Flip book - Skuld


Flip book - Skuld




mArcH 2013 / issuE 204




Douglas Jacobsohn

President & cEo


A good sTArT


Welcome to a promising 2013. Business is thriving. At renewals we have

set a new-business tonnage record for skuld group. Furthermore, in

spite of high claims levels from the international group pooling system,

skuld will deliver robust results for the last financial year, yet again.

Developing business

skuld has made significant gains in the offshore and energy markets

and our new office in singapore is already making further progress.

Although it hasn’t been long since we introduced fixed premium P&i

and yacht insurance, we have already signed up a sizeable amount of

new business. in addition, our lloyd’s syndicate skuld 1897 goes from

strength to strength and will be well positioned to deliver results in

accordance with the long-term plan.

The ArcTic

in this Beacon, we examine the Arctic. This ‘new frontier for exploration

and development’ is a fascinating region, which challenges the developed

world’s ability to combine opportunity with sustainability.

BEAcon mArcH 2013 / issuE 204

news feATure: The ArcTic

6 unlocking the Arctic

9 know your Arctic

10 key changes for nsr regulation

12 Arctic trading

14 on thin ice?

16 cold reality

18 Testing the ice

20 The Arctic and me


21 stowaway with a mission

23 skuld opens new office


25 Personnel news

27 news


kEy cHAngEs

For nsr


in January, russia introduced ‘new

rules of navigation on the northern sea

route’. The rules can be seen as a great

leap forward for facilitating navigation and

commercial shipping on the nsr.

my thanks again for your hard work and support during 2012 and, as

spring approaches; i look forward to growth and success for us all.

PHoTo: sciEncE PHoTo liBrAry

PHoTo: ©loWEll gEorgiA/corBis

douglAs JAcoBsoHn


cold rEAliTy

navigating icy waters is challenging and can

be more costly than expected.


ArcTic TrAding



mArcH 2013 / issuE 204

beAcon (skulD MAgAzine) is the official publication of Assuranceforeningen skuld (gjensidig)

ADDress P.o. Box 1376 Vika, no-0114 oslo, norway, Tel +47 22 00 22 00, Fax +47 22 42 42 22

e-MAil ingeborg.berge@skuld.com eDiTor in chief ingeborg Berge eDiToriAl sTAff lise larson,

marte nordli Andersen, inger margrethe Holm lAyouT Transmission As repro AnD prinTing

07 group fronT pAge The russian nuclear-powered icebreaker yamal. ©Peter guttman/corBis

bAck pAge yacht. Entire contents ©2013, all rights reserved. reproduction in whole or in part,

without written permission from skuld, is prohibited. opinions expressed by writers in Beacon

are not necessarily those held by skuld. skuld assumes no responsibility for unsolicited material


As the Arctic opens up, the prospect of increased

commercial opportunity for shipping is an exciting one.

However, with increased access comes increased risk and

responsibility. meeting these responsibilities and assessing risks

present challenges to owners, charterers and insurers alike.


THE ArcTic

wriTTen by

name surname

Job title, skuld


nEWs FEATurE lEgAl

THE ArcTic issuEs


ArTicle inTro


intro text

THE Ar cTic

The seattle-based cutter Healy is the us coast

guard’s newest and most technologically

advanced polar icebreaker. it’s shown here

breaking ice in the Bering sea.


reAD More


“quoTe froM


LargeLy unexpLored, the arctic – 6% of the earth’s surface area –

is a treasure chest of resources. oiL, gas, mineraLs, precious metaLs,

gemstones, fresh water – they’re aLL there. the question is: in opening

it, can we baLance nature’s fragiLity with our materiaL needs? with arctic

ice receding and technoLogy improving, vesseLs now saiL to, from and

through easier than at any point in history. in this feature, we take a

Look at some of the issues around accessing the frozen north.

PHoTo: © 1-imAgEs.no

BEAcon / MArch 2013 5



/ THE ArcTic

THE ArcTic /

TschuDi shipping AnD The high norTh

unlocking THE ArcTic

once described as a vast inaccessible wasteland, the Arctic has become a new frontier for exploration

and development. There’s a lot to play for. The Arctic contains around one tenth of the world’s oil

and a quarter of its natural gas. mineral deposits include gold, uranium, copper, nickel, tungsten

and diamonds. The problem has always been how to get at them or, more precisely, how to get

at them economically.

With growing demand for resources, rising commodity prices, political

change, improved technology and the effects of climate change the

playing field is now very different from even a decade ago. Felix Tschudi,

chairman of Tschudi shipping company, saw the opportunities early on.

breAD for The people

in the late 1980s, Felix Tschudi was working for the Vienna-based trading

and finance house AWT, specialising in countertrade with Eastern

Europe and the soviet union. soon after the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, he

returned to norway and put his trading experience to good effect.

“Although norway has several borders, the only really interesting one

is the 196 km border with russia,” says Felix Tschudi. “When the soviet

union disintegrated, the difference in living standards was enormous,

with real hardship on the russian side. it provided opportunities for trade

in foodstuffs and white goods. our business developed and at the point

of the rouble’s devaluation in 1998, we owned a large bakery just across

the russian border in murmansk producing 13–14,000 loaves of bread

a day. unfortunately, the devaluation forced a move out of this business.”

As hydrocarbon and mineral exploration increases in the high north and popularity of the

nsr grows, so will expected use of Tschudi group’s kirkenes industrial logistics Area.

PHoTo: TscHudi sHiPPing comPAny

PHoTo: dynAgAs

in TrAnsiT

kirkenes was an ideal location for the continuation of Tschudi’s Arctic

enterprise. it’s an industrial centre inside the Arctic circle and an entry

point into norway from russia. its port is large, deep, ice-free and well

protected from the weather. kirkenes Transit, now named Tschudi

Arctic Transit, was formed to help facilitate russian bulk exports, such

as steel and oil products, from Archangel and ports in the White sea to

kirkenes and beyond. “due to shallow waters and ice in many russian

ports, it is often more economical to transship cargoes to conventional

vessels in ice-free, deep waters for further transportation. This is

where Tschudi Arctic Transit comes in. using its bases in kirkenes

and Honningsvåg it offers clients transshipment services,” explains

Felix Tschudi.

going unDergrounD

At first sight it might not appear an obvious fit, but the purchase of the

sydvaranger iron ore mine in 2006 underlines Felix Tschudi’s belief in

the high north and the opportunities it holds. The draw was not so

much the mine – it had been closed for several years – but the

infrastructure around it: deep-water quays, storage facilities and the

potential for development of a large new port facility. The fact that the

mine is now listed on the Australian stock Exchange and is again

producing iron ore is an added plus.

As Felix Tschudi says, “Trans portation is the key to unlocking resources

in the Arctic”, and with the investment in kirkenes it means the

Tschudi group is well placed to offer logistics for hydrocarbon and

mineral development in the region and, of course, to facilitate use of

the northern sea route (nsr).

The norThern seA rouTe

The nsr, historically known as the northeast Passage, links the

Atlantic and Pacific oceans in the high north. First developed in the

1920s as a shipping lane by the soviet union, it wasn’t officially opened

to foreign shipping until 1991. not that there was a great rush when it

did open. it’s only recently that its commercial viability looks promising.

