribals felt that it had become an adaptation<br />

<strong>to</strong> Brahmanic philosophical, cultural and ritual expressions. They<br />

considered <strong>the</strong>ir culture different and wanted <strong>in</strong>culturation <strong>to</strong> express<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir own ethos and not <strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant one. They wanted it <strong>to</strong> express<br />

Jesus who was sent <strong>to</strong> br<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> good news <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor. He had <strong>to</strong> be<br />

<strong>in</strong>carnated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir communities which are fac<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> challenges <strong>of</strong><br />

protect<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood <strong>to</strong> which are l<strong>in</strong>ked <strong>the</strong>ir culture and<br />

identity. This was <strong>the</strong>ir way <strong>of</strong> assert<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> au<strong>to</strong>nomy <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir his<strong>to</strong>ry<br />

and culture. So revival <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong>m is an expression <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir search for<br />

a world which is different from <strong>the</strong> one <strong>the</strong>y are experienc<strong>in</strong>g<br />

(Munda 1988).<br />

This expla<strong>in</strong>s why <strong>to</strong> many tribals, culture has become a rally<strong>in</strong>g<br />

po<strong>in</strong>t <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir organisation and a way <strong>of</strong> reassert<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir identity.<br />

This also means that a culture is not neutral but is l<strong>in</strong>ked <strong>to</strong> a society<br />

and reproduces its value system. Thus, <strong>the</strong> choice <strong>of</strong> a culture is an<br />

option for a class. This is one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> reasons why <strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant classes<br />

try <strong>to</strong> monopolise culture, use it <strong>to</strong> legitimate dom<strong>in</strong>ation and consider<br />

<strong>the</strong> subaltern peoples without a his<strong>to</strong>ry and culture. It is reason enough<br />

for <strong>the</strong> subalterns <strong>to</strong> assert <strong>the</strong>ir difference and au<strong>to</strong>nomy from <strong>the</strong><br />

dom<strong>in</strong>ant cultures. The revival <strong>of</strong> tribal cultures is <strong>in</strong>tr<strong>in</strong>sic <strong>to</strong> this<br />

assertion.<br />

There is moreover a danger that a few bigger tribes consider<br />

<strong>the</strong>mselves representative <strong>of</strong> all and even speak <strong>of</strong> a s<strong>in</strong>gle tribal<br />

culture. Some small tribes thus emphasise that India has many tribal<br />

cultures and that no tribe or group <strong>of</strong> tribes can claim <strong>to</strong> represent<br />

all <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m. There is a wide variety among <strong>the</strong>m because culture is an<br />

expression <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> way <strong>in</strong> which a community adapts itself <strong>to</strong> its social

30 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

and material environment. Indian tribes live <strong>in</strong> a variety <strong>of</strong> social<br />

situations and material environments and belong <strong>to</strong> at least four ma<strong>in</strong><br />

ethnic groups, Dravidian, Australoid, Negroid and Mongoloid.<br />

Because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se differences, <strong>the</strong>ir worldview also differs. S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

languages, dances and songs as well o<strong>the</strong>r cus<strong>to</strong>ms are external forms<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir social and natural environment, each tribe expresses itself <strong>in</strong><br />

its own way. War songs and dances predom<strong>in</strong>ate among some, hunt<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> a few and harvest<strong>in</strong>g among o<strong>the</strong>rs. These differences account for<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir diversity and richness (Kumar 1998: 103-7).<br />

This self-expression is seen not merely <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> externals but also<br />

<strong>in</strong> sustenance-related forms such as technology, methods <strong>of</strong><br />

cultivation, food habits, social relations, resource shar<strong>in</strong>g, social<br />

control mechanisms, beliefs and practices. Based on its surround<strong>in</strong>gs,<br />

a community evolves a worldview and a value system <strong>to</strong> which it<br />

attaches a religious mean<strong>in</strong>g. Toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>y form a culture that<br />

conditions a community’s social relations and th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g patterns.<br />

<strong>Culture</strong> is thus an external expression <strong>of</strong> a community’s social and<br />

economic situation. Its core is <strong>the</strong> worldview and value system on<br />

which it is built.<br />

The differences <strong>in</strong> worldview are reflected <strong>in</strong> systems such as<br />

marriage. Some tribes have marriage by personal choice, a few by<br />

elop<strong>in</strong>g and o<strong>the</strong>rs through arrangement. The woman’s role also<br />

differs. Though all tribal societies are patriarchal, some like <strong>the</strong> Khasi,<br />

Garo and Ja<strong>in</strong>tia <strong>of</strong> Meghalaya are matril<strong>in</strong>eal. A few, for example<br />

<strong>the</strong> Rabha, Lalung and Dimasa <strong>of</strong> Assam, show different degrees <strong>of</strong><br />

matril<strong>in</strong>y or parallel l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>of</strong> succession, while most tribes are<br />

patril<strong>in</strong>eal.<br />

The Foundation <strong>of</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong>s<br />

