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Identification

Identification

Identification

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BY

Lecturer of Forensic Medicine &

Clinical Toxicology


الساعات المكتبية

1 –

يىم االثنين واالربعاء الساعة 9

ظهرا


Identification is the

recognition of an unknown

person (living or dead)

through certain features and

characters that differentiate

him from other persons.


The MEDICOLEGAL EXPERT

a

May

Collection

be asked to

of

identify

Bones:

the

following:

1. ORIGIN

Collection of bones or

2. BELONG TO ONE OR MORE

skeletal remains.

3. SEX

Dead body or part of a dead

6. HEIGHT

body.

Identification of

8. TIME PASSED SINCE DEATH

9. CAUSE OF DEATH

A living person.

4. AGE 5. RACE

7. DEFORMITIES


MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE

OF TEETH EXAMINATION:

1.Estimation of age

2.Personal identification

3.Bites differentiation

4.Chronic poisoning


Sometimes identity of an unknown

dead person may be difficult due to:

1. Extensive putrefaction.

2. Mutilation of the body.

3. Burning.


Medicolegal report of unknown

Complete dead body must include:

1. Full description of clothes and

2. Description of general features:

any articles connected with the

- Complexion.

-body:

Shape of the mouth, nose, ear and forehead slope.

- Contents - Shape of of the the eyes pockets: and the colour identity of the card iris. or a letter.

- Any - Colour, articles form as jewelry and distribution or newspaper. of the hair.

- Any - Description tears or stains of the on eye the brows, clothes. beard and moustache.

- Full description of teeth

- Photographs (full face & profile) and finger prints.


Medicolegal report of unknown

Complete dead body must include:

3. Age:



Determination of age from bones as

eruption of teeth, appearance of ossific

centers and union of epiphysis.

Other data for estimation of age:

a) During intrauterine life

b) From birth to age of puberty: (2w-

14y)


Medicolegal report of unknown

Complete dead body must include:

‣Age First of 26 weeks: years - 12 years:

‣ From 2 years - 6 years:

It Desquamation is identified by of eruption the skin of and permanent changes in teeth. the stump of the

-Weight: umbilical is increased cord. about 2 kg/year.

-Length is increased about 5 cm/year.

-Ossific centres.

‣ From 6 months - 24 months:

Weight: 6 kg at age of 6 months

9 kg at age of 12 months

12 kg at age of 24 months

Milk dentition.


‣ Age of 12 years - 14 years (age of

puberty):

Manifestations of puberty

• In males:

-Appearance of the pubic hair (at about 13

years), axillary hair (at about 14 years).

•In females:

-Hoarseness of voice and appearance of a

-Appearance of pubic hair and axillary hair (at

beard and moustache.

about 12 years).

-Ejaculation of semen and development of

-Developing of the breast and libiae.

testes and penis.

- Onset of menstruation.


c) Age of 14 years - 25 years: This

age group is identified by the union

of epiphyses of some bones.

d) Age of 25 years - 40 years: By

union of some epiphyses and closure

of the skull sutures.


e) Age above 40 years:

- Arcus senilis of the cornea: It is a ring of

opacity in the peripheral part of the

cornea due to degenerative changes in

corneal tissues.

- Wrinkles about the eyes and in front of the

ears. Hair in the auditory meatus begins

to appear about the age of 50 years.

- Greyness of hair: greying starts on the

scalp at about 40 years, first at the

temple, followed later by the beard and

moustache. Axillary and pubic hairs never

turn grey before the age of 55 years.


4. Sex:

a- Characteristic clothes.

b- Secondary sex characters:

‣ In women:

The C-Specific developed sex breast, organs: feminine distribution of hair,

-External distribution genitalia of subcutaneous and reproductive fat and organs. well formed

-Sometimes vagina. errors in the development lead to

‣ In admixture men: of sex organs and the individual is a

Absence hermaphrodite. of breast tissue, male distribution of hair,

and appropriate physical & muscular

development.


There are two types of

hermaphroditism:

i)

ii) True Pseudohermaphroditism:

(double

It is sex): a more common condition than

The the true external hermaphroditism. genitalia may be It is of of both two

types: sexes and the internal genital

organs may be both ovaries and

a) Masculine type: A male may have a

testes.

b) Feminine type: It is less common than

the small masculine imperforate type. penis The female simulating may an have

an This enlarged enlarged condition clitoris, clitoris is a resembling rare. split scrotum the resembling penis

with vulva the and labiae undescended united by testes. a thin raphe

simulating the scrotum.


To confirm sex in these cases:

Medicolegal Sex chromatin: importance of sex

chromatin:

‣ Microscopic examination of the

Sex tissues of ovary or testis.

a-Determination

c- In chromatin case of confusion is

of

a

actual

sex specific

sex

about

in cases

appropriate mass

of change

of sex

of

chromatin ‣

sex assignment Sex from chromatin which male to to is babies female found test or is within the helpful, ambiguous

reverse, the nuclei when or in of a

somatic cases external smear of cells, intersexuality is genitalia. taken while called from such "drum-stick" the as hermaphrodites.

buccal for

that membrane.

found in leucocytes.

b-Determination of sex from human specimens

found at the scene of a crime or on a weapon.