The Ob River was the first lng tanker to use the northern sea route. it cut almost 20 days off its journey to yokohama compared to sailing through the suez canal.

Tschudi group made history in 2010 by chartering the MV Nordic Barents

to make the first passage by a foreign commercial vessel between two

non-russian ports. “We were interested in opening up the nsr to

commercial traffic for some time”, says Felix Tschudi. “There were

clear benefits – it saves time, fuel, emissions and eliminates piracy

risk. in 2010, we and the centre for High north logistics instigated a

meeting between several potential stakeholders. it was attended

by 27 people, including representatives from brokerages, shipping

companies, law offices, dnV, skuld and, most importantly, Atomflot,

which operates the russian nuclear-powered icebreakers that guide

vessels through the nsr.”

one very important issue under discussion was the cost of using

the route. For it to be economical, rates had to be comparable to those

of the suez canal. “russia wanted it to happen,” continues Felix

Tschudi. “Atomflot’s representative said ‘We want to compete with

suez’. From this point, people really began to believe it could work.”

some time after this meeting,

Tschudi shipping took the initiative

by chartering the MV Nordic Barents

from nordic Bulk carriers to ship

41,000 tons of iron ore from

sydvaranger mine to Xingang in

northern china. it was the first

non-russian vessel carrying nonrussian

cargo transiting the nsr

between two non-russian ports.

it helped establish the route’s

economic viability in the ice-free

season and was one of four

commercial vessels that year to

use the nsr. in 2011, the number

rose to 34 and, in 2012, it rose

again to 46.

“The nsr saves time, fuel, emissions and

eliminates piracy risk,” says Felix Tschudi.

6 BEAcon / MArch 2013

BEAcon / MArch 2013 7



/ THE ArcTic

THE ArcTic /

To the western coast of USA

To the Gulf of Mexico



North Cape



Bering Strait

cenTre for high norTh logisTics lAunches new

ArcTic inforMATion DATAbAse






felix TschuDi

/ graduate from the royal norwegian naval Academy

/ Previously sub-lieutenant in the royal norwegian navy

/ Has a second mate’s certificate from uk merchant navy colleges,

a Bsc (Econ) from london school of Economics and an mBA from

insEAd, France

/ Joint managing director of Tschudi & Eitzen from 1992 until 2002

/ From 2003, chairman of Tschudi shipping company As, the holding

company for Tschudi group

/ chairman of the centre for High north logistics, a non-profit

organisation focusing on transport solutions in the Arctic

/ Board member of maritimt Forum oslofjord and the norwegian

publishing house Aschehoug & co.

/ member of the World Economic Forum’s global Agenda council

on the Arctic

/ member of skuld’s committee since 2002

knoW your ArcTic

The northern sea route joins the Atlantic and Pacific oceans along the russian coast of

siberia and the Far East. it crosses five Arctic seas: the Barents sea, the kara sea, the

laptev sea, the East siberian sea and the chukchi sea. Here, it is shown in comparison

to the route through the suez canal.

full TAnk

The most alternative noteworthy international vessel trade sailing route the for cargoes nsr in and 2012 mobilisation was the Ob River,

the first during lng favourable tanker to ice use season this route. Arctic Bulk Ag, a venture between

the trading company Prominvest sA and Tschudi Arctic Transit, assisted

distance from Northern Europe to China and vice versa, approx. 40% shorter

the gazprom-chartered ice-class 1A lng tanker in its voyage. it

than via the Suez Canal or 60% shorter via the Cape of Good Hope

departed south korea and sailed the nsr from its most easterly point

to its substantial most westerly reductions point in transportation only six days. time, After fuel taking consumption delivery of lng

at statoil’s environmental melkøya emission plant near and piracy Hammerfest risk in northern norway, it

returned using the same route. savings are estimated at almost 20

longer season – amount of ice reduced by 40% over the last 30 years

days on the laden voyage and 40 on a round-trip basis compared to the

alternative route via the suez canal.






Russian ports in 2010

Felix Tschudi believes in the nsr’s future. “As activity in the Arctic

gradually Arctic increases, Bulk is associated so will with use Tschudi of the nsr. Shipping There Company will be in greater Oslo need

for ice-class vessels of all kinds, particularly larger vessels for carrying

bulk cargoes in transit, but also for specialised shuttle vessels serving

Arctic destinations.”

Whatever the vessel, it needs to comply with nsr regulations. russia

has recently introduced new legislation that aims to shorten and simplify

transit approval procedures and make ice-class and escort requirements

dependent on ice conditions. “We also need to recognise that precautions

taken when using the nsr make it a safe alternative”, says Felix Tschudi.

“in which other ocean can you get an escort with navigational expertise,

towing capability and hospital capacity?”

so what advice would you give to others contemplating using the nsr?

“i’d suggest that they contact Arctic Bulk Ag. not only for general

guidance, but also to see if there are opportunities for return cargoes,”

continues Felix Tschudi. “And then there’s the centre for High north

logistics and the wealth of information it makes available through its

databases. These are two good starting points. The nsr may be a

niche route, but it can be a very profitable one for many shipping

companies,” replies Felix Tschudi.

reAD More



– the shortcut between Asia and Europe





TschuDi shipping coMpAny As

/ Holding company for the Tschudi group

/ Three main areas: shipping, logistics, offshore

/ roots back to 1883

/ Formed in 2003 after a demerger of Tschudi & Eitzen As

/ represented by subsidiaries, joint ventures and associated companies

in norway, Finland, denmark, netherlands, Belgium, uk, russia,

Estonia, lithuania, latvia, ukraine and switzerland

/ Particular focus on infrastructure and logistics in the high north, Baltic

region, russia and central Asia.

norThern seA rouTe vs. suez cAnAl – possible sAvings (AuTuMn 2012)

/ lng tanker: reduced costs in usD for 21.4 days saved 1)

lng from melkøya, northern norway to yokohama, Japan: 147,000 cbm

Full round voyage spot market rate: usd 15/mmBtu

1. Time charter per day usd 150 000 2) x 21.4 x 2 usd 6,420,000

2. Bunkers burn off lng 0.1% per day x 21.4 x 2 usd 2,200,000

3. suez canal round voyage cost usd 150,000

4. nsr tariff usd 5 X 70 000 mt + usd 2.5 x 113,000 3) (usd 632,000)

possible savings (full round voyage) usD 8,138,000

/ panamax iron ore bulk carrier: reduced costs in usD for 18 days saved

iron ore from kirkenes, northern norway to shanghai, china

1. Time charter per day usd 15 000 2) x 18 usd 270 000

2. Bunkers fuel 33 x 700 x 18 usd 416,000

3. insurance usd +/- 4)

4. Ports n/A

5. suez canal voyage cost usd 250,000

6. nsr tariff usd 5 x 75 000 mt (usd 375,000)

possible savings (one-way voyage) usD 560,000 5)

1. Based on an average speed of 13 knots.

2. day rates taken from brokerages’ daily reports during Autumn 2012.

3. displacement tons.

4. insurance can be lower or higher dependent on vessel, crew experience,

track record, weighting of piracy threat, etc.

