41 ) to CIBA. Another drug recently being pushed is the old excrement. favorite, lithium. No matter which drug is used, the Behaviorism, in slightly varying forms, has sprung effect is the same: mind destruction. The following case from the Soviet Union, the U.S., England, and South studies exemplify this: Africa. In the U.S., behaviorism was officially launched In Garden City, Michigan, a teacher persuaded a father as a faction in 1913 when John Watson began his to get a physician to prescribe Ritalin to calm his restless vigorous campaign against "introspectionism" six-year-old daughter Joanie. The drug made her so • • withdrawn that she would sometimes sit for hours doing (Freudianism) on behalf of what he called an "objective nothing. "One day I got panicky," her father said. "I psychology." By the 1940's Watson's mindless obhad just said her name softly, and she started sobbing jectivism had taken over American psychology. uncontrollably." A battery of tests disclosed Hat Joanie Its near-complete hegemony is especially apparent was perfectly healthy. What she needed was drill in basic within academic institutions. University psychology reading, not drugs.(31) departments have for years turned out students schooled In Palo Alto, California, nine-year-old Kent's teacher almost exclusively in behaviorist traditions. Psychiatric and the school psychologist talked his parents into ad- departments within medical colleges have nervously tried ministering drugs to control the boy's mischievous and belligerent behavior. The amphetamines, however, only to deny its existence; most, to date, have never officially made Kent depressed. Frequently he complained of endorsed its theory or practice. But classical psychiatry, feellng persecuted by other children, and cried himself to the syllabus medical schools continue to teach, is nothing sleep. His parents took him to a psychiatrist, who more than a haphazard blend of mainly biological concluded that all the boy needed was more activity to use up his frenetic energy.(32) psychiatry and behaviorism, with a little misunderstood Doping up children-numbing their nervous and en- Freudian psychology thrown in as a cover. How does docrine system, even killing them altogether is of little psychiatry endorse in practice that which it purportedly concern to capitalists in this era of deschooling. For like denies in theory? The more honest psychiatrist would the peasant or worker in Haiti or Indonesia, a child with answer: "Why, it works." a creative mind is now seen as an albatross. And to a certain extent it does work in the traditions of any coercive psychological approach. At minimum it 2. Conditioning Methods: Behavior Therapy brings about certain "behavioral" or "attitudinal" changes, more often than not inducing psychosis. Behaviorism as a clinical approach traces its roots Pavlovian psychology in particular, if used deliberately back to the second and third decades of this century, and consciously, as in cases of prisoners of war brainwhen interest was aroused in the application of the washed by the Chinese Communists in North Korea, and principles of conditioning to the treatment of behavior more recently the CIA/KGB's brainwashing of White disorders. Behavior therapy as it is currently practiced is and George, becomes an extremely potent weapon. simply the homogenization of Watson's S-R's and The approaches based upon conditioning are many in Pavlov's drooling dogs Skinnerism is its oozing name: "systematic desensitization," "implosive 4 Children trained to drool on Imamu Baraka's command.
42 therapy," "operant conditioning," "behavior shaping," after the other students had eaten. Also, he would not be "aversion therapy," "action therapy," "token able to wear street clothing, attend'movies, Ortake trips economy," etc. We shall select two for in depth in- outside.(34) vestigation: one, the token economy is of the Skinnerian The most feared and hated Skinnerian program is ilk and tends to be a pre-brainwashing program; the that of Project START (Special Treatment and other, aversion therapy, is a product of "Pavlovian" Rehabilitative Training) at the Medical Center for therapy and lies at the core of the induced brainwashed Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri.* Project state. START is geared to promoting "behavioral and at- The Token Economy: The token economy is just another titudinal change in that element of the prison inname for Skinner's contingency management programs, stitutional population which has chronically demon- As Skinner's Beyond Freedom and Dignity well strated inability to effectuate adherence to established demonstrated, the token economy establishes the social regulations."  relations of Rockefeller's 1984 fascist society. Whole In a letter to the United Nations on July 5, 1972, the institutions- schools, hospitals, prisons, etc. Prisoners Ri'ghts Committee, a group of inmates at become converted into massive concentration camps, in Marion Federal Prison asked the United Nations which the inhabitants are reduced to raw bestiality, Economic and Social Council to investigate their charges clamoring for "tokens" that can be exchanged for that inmates who refused to cooperate with the START "rewards" such as a bath or a paint-by-numbers set. scheme were first tranquilized and then tied naked to a In Philadelphia's Follow-Through Program, primary- toilet for several days. If they then cooperated, they were school-aged children from the ghetto are being turned placed in completely empty cages until "continued into virtual caged rats, keeping their mouths shut, cooperation would win the prisoner a bed." One staying in their seats, and withstanding the drudgery of inmate, Charles Alfano, attempted suicide on June 29, Baraka-style drill and grill so they can "exchange" their 1972, some hours after he was notified that he was to be tokens for a coloring book. The Behavioral Research moved to the START unit. He expired the next mot- Project in Tucson, Arizona utilized community-trained ning.t teachers, parents and other adults in the child's natural Why is it that this program brought charges of brainenvironment to use "reinforcers" to modify washing from inmates, stirred up hunger strikes, and 66 " _9 dehnquent or "predelinquent" behavior such as was so widely feared by prisoners throughout the stealing, property destruction, and truancy. An in- country? Project START's token economy is geared to tervention plan was designed for each child and the child the prisoner who is "aggressive, manipulative, and resiswas given notes, points, or a mark on a chart which tive to authority." Any prison militant or revolutionary is could be exchanged later for primary "reinforcers." Behavior such as prompt arrival at school or obediance * In a New York Times article of Feb. 7, 1974 entitled "U.S. to instructions was reinforced, as well as periods in which Ends Projecton Jall Inmates," it was announced that the Federal a particular undesirable behavior did not occur.J33] Bureau of Prisons had decided to "dismantle" Project START. One of the classics among token economies is the While the bureau claimed that its decision was "economic," the real reasons are as follows: (q) it has been the focus of protest project CASE II (Contingencies Applicable for Special demonstrations both inside and outside the prison; (2) Arpiar G. Education), conducted at the National Training School Saunders, J r., National Prison Project of the ACLU Foundation for Boys (at the time in Washington, D.C.). This project and collaboratorwith the NCLC, represented STARTinmates in was designed for "delinquent" boys who could obtain Federal litigation; (3) the government was well aware of the revolutionary organizing that was being launched in the nation's points for "successfully" completing specified amounts prisons by the NCLC around "Operation Nuremburg." In adof educational material. It is described, as follows: dition, while the ruling was significant, no such action can be considered "victorious" until all behavior modification programs These boys lived in a specially constructed environment have been terminated. The bureau had announced earlier that on the school grounds which for the first three to five days included a small but attractive private room and the Federal Center for Correctional Research, soon to be opened exceptionally good meals Following this, points had to be in Butler, North Carolina would be replacing, through centralization, other existing behavior modification programs throughout earned by the boy in order to pay for his private room and the Northeast. Finally, it appears that the Bureau does not want good meals. In addition, he could use these points, sometimes converted into tokens'or small amounts of this case to reach the point of constitutional ruling; if START is declared unconstitutional all other behavior modification money, to pay for such things as phone calls, or articles from a mail-order catalog. Conversely,' if a student 'did programs would stand in jeopardy. not successfully complete his educational tasks, he was known as a relief student and would lose his private room t Verification of his death and details may be obtained from the and would have to have his meals' served On a metal'tray office of U.S. Senator Edward Brooke.