5. Race:

Race

The is a main very can be

original important determined

races question are:

from: in cases of

a.Complexion

- Caucasian Determination (all

(colour

whites of race of

and

the accidents North

skin).

Africans). during

b.Hair.

- Negroid traveling (all by blacks- air, railway African, or sea American when

c.

Negroes

Eyes, fatalities lips,

and occur West

nose simultaneously and

Indians).

chin (general in persons

- Mongoloid

features). of different (Chinese, races traveling Japanese, together. Indians and

d.

American

Bones and

Indians).

teeth.


6. Social status:

7. Occupation:

8. Congenital malformations:

-Occupational It is indicated marks by are person's characteristic care on for

clothes Such his as clothes, and supernumerary body hair, of the teeth, person. or webbed nails Materials fingers and like

flower, or toes, feet. paint, hare grease lip, cleft and palate, natural birth stains marks on as

clothes moles. or body indicate that the person is

painter, mechanic or a dye worker.

- Callosities may be found on the fingers of

workers dealing with dye or leather industries.


9. Operations and scars:

10. Tattoo marks:

Amputation of a limb, removal of the

- Presence

appendix

of these

or uterus,

marks

circumcision,

is of great

all

identifying

is important

values

features

as follows:

for

1-

identification.

Indicating the name, address, religion,

birth date and place of the person.

Scars may follow injuries, operations

or diseases. They are permanent and

2- Giving an idea about the environmental

help in identification both in living

and social background of the person.

and in dead bodies.


In civil cases

Identification of a living person is very

important in cases of marriage, inheritance,

or in case of people impersonating

somebody It follows all else the to points obtain mentioned unlawful property. for the

dead with the addition of certain features

as:


Character of voice, the expression, hand

writing (right or left handed).

Standard of education, the intellect and

the accent.

Any mannerism in speech and movements

of the hands during talking and any tics.

Any peculiarities in the gait during

walking.

Photographs.

Age, sex, race, social status, occupational

marks.


In criminal cases

Personal identification of living persons

in criminal cases is essentially the

work of the police, depending on:

Finger prints.

Foot prints.

Poroscopy.

DNA prints.

Other prints.


a.Fingerprints

(Dactylography)

It Present means an in dermis impression & epidermis. made by the

ball of the finger.

Cannot be altered except in the

It following is based conditions:

that the skin of the balls

‣ of Transitory fingers absence is covered duewith to exposure papillary to

ridges ionizing with radiation pores of and sweat steel glands. industry.

‣ They Permanently develop during destroyed intrauterine some life

(16th chronicweek) skin diseases and remain as leprosy constant and

throughout scleroderma. life.


Types of fingerprints :

Simple arch

Tented arch

Arches

Loops

Whorls

Loop radial

Loop ulnar

Composite

Mixed


Advantages of fingerprints:

1. 3. Absolute It is applicable identification to persons is possible. of all

ages.

4. No special training or expensive

2. It instruments can be obtained are necessary. even after

peeling of epidermis due to

5. The print can be transmitted from

putrefaction or immersion

one place to another by a code

(presents also in dermis).

message.


. Footprints

It means an impression which

is left by sole of foot, skin

pattern of toes and heals.


Medicolegal Importance of

FOOTPRINTS:

1. Identification in criminal cases

when present at the scene of a

crime (on mud or sandy ground).

2. Prevent accidental exchange of

babies in maternity hospitals.

3. Gives information about

abnormalities of foot as flat foot

and extra toe.


Medicolegal Importance of

Footprints

4. Gives an idea about the height of the

person. 6. 5. When A deeper the person impression is running on or jumping, one side

the impressions of the tips of the toes are

only seen.

denotes that the person was

carrying heavy weight on one

shoulder or denotes limping.


c. Poroscopy


Medicolegal

applications

of DNA printing

c. DNA prints

It is the most recent method used

nowadays for purposes of identification

2. and Immigration

1. Identification other medicolegal cases:

of paternity: conditions. DNA print tests are

Conventional 4. done 3. Zygosity Criminal for immigration

blood determination cases: tests Any purposes

can stain only in (blood, to twins: confirm

exclude semen The the

a

man zygosity family or saliva) relationships.

from of being present a pair the of father twins scene may of a sometimes child. of a crime But can

nowadays, need be analyzed to be with determined. for DNA its DNA finger Twins profile printing, are & matched either

is

possible identical with DNA to (monozygotic) pattern resolve the obtained matter or non from and identical suspect's prove

beyond (dizygotic). blood sample. any doubt whether a man is or is not

the father of a child.


There are other types of prints that

can be used nowadays for purpose

of personal identification:

Lip Prints

Iris Prints

Voice Prints

Palate Prints


Ages of medicolegal

importance:

Full Term

2

6 7 14

15

16 17 18 21 30 40 65

years

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