5. gives a per-ton saving of usd 7.50.

in January, the centre for High north logistics (cHnl) launched its long-awaited ArcTis

database at the Arctic Frontiers conference in Tromsø, northern norway.

“ArcTis is a dynamic and searchable online database on shipping,

transportation infrastructure, mineral and energy resources and

innovative logistics solutions in the Arctic,” says dr. Bjørn gunnarsson,

managing director of cHnl. “one aim is to help companies make

better-informed decisions when operating in the Arctic. We do this by

providing easy access to hundreds of relevant articles, reports and

scientific papers.”

sTrucTure AnD quAliTy

Easy access are the key words. The database is broken down into eight

main categories and close to 50 sub-categories, with summaries for

each document. if a report is large and covers several areas, cHnl’s

editorial team breaks it down and places sections under relevant

categories with links to the original document. The database is free

and users are encouraged to nominate new articles and data entries

to help its expansion.

“Quality of information is naturally important,” says Bjørn gunnarsson.

“We are building a highly qualified team of 40 editors that review documents

and pass them fit for the database. We largely avoid duplication by

selecting the most up-to-date and relevant literature on each subject.

From our own research and feedback at the launch, people are very

positive to it. We expect its popularity to grow as the Arctic opens up

further,” he continues.

cenTre for high norTh logisTics

cHnl was established as an international non-profit foundation in

may 2009. it’s the result of an initiative by Tschudi shipping company in

collaboration with the norwegian ministry of Foreign Affairs and det

norske Veritas (dnV). cHnl’s mission is to build an international

knowledge network together with key businesses, research institutions

and public authorities on Arctic resources, transport and logistics.

Apart from ArcTis, it also runs the Arctic logistics information office

(Arclio) in murmansk, which provides practical information on shipping

and logistics along the northern sea route (nsr), promotes joint

research, such as its long-term nsr project with south korea’s

youngsan university, and runs workshops and seminars. in 2013, two

nsr-themed workshops are planned in Tokyo and sapporo, Japan.

PHoTo: cHnl/rosATomFloT

ArcTis provides easily accessible, well-structured and high-quality information on the

Arctic for organisations operating in the high north.

cHnl’s managing director,

dr. Bjørn gunnarsson, was an

Associate Program chair and

Faculty at Johns Hopkins university,

usA, and founder and rector of

the school for renewable Energy

science, iceland.



information is classified under eight

key topics in the ArcTis database

/ Arctic energy and mineral resources

/ marine transport and logistics

/ Arctic sea routes

/ People, industries and institutions

/ maps and charts

/ Arctic sea ice and climatology

/ Arctic policies and governance

/ general

users can register free through




reAD More


8 BEAcon / MArch 2013

BEAcon / MArch 2013 9


THE ArcTic

by konstantin krasnokutskiy

Jurinflot international law Firm, moscow



THE ArcTic


russiA ADopTs ‘new rules of nAvigATion on The norThern seA rouTe’

kEy cHAngEs For

nsr rEgulATion

in January, russia introduced ‘new rules of navigation on the northern

sea route’. The rules can be seen as a great leap forward for facilitating

navigation and commercial shipping on the northern sea route (nsr).

Previously all vessels had to follow 1990 rules, with their timeconsuming

and bureaucratic procedures, to obtain permission from

the northern sea route Administration to navigate in the russian

Arctic zone. now, a new administration for the northern sea route

will be established to consider applications and issue vessel permits.

The new regulation also includes a more precise legislative definition

of the nsr, which is now strictly limited to the 200-mile exclusive

economic zone.

A novelty for increasing navigation safety on the nsr is the introduction

of ice pilots, who have specialist knowledge and experience of ice

navigation. They must be russian citizens with permission from

russian state authorities to offer ice-pilot services on the nsr.

ice pilots are compulsory only if the master of the vessel navigating

the nsr does not have ice navigation experience.

The new nsr Administration will also monitor hydro-meteorological,

ice and navigation conditions, and provide information to the public. it

is obliged to publish a significant amount of information on its website,

including 72-hour weather and ice forecasts, 30- and 90-day ice-condition

forecasts, recommended navigation routes, current information about

vessels navigating the nsr and other information.

Enactment of by-laws for establishing and operating the nsr

Administration is somewhat delayed, but it is hoped to see the

Administration and its website functioning by April 2013.

obTAining perMiTs

Although nsr navigation permits are still required from the russian

authorities, the process of obtaining them is now faster and less

complicated compared to the old legislation.

A shipowner must send a navigation permit application by e-mail to

the nsr Administration 15 to 120 days prior to the planned day of

transit through the nsr. The application must include the vessel’s

class certificate and other documents, which can now be attached to

only russian-flag icebreakers can provide assistance to vessels transiting the nsr. All

russian icebreakers are nuclear powered and operated by state enterprise ‘rosatomflot’.

The nuclear reactor shown in the photograph fuels the russian icebreaker Rossiya and

is one of two on the vessel. The second is for back-up.

“A novelTy for



sAfeTy on

The nsr is The


of ice piloTs”

the electronic application in

PdF format. Permission or

rejection must be given by the

nsr Administration within ten

working days of the date the

application was accepted for

consideration. All navigation

permits must be published on the

nsr Administration’s website.

icebreAkers opTionAl

The new rules do not provide for

icebreaker assistance as a standard

condition for navigating the nsr.

icebreaker assistance now depends

PHoTo: sciEncE PHoTo liBrAry

russia operates the world’s largest nuclear icebreaker fleet – four nuclear ‘Arktika’-class ice-breakers and two nuclear shallow-draft icebreakers. Picture shows the Rossiya.

its helicopter is checking whether the ice ahead is thin enough to be broken by the ship’s hull.

on the time of year, section of the nsr in question, ice conditions and

the vessel’s ice class.

According to the new rules, only russian-flag icebreakers can be used

to render icebreaker services to vessels transiting the nsr. russia’s

nuclear icebreaker fleet is operated by state enterprise ‘rosatomflot’,

which provides assistance according to rates set by the russian

government. These depend on tonnage and the vessel’s ice-class,

route and period of navigation.

Through the nsr’s history, major losses in the area have been limited.

From 1950 to 1990 only four vessels were lost, while on average 250

vessels navigated the nsr annually. since 1990, there has been no

major incident on the nsr at all.

“new rules Do

noT proviDe for


AssisTAnce As


conDiTion for


The nsr”

despite legislative efforts to

promote commercial navigation

on the nsr, it’s still a route

through a harsh and remote

wilderness with little infrastructure

and support services. consequently,

commercial insurance of H&m

and P&i risks in the Arctic will

remain a challenge for both P&i

clubs and underwriters for many

years to come.

reAD More


PHoTo: sciEncE PHoTo liBrAry

10 BEAcon / MArch 2013

BEAcon / MArch 2013




/ THE ArcTic

THE ArcTic /

by christian ott

Head of claims, skuld singapore


PHoTo: © loWEll gEorgiA/corBis

new coMMerciAl venTures bring chAllenges

for operATors AnD insurers

ArcTic TrAding

As the Arctic opens up, the prospect of increased commercial opportunity for shipping is an exciting

one. However, with increased access comes increased risk and responsibility. meeting these

responsibilities and assessing risks present challenges to owners, charterers and insurers alike.

where’s The chAllenge?

