The Campaigner

The Campaigner


therapy," "operant conditioning," "behavior shaping," after the other students had eaten. Also, he would not be

"aversion therapy," "action therapy," "token able to wear street clothing, attend'movies, Ortake trips

economy," etc. We shall select two for in depth in- outside.(34)

vestigation: one, the token economy is of the Skinnerian The most feared and hated Skinnerian program is

ilk and tends to be a pre-brainwashing program; the that of Project START (Special Treatment and

other, aversion therapy, is a product of "Pavlovian" Rehabilitative Training) at the Medical Center for

therapy and lies at the core of the induced brainwashed Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri.* Project

state. START is geared to promoting "behavioral and at-

The Token Economy: The token economy is just another titudinal change in that element of the prison inname

for Skinner's contingency management programs, stitutional population which has chronically demon-

As Skinner's Beyond Freedom and Dignity well strated inability to effectuate adherence to established

demonstrated, the token economy establishes the social regulations." [35]

relations of Rockefeller's 1984 fascist society. Whole

In a letter to the United Nations on July 5, 1972, the

institutions- schools, hospitals, prisons, etc. Prisoners Ri'ghts Committee, a group of inmates at

become converted into massive concentration camps, in Marion Federal Prison asked the United Nations

which the inhabitants are reduced to raw bestiality, Economic and Social Council to investigate their charges

clamoring for "tokens" that can be exchanged for that inmates who refused to cooperate with the START

"rewards" such as a bath or a paint-by-numbers set. scheme were first tranquilized and then tied naked to a

In Philadelphia's Follow-Through Program, primary- toilet for several days. If they then cooperated, they were

school-aged children from the ghetto are being turned placed in completely empty cages until "continued

into virtual caged rats, keeping their mouths shut, cooperation would win the prisoner a bed."[36] One

staying in their seats, and withstanding the drudgery of inmate, Charles Alfano, attempted suicide on June 29,

Baraka-style drill and grill so they can "exchange" their 1972, some hours after he was notified that he was to be

tokens for a coloring book. The Behavioral Research moved to the START unit. He expired the next mot-

Project in Tucson, Arizona utilized community-trained ning.t

teachers, parents and other adults in the child's natural Why is it that this program brought charges of brainenvironment

to use "reinforcers" to modify washing from inmates, stirred up hunger strikes, and

66 " _9

dehnquent or "predelinquent" behavior such as was so widely feared by prisoners throughout the

stealing, property destruction, and truancy. An in- country? Project START's token economy is geared to

tervention plan was designed for each child and the child the prisoner who is "aggressive, manipulative, and resiswas

given notes, points, or a mark on a chart which tive to authority." Any prison militant or revolutionary is

could be exchanged later for primary "reinforcers."

Behavior such as prompt arrival at school or obediance * In a New York Times article of Feb. 7, 1974 entitled "U.S.

to instructions was reinforced, as well as periods in which Ends Projecton Jall Inmates," it was announced that the Federal

a particular undesirable behavior did not occur.J33] Bureau of Prisons had decided to "dismantle" Project START.

One of the classics among token economies is the While the bureau claimed that its decision was "economic," the

real reasons are as follows: (q) it has been the focus of protest

project CASE II (Contingencies Applicable for Special demonstrations both inside and outside the prison; (2) Arpiar G.

Education), conducted at the National Training School Saunders, J r., National Prison Project of the ACLU Foundation

for Boys (at the time in Washington, D.C.). This project and collaboratorwith the NCLC, represented STARTinmates in

was designed for "delinquent" boys who could obtain Federal litigation; (3) the government was well aware of the

revolutionary organizing that was being launched in the nation's

points for "successfully" completing specified amounts prisons by the NCLC around "Operation Nuremburg." In adof

educational material. It is described, as follows: dition, while the ruling was significant, no such action can be

considered "victorious" until all behavior modification programs

These boys lived in a specially constructed environment have been terminated. The bureau had announced earlier that

on the school grounds which for the first three to five

days included a small but attractive private room and the Federal Center for Correctional Research, soon to be opened

exceptionally good meals Following this, points had to be in Butler, North Carolina would be replacing, through centralization,

other existing behavior modification programs throughout

earned by the boy in order to pay for his private room and the Northeast. Finally, it appears that the Bureau does not want

good meals. In addition, he could use these points,

sometimes converted into tokens'or small amounts of this case to reach the point of constitutional ruling; if START is

declared unconstitutional all other behavior modification

money, to pay for such things as phone calls, or articles

from a mail-order catalog. Conversely,' if a student 'did programs would stand in jeopardy.

not successfully complete his educational tasks, he was

known as a relief student and would lose his private room t Verification of his death and details may be obtained from the

and would have to have his meals' served On a metal'tray office of U.S. Senator Edward Brooke.

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