Abstracts & Bio Notes - Asian Studies Association of Australia


Abstracts & Bio Notes - Asian Studies Association of Australia


ALLEN, Pam (University of Tasmania)

Title: Imagining 1965 in Contemporary Indonesian Literature, Film and Theatre

Abstract: This paper is a study of the 1965-1966 violence in Indonesia, as depicted in recent (post-

Suharto) literature. The events of 1965-1966 are increasingly being 'owned' by younger

Indonesians who, in their quest to find out what 'really happened', have created literary and

cultural organisations dedicated to revealing the truth. Examples of such organisations are

Taman 65 in Bali and kotakhitam forum in Jogjakarta. Members of those organisations, as well

as other young writers, have also produced a plethora of literary texts set in those tumultuous

years. Recently published novels include Cerita Cinta Enrico by Ayu Utami (2012), Amba by

Laksmi Pamuntjak (2012), Candik Ala 1965 by Tinuk Yampolsky (2011) and Ayu Manda by I

Made Darmawan (2010).

Bionote: Pam Allen teaches Indonesian language and literature at the University of Tasmania. Her

research interests include contemporary Indonesian literature, and popular culture, with a

particular interest in postcolonial studies, gender issues and minority ethnic voices. Her

publications include articles on contemporary literature as well as translations into English of

Indonesian fiction. (Pam.Allen@utas.edu.au)

ALLEN, Pam (University of Tasmania)

Title: Literary translation: Why it matters (The translator)

Abstract: The Jakarta-based non-profit organisation Lontar Foundation has as its primary aim the

promotion of Indonesian literature and culture through the translation and publication of

Indonesian literary works. A new initiative from Lontar is the Modern Library of Indonesia

series: an Indonesian literary canon in English. This panel, featuring an author, a publisher, a

translator and a reader, will facilitate a discussion about the contribution such a project can

make, not only to understandings of literature, but also to an understanding of historical and

contemporary sociopolitical contexts in Indonesia.


BALAKRISHNAN, Balambigai (University of Adelaide)

Title: Economic Linkages and Social Impacts of Low-skilled Indonesian Labour Migration to

Peninsular Malaysia

Abstract: International migration affects the lives of those who have chosen to work abroad. This

paper examines economic linkages and impacts of international migration at the household

level, based on a framework suggested by Eversole and Shaw (2010, p. 175). Eversole and

Shaw identified the nature of the migrant’s employment, their remitting behaviour and the

use of the remittances in the country of origin as the three factors that help to understand the

differences in the dynamic of remittances and the transnational economic linkages migrants

maintain, spanning home and host countries. A 2009 suvey of 858 low-skilled Indonesian

migrant workers who worked in Peninsular Malaysia showed that almost all migrants remain

connected to their country of origin by maintaining varying types of economic linkages at

varying levels. The permanent residents, males and those who are employed in the

construction sector earned higher wages than the rest. The documented workers remitted

more than others. Proportional to their wage, females, workers in the domestic sector, those

aged below 40 years and those who were married with their spouse and children in the home

country remitted more than the others. A high proportion of remittances received were used

in daily consumption. While some economic gain for both the individual migrant and

recipients of remittances is evident in the survey, the scale and the long term impacts remain

to be investigated.

Bionote: Balambigai Balakrishnan is a doctoral candidate in the Discipline of Geographical and

Environmental Studies at the University of Adelaide, South Australia. She is a recipient of the

“Endeavour International Postgraduate Research Scholarship 2008, Australia”. Balambigai

completed her undergraduate studies at the Universiti Utara Malaysia in 1994 and a Masters

of Applied Statistics at the University of Malaya in 2004. Her PhD research, under the

supervision of Professor Graeme Hugo and Dr Dianne Rudd, explores the dynamics of

Indonesian low-skilled labour migrants in Malaysia, examining and differentiating circular

migratory behaviour of undocumented, documented and permanent migrants. Her interests

lie in the application of statistics and Geography Information System in demography, with a

focus on assisting governments to identify better pathways for migrant integration.


BERGER, Dominic (The Australian National University)

Title: Repression of Anti-state Dissent in Post-New Order Indonesia: Authoritarian Legacy or

Feature of Democratic Consolidation?

Abstract: According to most comparative assessments, post-New Order Indonesia has

transformed itself into the most democratic country in Southeast Asia and a largely successful

model of democratic transition. This paper looks at what effect democracy has had on how

Indonesia handles non-violent anti-state dissent – that is, peaceful opposition not against the


government, but the state as a whole. For example, non-violent expressions of separatist

sentiment in Papua and Ambon are still considered treasonous and Leftist ideologies continue

to be officially banned. On the other hand, Islamist organizations openly opposing the

democratic system are finding much greater space to voice their aspirations. Why does

Indonesia continue to criminalize certain peaceful expressions of radical dissent? How are the

targets of repression chosen? Is repression of radical forms of dissent in Indonesia an

authoritarian legacy or a common by-product of democratization?

Bionote: Dominic Berger completed Honours at Flinders University with a study of the 2008

Malaysian General Election. In 2010 he spent one year in Indonesia, studying at Universitas

Parahyangan in Bandung and working for the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation in Jakarta. He is

currently a PhD Candidate at the Australian National University’s Department of Political and

Social Change. Dominic conducted fieldwork in Indonesia for his PhD between April 2012 and

April 2013. (dominic.berger@anu.edu.au)

CHARLES, Cas (University of Tasmania)

Title: Literary translation: Why it matters (The Reader)

Bionote: Bachelor of Arts UTAS. Major; Indonesian Language, Minor; Asian Studies. Interested in

Art as Ritual within an Indonesian context and has a keen interest in Indonesian textiles. Cas

began her relationship with Indonesia as a young person in 1972 and has continued to visit

regularly. Although Bali is her primary destination she has explored many Indonesian islands

with a desire to understand its cultural diversity. (charlesc@postoffice.utas.edu.au)

CHAUVEL, Richard (Victoria University)

Title: The Indonesians of West Papua - The 'other' in the Papua-Jakarta Conflict

Abstract: The conflict in West Papua is often represented as a conflict between Papuans and the

Indonesian Government. Although the massive demographic change that has taken place since

1963 is one of the factors that has fuelled Papuan demands for independence, little attention

has been paid to the Indonesian settler communities. The settlers constitute about 40% of the

population of the two Papuan provinces. There have been markedly different patterns of

immigration into Papua and distinct relationships between the settler communities and

Papuans. Christians from the neighboring islands of eastern Indonesia served in the Dutch

administration as missionaries, teachers and government officials. Both the Javanese

transmigrants of the Suharto-era and the Buginese, Makasarese and Butonese 'spontaneous'

migrants, who dominate the smaller scale of the urban business sector, tend only to interact

with Papuans in the market place. This paper will examine political interests of the settler

communities in the Papua-Jakarta conflict.


Bionote: Richard Chauvel teaches at Victoria University in Melbourne. He is a graduate of the

University of Sydney and the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. His

research interests are in history and politics of eastern Indonesia, center-region relations in

Indonesia and Australia - Indonesia relations. Prior to joining Victoria University, he taught

history and politics at the University of Indonesia, Jakarta. (Richard.Chauvel@vu.edu.au)

CHUDORI, Leila (Tempo)

Title: The Writing of Pulang

Abstract: This paper is a reflection on the process of researching and writing the novel Pulang,

published by Gramedia in 2012. Focussing in part on the efforts of a young generation of

Indonesians, in Europe and in Indonesia, the novel is an important contribution to the literary

quest for the truth about 1965.

Bionote: Leila Chudori was born in Jakarta in 1962. She completed her undergraduate studies in

political science and comparative development studies from Trent University, Canada. Her

writing career began at the age of 12, when her stories were published in the magazines Si

Kuncung, Kawanku and Hai. She continued to write prolifically as an adult, mostly short stories,

which were published in literary magazines in Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia and

collected in the anthologies Malam Terakhir (1989) and 9 dari Nadira (2009). Most recently

she has published, to much critical acclaim, a novel (Pulang , 2012) about Indonesian political

exiles living in Paris. Her stories have been translated into English and German. Leila works as a

journalist for Tempo, as well as being an editor and scriptwriter for film and television.


DELFI, Maskota (Gadjah Mada University)

Title: Arat Sabulungan: Local Belief, Tradition and Adaptation in Mentawai

Abstract: The Mentawai island group has largely developed autonomously from the activities on

the Sumatran mainland. Therefore a large part of the population was subject to the dynamics

of social capacity inherent in the community. This was influenced due to the rich environment

that included staple food provisions of sago, an abundance of fruits and wildlife as well as a

peripheral trade. The food provision became an important element in the traditional believe

of Arat Sabulungan, as it served as a obligatory agent in ritual feasts, provided bonding by

sharing animal protein with clan members, facilitation of payments to fulfil bride price

requirements and traditional fines. A remarkable adaptation was included; in which the layers

of Mentawai identity was not lost in the often nominal conversion of mainland faiths. In this

adaptation peripheral trade has moved from a moral economy to a shared market economy

stimulated by purpose grown cash crops.