There are several factors that increase the challenge of sailing and

trading in the Arctic:

• Territorial and jurisdictional boundaries are not yet fully settled

• legal regimes are under development for new areas opening up,

both at national and international level. Arctic council member and

observer states are increasingly busy, while russia is developing

domestic legislation independently of the group

• infrastructure in remote northern regions may be basic or, in some

areas, non-existent

• Vessels can easily sustain damage and crew can suffer injury and

illness quickly in extreme temperatures. Help may be far away!

• dealing with a casualty and/or pollution can be particularly

challenging in the Arctic

how cAn skulD help?

skuld is best placed to help members before the voyage takes place.

The more known at the outset, the better the club can assist.

For example, skuld can:

i. Help assess possible risks

ii. consider insurance cover limits and advise on possible

additional covers

iii. Assist with contracts before fixing

iv. source external experts

v. Act as a ‘sounding board’ for new ideas

vi. intervene more effectively during the voyage if necessary

And remember – if in doubt please contact us!

the prospect of increased

commercial opportunity for

shipping in the arctic is an

exciting one.

geT AheAD before you sTArT

members will no doubt recall the cruise ship MS Explorer in 2007.

The vessel was designed for Arctic and Antarctic service, yet became a

casualty after submerged Antarctic ice ripped a large gash in her hull.

Fortunately, help arrived quickly and the 154 passengers and crew

were rescued safely.

This case helps to illustrate the perils of Arctic sailing and the importance

of being prepared. The following checklist is a useful starting point.

(A) know what voyage you are planning and the conditions you are

likely to encounter

(B) make sure you have the right vessel and that it’s fully seaworthy

for the proposed voyage

(c) officers and crew should be trained for the conditions. key

personnel must have ice-sailing experience

(d) shore support must be in place and, in particular, have ready

access to accident and emergency plans

(E) Be up to date with the latest political, legal and practical

developments, and know who the marine and port contacts

are in the area the vessel will pass through

(F) understand the contract before it is signed – who will be responsible

for what, especially if unusual or special risks are involved


The ArcTic council

/ The ottawa declaration of 1996 formally

established the Arctic council as a high-level

intergovernmental forum providing means of

promoting cooperation, coordination and

interaction among Arctic states on common

issues. involvement of Arctic indigenous

communities and other Arctic inhabitants

is important.

/ only states with Arctic territory can be members.

There are also permanent and ad-hoc observer

countries and ‘permanent participants’, such as

the sami council and inuit circumpolar council.

/ Arctic council member states:

canada, denmark (including greenland and

Faroe islands), Finland, iceland, norway,

russian Federation, sweden, us.

/ countries with permanent observer status:

France, germany, netherlands, Poland, spain, uk.

/ countries/bodies with ad-hoc observer status:

china, Eu, italy, Japan, south korea.

sources: www.arctic-council.org, Wikipedia.

BEAcon / MArch 2013 13



/ THE ArcTic

THE ArcTic /

by katinka Mørch granberg

client servicing and marketing Executive, skuld offshore


Do ToDAy’s sAfeTy regulATions sufficienTly proTecT

ships operATing in The ArcTic?

on THin icE?

Arctic safety is regulated by different international conventions.

unlike the Antarctic, the Arctic is not covered by a treaty dealing with

the region as a whole.

during the past 15 years, the international community has increased

focus on law – mainly safety regulations – motivated by the Exxon Valdez

oil spill off the Alaskan coast in 1989. The international maritime

organisation (imo) began work on a navigation code in polar waters, today

known as imo’s ‘guidelines for ships operating in Arctic ice-covered

Waters’. its intention was clear from the outset; a vessel operating in

the Arctic can face different technical requirements from Arctic states’

own legislation. The need for common Arctic legislation has increased

along with global warming and exploitation.

The lAw of The seA convenTion

Today’s legal regime consists mainly of unclos (the law of the sea

convention), solAs (safety of life at sea) and mArPol (prevention of

pollution from ships). unclos sets limits for coastal states’ jurisdiction

at sea, measured from the baseline of the continent. in territorial

waters, coastal states have full sovereignty, meaning their law must be

followed. The Arctic consists of three different sea zones: territorial,

exclusive economic zone and high sea.

The Arctic’s coastal states (canada, russia, norway, united states and

denmark) can refer to articles 21, 56 and 194, which apply to all seas,

to protect the Arctic marine environment. The aim is to protect against

pollution within the territorial and economic exclusive zones. According

to these articles, coastal states should take measures to prevent

pollution in these areas. These articles must be read together with

article 234, which specifically mentions Arctic waters.

According to article 234, coastal states have the right to “adopt and

enforce” laws and regulations in Arctic waters. This means it is up to

each Arctic coastal state to decide on safety regulations, but these

regulations need to be considered as safety or environmental measures

and cannot be discriminating. legal interpretation of coastal state

jurisdiction in ice-covered waters based on Article 234 is not easy under

international law. coastal states can therefore adopt different security

rules in Arctic waters “within the limits of the exclusive economic

zone”, which gives them extended legal authority in their exclusive

economic zones.

The Arctic ocean also consists of a relatively small expanse of remaining

‘high seas’, which is covered with very substantial ice and is almost

motivating factor – The Exxon Valdez oil spill prompted work on a navigation code, known

today as imo’s ‘guidelines for ships operating in Arctic ice-covered Waters’.

“ToDAy, iMo’s


hAve no



impossible to operate. Here, flagstate

rules apply.

iMo guiDelines for ships

operATing in ArcTic ice-covereD


Today, imo’s guidelines have no

binding status; they are only

recommendations. However, there

is reason to believe the guidelines

can form a treaty. They are more

precise than today’s regulations

and promote safe navigation and

prevent pollution from shipping in

Arctic ice-covered waters. The

guidelines take into account the

Arctic’s challenging climate and

have developed rules regarding

vessel construction, special

equipment required onboard and

operational procedures.

PHoTo: © nATAliE FoBEs/corBis

imo guidelines have their own ice-class, which is used by dnV for classifying vessels operating in the Arctic today, even though the guidelines are not yet mandatory.

since Arctic climate is harsh, normal safety equipment needs to be

improved. For example, crew requires extra-warm clothes, lifeboats

need thicker hulls and every vessel should be equipped with Ais

(automatic identification system). However, since navigation is more

challenging in the Arctic and rescue operations are very difficult, imo’s

guidelines recommend that Ais is mandatory for all vessels.

imo guidelines also have their own ice-class, which is used by dnV for

classifying vessels operating in the Arctic today, even though the

guidelines are not yet mandatory.


The Arctic needs one treaty that regulates safety. A common safety

legal system will reduce some potential risks in the future and clarify

today’s situation for operators. However, under unclos, Arctic coastal

states’ sovereignty stands strong, so it is difficult to ask them to give

up some of their sovereignty and accept an international convention

that applies in their territorial and exclusive economic zones. Both

russia and canada already have very strict and specific rules for their

waters. As it stands today, it’s more or less up to coastal states to

agree on an international convention, which answers both legal and

political questions.

