E-LOGOS - Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze


E-LOGOS - Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze

I. M. R. Pinheiro Solution to the Liar Paradox


The Liar was formulated by at most the second century after Christ (see [Paul

Vincent Spade, 2005]). When put against The Sorites, it is not great in wealth, but

both problems could be told to be means to illustrate some important scientific


In The Liar, the idea is having one entity (group, person, machine or other)

judging the speech of another entity and coming up with a verdict that be universally

accepted at least in the scientific métier.

The Liar assumes that the verbal expression of human beings must not be

personal, must not represent individuals, but collectivities.

Every person is entitled, however, to verbally say whatever they like about

someone else's speech and whatever they say cannot be the main object of any

scientific discussion of serious nature if such a verbal expression has to do with usual

events of human life and personal impressions.

The Liar may appear in more than one way, but a presentation that copies the

original problem cannot be much different from the one that we describe below:

1) Assume that someone has uttered p, p being:

I always lie.

2) Assume that you were listening to them and that you have been given two

choices (classical choices):

a) Writing that their statement is true

or (exclusively)

b) Writing that their statement is not true (false or anything else).

3) Assume that a choice has been made by you in 2.

4) Would you then believe that the same subject, if uttering q, q being

Would you believe me?,

deserves a

a) 'No' (anything that be not yes)

or (exclusively) a

b) 'Yes' (classical choices)

as a response from you?


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