Amid such diversity <strong>the</strong>re are commonalities <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> foundation<br />

and value system <strong>of</strong> tribal communities, but rarely <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir external<br />

expressions. First, all <strong>the</strong> tribal cultures have <strong>the</strong> natural resources <strong>of</strong><br />

land, forest and water as <strong>the</strong>ir foundation. Around <strong>the</strong>m <strong>the</strong>y have<br />

built a worldview, social system, set <strong>of</strong> cus<strong>to</strong>ms, economy and<br />

sustenance. Toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>se form <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood and give <strong>the</strong>m an<br />

identity which is expressed <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir culture. So one cannot separate<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir culture from <strong>the</strong> <strong>to</strong>tality <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood. The second<br />

commonality is <strong>the</strong> set <strong>of</strong> values on which <strong>the</strong>ir cultures are built,<br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 31<br />

<strong>in</strong>tra- and <strong>in</strong>ter-generational equity be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> first <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m. In order<br />

<strong>to</strong> ensure <strong>the</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able use <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood, <strong>the</strong> tribals kept it<br />

under <strong>the</strong> control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> community and developed <strong>the</strong> myths and<br />

social control mechanisms required <strong>to</strong> meet <strong>the</strong> needs <strong>of</strong> every family<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> present generation and prevent its over exploitation by anyone.<br />

Thus it was renewed and preserved for posterity (Fernandes, Menon<br />

and Viegas, 1988: 158-63).<br />

The second value is <strong>the</strong> role <strong>of</strong> women. Most tribes kept an almost<br />

<strong>to</strong>tal separation between <strong>the</strong>ir family and <strong>the</strong> social spheres, with <strong>the</strong><br />

woman be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> charge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> family and <strong>the</strong> man represent<strong>in</strong>g it <strong>in</strong><br />

society. For example, once a boy and a girl decide <strong>to</strong> get married,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y first get <strong>the</strong>ir mo<strong>the</strong>rs’ consent <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir union and <strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong>ir fa<strong>the</strong>rs<br />

take <strong>the</strong> decision <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> village council for its permission. The woman<br />

was also <strong>in</strong> charge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> family economy and production. As a result,<br />

as long as <strong>the</strong> resources belonged <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> community, she had some<br />

control over <strong>the</strong>m. Thus <strong>the</strong> commonality is that <strong>the</strong> tribal woman<br />

has more decision-mak<strong>in</strong>g power and a higher social status than her<br />

caste counterparts. The nature <strong>of</strong> her status and <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong> her<br />

au<strong>to</strong>nomy varied. However, <strong>in</strong> no case did her relatively high status<br />

make her equal <strong>to</strong> men. The tribal societies rema<strong>in</strong>ed patriarchal<br />

but <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong> women’s dependence on men was lower than <strong>in</strong><br />

non-tribal societies (Fernandes and Barbora 2002: 15-17).<br />

<strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong>s and <strong>Globalisation</strong><br />

Because a culture <strong>in</strong>volves adaptation <strong>to</strong> its surround<strong>in</strong>gs, it cannot<br />

be static but keeps chang<strong>in</strong>g accord<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> situation. An important<br />

change <strong>to</strong>day is globalisation, which impacts every facet <strong>of</strong> life <strong>in</strong><br />

India and <strong>the</strong> world over. It affects <strong>the</strong> tribal communities more than<br />

<strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs because <strong>the</strong>ir regions are rich <strong>in</strong> natural and m<strong>in</strong>eral<br />

resources, which are exploited more than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past for pr<strong>of</strong>it alone,<br />

without <strong>the</strong> tribals gett<strong>in</strong>g any benefit. So <strong>the</strong> tribal communities<br />

run <strong>the</strong> risk <strong>of</strong> greater marg<strong>in</strong>alisation than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past.<br />

The process <strong>of</strong> marg<strong>in</strong>alisation did not beg<strong>in</strong> with <strong>the</strong> present<br />

form <strong>of</strong> globalisation, which is its third phase. It started <strong>in</strong> its first<br />

phase <strong>of</strong> colonialism, <strong>the</strong> military and political control exercised by<br />

European countries over those <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> global South. It was an economic<br />

enterprise meant <strong>to</strong> turn <strong>the</strong> colonies <strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong> suppliers <strong>of</strong> cheap raw<br />

material and capital for <strong>the</strong> European Industrial Revolution, and <strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong>

32 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

captive markets for its f<strong>in</strong>ished products. The land laws and ownership<br />

patterns were changed <strong>to</strong> suit this need. Besides, no colonialism is<br />

possible without <strong>in</strong>ternal collabora<strong>to</strong>rs. The colonialist thus chose<br />

<strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant classes <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> colonies <strong>to</strong> adm<strong>in</strong>ister <strong>the</strong> masses on his<br />

behalf and reproduced <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> his own culture and value system.<br />

The first phase ended with political <strong>in</strong>dependence and <strong>the</strong> second<br />

followed with <strong>the</strong> Cold War. This phase is also termed neocolonialism.<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g this age, <strong>the</strong> rich countries cont<strong>in</strong>ued <strong>the</strong>ir control<br />

over <strong>the</strong> economies <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> South without be<strong>in</strong>g physically present.<br />

They did it through foreign aid, trade and military alliances and<br />

through <strong>the</strong> Bret<strong>to</strong>n Woods <strong>in</strong>stitutions such as <strong>the</strong> World Bank.<br />

<strong>Culture</strong> was <strong>in</strong>tr<strong>in</strong>sic <strong>to</strong> colonialism. The colonial myth <strong>of</strong><br />

‘civilis<strong>in</strong>g education’ presented <strong>the</strong> colonised people as be<strong>in</strong>g without<br />

a culture, wait<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> be civilised. The colonialist ‘civilised’ <strong>the</strong>m by<br />

‘form<strong>in</strong>g’ <strong>the</strong>ir leaders <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> colonial value system, which was <strong>in</strong><br />

fact meant <strong>to</strong> popularise <strong>the</strong> products <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Industrial Revolution.<br />

The local technology, culture and economy were delegitimised and<br />

through <strong>the</strong> new value system, culture was turned <strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong> a <strong>to</strong>ol <strong>of</strong><br />

colonialism. Of equal importance is <strong>the</strong> fact that <strong>the</strong> foreigner ruled<br />

<strong>the</strong> people through leaders from <strong>the</strong> locally dom<strong>in</strong>ant classes. In <strong>the</strong><br />

tribal areas zam<strong>in</strong>dars from <strong>the</strong> dom<strong>in</strong>ant castes and classes <strong>to</strong>ok<br />

control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> land and legitimised <strong>the</strong>ir collaboration with <strong>the</strong><br />

foreigner by treat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> tribes as communities without a culture and<br />

his<strong>to</strong>ry, as such unfit <strong>to</strong> rule <strong>the</strong>mselves (Fernandes and Choudhury<br />

1993). This process cont<strong>in</strong>ued <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> age <strong>of</strong> neo-colonialism. The<br />

two ideologies <strong>of</strong> capitalism and socialism which were used <strong>to</strong><br />

legitimise it represented two sets <strong>of</strong> values, productivity and pr<strong>of</strong>it<br />

versus distributive justice. The blocs were also <strong>in</strong>tegral <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> efforts<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> two superpowers <strong>to</strong> take control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>eral and o<strong>the</strong>r raw<br />

material sources <strong>of</strong> Africa and Asia.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> blocs won <strong>in</strong> 1989. With this began <strong>the</strong> third phase<br />

and <strong>the</strong> focus shifted <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> imposition <strong>of</strong> a s<strong>in</strong>gle economy on <strong>the</strong><br />

world <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> free market. While raw materials cont<strong>in</strong>ue<br />

<strong>to</strong> matter, this economy based on pr<strong>of</strong>it alone gives much importance<br />

<strong>to</strong> bio-resources and <strong>in</strong>tellectual property rights. These are also <strong>the</strong><br />

resources around which <strong>the</strong> tribal communities have built <strong>the</strong>ir identity<br />

and knowledge systems. The WTO Agreement on Agriculture, a <strong>to</strong>ol<br />

<strong>of</strong> globalisation, <strong>in</strong>cludes <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> common doma<strong>in</strong>, thus legalis<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 33<br />

<strong>the</strong> pirat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se resources and <strong>the</strong> knowledge systems based on<br />

<strong>the</strong>m. A change <strong>of</strong> culture is basic <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> globalised economy and<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>to</strong>ol used <strong>to</strong>day is <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>formation technology. The ma<strong>in</strong> value<br />

projected is consumerism. It is assumed that this is <strong>the</strong> only possibility<br />

and that <strong>the</strong>re is no alternative (Am<strong>in</strong> 1999: 23-4).<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> last five decades, many tribal communities not properly<br />

conversant with <strong>the</strong> monetary economy were pushed <strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> new<br />

culture without adequate preparation. S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong>y were unable <strong>to</strong> cope,<br />

outsiders <strong>to</strong>ok control <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir economy and legitimised this <strong>in</strong>vasion<br />

by devalu<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir culture and worldview. In <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast where <strong>the</strong><br />