Bionote: Maskota Delfi is an anthropology PhD candidate at the Faculty of Cultural Sciences at

Gadjah Mada University in Indonesia. Her current research is on how regional autonomy has

moved tradition into new relevance and how local social capital is assisting in adjusting to this

renewal at the small remote archipelago of Mentawai located in the Indian Ocean to the west

of Sumatera. As part of national research orientation she was also in Kalimantan where she

investigated food traditions, the social capital that advances shifting cultivation and land

management techniques of several Dayak groups. (maskotadelfi@gmail.com)

DEWI, Anita (Monash University)

Title: Bukan Rumpi Tapi Diskusi: Promoting the Library Collection and Reviving Indonesian Studies

Abstract: Bukan Rumpi Tapi Diskusi is a discussion series that uses the Indonesian Studies

collections at the Asian Studies Research Collection of Sir Louis Matheson Library, Monash

University as a point of reference. Initially, the series was created to promote the library’s

collection and to maintain the library’s connection with its existing users, potential users, and

the general public. In reality, the series has been successful in building connections with the

“wider world”, while simultaneously being an effective means of promoting the library

collections. In addition to being an effective outreach to users and potential users of the

library, it has also played the role of reviving the area of Indonesian Studies. Even though the

impact may not be as significant as other endeavours that are more direct in nature, this effort

towards reviving Indonesian Studies has been shown to be relatively successful.

Bionote: Anita Dewi gained her PhD in Applied Linguistics from Faculty of Arts, Monash University

in 2012. Currently, she is affiliated with Sir Louis Matheson Library of Monash University as a

Learning Skills Adviser and a Subject Librarian for Indonesian Studies and Politics. She has

published several articles in international peer-reviewed journals in the area of language,

culture, and identity. (Anita.Dewi@monash.edu)

FADLIYA (The Australian National University)

Title: Impact of Fiscal Transfers on Local Government Education Expenditures in Indonesia

Abstract: Indonesia’s local governments differ enormously in the level of per capita transfers they

receive, in their populations and population densities, and—to a lesser but still large extent—

on their per capita education expenditures, and their proportions of school age children to

total population. They are very heavily dependent on untied fiscal transfers from the central

government. This preliminary paper focuses on the impact of untied fiscal transfers on

education expenditures by the two types of local government—districts and municipalities—

using 2005 and 2010 data. Preliminary results vary considerably depending on whether the

2005 or 2010 data are used but, broadly speaking, it is found that transfers significantly

influence education expenditures in districts, but not in municipalities. A surprising finding is


that the proportion of school age children in the population has no significant impact on

education expenditures. Population density sometimes has a significant impact, but it is small.

Bionote: Fadliya is a Ph.D Candidate in Public Policy in the Indonesia Project of the Arndt-Corden

Department of Crawford School, Australian National University. She received her BA in

Economics at the Andalas University, West Sumatra, Indonesia (1995) and MA in Development

Economics from University of Colorado at Denver, USA in 2000. Her dissertation explores the

design and implementation of fiscal transfers from central government to local government in

Indonesia after the 2001 decentralisation. Her current work also includes study of untied fiscal

transfers and local government education expenditures using district/municipality level data.


FARID, Lily Yulianti (University of Melbourne)

Title: Gender Representation in Indonesian Newspapers: Megawati Soekarnoputri’s Presidential


Abstract: Megawati Soekarnoputri’s presidential candidacy in three consecutive post-Suharto

presidential elections (1999, 2004, 2009) provides an opportunity to examine the gendering of

the political landscape and the interaction between thepresidential candidate and the media.

This research examines the coverage of Megawati’s presidential campaigns in three

mainstream national newspapers: Jawa Pos, Kompas and Republika in three post-Suharto

elections. I argue that Megawati emphasized her femininity, framed herself as mother of the

nation and employed feminine narratives in her campaigns. The three newspapers could not

avoid replicating her own emphasis on female qualities, but they also embellished her

femininity and added alleged stereotypical female traits, which prompted gender-biased

media coverage.

Bionote: Lily Yulianti Farid is a PhD candidate in the School of Social and Political Sciences, the

University of Melbourne, an Australian Leadership Scholarship awardee. She is a journalist and

a short-story writer. (lilyyuliantifarid@gmail.com)

FAUZAN, Achmad Uzair (Flinders Asia Centre, Flinders University)

Title: Post-Soeharto Civil Society and Mudflow Disaster Politics in Indonesia: Scrutinizing the Case

of Hari Suwandi

Abstract: Hari Suwandi, an ordinary villager affected by the mudflow disaster in East Java, caught

national attention through his march from Sidoarjo to Jakarta to fight against the Lapindo

company, which allegedly caused the disaster. At first praised as a representative of the

struggle of the wong cilik, he soon lost public support after he appeared on national television

a month after the march started offering an apology to the Bakrie family, the owner of the

Lapindo company. Many simply believed that he had been “bought” (sudah dibeli). Looking


eyond that simple belief, this paper argues that this case provides a clear window through

which to view the bigger picture of mudflow disaster management and its contemporary

political contestations. Building on the assumption of disaster as a ‘revelatory crisis’, instead of

questioning Hari’s personal integrity, this paper will analyse the effects of the existing redress

mechanisms to the disaster and Post-Soeharto’s fragmented civil society as crucial factors

leading to Suwandi's public apology appearance.

Bionote: Achmad Uzair Fauzan is a lecturer in the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, State

Islamic University of Sunan Kalijaga in Yogyakarta. Currently, he is a student at Flinders Asia

Centre, School of International Studies, Flinders University, under the supervision of Dr

Priyambudi Sulistiyanto. Among his primary research interests are natural resource

management, local politics and social movements. For his PhD project, he is researching the

Sidoarjo mudflow disaster and its effects on social policy and contestation politics both at

state and society levels. (fauz0001@uni.flinders.edu.au)

FEALY, Greg (The Australian National University)

Title: Was Jemaah Islamiyah a Terrorist Organisation?

Abstract: Since 2002, Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) has been listed as a terrorist organisation by the

United Nations and many foreign nations, including the United States and Australia. Terrorist

attacks attributed to JI include the 2002 Bali bombing, which killed 202 people, the 2000

Christmas Eve bombings which killed 19, and the 2003 JW Marriott Hotel bombing which killed

11. In this presentation, I will examine the terrorist bombings between 2000 and 2003, a

period said to be JI's operational highpoint, and will argue that these attacks were undertaken

by small groups acting autonomously within JI and that their activities were carried out

without the approval, and often even the knowledge, of the central board. This raises the issue

of organisational responsibility and culpability in terrorist operations, and whether the

proscription of JI was justified. I will also argue that the common perception of JI as a

disciplined and hierarchical organisation is misleading and that JI's central board lacked

authority and control over the most militant groups within its membership. I will also question

the legal principles underlying the listing of JI and the efficacy of such measures in seeking to

combat terrorism.

Bionote: Greg Fealy is associate professor of Indonesian politics in the College of Asia and the

Pacific, The Australian National University. He gained his PhD from Monash University in 1998

with a study of the history of Nahdlatul Ulama, published in Indonesian under the title Ijtihad

Politik Ulama: Sejarah NU, 1952-1967. He is the co-author of Joining the Caravan? The Middle

East, Islamism and Indonesia (2005), Radical Islam and Terrorism in Indonesia (2005) and

Zealous Democrats: Islamism and Democracy in Egypt, Indonesia and Turkey (2008). He is also

co-editor of Soeharto’s New Order and it’s Legacy (2010), Expressing Islam: Religious Life and

Politics in Indonesia (2008), Voices of Islam in Southeast Asia: A Contemporary Sourcebook

(2006), Local Power and Politics in Indonesia: Decentralisation and Democratisation (2003) and

Nahdlatul Ulama, Traditionalism and Modernity in Indonesia (1995). He is currently the chief


investigator for the ‘Terrorist Motivations in Indonesia’ project, funded by Australian Research

Council. He was the C.V. Starr Visiting Professor in Indonesian politics at the Johns Hopkins

University School of Advanced International Studies, Washington DC, in 2003, and has been a

consultant to AusAID, USAID, The Asia Foundation and BP. (greg.fealy@anu.edu.au)

FERDINAL, (Deakin University)

Title: Anecdotes: Representing State Violence in Modern Indonesian Literature

Abstract: This paper investigates fictional representations of human rights issues in Indonesia as

found in the short stories published in the Indonesian media. These stories reflect on the

practice and handling of human rights in Indonesia in the last decade of the New Order (1990-

1998). The analyis deals with key issues related to violence as a form of human rights violation

committed by state related bodies, groups and individuals. Among a huge number of short

stories in the media, some take anecdotes as the form through which the writers resist the

institutional, social, or personal violence of the authoritarian and unjust regime. To maintain

its supremacy, the New Order regime applied tight censorship so as not to allow publication of

any text which could cause trouble to national stability. So when censorship was the problem,

some writers such as Putu Wijaya, took advantage of the power of anecdotes to resist. The

three works examined here – Putu Wijaya’s ‘Sket’, ‘Mulut’, and ‘Rakyat’ – represent Putu’s

cultural protest against the violations of human rights and unjust socioeconomic policies

applied by the Suharto New Order in the 1990s. In the analysis, I turn to political criticism to

show in some detail how the works come into existence. When alluding to violence and

censorship, I argue that theories of political criticism can offer us new insights into these

global topics as well as specifically into Indonesian sociopolitical history.