This article summarises Master’s degree thesis ‘La sécurité dans

l’Arctique: comparaison entre l’article 234 de la Convention des Nations

Unies sur le Droit de la meret le Code Polaire’.


uniTeD nATions convenTion on The lAw of The seA (unclos)

/ Article 234: coastal states have the right to adopt and

enforce non-discriminatory laws and regulations for the

prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from

vessels in ice-covered areas within the limits of the

exclusive economic zone, where particularly severe climatic

conditions and the presence of ice covering such areas

for most of the year create obstructions or exceptional

hazards to navigation, and pollution of the marine

environment could cause major harm to or irreversible

disturbance of the ecological balance. such laws and

regulations shall have due regard to navigation and the

protection and preservation of the marine environment

based on the best available scientific evidence.

/ Territorial waters: Extend to at most 12 nautical miles

(22 km) from the baseline. The territorial sea is regarded

as the sovereign territory of the state, although foreign

ships (both military and civilian) are allowed innocent

passage through it; this sovereignty also extends to the

airspace over and seabed below.

/ exclusive economic zone: Extend to a distance of 200

nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline.

A coastal nation has control of all economic resources

within its exclusive economic zone, including fishing, mining,

oil exploration and any pollution of those resources.

reAD More



14 BEAcon / MArch 2013

BEAcon / MArch 2013 15



/ THE ArcTic

THE ArcTic /

by captain binoy kumar Dubey

senior Executive, risk Assessment and claims


The chAllenges of ArcTic nAvigATion

geTTing A Tow

if propellers or rudders are damaged, the vessel may need towing. if

there isn’t an ice escort, this may be easier said than done. specially

designed icebreakers with notches in their stern are needed. such

notches allow the bow of the vessel under tow to come in close contact

with the icebreaker’s stern. A simple towing arrangement may not be

sufficient, since fluctuating resistance caused by varying amounts of

ice in the water causes sudden acceleration or deceleration. needless

to say, costs of such operations are substantial.

it is very easy and very dangerous to underestimate the force of ice.

cold rEAliTy

navigating icy waters is challenging and can be more costly than

expected. recently, skuld has received several high-value claims for

rudders and propellers, the most vulnerable parts of the vessel.

Propeller and rudder damage from ice milling or impact with ice

occurs when a vessel is not fully laden or is in ballast, as it is most

vulnerable to surface ice at these draughts. Almost always, damage is

inflicted when vessels try to manoeuvre astern in ice-prone waters

without due caution. Accidents include bending of propeller tips,

rudders and rudder stocks. more often than not, master and crew are

surprised at the extent of the harm done.

be prepAreD

Passage planning and vessel preparation for ice navigation necessitate

much more advanced planning than for open-water sailing. inadequate

training and poor planning, coupled with inexperience of handling

ships in ice-prone waters, can result in very expensive claims.

bAcking up

Vessels need to be kept in optimum operational condition for sailing

in icy seas. When backing a vessel, a number of precautions should

be taken.

• respect the ice – even if the vessel is ice strengthened – but don’t fear

it. Be prepared to go full astern on engines should the need arise

• manoeuvring astern or backing in ice is very risky and should only

be attempted with extreme caution. A careful watch should always

be kept on ice conditions and the distance of the ice edge from the

vessel’s stern

• Ensure the propeller is fully immersed and there is sufficient water

depth over its tip

• never ram astern unless the vessel is suitably designed for this

purpose, e.g. in double-acting ships where reinforced sterns are

used to break ice

• if the vessel is hemmed in by ice, it is important to keep the stern

ice-free. ‘Propeller turning at slow speed ahead with rudder

midship’ is one of the most practical ways to achieve this

• if the vessel has to attempt astern propulsion, it should give

‘minimum astern on engine ensuring that the rudder is always kept

midship’. However, please note this may not apply in an ice convoy

where maximum astern propulsion can be required to avoid collision

with the vessel ahead

members are advised to contact skuld’s ‘Arctic group’ for further

clarification and advice on sailing in ice-covered waters.

“respecT The ice

– even if The vessel

is ice sTrengTheneD”

PHoTo: © rAlPH lEE HoPkins/nATionAl gEogrAPHic sociETy/corBis


manoeuvring astern or backing in ice is very risky and should only be attempted with

extreme caution. A careful watch should always be kept on ice conditions and the distance

of the ice edge from the vessel’s stern.


cApTAin binoy kuMAr Dubey

/ Extra master mariner with

llm degree

/ Employed in skuld since

2010. recently relocated to


/ gained extensive ice-navigation

experience as master for

Fednav ltd. canada

/ Has authored the book ‘ice

navigation managing cold

climate risks’

/ skuld’s expert on ice navigation

and Arctic routes

reAD More




16 BEAcon / MArch 2013

BEAcon / MArch 2013 17



/ THE ArcTic

THE ArcTic /

by Dr. nicola beer

Technical Adviser, iToPF ltd.


oil spill response in The ArcTic: TechnicAl opTions

AnD prAcTicAl chAllenges

TEsTing THE icE

As Arctic sea ice diminishes, northern shipping routes are becoming commercially attractive. Whilst there

are undeniable advantages in reduced transit times between the Atlantic and Pacific, there is growing

concern over the potential for an oil spill. oil spill preparedness and response capability in the Arctic is

unproven, and given the logistical challenges in such a remote and harsh environment, a response may

not always be possible or reasonable.

DeTecTion AnD TrAcking of spilT oil

Arctic conditions affect the fate and behaviour of spilt oil in a number

of ways, some aiding and some hindering its removal (see table and

figure). standard oil spill fate and trajectory models do not apply in icy

waters; oil trapped within or under fast ice is likely to remain relatively

stationary as fast ice does not drift with surface currents or wind, and

under-ice currents are minimal. However, in the highly dynamic

pack-ice zone, oil drift may be considerable and unpredictable. detection

and tracking of oil in ice is one of the major technological challenges

facing the Arctic spill response community, as although various

techniques have proven successful in certain conditions, there is

currently no universally applicable tool.


effecTs of ArcTic conDiTions on oil fATe AnD behAviour

factor effect implications



pack ice

fast ice

reduces rate of natural

weathering processes, such as

evaporation and biodegradation;

increases oil viscosity

dampens wave energy and

reduces natural dispersion and


oil may become encapsulated

within or trapped under ice

oils are more persistent, but

the window of opportunity for

response may be increased

increased window of opportunity

for chemical dispersion and

in-situ burning , although

dispersion will be restricted by

reduced wave energy

difficult to detect, track and

recover oil

remote sensing of oil in open water is possible because oil dampens

wind-generated capillary waves on the sea surface, thereby reducing

the radar backscatter signal. However, ice has a similar effect to oil

and confuses the output.

clear skies, necessary for satellite systems, are not the norm in

the Arctic. Airborne sensors, such as side-looking Airborne radar,

fly under cloud cover, but are limited by airspace regulations, pilot

availability, operational health and safety considerations, communications

challenges and a general shortage of suitably equipped aircraft in

the far north.

