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56. Note Bruno Buozzi's position on the back pay question in the General Staff 80. "11 programme delle Ordlne Nuovo," Ordine Nuovo, op. cit., p. 147.

meeting minutes. 81. Ibid.

57. Massimo Sani, op. cit., p. 1463... 82. Bordiga, "Fermiamo il Soviet?" in II Soviet, September 21, 1919, quoted by

58. Battiste Santhla, Con Gramsci all'Ordine Nuovo, Ed., Riuniti, 1956, p. 94. Franco DeFelice, Serratim Boodiga, Gramsci • tl problema dellarlvoluzieae

in Italia 1919-1920, DeDonato, Beri, 1971, p. 191.

59. Enzo Camerlenghi, "Consigli di Cascina e compartecipazioni nelle Padana

irrigua," II Ponte, pp. 1294-1301. Miglioll led the peasant occupations of 1920 83. Spireno, L'Ordine Nuovo, op.cit.

into coperticipation schemes consolidated in the "Lodo Bianchi" pact signed 84. "Democrazia Operaia," Ordine Nuovo, op. cat., p. 13.

on August 10, 1921, which gave farm laborers the right to look over accounts

and the "right" to contribute to a fund making up part of the agricultural 85. "11 Consiglio di Fabbl'ica," Ibid., p. 124.

firm's capital. Massimo Seni, op. ctt., p. 1454, records the attitudes of industrial

workers who saw the peasants as "pigs" who "had made money" 86. "L'Operaio di Fabbrica," ibid., p. 325.

during the war and therefore couldn't be trusted. 87. "Sindecati e Conslgll," 'Ibid., p. 37.38.

60. Andrea Viglongo, op. cir., pp. 1303-1309. 88. Ibid., p. 39.

61. Tognerini, op. ctt., 1336. 89. "11 Programme dell'Ordine Nuovo'", ibid., pp. 151-152.

62. Santhia', op. cat., p. 124. 90. "Sindacati • Consigli," p. 38.

63. Malice Kecin-Wohinz, "L'Eccezione' della Venezia Giulia," II Ponte, p. 1439. 91. "Ai commlssari di reparto delle offlcine Fiat Centro e Brevetti," ibid., pp,

64. Boslo, La Grande Paura, op. cat., p. 96. 32-33.

65. "The Great Fear" is the title BOSJOgives to his publication of the General 92. "E proprio solo stupidaggine?" Ibid., p. 168.

Staff meeting minutes and is often used to characterize the two-year period of 93. "'Cepecita Politica," Ibid., p. 170.

revolutionary ferment under consideration. What emerges from the edited

version given here of those talks is a more precise understanding of Bosio's 94. "11 Programme dei commissari dl reparto," Ibid., p. 197.

title; it was not, as historians would have it, the bourgeoisie that was thrown

95. The way in which the whole council theory actually led to corporatlam under

into fear but the working class itself, in particular the would-be "leaders" of

the revolution. Mussolini is documented in Part II of the present essay.

66. Repeatedly during the talks, CGL spokesmen remind non-CGL members of

96. "Federico" (Leo Valiana), "Esperienze internazlonall del movimento

their lack of voting rights; these include raiwroad workers, ship and dock- operaio tra le due guerre mondiali," in Quadernl dell'Italia LJbera, Partito

workers -- the USI was not even allowed to take part in the meetings! d'Azione, no. 29, pp. 7.8.

67. It must be remembered that even the corporativist control bill remained a

dead letter, until years later Mussolini imposed full-scale corporetivism. 98. Ibid.

97. Ordine Nuovo, p. 487.

68. Buozzi, "L'Occupazione delle Gabbriche," Almanacco 5ocialista, ed. dal 99. On the top of the Milanese Gothic cathedral, the Duomo, a gold Madonna

P.S.I., Paris, 1935, p. 82. stands, aptly symbolizing the opressive power of the Mother-figure in italian

69. ibid., p. 83. llfe and politics.

70. Serreti, "11 Dovere dell'era presente," in Communismo, 1-15 Ottobre 1920,

pp. 2-3. Note that Serrati had no plans for the revolution; TogHatti recalls.

100. Atl biographical material used here is taken from Giuseppe Fiorl's VIti, op.

cat.

71. Lenin, Sul Moviemtno operaio italiano, ed. Riuniti, Rome, 1970, p. 222. Lenin

101. Gramsci, letter to his sister.in-law, Sept. 7, 1931, Lettere dal Garcere,

prefaced this comment by saying that "The Italian communists are not Einaudi, Turin, 1972, p. 479.

always communist enough" end correctly characterized the ferment in 1920 102. Ibid.

as "anarchy, but certainly not Marxist communism."

103. Flora, p. 17.

Togliatti recalls the details of the plan: "The revolution was to be made in

seven days, like the creation of the world. Each day, beginning from the first, 104. Lettere, passim.

the movement was to be extended to a new category, until becoming, on the

seventh day, general and national. It was however simply a strike, it lacked

105. Flora, p. 29.

political slogans and precise orders for action. The only military preparation 116. ibid., p. 25.

on a national scale consisted of one airplane bought secretly and hidden where

few people knew where to find it. On the seventh day, or the sixth, Giolitti, 107. Ibid., p. 129.

without losing his calm, was supposed to call the reformist parliamentary 108. Ibid., p. 60.

leaders and what were they to do? Were we supposed to take up arms in the

meantime? Nothing was said about this part. The most serious thing, was that 109. Ibid., p. 30.

this plan was supposed to become operative only if it were decided that the

movement passed from a union terrain to the political field...The

110. Ibid., p. 85.

revolutionary plan that had been written in such clear handwriting on e few 111. Ibid., p. 105.

pieces of paper bearing the Chamber of Deputies heading, was put aside."

Conversando con Togliatti, op. cat., pp. 80-81. 112. Ibid., p. 115.

72. L'Ordine Nuovo, op. cat. p. 478; the quote refers to the interruption in April. 113. Gremsci wrote to his sister-in.law on March 6, 1933, describing the sense of

In September this notice was recalled to the readers' attention, at p. 486. dual identity or dissociation he suffered from in prison; Lettere, pp. 757.759.

73. Santhle', op. cat., p. 116. 114. Flora., p. 83.

74. Ibid., p. 121. 115. Ibid., p. 30.

75. Ibid., pp. 117-8. 116. Ibid., p. 119.

76. Quoted by G. Bosio in the Introduction to La Grande Paura, op. cat., pp. 22-23. 117. Letter to Zino Zini, January 10, 1924, II Ponte, p. 1488.

77. Massimo Sani, op. cat., p. 1461. 118. Fiorl, D. 184.

78. Giuseppe Fiord, Vita di Anonio Gramsci, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 1973, pp. 154-

55.

79. At the II congress of the International in Moscow in July, Lenin had explicitly

approved the criticisms made in Gremsci's document "Per un ran.

novamento del Partito Socialist" (in Ordine Nuovo, pp. 116-122) and stated

that the criticism end proposals made "correspond fully to all the fundemental

principles of the II Internationa ." Lenin, op. cat., p. 194.

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