Bionote: Ferdinal is on-study-leave from the Faculty of Letters, Andalas University, Padang,

Indonesia and is now undertaking a PhD program in Indonesian Literature at Deakin University,

Australia. His research focuses on the issue of human rights in Indonesia, particularly in

Indonesian literature. His research and publications generally deal with the issue of violence,

gender, democratization and marginalization in Indonesian culture and literature.


HALIM, Wahyuddin (The Australian National University)

Title: Pesantren As’adiyah in Sengkang, Wajo and its Role in Disseminating and Maintaining

Islamic Tradition in South Sulawesi

Abstract: Following the publication of Dhofier’s thesisabout pesantren in 1982 (1999), a

significant number of scholarly works have been written on this oldest Indonesian Islamic

model of learning.. Most of these works, however, focus on pesantren in Java, and to some

extent those in Sumatra. My paper will explore the important role played by Pesantren

As’adiyah in Sengkang, South Sulawesi through its education and Islamic mission programs


(dakwah) in the dissemination and maintenance of Islamic tradition in the province since the

1930s. The paper will focus on two of Pesantren As’adiyah’s special education programs (in

addition to its formal learning programs such as madrasa): the reproduction of young Islamic

scholars (‘ulama) and the the memorisation of the Qur’an. In addition, the paper will describe

the assignment of students and graduates from these programs as religious speakers and

imam (i.e. leaders of congregational prayer or salat) to many places in the eastern regions of

Indonesia, especially during the month of Ramadan.

Bionote: Wahyuddin Halim is a PhD candidate in the Department of Anthropology at the

Australian National University. His fieldwork was conducted in Sengkang, Wajo, Indonesia in

2012. His research focuses on the role of Pesantren As’adiyah in South Sulawesi in the

continuing Islamisation and the transformation of local Islamic authorities in Wajo in particular

and eastern Indonesia in general. Prior to his PhD study, he had been teaching in the Alauddin

State Islamic University (IAIN/UIN) in Makassar since 1995. He obtained his first MA in

International Development Studies from Dalhousie University, Canada in 2001 and the second

MA in Religious Studies from Temple University, USA in 2005. (wahyuddin.halim@anu.edu.au)

HAMMER, Mathias (The Australian National University)

Title: Democratic Shortcomings and Local Radicalism in 1950s Indonesia

Abstract: This paper investigates the interaction between the Indonesian state and political forces

at the local level in the years after independence had been won. The state planned, but largely

failed, to implement democratic institutions at the grassroots level. As a consequence,

grievances of the population were left without a ‘pressure valve’ that allowed for their

moderation, and instead the state’s lack of accountability and nontransparent policy priorities

paved the way for political radicalisation. Simultaneously the state also lost legitimacy by not

answering widespread popular aspirations for more democracy. As the story of the

dysfunctional Provisional Regional People’s Assembly (DPRD-S) in Klaten, Central Java,

showcases, opacity and centralism hampered democratic legitimacy at the grassroots. Instead

of moderating the large communist segment in that kabupaten through encouraging

participation in local government, the state further fostered dissent and disillusionment

through its failure to legitimize local institutions democratically and subsequent suppression of

local autonomy.

Bionote: Mathias is PhD scholar, College of Asia and the Pacific, ANU. He received a Masters

degree in history at the University of Graz, Austria in 2005. He then received a Dharmasiswa

scholarship from the Indonesian Government and spent one and a half years in Yogyakarta.

Since 2008 his doctoral research has focused on the background history and the destruction of

the PKI in Klaten, Central Java, in 1965. Mathias co-organized a workshop at the ANU in

February 2013 called “New perspectives on the 1965 violence in Indonesia” together with

other Australian-based scholars working on the Indonesian Killings and the legacy of state

violence in Indonesia. (mathias.hammer@anu.edu.au)


HARIYADI, (University of Western Australia)

Title: Islamic Self-help Books in Indonesia and the Influence of American Self-help Books

Abstract: In this paper, I discuss the emergence of Islamic self-help books in Indonesia and

discourses revealed within the books. Islamic self-help books are a hybrid sub-genre of Islamic

publications and self-help books. Even though Islamic publications have had a special place in

the history of publishing in Indonesia since the very beginning, it has to be noted that Islamic

self-help books bear a remarkable resemblance to American self-help books that have

appeared in Indonesia since the 1990s. Since discussing Islamic self-help books would make no

sense without discussing the genre of self-help books, I also look at the genre of self-help

books came from America as the first place where self-help books began to gain prominence.

Then I discuss the discourses that are displayed in several Islamic self-help books that have

been read by my informants. Here I reveal the remarkable similarity between the discourses of

American and Islamic self-improvement books in Indonesia.

Bionote: Hariyadi is a Lecturer and Researcher at the Jenderal Soedirman University (Unsoed),

Indonesia, currently on study leave. He graduated with a Bachelor of Social Sciences degree

from Unsoed in 2000, and obtained a Master of Artis in Sociology from of Lancaster University,

Great Britain, in 2002. He is currently a PhD Candidate in Asian Studies at The University of

Western Australia, His publications include: Islamic Popular Culture and The New Identity of

Indonesian Muslim Youths; published at http:asaa.asn.au/ASAA2010/papers/Hariyadi.pdf

andIslamic Movies: Propagating Islam to the Youth in Indonesia; published at



HATLEY, Barbara (University of Tasmania)

Title: Recalling 1965-1966 in Contemporary Indonesian Theatre and Film

Abstract: During the long Suharto years, modern theatre groups in Indonesia had a common

mission of conveying resistance to the monolithic model of Indonesian identity imposed by the

New Order regime. In the relatively free ideological climate since the ending of the regime in

1998, performers construct and celebrate diverse identities, reclaim public space and tell local

stories. Among these local narratives, some focus on previously repressed and silenced

experiences of the 1965 anti-communist violence and its aftermath. The Yogyakarta-based

group Paper Moon, for example, uses huge puppet figures to play out stories of victims and

their families in the plays Noda Lelaki Dalam Mona and Mwathirika. Playwright and feminist

activist Faiza Mardzoeki plans a new production, Nyanyi Sunyi Kembang Genjer, focusing on

the experiences of members of the Communist women’s group Gerwani. NGO organisations

providing support to victims also organise performances and make documentary films. In this

paper I will analyse these dramatic and filmic reflections on the events of 1965, and compare

them with representations in other sites, as part of a more general recovery of this troubling,

tabooed period of their history by younger generation Indonesians.


Bionote: Barbara Hatley was appointed foundation Professor of Indonesian at UTAS in 2000 and

was Head of the School of Asian Languages and Studies at UTAS from 2000 to 2006. She has an

MA from Yale, a PhD from Sydney University and taught previously at Monash

University.Barbara's research interests include Indonesian performing arts, modern literature

and gender studies. (Barbara.Hatley@utas.edu.au)

HERAWATI, Erna (The Australian National University)

Title: “Celebrity in the Neighbourhood”: Transformation in the Identity of Women in Urban

Village Indonesia

Abstract: The reformation era in Indonesia has encouraged women, particularly in urban villages,

to engage in activisms available in their neighbourhood. Engagement in such activism,

however, does not always create a good image for women. A “celebrity in the neighbourhood”

is a cynical term that was invented by non-activist women in urban villages in Bandung, West

Java, to refer to women activists who are always busy with their activism outside the

household. Yet, this term does not discourage women activists from continuing their activities.

My paper discusses cases in which women activists use their engagement in activism and

networks with local government institutions and lNGOs to promote transformation of their

identity, making them a real “celebrity” in their own neighbourhood and moving their social

status a few steps higher.