The most promising technique for detection of oil in or under ice is

ground-penetrating radar (gPr). surface-carried units afford better

penetration than airborne, but are large and heavy, and a trade-off

must be made between penetration and resolution. gPr can detect oil

accumulations greater than roughly 2.5 cm in thickness, but not thin

slicks or oil trapped under new ice, young ice, first-year ice, rafted ice,

rubbles or ridges, or thick ice. High-sensitivity ethane sensors can

detect volatile compounds evaporating from freshly spilled oil and

trained dogs may be able to reliably detect relatively small volumes

of oil under ice or snow, although further field testing is needed.

“The MosT


Technique for

DeTecTion of

oil in or

unDer ice is



responDing To oil spills

The main at-sea response options

for the Arctic are mechanical

recovery, chemical dispersion

and in-situ burning. mechanical

recovery is physically challenging:

the presence of ice is likely to

prevent boom use; extreme cold

may hinder operation of skimmers

and pumps; and viscosity of oil

increases in Arctic conditions.

However, containment of oil in ice

and limited weathering – especially

reduced emulsification – may aid

its recovery. specialised skimmers

and ‘winterised’ pumps and power

packs claim to operate efficiently

in Arctic conditions. However,

mechanical recovery is unlikely to

be efficient above approximately

30% ice cover, and is always

dependent on availability of suitable

vessels and facilities for storage and

disposal of recovered oil.

spilled oil reacts very differently in ice-covered seas compared to open water.

dispersants are widely used to respond to oil spills at lower latitudes

and have the advantage of treating oil in situ rather than recovering it

for subsequent disposal. specific formulations are being developed for

the Arctic, where the window of opportunity for application may be

expanded to days or even weeks, due to limited oil weathering and less

chance of emulsification. However, dispersion only occurs if dispersants

come into contact with the oil/water interface and the dampening

effect of sea ice means that artificial mixing, e.g. through propeller

wash, may be necessary. dispersant use is not currently pre-approved

for the Arctic and approval may be difficult to obtain in shallow,

nearshore waters or in the vicinity of sensitive benthic resources or

fish spawning grounds, for example.

AlTernATive Techniques

in-situ burning of oil was trialled extensively during the Deepwater

Horizon response, as it is potentially capable of removing large volumes

of oil from the water surface with minimal waste generation. A minimum

slick thickness of 3–4 mm is required to sustain an efficient burn of

crude oil. in the Deepwater Horizon response, this was achieved by

containment within fire-resistant booms or use of chemical herders, but

in the Arctic, containment by ice may suffice. Whilst experimental

burns have reported oil removal efficiencies of more than 90%, a thick,

tar-like residue may remain that has the potential to sink as it cools

and may need recovering. The toxicity of such residues on Arctic flora

and fauna has not yet been tested. in Arctic conditions, or with more

heavily weathered or higher viscosity oils, ignition or combustion aids

may be required to start and sustain a burn. in-situ burning is not a

pre-approved response technique for Arctic oil spills and the dense

smoke plume generated will restrict burns in close proximity to

settlements and sensitive coastal resources.

Although oil recovery/removal techniques are proven in laboratory and

controlled field experiments in Arctic conditions, they are yet to be tested

in a full-scale incident, or on non-crude oils. As iToPF is increasingly

called upon to attend bunker oil spills from non-tanker vessels, this is

an important area for future research.

reAD More



18 BEAcon / MArch 2013

BEAcon / MArch 2013 19

NEWS fEaturE

tHE arctic

By lena Holm saxtoft

claims Executive, Skuld copenhagen




By rachel wong

claims Executive, Skuld Hong Kong


A personAl view on GreenlAnd’s development

well-prepAred stowAwAys cAuse repAtriAtion difficulties

tHE arctic aND ME

Being half Greenlandic and half Danish, i am part of two wonderful cultures. Both nations’ strengths

are now being tested as Greenland faces great opportunities and challenges from increasing

interest in the arctic.


WitH a MiSSiON

i usually refer to Greenland as my home and the centre of the world.

But is it really that important? When talking about global warming and

new shipping opportunities, it seems that most industries see russia

as the main arctic power. However, when considering arctic strategy,

Greenland’s importance is greatly underestimated.

it is often said that Greenland is rich with ‘gold’: black gold (oil), green

gold (raw materials needed for green economies) and blue gold (fresh

water 1 ). in other words, it has all the assets necessary to attract anyone,

particularly powers wanting to reinforce their position in the arctic and

those looking for natural resources.

“the fear i have is that Greenland is abused and a ‘ruined Klondike’ replaces my home.”

i am Greenlandic, live in Denmark and am the daughter of a Greenlandic

mother and Danish father. i have spent equal amounts of time in both

countries, but if you ask me where i come from, i answer proudly that

i am from Greenland.

While studying law in Denmark, i spent most summers working in

Greenland and holidaying with family, fishing or simply enjoying the

spectacular nature that i took for granted.

During those special summers, i realised that when escaping from

Nuuk, a small city with only 15,000 inhabitants, but nevertheless the

capital of Greenland, it was a pleasure to stand entirely alone on a

mountain, letting my eyes follow the beautiful landscape feeling smaller

and more unimportant to the universe than ever.

Greenland is still part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but in 2009 it signed

the Self-Government act, which provides extended self-government

and empowers it to make many of its own decisions. Due to its huge

size – at 2,166,086 km² Greenland is nearly half the size of the European

union – and its population of a mere 57,000, it is still considered necessary

for Denmark to run foreign and security policy, thus maintaining a close

relationship between the two nations. Many say present developments

are part of a state-building process and, with rapidly increasing focus

on the arctic, the creation of the state of Greenland has to be carried

out carefully and wisely.

Greenland’s capacity to manage an increasing number of foreign interests,

coming notably from North america, Europe and the asia-Pacific

region, remains unclear. Managing interests from the largest world

economies requires enormous strength.

With arctic raw material extraction comes increasing shipping activity.

this means risk taking in remote and unexplored areas. Shipowners

face challenging conditions, including extreme cold, prolonged periods

of darkness, remote locations and rapidly changing weather.

Being Greenlandic and working in shipping, i’m ambivalent to the

growing interest in my beautiful homeland. i hope that raw material

exploration and increased shipping activity grow slowly and with

respect for Greenland’s vulnerable and fragile nature. the obvious fear

i have is that the new state of Greenland is abused and a ‘ruined

Klondike’ replaces my home. So far, however, it seems that countries

participating in various arctic forums show great passion, but in a

humble manner, and that this hopefully allows development to come in

a natural and carefully considered way.

1) Greenland holds around ten percent of the world’s fresh water reserves,

which will make the territory’s strategic importance even greater in the future.

reAd more

www.bmp.gl (Bureau of minerals and petroleum)

www.dma.dk (danish maritime Authority)

the stowaway managed to board the ship as part of a gang of stevedores.

Stowaways continue to prove a problem in these difficult economic times with unwanted

passengers from africa being particularly troublesome. One in particular stands out, due to

the steps he took to shield his true identity.

in South africa, a stowaway recently made his way on board a member’s

vessel while in port. He is discovered soon after departure and freely

tells the crew that he wanted “to go to asia for a good life”.

He had done his ‘homework’. By surfing the internet and speaking

with local agents, he successfully identified our member’s vessel as

flying an asian flag and that she would call at a nearby port. He boards

along with a gang of stevedores.

the difficulties began when he claimed to be of South Sudanese origin

and refused all attempts at disembarkation.