Sixth Schedule recognised <strong>the</strong> community-based culture and<br />

cus<strong>to</strong>mary laws <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribals, outsiders superimposed <strong>in</strong>dividualbased<br />

adm<strong>in</strong>istrative rules, thus enabl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir leaders <strong>to</strong> appropriate<br />

all powers and transfer community lands and o<strong>the</strong>r resources <strong>to</strong> tribal<br />

and non-tribal <strong>in</strong>dividuals. They justified such appropriation and class<br />

formation and <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>equalities <strong>the</strong>y cause <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> equitable tribal<br />

societies, by present<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>dividual ownership as civilised (Fernandes<br />

and Barbora 2002: 115-6).<br />

The tribal resources were also <strong>the</strong> source <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> women’s relatively<br />

high status. With <strong>the</strong>ir loss, <strong>the</strong> tribals <strong>in</strong>ternalise <strong>the</strong> ideology <strong>of</strong><br />

women’s subord<strong>in</strong>ation and develop a new culture which streng<strong>the</strong>ns<br />

patriarchy, as can be seen among many tribal men and women<br />

displaced by development projects <strong>in</strong> Orissa. With her status<br />

deteriorat<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>the</strong> woman <strong>of</strong>ten accepts <strong>the</strong> caste cus<strong>to</strong>m <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

housewife eat<strong>in</strong>g last, after feed<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> elders, her husband, o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

men and <strong>the</strong> boy/girl children. In a context <strong>of</strong> shortages, girls and <strong>the</strong><br />

housewife get very little food and are malnourished. Impoverishment<br />

also forces many young girls <strong>to</strong> go <strong>to</strong> middle-class families as domestic<br />

workers, as found among Adivasis <strong>in</strong> Orissa (Fernandes and Raj 1992:<br />

135-8), Assam tea gardens, Jharkhand and elsewhere (Fernandes and<br />

Barbora 2002).<br />

<strong>Globalisation</strong> and Impoverishment<br />

<strong>Globalisation</strong> <strong>in</strong>tensifies such processes. It comb<strong>in</strong>es<br />

<strong>in</strong>dividualism which is basic <strong>to</strong> it with <strong>the</strong> selfishness <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle<br />

class. It results <strong>in</strong> a changeover from <strong>the</strong> tribal community ethos <strong>to</strong> a<br />

<strong>to</strong>tally new culture and system, and this without adequate preparation.<br />

Slowly <strong>the</strong> tribal communities absorb <strong>the</strong> value system <strong>of</strong> this culture.

34 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

They <strong>in</strong>ternalise selfishness, not because <strong>of</strong> an abundance <strong>of</strong> consumer<br />

goods as <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> case <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle class, but because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> shortage<br />

<strong>of</strong> resources caused by <strong>the</strong>ir alienation <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong> national<br />

development. One <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> consequences is <strong>the</strong> demand for exclusive<br />

rights over land and jobs <strong>in</strong> Jharkhand, many regions <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast<br />

and elsewhere (Baruah 1999).<br />

These processes get a new <strong>in</strong>terpretation <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> context <strong>of</strong><br />

globalisation. On one hand <strong>the</strong> tribals are exposed <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> consumerist<br />

ideology, and on <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>y experience more deprivation and<br />

joblessness. So, greater disillusionment enters <strong>the</strong>ir culture. The basis<br />

<strong>of</strong> globalisation is an economy purs<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> highest pr<strong>of</strong>it at any cost.<br />

Consumerism, <strong>the</strong> use <strong>of</strong> goods based on artificially created needs, is<br />

its way <strong>of</strong> ensur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> producer’s high pr<strong>of</strong>it. <strong>Globalisation</strong> is also<br />

natural resource-<strong>in</strong>tensive. It results <strong>in</strong> a greater impoverishment <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> majority, but <strong>the</strong> middle class gets its benefits (Kurien, 1996: 4-<br />

6). To create more money and goods for itself, <strong>the</strong> middle class cannot<br />

but deprive <strong>the</strong> majority <strong>of</strong> its basic needs.<br />

For example, accord<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> some estimates, <strong>the</strong> middle class <strong>in</strong><br />

India has grown from around 10% <strong>of</strong> a population <strong>of</strong> 300 million at<br />

Independence <strong>to</strong> about 30% <strong>of</strong> 800 million <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> 1980s, when <strong>the</strong><br />

process <strong>of</strong> liberalisation began. The needs <strong>of</strong> this class have also<br />

grown. So, more resources belong<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor are be<strong>in</strong>g transferred<br />

<strong>to</strong> it. This causes greater poverty. Some researchers estimate that <strong>the</strong><br />

number <strong>of</strong> families below <strong>the</strong> poverty l<strong>in</strong>e has gone up from 36% <strong>to</strong><br />

47% dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> 1990s. Accord<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> International Labour<br />

Organisation (ILO), 12 million jobs were lost dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> first six<br />

years <strong>of</strong> liberalisation, and more later. An important result is that <strong>the</strong><br />

alternatives <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> neo-colonial economy developed dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> last<br />

four decades have been sidel<strong>in</strong>ed. While impos<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>ir value system,<br />