Bionote: Erna Herawati is a PhD Candidate in the Department of Anthropology, the Australian

National University and lecturer in the Department of Anthropology, Universitas Padjadjaran.

She obtained her Master of Arts in Anthropology at Ateneo de Manila University in 2006. Her

research interests focus on gender issues in health and community development. She did

fieldwork in Bandung City, West Java Indonesia for her current thesis project, titled Warga

Peduli AIDS: An Urban-Village Based Movement to Promote HIV Prevention Indonesia. This

paper draws on part of her thesis. (erna.herawati@anu.edu.au)

HIDAYAT, Rachmat (Charles Darwin University)

Title: Local Government Development In Indonesia: Does Decentralization Foster Effective

Resource Allocation In the Health And Education Sectors?

Abstract: Decentralization has produced conflicting opinions among scholars that indicate that

decentralization outputs vary significantly, especially in the health and education sectors. This

paper will describe and analyse the process of decentralization in Indonesia, exploring

whether decentralization can foster effective resource allocation in health and education. It

will also trace the theoretical background that serves as the basis to further the practice of

decentralization in Indonesia. This paper focuses on those issues, and on the opportunities for

local government to allocate its resources to the most important basic needs of the people -

education and health.


Bionote: Rachmat Hidayat is a PhD student Charles darwin University.


HILL, DAVID (Murdoch University)

Title: Language as ‘soft power’ in bilateral relations: The case of Indonesian language in Australia

Abstract: Since Joseph Nye introduced the concept of ‘Soft power’ in his 1990 book, Bound to

Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power, analysts have discussed states’ efforts to

exercise their influence by attracting and co-opting rather than coercing or using force. This

paper will examine the teaching of Indonesian language in Australian schools and universities

as an expression of Indonesia’s soft power in the region. It will evaluate the success of this soft

power in the context of a range of Australian government initiatives (such as the October 2012

White Paper on Australia in the Asian Century) and contrast these will the past decade’s

downturn in enrolments in Indonesian at all levels of the Australian education system. It will

draw on and update my 2012 Report on Indonesian in Australian Universities: Strategies for a

stronger future (http://altcfellowship.murdoch.edu.au/finalreport.html), by looking at the

interplay between government policy and the broader cultural and political forces.

Bionote: David T. Hill is Professor of Southeast Asian Studies in the School of Arts and Fellow of

the Asia Research Centre at Murdoch University, Western Australia. His research interests

encompass Indonesian language, politics, media, life writing, and exilic studies. He is Founder

and Director of the Australian Consortium for In-Country Indonesian Studies (ACICIS), an

international consortium of 27 universities which assists foreign students to study in

Indonesian universities (www.acicis.murdoch.edu.au). His recent books include Journalism

and Politics in Indonesia: A Critical Biography of Mochtar Lubis (1922-2004) as Editor and

Author (Routledge, 2010) and, co-edited with Krishna Sen, Politics and the Media in Twenty-

First Century Indonesia: Decade of Democracy (Routledge, 2011). In 2012, as a National

Teaching Fellow of the Australian Learning and Teaching Council, he authored the report

Indonesian Language in Australian Universities: Strategies for a stronger future


HUTAGALUNG, Stella (The Australian National University)

Title: Being Muslim in Kupang

Abstract: In keeping with Indonesia's status as country with the largest Muslim population, the

majority of the Indonesian provinces are Muslim dominated. However, the Eastern part of the

country, including Kota Kupang (Kupang municipality) in East Nusa Tenggara province, is an

exception. Muslims in Kupang account for only 14% of the total population of 336,239, and

represent many different ethnic groups such as Solorese, Buginese, Makassarese, Butonese,

Javanese, and the Hadrami. My paper discusses the celebration of Maulid (birthday of the

Prophet), Ramadan, life cycle rituals, and the roles of Hadrami community in three Muslim


villages of Kampung Airmata, Kampung Solor and Kampung Oesapa. My analysis shows the

variable expression of local Islamic practice and its intersection with cultural diversity in


Bionote: Stella Hutagalung is a PhD candidate in the Department of Anthropology at the

Australian National University. She did her fieldwork in Kupang, Indonesia, from December

2010 to January 2012. Her research focuses on variable expressions of local Islamic practice in

Kupang and their intersections with cultural diversity. Prior to her PhD study, Stella was

working for The Asia Foundation Indonesia, Kemitraan Indonesia office (The Partnership for

Governance), and the SMERU Research Institute. She obtained her MPhil in the Anthropology

of Development from the University of Bergen, Norway, in 2007. Stella Hutagalung, The

Australian National University (ANU). (stella.hutagalung@anu.edu.au)

IQBAL, Asep (Murdoch University)

Title: Online Framing Contests: The Internet and Intra-ovement Contention within the Salafi

Movement in Indonesia

Abstract: This paper examines reading of the internet by a religious movement from the usercentred

perspective: mobilizing the internet for waging war against those considered “the

other”. Focusing on the Indonesian Salafi movement and its use of the internet, it argues that

framing contests within Indonesia’s Salafi movement constitute a struggle for symbolic

religious leadership and sacred authority to interpret Islam on the behalf of ummah (Muslim

global community). The paper sketches the mobilization of the internet as the main medium

for establishing collective identity projects, particularly the ideology of Salaf supremacy

(manhaj al salaf). In doing so, the paper analyses the use of websites by the actors of

Indonesia Salafi movement and their engagement in the intra-movement contention.

Mobilizing the websites, Salafis are involved in internal contention in which each competing

faction struggles to influence the direction of the movement by framing the other as

transgressors of the pure Islam and portraying itself the as true guardian and follower of

authentic Islam.

Bionote: Asep Iqbal obtained MA in Islamic studies in 2003 from Leiden University in the

Netherlands, GradDip (2007) and MA (2008) in Sociology from Flinders University of South

Australia. Currently, he is a PhD researcher in Asian Studies, Asia Research Centre, Murdoch

University, Western Australia, with a scholarship from Murdoch International PhD Scholarships.

He is working on a thesis project about the internet and the Salafi movement in contemporary

Indonesia. (iqbal0912@gmail.com)

JONES, Tod (Curtin University)

Title: From Sabang to Merauke: Cultural Nationalism, Decentralisation and UNESCO’s Intangible

Cultural Heritage Program in Indonesia


Abstract: In 2012, the Papuan knotted bags noken was inscribed on UNESCO’s List of the

Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safegarding. Noken is Indonesia’s seventh item

on the three UNESCO lists in the Intangible Cultural Heritage program. In 2011, the saman

dance from Aceh was listed. The location of these two local practices at Indonesia’s ends

mentioned in the nationalist song indicates the national importance of listings of local culture.

A second element is disputes over Malay cultural practices between Indonesia and Malaysia

that preceded the listings of batik, kris, and angklung. After providing an overview of

UNESCO’s intangible cultural heritage program, this paper examines its application in

Indonesia across different scales (international, national, kabupaten, local practitioners and

audiences). It uses analysis of the operation and popularity of this heritage program to provide

insights into the shifts in the operation of cultural policy following decentralisation and

electoral reform.

Bionote: Dr Tod Jones is a Research Fellow at Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute in

Perth, Australia. Tod’s research interests are cultural and heritage policy and sustainable

tourism in Indonesia and Australia. He received the 2010 Vice-Chancellors Award for

Humanities Highest-Performing Early-Career Researcher at Curtin University. Tod spent the

first half of 2013 as a Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies Fellow working on UNESCO’s

cultural programs in Indonesia, including its intangible heritage program. His book, Culture,

Power and Authoritarianism in the Indonesian State is being published by Brill in June 2013.


WIJAYA, Pan M. Faiz K. (TCB School of Law, University of Queensland)

Title: Judicial Activism in the Constitutional Court of Indonesia: A Positive Legislator?

Abstract: The fall of Suharto’s authoritarian regime in 1998 was followed by constitutional

amendments bringing fundamental changes to the constitutional structure in Indonesia. A

transformative amendment established a separate judicial institution called the Constitutional

Court. This institution is believed to serve a strategic role within Indonesia’s plural legal system

particularly in the area of constitutional review and human rights protection.However, the

performance of the Constitutional Court has attracted controversy over the last decade.

Criticisms arise because the Court is concerned with introducing a sociological paradigm of law

that embraces substantive justice with a fluid acknowledgment of procedural justice. A key

criticism of the Constitutional Court is that the nature of Court has morphed into a judiciary of

“positive legislator”. This paper analyses the extent of judicial activism is used by the

Constitutional Court for the realisation of the human rights of Indonesian citizens.