20 BEacON / mArcH 2013

BEacON / mArcH 2013 21




skulD increAses iTs presence in souTh AsiA wiTh

new brAnch office in singApore

“he fell inTo The TrAp

of noT reseArching

souTh suDAn AnD wAs

Therefore unAble

To Answer bAsic

quesTions AbouT his

‘hoMe’ counTry”

independence at a price – sudan is still recovering from years of conflict and has not yet

established diplomatic relations with many countries.

souTh suDAn – The worlD’s youngesT counTry

south sudan is a landlocked country that became independent on

9 July 2011. After many years of civil war, the split of sudan into the

Arab north and the muslim south has created the republic of south

sudan. it is a region still recovering from many years of conflict and

has not yet established diplomatic relations with many countries.

When contacted, the issue of ship-bound stowaways was a new and

challenging one to its south African consulate staff and we received

the impression that successful disembarkation and repatriation would

be very problematic.

Assessing The sTowAwAy’s genuine nATionAliTy

doubts arose regarding how truthful the stowaway was in his declaration

of nationality. As part of the process, the stowaway completed a

questionnaire that included questions specifically designed to test

knowledge of his homeland. results were very revealing.

quesTionnAire evAluATion

He fell into the trap of not researching south sudan and was therefore

unable to answer basic questions about his ‘home’ country. representatives

from the kenyan embassy questioned him further and he was subsequently

identified as a kenyan.


With the help of skuld’s correspondents, repatriation was arranged via

mozambique. When he arrived in kenya the local authorities promptly

arrested him.

lessons To leArn

To maximise their chances of a better life, stowaways can be surprisingly

well prepared in their attempts to gain access to a vessel and to make

the process of repatriation as difficult as possible. crew members

need to be extra vigilant to stay ‘one step ahead’.

skuld in singapore. Back row from left: lars dueled, cpt. Binoy kumar dubey, simon smith, gregory Thomas, kjell-Åke Augustsson, christian ott. Front row from left: Bernt Hellman,

claes lindh, douglas Jacobssohn, kay Williams, Janice choy.

skuld oPEns nEW oFFicE

skuld has opened a branch office in singapore to spearhead further expansion in south Asia.

The launch party was held on 17 January at the East garden of the Fullerton Hotel, singapore.

q1. what are the colours of your country’s flag?

He answered black, white, red and green.

The correct answer for south sudan is black, white,

red, green, blue and yellow.

His answer corresponded to the kenyan flag.

q2. what is your permanent address in your country?

The address he gave does not exist in south sudan.

q3. what is the name of the capital?

He could not answer correctly. The answer is Juba.

q4. which currency is used in your country?

He had no idea. The answer is the south sudan Pound.

south sudan flag

kenya flag

reAD More



With over 250 guests listening to speeches from President & cEo

douglas Jacobsohn and the norwegian Ambassador, skuld was put

firmly back on the map in singapore.

The office is located in the middle of the business district on six

Battery road. it’s led by kjell-Åke Augustsson who rejoined skuld in

september 2012 from the swedish club’s Hong kong office, where he

was deputy managing director since 2005. He was previously senior

underwriter with skuld for ten years.

in singapore, skuld offshore is led by gregory Thomas who joined

skuld in 2008 to build the offshore liability product. gregory has

developed skuld offshore to become recognised worldwide for its

service and comprehensive cover. He remains head of the offshore

unit within skuld P&i.

christian ott, a lawyer from skuld’s office in Hong kong, runs the

claims service in singapore and is already very well known to members

and clients.

“We have had growth of around 15% in Asia over the past few years

and i have complete confidence that kjell-Åke, greg and christian will

significantly strengthen our presence and increase demand for

skuld’s comprehensive range of products”, says President & cEo

douglas Jacobsohn.

Asian markets are growing rapidly, with a number of shipowners,

charterers and offshore operators expanding their presence in the

region. skuld has operated from Hong kong for 23 years. With the

new singapore office, it integrates further into south Asia.

22 BEAcon / MArch 2013

BEAcon / MArch 2013 23

currEnT From left to right: ken littlejohn of

FP marine risks, Peter murphy of Holman

Fenwick Willian, d. shunmugam of

stephenson Harwood, n. Vasudevan of

Precious shipping, Binoy kumar dubey

of skuld singapore.

skuld President & cEo douglas Jacobssohn.



5 6


1 / krester krøger kjær

AssisTAnT vice presiDenT,


krester, 38, joins skuld copenhagen

as assistant vice president,

Lawyer. previously, krester

worked as associate and Lawyer

for danish law firms gorrissen

federspiel and horten, specialising

in maritime, transportation,

international trade, insurance/

re-insurance and international

arbitration. he has a master in

Law from the university of

aarhus, denmark.



2 / Maria fouska

office AssisTAnT

maria, 35, joins skuld hellas as

office assistant. previously, she

spent three years working for

newsphone hellas in the same

role. she also has secretarial

experience from altec group and

worked as customer support

representative for simplex

data company.

3 / keith parker

svp heAD of uk operATions

keith, 46, joins skuld London as

svp head of uk operations from

Jubilee underwriting. he previously

worked with Lloyd’s and svb

syndicates Ltd., among others,

in roles ranging from coo to

consultant and project manager

to managing director. keith has

an mba from henley management

college, england, and is a fellow

of the chartered insurance


4 / fergus Draper

execuTive, fixeD p&i AnD yAchTs

fergus, 26, is appointed executive,

fixed p&i and yachts. before

fergus started the skuld yacht

and skuld fixed p&i facilities

together with nigel oakley, he

worked as assistant underwriter

for two years on several portfolios,

including yachts. he has also

taught french and science at

private schools in the uk. fergus

has a bachelor’s degree in

chemistry from durham


6 / heidi Troberg

iT execuTive

heidi, 30, is appointed it executive.

previously, she worked for

norway’s directorate for emergency

communication as it head

engineer. she also has it experience

from norwegian airport operator

avinor and oslo university hospital

ullevål. heidi has a bachelor’s

degree in information technology

from vestfold university college,


7 / carin elisabet Andal

senior execuTive,

knowleDge MAnAgeMenT

carin, 42, joins skuld as senior

executive, knowledge management.

she comes from kpmg in oslo

where she was responsible for

the company’s data-management

system. she was previously a

researcher for aftenposten, one

of norway’s biggest newspapers.

she has a bachelor of arts degree

from the university of oslo.





froM skulD offices

ArounD The worlD

new eMployees & proMoTions/chAnges









From left to right: Trace yim of risk Exchange, ohtsubo namio of celeste Holdings,

masatoshi ito and T. inoue of lead insurance services.

From left to right: claes lindh of skuld, norwegian Ambassador Tormod c. Endresen,

mark sachs of Thomas cooper.


new york

5 / Aase naaman Jensen

senior clAiMs execuTive

aase has accepted a position

as senior claims executive at

skuld’s new york office. aase

joined skuld copenhagen

in 2009.

