The Campaigner

The Campaigner

1. During the war auxiliary factories were set up and workers were forced to 20. Moravia's recent novel Io • Lui (He and I) is a dialogue between the inwork

under the threat of being sent to war. "industrial Mobilization Cam- dividual and his penis.

mittees were set up in the factories to oversee production, and union

representatives participated in these committees! "In compensation for these 21. The word "classe" as it is usecl by the Italian left has the generic meaning of

serious restrictions, the workers were allowed to have Internal Com- "radical"; "class demands" are radical demands tending towards greater

missions." Battisfia Santhis', Con Gramsci all'Ordine Nuovo, Editori Riunti, democracy in the ship, etc. Absolutely alien to Marx's concept of the working

1956, p.52ff, class as a totality the term has thus been used to indicate every tiny fragment

2. Paolo Splrano, L'Oecupazione delle Fabbriche: Settembre 1920, Einaudi,

1964, pp. 17-18. For details of the distribution of different working class strata

of the class under capitalism, including workers in one factory, as is the case

of the "Zanussi working class", etc.

into the union organizations, see "11 Problema del Potere." in "Ordine 22. Fidia Sassano,"Guardierossealla Spezia," II Pente, op. cit.,p. 1362.

Nuovo," Nov. 29, 1919, in Antonio Gramsci, "L'Ordine Nuovo 1919-t928,

Einaudi, 1970, pp. 56-60. 23 Antonio Oberti, "All' Ansalsdo di Torino," II Ponte, ibid., p. 1374.

3. Paolo Spriano, "L'Ordine Nuovo" e i Consigli di Fabbrica, Einaudi, 1971. 24. ivan Tognarini, "Toscana: crisi siderurgica e potere in fabbrica," II Pante,

op. cit., pp. 1342-3.

4. Ibid., p. 84.

25. Massimo Sani, "Testimoni del Settembre," II P()nte, op. cit., p. 1453.

5. Ibid., p. 54.

26. "Aventi!", Piedmontese edition, September 2, 1920, quoted by Spriano,

6. At the February 1921 CGL congress, many delegates complained of this L'Occupazione, p. 67.

"excessive" growth, Spriano, L'Occupazione, p. 21.

7. Spriano,L'Occupazione, oh. 6.

8. Sprlano, L'ON • i Consigli, pp. 97-98.

27. Spriano, ibid., p. 69, note 4.

28. Oberti, op. cit., p. 1374.

9. Gramsci appears to have considered the strike a success. In an article attributed

to him in "Avanti!" May 1, 1920, he wrote: "The Turinese proletariat 30. Ibid., p. 68.

29. Spriano, L'Occupazione, pp. 99-100.

has been beaten locally but has won nationally, because its cause has become 31. "The first day there were squads of workers who subjected themselves to

the cause of the whole national proletariat. The Italian revolution finally has a staying at their places of work for 24 hours running!" Angelo Faggi, member

concrete program, a real goal to achieve, the control of production and ex- of the U.S.I. in an article published in "La Voce Proletaria", Feb. 1920, quoted

change." Sprlano, ibid., p. 100, note 4. by Andrea Viglongo, "Momenti della Lotta di classe nella prima meta' del

10. The figures quotecl by Spriano, L'Occupazione, pp. 36-37, notes 3 and 1 give 1920," II Ponte, pp. 1310-1.

some indication of the gravity of the inflationary crisis on working class in- 32. Sani, op. cit., p. 1455.

comes. A family of five spent the following weekly: 120.05 lire in June 1919,

109.24 in July, 108.07 in August, 118.53 in November, 124.67 in January 1920, 33. Ibid., p. 1457. Bruno Fortichiarl, a Milanese worker, disagrees and in

176.25 in August and 189.76 in December. Milan daily wage minimums for the unashamed chauvinist terms insists, "The real center, regardless of what the

same period were the following: printers, 27.20 life; woodworkers, 18.96; Turinese say, was Milan. Milan had a symbolic value." p. 1460..

tramworkers, 24; coachbuilders, 23; electrical workers, 19; mecahnics, 13.30. 34. Spriano, L'Occupazione, p. 70.

In the monetary crisis, the dollar exchange rose from 6.34 lire late in 1918 to

13.07 in 1919 to 28.57 in late 1920. Spriano, Ibid., p.40. 35. Tognarini, op. cit., p. 1349.