<strong>the</strong> rich countries tell <strong>the</strong> poor that <strong>the</strong>re is no alternative <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> market<br />

economy. Today, <strong>the</strong>re is thus a sense <strong>of</strong> powerlessness among those<br />

who are pay<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> price <strong>of</strong> globalisation, because this economy can<br />

cater only <strong>to</strong> a small m<strong>in</strong>ority.<br />

This apparent absence <strong>of</strong> alternatives <strong>in</strong>creases <strong>the</strong> sense <strong>of</strong><br />

helplessness <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribals who are among <strong>the</strong> worst victims <strong>of</strong><br />

globalisation, and legitimises <strong>the</strong> consumerist society which<br />

impoverishes <strong>the</strong>m. Till <strong>the</strong> 1980s, around 40% (8.52 mn!) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 35<br />

21.3 mn persons displaced or o<strong>the</strong>rwise deprived <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong> national development were tribals (Fernandes 1998:<br />

251). This has deteriorated because even <strong>the</strong> Government <strong>of</strong> India<br />

takes for granted that more land has <strong>to</strong> be acquired for Indian and<br />

foreign private companies. For example, <strong>the</strong> 1994 draft rehabilitation<br />

policy states: “With <strong>the</strong> advent <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> New Economic Policy, it is<br />

expected that <strong>the</strong>re will be large-scale <strong>in</strong>vestments... creat<strong>in</strong>g an<br />

enhanced demand for land <strong>to</strong> be provided with<strong>in</strong> a shorter time-span<br />

<strong>in</strong> an <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly competitive market-ruled economic structure…,<br />

much <strong>of</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribal areas” (MRD 1994: 1.1 & 4.1).<br />

Of equal importance is <strong>the</strong> reduction <strong>in</strong> employment due <strong>to</strong><br />

mechanisation, portfolio <strong>in</strong>vestments <strong>in</strong>volv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> closure <strong>of</strong> many<br />

Increase <strong>of</strong> Poverty among <strong>Tribal</strong>s<br />

After <strong>the</strong> 1999-2000 National Sample Survey (NSS), it was<br />

claimed that poverty <strong>in</strong> India had decl<strong>in</strong>ed from about 36% <strong>in</strong><br />

1993-94 <strong>to</strong> 26% <strong>in</strong> 1999-2000 – a 60 mn decrease <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> number<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor. These f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs were however “challenged by many<br />

and ultimately even <strong>the</strong> Plann<strong>in</strong>g Commission was forced <strong>to</strong><br />

(admit) that <strong>the</strong> estimates were not comparable with <strong>the</strong> earlier<br />

rounds”, on account <strong>of</strong> major changes <strong>in</strong> survey design and <strong>the</strong><br />

reference period. Fur<strong>the</strong>r studies by Abhijit Sen and Himanshu<br />

Pandey <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Jawaharlal Nehru University showed that <strong>the</strong><br />

decl<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> poverty ratio <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> above period was only around<br />

2.8%, that is, a decrease <strong>of</strong> 5-6 mn <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> number <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor.<br />

Inequalities moreover significantly <strong>in</strong>creased. “Between<br />

1993-94 and 1999-2000, <strong>the</strong> poverty ratios for <strong>the</strong> SCs decl<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

<strong>in</strong> both rural and urban areas but at a slower rate than that for <strong>the</strong><br />

general population. In terms <strong>of</strong> absolute numbers, <strong>the</strong> number <strong>of</strong><br />

poor among <strong>the</strong> SCs <strong>in</strong>creased substantially <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> urban areas.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> (most) distress<strong>in</strong>g aspect is <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> poverty<br />

ratios among <strong>the</strong> STs. In both rural and urban areas, <strong>the</strong><br />

poverty ratio and <strong>the</strong> absolute number <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor <strong>in</strong>creased<br />

significantly” among <strong>the</strong>m. Accord<strong>in</strong>g <strong>to</strong> still more recent NSS<br />

estimates, <strong>the</strong> number <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor <strong>in</strong> India as a whole <strong>in</strong>creased<br />

by around 9 mn <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> two years between 1999-2000 and 2001-<br />

02 (H. Pandey, The H<strong>in</strong>du, June 2, 2004).