Bionote: Faiz has been working as a researcher and judicial assistant to the Chief Justice of

Indonesian Constitutional Court since 2005. He received Bachelor of Laws degree from the

Faculty of Law, the University of Indonesia (UI) and Master of Comparative Laws degree from

the Faculty of Law, the University of Delhi (DU). In 2012 he became a research scholar at the

Centre for Public, International and Comparative Law (CPICL), the University of Queensland


and commenced his PhD at TC Beirne School of Law, the University of Queensland (UQ).


LEE, Thienny (University of Sydney)

Title: Is Lee Man Fong a 'Nanyang Style' Artist?

Abstract: This paper studies the art direction of the Chinese who immigrate to Southeast Asia at

the mid of the twentieth century. ‘Nanyang’ ( 南 洋 ) has been used by the Chinese which

means ‘Southern Sea’ referring to the entire South China Sea region where the Chinese

emigrated to. The immigrant Chinese Artists captured idyllic tropical southern seas were later

being called 'Nanyang style' of art. ‘Nanyang Style’ is a term often used to characterise the

development of Southeast Asia art, Singapore in particular in the 1950’s and 1960’s with

Liu Kang, Chen Wen Hsi, Cheong Soo Pieng, Chen Chong Swee and Georgette Chen as the key

proponents. Interestingly, ‘Nanyang style’ wasn’t being used in the 1950s by the artists

themselves but rather by the museum institutions from the late 1970s. This paper examines

the authenticity of this art movement and the claim of the ‘Nanyang Style’ creation. By

evaluating the paintings of the above mentioned Singaporean artists and other artists

including Lee Man Fong of Indonesia who share the similar background, this study shows the

ambiguity and inconsistency of the definitions of ‘Nanyang Style’ of art.

Bionote: Thienny Lee is a PhD candidate at the University of Sydney. She studied in England at the

University of Hertfordshire and University of London (SOAS) where she gained a MA in History

of Art and Archaeology. Her PhD research focuses in dress and visual identity of the Straits

Chinese in the former Straits Settlement from the mid-nineteenth to mid twentieth century. In

SOAS London she has given lectures on the history of Indonesian and Malaysian batik art and

the history of contemporary art in Southeast Asia in the post-graduate diploma course.


LIO, Asrun (The Australian National University)

Title: Negotiating Social Relationships in a Multicultural Society: A Case Study from Southeast


Abstract: My paper will present a case relating to identity discourse in which a conflict between

two people from the same identity group (Bugis) was negotiated through the adat (custom) of

another (Tolaki). It will also explore some cases of social conflict which occurred in the social

lives of Routa. These conflict events are a starting point to look at the dynamics of social

interaction in the region. I use as an example ‘siri’, a cultural structure of the Bugis, and

analyse how this culture must be negotiated by both identity groups in the process of conflict

resolution. I argue that Routa people who live in a multi-ethnic society have access to different

ways of conflict resolution. Local authorities are often involved in the conflict resolution. The

paper will also address, however, the question why different identity groups which live so

close to each other still have poor knowledge of their different adat laws.


Bionote: Asrun Lio is a PhD student in the Department of Anthropology, School of Culture, History

and Language at the Australian National University. He did his fieldwork in Routa Sub-district,

Southeast Sulawesi, from July 2011 to June 2012. His research focuses on social interaction

and communication in a multilingual, multi-cultural environment in an area that has been at

the margins of the state due to its remoteness and low population numbers. Yet, the region is

experiencing rapid social change and that influences the formation of identity. Prior to his PhD

study, Asrun Lio has been teaching at the Haluoleo University, Kendari, since 1993.


MAHNKEN, Phillip (University of the Sunshine Coast)

Title: Indonesian Language Studies in Australia – Our Role in a ‘whole-of-Australia’ Approach to a

Massive Cultural Turn

Abstract: The White Paper, thorough reports on Indonesian at school and universities, easing of

the DFAT travel warning, three years of LCNAU and twenty years of AEF work but no great

leaps forward. What are our essential problems in school systems and what initiatives will

really lift Asian languages and related cultures in education? USC's Headstart to Indonesian

project offers some elements to emulate. Some think major outsourcing to BIPA in Indonesia

is a sound solution. ACICIS and the Lombok and Deakin in-country programs work but require

extraordinary efforts of collaboration and logistics.There is a massive need for promotion, PR

and advocacy. By whom, where and how to begin? Given the ubiquitous internet, why are

Australians and Indonesians not interacting and learning together online daily? How can we

bring it all together such that average Australians feel that there is a concerted popular

cultural turn going on and that they should join in?

Bionote: Phillip Mahnken teaches Indonesian language and culture at the University of the

Sunshine Coast. His interests include Computer Assisted and Online Language Learning and,

since 2004, working with the Regional Universities Indonesian Language Initiative (RUILI) on

the intensive in-country language program held each year at the University of Mataram,

Lombok. His previous career as a school languages teacher gives him a natural inclination to

work with schools and teacher education to enhance school language programs.


MAIDDIN, Sahul Hamid Mohamed (University of Sydney)

Title: The Emergence and Proliferation of 'Sukarnoism', 1959-1965

Abstract: This paper examines the emergence and proliferation of the political thought which was

attributed to Sukarno by his admirers and enthusiasts during the Guided Democracy years,

1959-1965. It commences with the elaboration of ‘Sukarnoism’. It examines the underlying

aims of this political thought in subliminally deifying Sukarno as a Supreme Leader of Indonesia.

Subsequently, Sukarno’s conceptions such as Pancasila, Guided Democracy, NASAKOM, and


MANIPOL-USDEK are thoroughly analyzed to comprehend their contents and means of

dissemination. The later part of this paper explains the role and motives of The Body for the

Support of Sukarnoism (Badan Pendukung Sukarnoisme) which was later perceived as a traitor

and subversive element by Sukarno and his ally, The Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). The

paper concludes that Sukarno and his political thought engulfed the nation by the shrewd and

eloquent invocation of a series of conceptions which were somewhat abstract and sometimes

ambiguous. This presentation is based mainly on material from newspapers, journals and


Bionote: Sahul Hamid Mohamed Maiddin is a Malaysian who has a resarch interest in Indonesian

politics and history. He obtained a Masters degree in History from the University of Malaya,

Malaysia with his dissertation on “Propaganda and Psychological Warfare during Malaysia-

Indonesia Confrontation, 1963-1965”. Sahul Hamid is attached to the Department of History,

Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia as a junior lecturer. In March 2012, he obtained

a full-scholarships study leave from the Malaysian Government to pursue his doctoral degree.

Currently, he is a Doctoral candidate in the Department of Indonesian Studies, University of

Sydney, Australia. His research is on “Propaganda and Indoctrination in Indonesian Politics,

1959-1965”, under the supervision of Professor Adrian Vickers and Dr Dwi Noverini Djenar.


MANGGALA, Pandu Utama (the Australian National University)

Title: Pre-Colonial Southeast Asian International Society: The Mandala Culture of Anarchy

Abstract: AbstractThroughout the years, the study of pre-colonial Southeast Asian international

relations has not attracted major attention because it had long been seen as an integral part

of the China-centred tribute system. It is often said that under the Chinese hierarchical order,

Asian international relations was seen as stable and regional order had been achieved until the

arrival of the Western powers in the 19th Century (Kang 2007). However, pre-colonial

Southeast Asian countries were far from peaceful and stable under the tribute system. Fierce

competition for survival and domination characterized the balance of power politics

throughout the pre colonial era (Shu 2012b, p. 46). This paper contributes to the literaturen on

pre-colonial Southeast Asia by examining the interplay that existed between pre-colonial

Southeast Asian empires and the hierarchical East Asian international society, in particular

during the 13th-16th Century.The paper argues that Southeast Asian international relations in

pre-colonial time were characterized by complex political structures influenced by Mandala

values. In that context, the Majapahit Empire, one of the biggest empires at that time,

maintained its own constitutional structures of an international society, although it still sought

close relations with China. Therefore, the paper debates the nature of China’s hierarchical

tributary system in pre-colonial Southeast Asia. In policy terms, the findings of the article

indicate that the interactive dynamics within the subsidiary system created norms that are

rooted in the cultural memory of a region. This helps to explain, for example the conduct of

Indonesian foreign policy in Southeast Asia. The method of this paper is cross-disciplinary

studies which combine the findings of area studies and international relations theory to


provide a deeper understanding of the process of socialization and mutual adaptation

between the Southeast Asian and the East Asia international societies.Keywords: The

Geopolitical concept of Mandala, East Asian International Relations, The Tribute System, the

Majapahit Empire

Bionote: Pandu Utama Manggala, an Indonesian Diplomat, is currently a Masters student at the

Australian National University, Canberra. He is one of the recipients of the Australia Awards

scholarship in 2012 and is now serving as the President of the Indonesian Students’

Association in the Australian Capital Territory. His writings have been published in many

journals and newspapers. His latest piece was published in the Ritsumeikan Journal of Asia