11. Gianni Bosio, La Grande Paura, Settembre 1920: L'Oecupazione delle 36. Oberti, op. cir., p. 1375.

fabbriche nei verbali inediti delle riunioni degli Staff genera!i del movimento

operaio, Samona e Savelli, 1970, p. 107. 37. Spriano, L'Oecupazione, p. 70.

12. Spriano, L'Occupazione. 38. Ibid., p. 66.

13. Masslmo L. Salvadorl, in "Cinquant' Anni Dopo," in a special issue of the 39. Viglongo, op. cir., pp. 1311-1312; the worker quoted is Angelo Faggi.

magazine II Ponte, October 31, 1970, dedicated to the occupation of the fac- 40. Cesare Bermani, "11 Settembrea Novara," II Ponte, p. 1385.

torles, writes: "...Giolitti...tried with every means possible to prevent a head- 41. According to Togliatti, only on the third Sunday were family visits allowed.

on clash policy from encouraging a political centralization and revolutionary Another amusing detail Togliatti furnishes emphasizes again the egalitarian,

outcome of the workers' movement." See also Spriano¢ L'Occupazione, Ch. V self-sacrificing mood of the occupations: "A noteworthy detail: all the auto

and VII. factories were in the workers' hands, and yet the working class and socialist

14. "Nor had the FIOM excluded the possibility of accepting the industrialists'

leaders did not travel by car but by tram or on foot." Conversando con

Tagliatti, note biografiche a cure di Marcella e Maurizio Ferrara, Rome,

point of view, that wages should be raised only relative to productivity, as long Edizioni di Culture Socila, e 1953, p. 78.

as there were valid means by which to know what the situation of

management really was. Buozzi, for his part, had gone so far as to accept a 42. Spriano, L'Occupazione, p. 72. Gramsci's editorial on "Red Sunday" was

discrimination, as far as wages were concerned, between industries that published in "Avanti!" Piedmontese edition, Sel_tember 5, 1920 and appears

'aren't doing so well' and others that 'are in great condition'..." Valerio in L'Ordine Nuovo 1919-1920, op. cir., pp. 163-167.

Castronovo,"La Grande Industria: Giochi INternl e Linea di Fondo, in II

Pante, ibid., pp. 1206-1207. 43. Spriano, L'Occupazione, p. 68, note 1.

15. Sprlano, L'Occupazione, p. 112. 44. Ibid., p. 125.

16. Turati saw control in terms of "collaboration of labor with the firm (and not 45. Ibid., p. 101.

antagonism and devastating political struggle); and collaboration of labor 46. Ibid., p. 71, 75.

and management with public interest and consumer interest, more or less

represented by the State," G. De Rosa, Storia del Partita Popolare, quoted by 47. Ibid., pp. 124-5.

Spriano, ibid., p. 123.

48. Ibid., p. 101.

17. M. Rlsso, "The Influence of Magical World Views on the Formation of

Mental Disturbance in South-Italian Patients". 49. Maria Montagnana, Ricordi di uo Operaio Torinese, ed. Rinascita, Rome,

1952, p. 137.

18. Ibid.

50. Giovanni Parodi, "L'Occupazione delle Fabbriche," Fascismo • An-

19. It is in this connection that the later Gramsci's intuitions into the nature of tifascismo (1919-1936): Leziooi e Testimonianze, Feltrinelli, Milano, 1962, p.

language are immediately to the point: "If it is true that every language 91.

(linguagglo) contains the elements of a conception of the world and of a

culture, then It is also true that the greater or lesser complexity of one's world 51. Fidia Sassono, op. cit., p. 1370.

view can be ludged by one's language. A person who speaks only in dialect or 52. Spriano, L'Occupazione, p. 154.

understands the national language in varying degrees, necessarily particJpates

tn an intuition of the world which is more or less narrow and 53. Ibid., p. 156.

provincial, fossilized, anachronistic, compared to the great currents of

thought that dominate world history. His interests will be narrow, more or

less corporatJvistic or economistic, not universal." li Materialismo Stori¢o,

Riunifl, 1971, p. 5, Note ill. 55. Cesare Bermani, op. cit., p. 1386.

54. "La Fiat Centro in mano agli operai," p. 655, quoted by Spriano, ibid., pp.


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