36 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

small units because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> monopoly <strong>of</strong> a few companies, and<br />

reduction <strong>in</strong> subsidies <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> poor. Studies and field experiences show<br />

this impact. For example, by <strong>of</strong>ficial count, all <strong>the</strong> subsidiaries <strong>of</strong><br />

Coal India <strong>to</strong>ge<strong>the</strong>r gave a job each <strong>to</strong> 11,901 (36.34%) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> 32,751<br />

families (1,64,000 persons) <strong>the</strong>y displaced <strong>in</strong> 1981-1985. In <strong>the</strong> mid-<br />

1980s, Coal India began <strong>to</strong> mechanise its m<strong>in</strong>es and transfer<br />

employees <strong>to</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r m<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong>stead <strong>of</strong> giv<strong>in</strong>g jobs <strong>to</strong> displaced persons.<br />

In one project alone, <strong>the</strong> first 5 <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> 25 m<strong>in</strong>es under construction <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> Upper Karanpura Valley <strong>of</strong> Jharkhand are expected <strong>to</strong> displace<br />

1,00,000 persons, over 60% <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m Dalits and tribals. But Coal India<br />

gave a job each <strong>to</strong> only 638 (10.18%) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> 6,265 families (32,000<br />

persons) <strong>the</strong>y displaced till 1992 (BJA & NBJK 1993:36).<br />

The location <strong>of</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustries also goes aga<strong>in</strong>st <strong>the</strong> tribals. Till <strong>the</strong><br />

1980s <strong>in</strong>dustries or <strong>the</strong>rmal plants were built close <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>es.<br />

Though <strong>the</strong>y acquired much land, <strong>the</strong>y created at least a few lowpaid<br />

jobs, <strong>of</strong>ten on exploitative terms, for those deprived <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

livelihood. Today <strong>the</strong> private sec<strong>to</strong>r goes where <strong>the</strong> road and railway<br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructure is well developed, most <strong>of</strong> it <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> coastal region. There<br />

is thus a dissociation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g areas, most <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>m <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribal<br />

regions, and <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>dustries. Comb<strong>in</strong>ed with mechanisation, this ensures<br />

that <strong>the</strong> tribals go from exploitation <strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong>tal exclusion. They do not<br />

even get exploitative jobs!<br />

<strong>Globalisation</strong> and New <strong>Culture</strong><br />

The globalisation processes have serious implications for <strong>the</strong><br />

culture <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> tribals. The alienation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> land and o<strong>the</strong>r resources<br />

which are both <strong>the</strong>ir physical sustenance and <strong>the</strong> centre <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

culture, is an attack on <strong>the</strong>ir very identity. Besides, globalisation<br />

imposes an homogeneous consumerist culture and value system on<br />

society. In order <strong>to</strong> ensure <strong>the</strong> growth <strong>of</strong> consumerism, globalisation<br />

has <strong>to</strong> depoliticise <strong>the</strong> m<strong>in</strong>ority which gets its benefits, destroy <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

social conscience and desensitise <strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> impoverishment <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

majority. It thus comb<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong>dividualism with a culture where everyone<br />

looks after his/her own <strong>in</strong>terests at <strong>the</strong> cost <strong>of</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs (Kothari 1991).<br />

Some classes support it because <strong>the</strong>y “see a def<strong>in</strong>ite advantage for<br />

<strong>the</strong>mselves <strong>in</strong> a globalisation which effectively improves <strong>the</strong>ir liv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

standards even as it leaves <strong>the</strong> mass <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> population without any<br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 37<br />

obvious benefit, and, <strong>in</strong> some cases, may even worsen <strong>the</strong>ir material<br />

conditions” (Ghosh 1997: 3).<br />

With <strong>the</strong> upper and middle classes accept<strong>in</strong>g consumerism, <strong>the</strong><br />

talk <strong>of</strong> poverty alleviation all but disappears even as an ideology.<br />

The political leadership moves away from <strong>the</strong> altruistic tradition <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> freedom movement which expressed <strong>the</strong>ir concern for <strong>the</strong><br />

marg<strong>in</strong>alised through relief measures such as reservations. The media<br />

impose <strong>the</strong> value <strong>of</strong> consumerism on <strong>the</strong> desensitised middle class<br />

and make it watch problems from <strong>the</strong> comfort <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> draw<strong>in</strong>g room,<br />

without feel<strong>in</strong>g responsible for <strong>the</strong>m. <strong>Globalisation</strong> thus <strong>in</strong>volves “<strong>the</strong><br />

systematic penetration and dom<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> cultural life <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

popular classes by <strong>the</strong> rul<strong>in</strong>g class <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> West <strong>in</strong> order <strong>to</strong> reorder<br />

(<strong>the</strong>ir) values, behaviour, <strong>in</strong>stitutions and identity… In past centuries<br />

<strong>the</strong> Church, <strong>the</strong> educational system and public authorities played a<br />

major role <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>culcat<strong>in</strong>g native peoples with ideas <strong>of</strong> submission<br />

and loyalty <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> name <strong>of</strong> div<strong>in</strong>e or absolutist pr<strong>in</strong>ciples… In <strong>the</strong><br />

contemporary world, Hollywood, CNN and Disneyland are more<br />

<strong>in</strong>fluential than <strong>the</strong> Vatican, <strong>the</strong> Bible or <strong>the</strong> public relations rhe<strong>to</strong>ric”<br />