Pacific, Japan. He is also the book editor in 'Mengarungi Samudera Yang Bergolak: Sumbangan

Pemikiran Diplomat Muda Indonesia’, published by Center for Education and Training,

Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2010. (pandu.manggala@anu.edu.au)

MAS'UDI, Wawan (Victoria University - Melbourne)

Title: The Promise of Populism: Jokowi's Popular Appeal in Indonesia's Contemporary Democracy

Abstract: No public leader in current Indonesian politics has such popular appeal as that enjoyed

by Joko Widodo (Jokowi), Governor of Jakarta. Not even President SBY can generate popular

hysteria in the same way as this new elected Governor. In despite of democratic change, the

structure of politics in contemporary Indonesia might be said to resemble a state of inertia. In

local arenas decentralization and direct election has in many cases facilitated the consolidation

of ‘old’ political patronage and traditional political hierarchies. Politics at the national level is

also stalled, due to the oligarchic character of political parties and the prevalence of New

Order style politics, in which the primacy of military background and government official

culture are retained as the source of legitimacy. Bearing in mind this political background,

Jokowi has discovered another sources of legitimacy. His political popularity is closely linked to

two cardinal aspects; his pro-urban poor programs, which he has already implemented in Solo

and is now promising in Jakarta, and his direct political communication or relationship with

people, labelled as mider praja in Solo and blusukan in Jakarta. Using the framework of

populism or populist politics, this presentation will discuss; 1) the character of Jokowi

populism, and 2) its meaning for Indonesian democracy. Data utilized in this presentation

forms part of my PhD research on Local Populism in Decentralized Indonesia.

Bionote: Wawan Mas’udi is a PhD Candidate in Political Science at Victoria University, Melbourne,

writing on Local Populism in Decentralized Indonesia, supervised by Dr. Richard Chauvel and

Dr. Max Lane. In Indonesia he is a lecturer and researcher in the Department of Politics and

Government, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. He obtained a masters degree in Public

Administration from Agder University College, Norway, in 2005 after graduating in 2000 from

Gadjah Mada University with a Bachelor's degree in Politics and Government. His research

interests are in local politics, welfare politics, and political systems, and he has published

several articles and book chapters, mostly in Indonesian, on decentralization, local politics and

government, and welfare politics. (wawanmu@gmail.com)


MCGLYNN, John (Yayasan Lontar)

Title: Literary translation: Why it matters (The Publisher)

Bionote: John McGlynn, a long-term resident of Jakarta, is a co-founder and editor-in-chief of the

Lontar Foundation in Jakarta. (john_mcglynn@lontar.org)

MCINTYRE, Angus (La Trobe University)

Title: Autobiography and Biography in the Study of Some Indonesian Islamic Terrorists

Abstract: In this paper I attempt some biographical comparisons of Imam Samudra, Mukhlas, and

Mukhlas’s younger brother, Ali Imron, three of the perpetrators of the first Bali bombing of 12

October 2002. The fact that my principal sources are their autobiographies poses the question

as to how to approach these documents. Although we must never take the author at his or her

word, they may be regarded, with this proviso in mind, as sources of historical data regarding

the event and its antecedents. Secondly, it is possible to view them as grist for the mill of the

terrorist’s biographer preoccupied as he is with identity in its various manifestations. This

person is less troubled by the false claims of his subject: whatever the terrorist asserts is

relevant even if, or, perhaps, especially if, it is untrue. Finally, the abundance of terrorist

autobiography in the Indonesian case makes their comparative study possible. All these

approaches inform my study but I place particular emphasis on the comparative one, not least

in the case of the two brothers, Ali Imron, who felt some remorse for the Bali bombing, and

Mukhlas, who did not.

Bionote: Angus McIntyre is an honorary associate at La Trobe University and a Visiting Fellow in

the Department of Political and Social Change at the Australian National University.


MILLER, Steve (University of Tasmania)

Title: Normalising" Indonesian Communism

Abstract: For more than three decades during the Suharto dictatorship, Communism was the

bogey-man of state ideology. Since 1998 a liberalisation of the discussion of communism's

place in Indonesian history has occurred, but even this most often amounts to a toleration of a

still limited discussion of communism's role. This reflects the on-going influence Suharto era

ideology, but also to the on-going influence of Cold War ideologies internationally. This paper

seeks to make a argument for the "normalisation" of communism in discussions of Indonesian

history, before proceeding to discuss manifestations of Indonesian communism in early 1950s



Bionote: Stephen Miller is an Associate Lecturer in Indonesian Language and Studies at the

University of Tasmania, and a PhD candidate at ADFA/UNSW. (Stephen.Miller@utas.edu.au)

MILLIE, Julian (Monash University)

Title: Post-authoritarian Diversity in Indonesia’s State-owned Mosques: A Manakiban Case Study

Abstract: Indonesia’s state-owned mosques are important sites for observing the changes in

religious life that have taken place since the demise of the Suharto regime. During the New

Order period, ideological and political factors restricted access to mosques owned and

managed by provincial and regency governments. In contemporary times, access has been

broadened, and these mosques now display a diversity of religious programs and practices.

Drawing on recent fieldwork, this article makes a case-study of the intercession ritual known

as manakiban, which has recently emerged in government-owned mosques of West Java. It

identifies two dominant factors behind the new inclusiveness: a desire for visibility and public

legitimacy on the part of some members of the sufi order that promotes the ritual, and

secondly, the new electoral accountability of sub-national governments. The article

contributes to knowledge of the politicisation of religion in contemporary Indonesia, and

suggests new possibilities for understanding the meanings of public Islamic infrastructure.

Bionote: Dr Julian Millie is a senior lecturer in the Department of Anthropology, Monash

University, Melbourne, Australia. He earned his PhD at Leiden University, the Netherlands. His

most recent book is Splashed by the Saint: Ritual reading and Islamic sanctity in West Java

(KITLV Press, 2009), and his recent articles include ‘Oratorical Innovation and Audience

Heterogeneity in Islamic West Java’, (2012 Indonesia 93, pp. 123-146) and ‘The situated

listener as problem: ‘Modern’ and ‘traditional’ subjects in Muslim Indonesia’ (2013

International Journal of Cultural Studies. 16:3, 267 – 284). (Julian.Millie@monash.edu)

MUDHOFFIR, Abdil (Universitas Negeri Jakarta)

Title: Urban Youth and Islamic Militia in Post-New Order Indonesia

Abstract: This paper analyzes the trajectory of the Islamic militia, a group that is often associated

with incidents of religious violence in post-New Order Indonesia. Previous studies generally

view this group monolithically as a collection of mobs for hire rather than an ideological

Islamic movement; the term ‘Islam’ is perceived as merely a symbol to cover various forms of

rent seeking. This indicates that the reasons why lots of urban youth join the militia are more

related to social and economic ends than to Islamism. In our opinion, these conclusions need

to be reassessed because some Islamic paramilitary groups are certainly concerned with

Islamic ideology. Clear evidence of this can be seen in the example of laskar Islam in Solo,

Central Java. In some cases, the trajectory of Islamic militia groups can be traced back to

Islamic movements in the past. Group members also patronize Islamic movement leaders who


are affiliated with some Islamic schools (pesantren). Some were previously thugs or

unemployed youths, but most are students of influential Islamic leaders. In this respect, they

are relatively well-educated so that their reasons for joining the laskar stem more from

cultural motives than pragmatic ones. Hence, it is argued in this study that to avoid being

trapped in a monolithic understanding of Islamic paramilitary groups or adopting the

structurally deterministic approach characteristic of a political economy perspective, we need

to take into account the ideology, identity, and cultural background of the youth involved in

the militia.

Bionote: Abdil Mudoffir teaches at the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political

Science, University of Indonesia. (abdil.mughis@yahoo.com)

MUHIDIN, Salut (Indonesian Diaspora Network - NSW)

Title: Indonesian Diaspora in Australia: Background and Development

Abstract: In the last few years, there is an increasing interest in connecting Indonesian diaspora

around the world in order to assist in the national development. Congress of Indonesian

Diaspora held first time in 2012 by Indonesian embassy in USA which focused on this issue.

Nevertheless, there is still little known about the actual size and composition of the global

Indonesian diaspora. This study attempts to contribute to fill in this gap by focusing on

Indonesian diaspora in Australia as part of the largest global diaspora community in this

country. The paper will also explore the potential role that the Indonesian diaspora could play

in Australia and in Indonesia.