Part of marsh’s singapore team, including James Addington-smith (left) and Hans


/ More ThAn Ten yeArs

eMployeD in skulD


24 BEAcon / MArch 2013

BEAcon / DeceMber / MArch 2013 2008 25


currenT cAses AnD oTher skulD news







14 15

8 / Magne Andersson

svp unDerwriTing AnD


magne, 58, joins skuld as svp

underwriting and marketing in

syndicate 2. through his earlier

role as managing director of

marine practice in marsh, he is

known to many in skuld. prior to

marsh, he worked for polaris/uni

storebrand for many years as

area manager/international

reinsurance and as senior

underwriter and director for

international hull business.

he is a qualified actuary from

the university of oslo.

9 / simone vitzthum

clAiMs execuTive

simone vitzthum is seconded to

oslo syndicate 2 from hamburg

for two years and will return in

september 2014. simone joined

skuld hamburg in 2008.



10 / kay kaur-williams

office MAnAger

kay, 46, is appointed office

manager. earlier, kay held a similar

position with the shipowners

mutual p&i association in

singapore. she has extensive

experience in office management

and executive support. kay has a

bachelor of Law degree from the

university of London and a

masters in human resource

management from curtin

university, australia. she

previously worked with swire

pacific offshore and delta

airlines, where she helped to set

up its singapore office in 1994.

11 / christian ott

vice presiDenT,

synDicATe heAD of clAiMs

christian is newly appointed vice

president, syndicate head of

claims in skuld singapore.

christian joined skuld hong

kong in 2010.

12 / binoy kumar Dubey

senior execuTive,

risk AssessMenT AnD clAiMs

binoy moves from skuld hong

kong to skuld singapore

as senior executive, risk

assessment and claims. binoy

joined skuld in 2010.



13 / Alex Martinez

clAiMs ADJusTer

alex, 24, joins skuld 1897 as claims

adjuster. he previously worked

as claims broker for marsh and

hsbc insurance brokers. alex

has a certificate in insurance

from the uk’s chartered

insurance institute.

14 / Amanda wenborne

unDerwriTing AssisTAnT

amanda, 25, joins skuld 1897 as

underwriting assistant. she has

over five years’ experience in

underwriting support and comes

from the travelers syndicate at

Lloyd’s. she is currently working

towards her acii and holds a

certificate in insurance from

the uk’s chartered insurance


15 / stephen wait

unDerwriTing operATions


stephen, 47, is the third new

member of skuld 1897.

before accepting his position of

underwriting operations manager,

he built up more than 30 years’

insurance industry experience.

stephen comes directly from

randall & quilter investment

holdings where he provided

quality control services.

skuld now covers ports and terminals.

/ skulD exTenDs iTs cover


skuld P&i now offers skuld yacht.

This is a specially designed product

for super yachts with full all-in

liability cover.

nigel oakley will be joining skuld

to head the fixed premium P&i

and super yachts business. nigel

will be working closely with Fergus

draper and robert Johnston to

develop the business, which has

started very positively.

skuld Fixed is a new product from

skuld P&i covering fixed liability. it

has its own terms and conditions

and naturally includes skuld’s

renowned service and access to

the club’s significant international


Please contact skuld’s london

P&i team for more details.


skuld offshore – number of units (Tw)


/ who covers The cover?

skuld holds owner’s P&i cover for

a vessel that discharged its cargo

on to a trailer at the u.s. port

of kalaeloa Barbers Point. The

cargo was a nacelle, which is a

cover-housing that holds engines,

fuel or equipment on an aircraft or

wind turbine. As the nacelle

caused the trailer to list towards

the vessel the driver asked to

adjust the cargo and, after several

movements, the load was

repositioned on the trailer.

unfortunately, the trailer’s dunnage

began to crack, which caused the

nacelle and trailer to tilt until the

nacelle rolled off. The manufacturer

considers the nacelle to be a

constructive total loss.

in the booking note, the carrier

has the ultimate say on loading,

stowing and discharge of the cargo.

due to this important provision,

together with the arbitration and

law and jurisdiction clauses in the

Bill of lading, the u.s. carriage of

goods Act is unlikely to be upheld.

/ pirAcy in The gulf of guineA

Piracy and armed robbery in the

gulf of guinea – a busy expanse of

water and an emerging trade hub

– is of increasing concern to local

coastal states and the shipping

industry. While somalia has seen

a decline in hijackings over recent

months, incidents are on the rise

in West Africa. it is suspected that

nigerian pirates have expanded

operations into a wider geographical

area, including ivory coast waters.

by Bimco, the international

chamber of shipping, intercargo

and intertanko. other subjects

covered include voyage planning,

trading in the area and employment

of armed guards.

/ skulD ADDs peMe clinics

skuld members now have access

to clinics in odessa, ukraine, and

cebu, Philippines for Pre-entry

medical Examinations (PEmEs).

skuld PEmEs help members

select a healthy crew by going

beyond the standard examination.

skuld established the programme

in co-operation with nigel griffith

of marine medical, singapore in

2008. The odessa and cebu clinics

come in addition to five established

clinics in india and one in manila,

Philippines. updates and a full

clinic list are available on skuld’s


reAD More


nor-shipping will bring the maritime community to oslo in early June.

skuld sPonsors






2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 2012 2013

1 half 2 half 1 half 2 half 1 half 2 half 1 half renewals

source: skulD group

50 49


updates, practical guidance and

useful links are found on skuld’s

website under the heading ‘Piracy’.

information includes guidance

from recent publications, such

as interim guidelines for owners,

operators and masters for

Protection Against Piracy in the

gulf of guinea region issued

skuld is one of the main sponsors

of this year’s nor-shipping, a

leading maritime event week. With

a top-quality exhibition, high-level

conferences and prime networking

opportunities, it attracts the

international maritime industry to

oslo every other year. in addition,

skuld is participating in ocean

Talent camp 2013, a norwegian

recruiting initiative with a longterm

perspective. The first part

takes place at oslo’s city Hall

Plaza from 3 to 7 June, when

nor-shipping is in full swing.

reAD More


26 BEAcon / MArch 2013 BEAcon / MArch 2013 27




nEXT issuE

ouT sepTeMber 2013

nEW coVErs

skuld has increased its pace of innovation in

recent years. the last months are no exception,

with several new covers further diversifying the

club’s portfolio – skuld fixed p&i, skuld yacht,

ports and terminals and a number of unique

loss-of-hire products from skuld 1897’s partnership

with transmarine. the next issue will examine the

markets, the clients and the covers themselves.

The skulD group provides marine and

energy insurance to shipowners and clients

worldwide. liability insurance is provided by

skuld P&i and skuld offshore, while skuld

1897, a syndicate at lloyd’s, provides further

marine, energy and cargo covers. The head

office for global operations is located in oslo,

with additional offices in Aberdeen, Bergen,

copenhagen, Hamburg, Hong kong, london,

new york, Piraeus and singapore.




+47 952 92 200

call this number if you have

an emergency where skuld

can assist.

beAcon bAck issues

For back issues of Beacon, please reference

our online library located at the foot of our web

pages or go to www.skuld.com/Beacon.




december 2012 / i Sue 203



SeTTling over 100,000 claimS / 12

going Slow / 20

Previous editions are available

for download in PdF format.

P.o. BoX 1376 VikA

no-0114 oslo


TEl +47 22 00 22 00

FAX +47 22 42 42 22


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