(Petras 1994: 2070).<br />

The lack <strong>of</strong> sensitivity is also seen <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> approach <strong>to</strong> starvation<br />

deaths. While <strong>the</strong> poor died <strong>of</strong> hunger, India exported 5 mn <strong>to</strong>nnes <strong>of</strong><br />

wheat <strong>in</strong> 2002 (The Statesman, 16/9/2002) and wants <strong>to</strong> become <strong>the</strong><br />

biggest exporter <strong>of</strong> rice (The Times <strong>of</strong> India, 18/9/2002). S<strong>in</strong>ce <strong>the</strong><br />

WTO prevents food subsidies, food is s<strong>to</strong>cked and wasted. Thus, <strong>of</strong><br />

greater importance than <strong>in</strong>dividualism is <strong>the</strong> culture <strong>of</strong> selfishness<br />

and consumerism. This value system and culture is very far from<br />

<strong>the</strong> tribal culture <strong>of</strong> equity and shar<strong>in</strong>g! The transformation,<br />

already begun with colonialism and “national development, is gett<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>tensified with globalisation. Each one is expected <strong>to</strong> th<strong>in</strong>k only <strong>of</strong><br />

his/her own <strong>in</strong>terests and ignore <strong>the</strong> damage done <strong>to</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs. More<br />

and more <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> limited natural, m<strong>in</strong>eral and f<strong>in</strong>ancial resources are<br />

monopolised by a few. The TV and o<strong>the</strong>r media, especially <strong>the</strong><br />

commercials, propagate <strong>the</strong> culture <strong>of</strong> selfishness through <strong>the</strong> message<br />

that such goods have <strong>to</strong> be got at any cost” (Am<strong>in</strong> 1999: 25).<br />

Amid shortages, <strong>in</strong>dividualism and selfishness take <strong>the</strong> form<br />

<strong>of</strong> hardened ethnic identities. Many tribes claim <strong>to</strong> be <strong>the</strong> sole<br />

representative <strong>of</strong> all, or demand <strong>the</strong> exclusive right over land, forests

38 Promot<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Tribal</strong> Rights and <strong>Culture</strong><br />

or jobs <strong>in</strong> a given area. For this, each tribe tries <strong>to</strong> create a new<br />

his<strong>to</strong>ry <strong>to</strong> show itself as <strong>the</strong> sole owner <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> depleted resources.<br />

One can see this trend <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> hardened ethnic identities <strong>of</strong> many<br />

<strong>in</strong>digenous movements <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast (Mishra 2000) or <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

assertion <strong>of</strong> many tribes <strong>in</strong> Eastern India that <strong>the</strong>y alone truly represent<br />

<strong>the</strong> whole <strong>of</strong> tribal India. Such attitudes have resulted <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> breakup<br />

<strong>of</strong> many all India tribal organisations, because one or ano<strong>the</strong>r<br />

tribe or region dom<strong>in</strong>ated and failed <strong>to</strong> respect <strong>the</strong> ethos <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> rest.<br />

They have also led <strong>to</strong> many conflicts such as Bodo-Adivasi, Dimasa-<br />

Hmar and o<strong>the</strong>rs <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>ast.<br />

<strong>Tribal</strong> women add <strong>the</strong> double disadvantage <strong>of</strong> gender and<br />

poverty <strong>to</strong> that <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir tribal identity. The middle class expla<strong>in</strong>s<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir impoverishment through victim-blam<strong>in</strong>g causes like <strong>the</strong>ir not<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g able <strong>to</strong> come up <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> standards <strong>of</strong> a consumer society, which<br />

alone <strong>the</strong>y consider fully human. Patriarchy is moreover gett<strong>in</strong>g<br />

stronger than <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> past among <strong>the</strong> tribals. As a result, tribal women<br />

are be<strong>in</strong>g fur<strong>the</strong>r marg<strong>in</strong>alised. <strong>Tribal</strong> leadership is also be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

monopolised by women who do not give adequate importance <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

role <strong>of</strong> women <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir society (Barbora 2002). Thus, recent changes<br />

<strong>in</strong> tribal culture <strong>in</strong>volve greater <strong>in</strong>dividualism and stronger<br />

patriarchy.<br />

Br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g Relevant Alternatives <strong>to</strong> Life<br />

We have seen <strong>in</strong> this chapter that tribal culture has changed. This<br />

is not surpris<strong>in</strong>g because, if a culture does not change, it stagnates.<br />

However, recent processes have resulted <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> deterioration <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

tribal lifestyles and cultural changes have become <strong>to</strong>ols <strong>of</strong><br />

legitimisation. Just as “civilis<strong>in</strong>g education” was <strong>the</strong> legitimis<strong>in</strong>g<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciple <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> colonial phase <strong>of</strong> globalisation, productivity and pr<strong>of</strong>it<br />

have become <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> criteria <strong>of</strong> progress <strong>to</strong>day. The human be<strong>in</strong>g is<br />

forgotten and <strong>the</strong> poor completely ignored. The <strong>to</strong>ols <strong>of</strong> cultural<br />

propagation like <strong>the</strong> mass media have become means <strong>of</strong> spread<strong>in</strong>g<br />

this message. Consumerism is <strong>the</strong> basis <strong>of</strong> this culture. The tribal<br />

communities <strong>in</strong> general and <strong>the</strong> women among <strong>the</strong>m have become<br />

its worst victims.<br />

In <strong>to</strong>day’s situation, <strong>the</strong> tribal communities are tempted <strong>to</strong> accept<br />