Bionote: The study will be presented by Dr Salut Muhidin who is a lecturer at Macquarie

University. His researches focus on regional development and population mobility in different

context, including in Asia, Africa and Australia. Currently, he is a coordinator of Research and

Development division at the Indonesian Diaspora Network (IDN) in NSW. IDN-NSW Australia

has been formed on February 1, 2013 as part of the global IDN-Indonesian Diaspora Network

initiated in the 1st Congress of Indonesian Diaspora (CID) in Los Angeles in 2012. The main

mission of this IDN movement is to expand connections, to multiply opportunities and to

promote shared prosperity for Indonesia and its Diasporas. (salut.muhidin@mq.edu.au)

MYUTEL, Maria (The Australian National University)

Title: Indians and Soap Opera in Indonesia: Behind the Seen

Abstract: Chinese ethnicity construction has so far attracted most attention from the scholars of

cultural politics, representation and ethnic identities in Indonesia; I am looking instead at the

process of Indian ethnicity negotiation through cultural practices in the Indonesian context.By

asking why soap operas produced by the Indonesian-born Indian producers have dominated

the Indonesian prime-time TV programs for the last two decades (1992-2012), I will analyse


the extent and ways the Indianness of producers is manifest in Indonesian pop culture; the

interplay between Indonesianness and cultural identities of Indonesian-born Indian producers;

and possible emergence of ethnicity commodification and “Bollywoodisation.” Studying the

soap opera production process and its narrative influenced by various discourses prevailing

during given historical periods. I will trace the “peculiar cultural logic” of changes at the level

of ethnic imaginary: the great transition from silencing ethnic questions to seeing ethnicity as

a “part and parcel of being modern”.

Bionote: Maria Myutel is originally from Moscow, Russia, where she obtained her first Master's

degree in Philosophy (focusing on Classical Indian Logical Tradition) from the Russian Academy

of Sciences. She completed her second Master degree in Pune University, India, being

awarded ICCR scholarship by the Indian Government. She moved to Jakarta, Indonesia after

graduation, where she stayed for five years with her husband teaching at the University of

Indonesia and raising their children. A year ago, in 2012 Maria was awarded an Endeavour

scholarship to deepen her knowledge of Indonesian culture. She is currently a PhD candidate

at the Australian National University. (maria.myutel@anu.edu.au)

NURMILA, Nina (Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Bandung Indonesia)

Title: Indonesian Muslims’ Opinion of Female Leadership

Abstract: The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

(CEDAW) defines discrimination against women as “any distinction, exclusion or restriction

made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the

recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of

equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political,

economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field”. This paper is based on a study among

lecturers at one of the Muslim institutions in Bandung of their opinion of female leadership. I

categorise their opinion into three groups: (1) those who absolutely accept female leadership;

(2) those who accept female leadership as long as she has the capability to lead; (3) those who

disagree with female leadership because women are supposed to be supporter of the husband,

look after the children and stay at home. The last group is the majority group and seems to be

the dominant belief among the lecturers. Their comments and reasons tend to subordinate

and exclude women. This discriminative attitude is also reflected well in the leadership

structure of this institution which only appoint men in the leadership position, while women

are seen as incapable being, whose role is just a supporter of men, regardless of their higher

level of education.

Bionote: Nina Nurmila is a senior lecturer at the State Islamic University (UIN) Bandung, Indonesia.

She teaches Gender in Islamic Studies in the UIN Bandung postgraduate program. Her first

degree was from UIN Bandung (1992), her MA was from Murdoch University (1997) and her

PhD was from the University of Melbourne (2007). She was an Endeavour Postdoctoral Fellow

at the University of Technology Sydney (2008) and a Fulbright Visiting Scholar at the University

of Redlands, California, USA (2008-9). She is the author of Women, Islam and Everyday Life:


Renegotiating Polygamy in Indonesia (London; New York: Routledge, 2009 & 2011).


PALERMO, Carmencita (independent scholar & performer)

Title: Interweaving or Shaping? Western and Balinese Female Masked Dance Performers in


Abstract: In Balinese mask dance-dramas the mask wearer has traditionally been a male

performer. During the last 20years skilled female Balinese performers have crossed age-old

boundaries by performing mask theatre locally and globally. Female scholars and theatre

practitioners from Western countries have already reported this phenomenon; I’m one of

thoseWesterners researching and performing. Nevertheless none of us have adequately

addressed our own influence in the field; do we effect change? If so how? In my paper I will

address these questions by analysing the activities of Western female performers permanently

resident in Bali as well as the work of researchers that come and go from Bali. The paper will

also consider Balinese female performers living overseas. The impact on Balinese performance

by Westerners is a well recognised fact; it can easily be traced back to Walter Spies. I argue

this phenomenon keeps happening in different degrees in spite of all the purist approaches in

interacting with other cultural traditions. I argue this impact happens in both directions,

shaping both Western and Balinese performance practices.

Bionote: Carmencita Palermo is an independent scholar & performer, expert in Balinese mask

performance. Carmencita Palermo has been exploring the life of the mask through dancing

tradition for over 20 years. She has a Master’s degree in Performing Arts from the University

of Bologna-Italy and an Advanced Master’s degree in Cultural Studies from Leiden University-

Netherlands. Her PhD in Asian Studies-Balinese Performance is from the University of

Tasmania. The thesis is on the embodiment of the Balinese mask, its cosmological implications

and its cultural context. Carmencita Palermo has been teaching and performing in Europe,

Indonesia and Australia. Her current project is “Searching for Women’s Breath. Cross-Cultural

Dialogues in Performance”. It will take her from mid July to mid November 2013 to Indonesia,

to the UK and Brazil to research, teach and perform. (carmencita.palermo@gmail.com)

PALMER, Wayne (University of Sydney)

Title: Making Employers Pay Migrants More: Indonesian Embassies in Southeast Asia

Abstract: The impasse between states over the responsibility and right to intervene in migrant

labour matters has produced governance arrangements that do not always align with the strict

territorial boundaries of nation-states. As part of this development, Indonesia has

implemented extraterritorial administrative systems that serve to impose obligations on

recruiters through its consular offices. Indonesian consular officers also use the systems to

make employers comply with their standards for employment relations without the host


state’s formal consent.This paper demonstrates that Indonesia intervenes in employment

matters that involve its citizens overseas through mundane consular services, such as the

issuance of new passports. Using the example of Indonesian embassies in Malaysia and

Singapore, it examines the political and technical processes that enable one country to enforce

a minimum wage for citizens in the territory of another, arguing that such extraterritorial

interventions have become an increasingly frequent feature of the infrastructure for

governance of temporary labour migration in Asia.

Bionote: Wayne Palmer is a PhD student in the Department of Indonesian Studies at the

University of Sydney. His research is focused on how government officials manage illegality in

Indonesia’s state migration program. Wayne published a book chapter in 'Labour Migration

and Human Trafficking in Southeast Asia: Critical Perspectives' (2012) on the role of discretion

in the handling of human trafficking cases by Indonesian embassies. His most recent

publication, in Political Geography (2013), examines extraterritorial interventions made by the

Indonesian consulate in Hong Kong through public-private partnerships with migrant labour

employment companies. (wayne.palmer@sydney.edu.au)

RAHMAN, Taufiqur (University of Western Australia)

Title: Jihad Online, Imagined Communities and the Search for Legitimate Muslim Religious

Authorities in Indonesia

Abstract: Several studies suggest that the internet has played a significant role in the

transformation of Muslim religious authority in the global and local context. The old traditional

authority of local imam or Islamic clerics is now being challenged by a trans-national authority

with the availability of a direct connection with Islamic clerics and religious learning resources

from the Middle East, the United States, the United Kingdom or anywhere else in the world. In

this paper, the emergence of new interpreters of Jihad and new online Muslim communities

facilitated by the internet will be specifically analysed within the context of the transformation

of Muslim religious authority in Indonesia. The paper will argue that several distinct features

of the internet such as the availability of hyperlinks, multimodal interactions, powerful search

engines, networking facilities and user-friendliness have helped the existence of new

interpreters of Jihad and different imaginations of Islamic ummah in Indonesia.

Bionote: Taufiqur Rahman is a PhD candidate affiliated with the Centre for Muslim States and

Societies at the University of Western Australia. He is a lecturer at Universitas Muhammadiyah

Yogyakarta currently on study leave undertaking his PhD degree sponsored by AusAID. He

holds a Master of Arts in Communication Management from University of Technology Sydney

(2003) and a Bachelor of Arts in Mass Communication from Universitas Gadjah Mada

Yogyakarta Indonesia (1999). His main research interests are in the areas of media and identity

politics, intercultural communication and strategic communication



RAHMATUNNISA, Mudiyati (Padjadjaran University Indonesia)

Title: Challenges Faced by Women Legislators in Indonesia: A Case Study from Cirebon, West Java

Abstract: Women's representation in Indonesian politics has entered a new era following the

introduction of affirmative action policy through the 2002 Political Party Law and the 2003

Electoral Law which was then expanded and strengthened in the 2008 Electoral Law. The said

laws have the potential to improve women's representation in the political sphere by

stipulating that each participating political party must include at least 30 per cent (30%)

women in its candidate list. Without a doubt, this affirmative action policy in the form ofa

gender quota system has brought new hopes for Indonesian women to be meaningfully

involved in Indonesia’s political processes. Nevertheless, empirical evidence shows that this is

not always the case. Indonesian women have faced significant resistance and challenges not

only when they tried to run for election, but also when they performed as legislators in their

respective legislative institutions. How can this phenomenon be explained? What sort of

resistance and challenges have they faced? Howdo they cope with such resistance and

challenges? This paper tries to answer these questions by specifically discussing a case study of

women legislators in local representative assemblies (DPRD) in Cirebon, West Java, Indonesia.

