第八章生态系统的调控

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第八章生态系统的调控

“”(homeostasis)


Resistant Stability



Resilient Stability


Resistant Stability



Resilient Stability


Resistant Stability



Resilient Stability


Resistant Stability



Resilient Stability


1


1


2.


3.


4.


5.



Ecological

Threshold”



Ecological

Threshold”


,.




Feedback

Feedback


,.




Feedback

Feedback


4


4


4


4


4


K


S

KS

KS

K


S


edundancy

of functional components










“”


dN / dt = r ·N



N


,

r



N

dN

dt = r ·N




N


t


dN / dt = r 1 – N / KK

r


N

(K)



”—



N

dN

dt = r

= r(1-

N

K )





N

K

Logistic

Logistic

t



dN / dt = r ·N ·( 1 – N / K)


N


-r 2 /K


K

+

N

dN

=

dt

r ·N


dN

dt

= -r N2

K


Logistic

Logistic

K

Logistic

Logistic






Logistic



K


93%

23% 23%60%

60%

7%

7%


78%

81% 81%18%

18%


93%

23% 23%60%

60%

7%

7%


78%

81% 81%18%

18%


93%

23% 23%60%

60%

7%

7%


78%

81% 81%18%

18%


93%

23% 23%60%

60%

7%

7%


78%

81% 81%18%

18%


93%

23% 23%60%

60%

7%

7%


78%

81% 81%18%

18%


93%

23% 23%60%

60%

7%

7%


78%

81% 81%18%

18%


ecological balance

W.

W.1949




”“

balance of nature”




ecological balance

W.

W.1949




”“

balance of nature”




ecological balance

W.

W.1949




”“

balance of nature”




ecological balance

W.

W.1949




”“

balance of nature”




“”


,

,


,

,


“”







”“


2







2


2







2


2







2





displacement)

displacement)




degraded ecosystem)

damaged ecosystem


4


4


4


4


— —


— —


— —


A


estoration ecology


Aber

Jordan1985

1985






synthetic ecology


3













3













3













13

13


13

13


“”

rehabilitationreconstruction

reclamation

reclamationrevegetation



”“”


— —


2


2


2


2


20

50

50

21

21


20

80“


1992


“”


Bt

Bt


Bt

Bt


Bt

Bt


Bt

Bt


Bt

Bt


3


3


system analysis and stimulation


system analysis and stimulation


1.


2.

3.

“”

4.

5.


6.


7.

8.

9.


10.

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