<strong>the</strong> false set <strong>of</strong> values brought about by globalisation. This is where<br />

one needs <strong>to</strong> look at culture as a political <strong>to</strong>ol. It has <strong>to</strong> be turned<br />

<strong>Challenges</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Context</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong> 39<br />

<strong>in</strong><strong>to</strong> an <strong>in</strong>strument <strong>of</strong> prevent<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> impoverishment <strong>of</strong> tribal<br />

communities by globalisation. To achieve this, tribal communities<br />

need <strong>to</strong> go back beyond <strong>the</strong> externals <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir songs and dances, though<br />

<strong>the</strong>se can help <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir search for an alternative. They must return <strong>to</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> core value system <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir cultures and choose a new set <strong>of</strong> values<br />

based on it, <strong>in</strong> order <strong>to</strong> f<strong>in</strong>d relevant alternatives <strong>to</strong> consumerism<br />

and <strong>the</strong> selfishness which globalisation generates. In o<strong>the</strong>r words,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y have <strong>to</strong> beg<strong>in</strong> with <strong>the</strong> spirit <strong>of</strong> shar<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>the</strong> susta<strong>in</strong>able use<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir livelihood and <strong>the</strong> women’s higher status, and take <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

whole community <strong>to</strong>wards equality.<br />


1. Am<strong>in</strong> Samir, 1999, <strong>in</strong> Walter Fernandes and Anupama Dutta (eds.),<br />

Colonialism <strong>to</strong> <strong>Globalisation</strong>..., Vol. 1, Indian Social Institute (ISI), New<br />

Delhi, pp. 22-26. 2. Barbora Sanjay, 2002, Economic and Political Weekly<br />

(EPW), pp. 1285-92. 3. Baruah Sanjib, 1999, India aga<strong>in</strong>st Itself..., Oxford<br />

University Press (OUP), New Delhi. 4. BJA & NBJK, 1993, Social Impact:<br />

Piparwar..., Bharat Jan Andolan & Nav Bharat Jagurti Kendra. 5. Datta B.,<br />

1990, <strong>in</strong> D. Pakem (ed.), Nationality, Ethnicity and Cultural Identity <strong>in</strong> North-<br />

East India, Omsons Publications, New Delhi, pp. 36-44. 6. Fernandes Walter,<br />

1998, <strong>in</strong> S.C. Dude (ed.), Antiquity <strong>to</strong> Modernity <strong>in</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> India, Vol. 1,<br />

Inter-India Publications, Delhi, pp. 217-301. 7. -- --, Geeta Menon & Philip<br />

Viegas, 1988, Forests, Environment and <strong>Tribal</strong> Economy..., ISI.<br />

8. -- -- & A. Raj S., 1992, Development, Displacement and Rehabilitation<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Tribal</strong> Areas <strong>of</strong> Orissa..., ISI. 9. -- -- & A.R. Choudhury, 1993, <strong>in</strong><br />

Walter Fernandes (ed.), The Indigenous Question..., ISI, pp. 9-22. 10. -- -- &<br />

Sanjay Barbora, 2002, Modernisation and Women’s Status <strong>in</strong> North Eastern<br />

India..., North Eastern Social Research Centre, Guwahati. 11. Ghosh Jayati,<br />

1997, Women’s L<strong>in</strong>k, Oct.-Dec., pp. 3-11. 12. Kothari Rajni, 1991, EPW, pp.<br />

553-8. 13. Kumar B.B., 1998, The <strong>Tribal</strong> Societies <strong>of</strong> India, Omsons<br />

Publications, Delhi. 14. Kurien C.T., 1996, Global Capitalism and <strong>the</strong> Indian<br />

Economy, Orient Longman, Delhi. 15. Misra Udayon, 2000, The Periphery<br />

Strikes Back, Indian Institute <strong>of</strong> Advanced Studies, Shimla. 16. MRD, 1994,<br />

National Policy for Rehabilitation <strong>of</strong> Persons Displaced as a Consequence<br />

<strong>of</strong> Acquisition <strong>of</strong> Land, (Second draft), M<strong>in</strong>istry <strong>of</strong> Rural Development,<br />

Government <strong>of</strong> India. 17. Munda Ram Dayal, 1988, Social Change, No. 2,<br />

June, pp. 29-42. 18. Petras James, 1994, EPW, pp. 2070-3.

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!