Bionote: Mudiyati Rahmatunnisa has taught at Padjadjaran University Indonesia since 1994. She

teaches several subjects including Indonesian Local Government Systems, Dynamics of Public

Policy and Civil Society. She is also interested in gender issues, particularly how these issues

are reflected in the implementation of decentralization policy in Indonesia. She is currently

involved in a number of research projects about civil society organizations in Indonesia and

the pace and the direction of Indonesian democratization. She received her PhD in Asian

Studies from the University of Western Australia in 2010. (mudiyati@yahoo.com)

RAKHMANI, Inaya Rakhmani (Universitas Indonesia)

Title: Emerging Papuans: Televised Representation, Local Identity, and Jayapura Youth

Abstract: Scholars studying Papuan identity have argued that ‘being Papuan’ is somewhat centred

on ethnic nationalism (Chauvel, 2003; 2005) and Christianity (Widjojo [et al.], 2008; Kivimaki,

2006). However, this paper argues that among young Papuans in Jayapura, the culture of

second-generation Javanese and Sumatran migrants is being embraced as part of their

resistance towards a perceived dominance of Jakarta and Islamic culture. By focusing on

television culture, I argue that in sharing a common desire to break free from central

dominance over local infrastructure, young Papuans in Jayapura struggle to find a shared

identity that transcens ethnic and religious divisions. Television, in this case, is seen as central

in projecting an ‘authentic’ image of Papua to both local and national audiences that, unlike

previous findings, is neither ethnic nor religious.

Bionote: Inaya Rakhmani is a media studies lecturer in the Department of Communication,

Universitas Indonesia. Her research interests include media and identity, critical media

economy, and cultural politics. (inaya.rakhmani@gmail.com)


RICCI, Ronit (The Australian National University)

Title: Islam as a Unifying Force in an Indonesian Diasporic Community

Abstract: Since the establishment of Dutch rule in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in the seventeenth

century, and throughout the eighteenth, people from across the Indonesian archipelago were

sent to that island in various capacities. Some were political exiles from places like Kartasura

and Gowa, others served in the colonial army, while still others were convicts or servants.

After 1796, with their takeover of Ceylon, the British continued to send people from the Malay

peninsula and the archipelago there, again in a range of capacities. Even though not all of the

early arrivals were Muslim, and although they came from a range of linguistic and ethnic

backgrounds, over time they came to be defined by their use of the Malay language and their

Islamic faith. This paper explores some of the manifestations of this latter dimension of their

collective identity and considers the process of its development.

Bionote: Ronit Ricci holds BA and MA degrees from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and a

PhD in Comparative Literature from the University of Michigan. She is currently a senior

lecturer at the Australian National University. Her book, Islam Translated: literature,

conversion and the Arabic Cosmopolis of South and Southeast Asia, was published in 2011 by

the University of Chicago Press and won the 2013 Harry Benda Prize in Southeast Asian Studies.


RICHTER, Max M. (Monash University)

Title: Indonesia’s 2009 Presidential Election: Some Ethnographic Dimensions

Abstract: This paper casts light on some under-represented facets of elections in Indonesia, in

this case the 2009 Presidential Election. While for context it draws on media analysis and other

sources, the primary focus is ethnographic description and analysis based on first-hand

encounters. The paper begins by setting the election into historical context, and then

considers themes such as nationalism and social inclusion from within the ethnographic

minutiae of four Jakarta-based episodes: firstly, an oration by the then newly-inaugurated

vice-presidential nominee Boediono; second, an appearance and Q-&-A on the haj with

presidential nominee Yusuf Kalla; third, the Final Presidential Debate televised to tens of

millions across the nation; and finally, polling day procedures as viewed from the local,

neighbourhood level. Considering the Presidential election process in this way is part of a

larger project on everyday life, intellectual forums and leisure activities in new-Millennium


Bionote: Dr Max M. Richter is a Research Fellow (Indonesian engagement) at Monash

Sustainability Institute (MSI) and an affiliate in Anthropology at Monash University, where he


was Director of the Monash Asia Institute in 2012. His first monograph, Musical Worlds in

Yogyakarta (KITLV, 2012; ISEAS, 2013), explores local-level social relations through jalanan,

campursari and other musics as performed and discussed across diverse settings and contexts.

Max now works on institutional strengthening and community engagement programs with

MSI, and researches a diverse range of musical subcultures, intellectual forums and

development issues in Indonesia and the wider world. (max.richter@monash.edu)

RIYANI, Irma (The University of Western Australia)

Title: Duty and Desire: Women’s Experiences of Marital Sexual Relations in Bandung, West Java

Abstract: This paper explores the experiences of Muslim married women in their marital sexual

relationships. It encompasses women’s expectations, desires and practices of marital sexual

relations with their husbands, based on ethnographic research on Islam and women’s

sexuality in Bandung, West Java. Data suggests that there is a strong tendency for women to

consider sexual relations in marriage as their duty. In this situation it is difficult for some

women to refuse such relations. Religious (and cultural) discourses seem to justify and support

this view. On the other hand, men seem to have little interest in understanding women’s

desire. This paper examines Islamic (and cultural) constructions of sexuality which tend to

privilege to male sexuality over female sexuality. It also looks at possible agency for women

through various strategies to avoid sexual engagement and negotiate for their own sexual

desires and pleasures.

Bionote: Irma Riyani is a PhD candidate in the School of Social Sciences, The University of

Western Australia. her PhD research is entitled 'The Silent Desire: Islam, Women’s Sexuality

and the Politics of Patriarchy in Indonesia'. This study examines the relationship between

Islamic teachings on sexuality and Muslim married women’s perceptions of these teachings. It

also examines the relationship between these perceptions and women’s stated behaviour in

their marital sexual relationships in Indonesia. (riyani.ime@gmail.com)

SAYUTI, Muhammad (University of Newcastle)

Title: The Implementation of the Indonesian National occupational Skills Standards (SKKNI) in the

Vocational Sector: A Lesson from Yogyakarta Province

Abstract: One of the key challenges of the Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector globally

is to enhance its relevance in the labour market. Indonesia’s attempt to bridge the gap

between VET and the workplace was through the introduction of the occupational skills

standards. Since 2003, the Indonesian version of the occupational skills standards (SKKNI) has

been gradually introduced in two types of VET institutions, the Vocational Secondary School

(SMK) and the Vocational Training Centre (BLK). This study reports on how the policy of the

SKKNI was implemented in the province of Yogyakarta and evaluates the implementation. The


study used a survey to measure the disposition of teachers toward the policy and the

performance of teachers in utilising the SKKNI in their learning processes, as well demographic

information concerning VET institutions, teachers and their SKKNI certification status. This

presentation reports on the quantitative data of the study which was gathered by

questionnaires from seven SMKs and two BLKs in three districts. At an institutional level, only

6 out of 108 SMK implemented the policy, while no BLKs did so. At an individual level, 62.5% of

teachers of SMKs and BLKs were uncertified in the SKKNI, however, they had adopted and

implemented the changes in their classroom. There were individual differences in disposition

and performance between the certified and uncertified teachers. The individual differences in

the four other factors were not significant. This study concludes that the disposition and the

performance of teachers were not the only factors contributing the success of the

implementation of the SKKNI at institutional level.

Bionote: Muhammad Sayuti is a lecturer at the Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia,

on study leave to undertake a PhD program at the University of Newcastle, Australia. He holds

a Master in Educational Research and Evaluation (M.Pd.) from the Yogyakarta State University

Indonesia (UNY) and a Master in Vocational Education (M.Ed.) from Wollongong University

Australia. (muhammad.sayuti@uon.edu.au)

SCOTT-MAXWELL, Aline (Monash University)

Title: Tangled Pathways: Terang Bulan, an Indonesian/Malay Song with Contested Origins and

Australian Connections

Abstract: Terang Bulan is a well-known and much-loved Indonesian song which has circulated

widely in the Malay world since at least the early twentieth century and has been performed

and recorded across diverse popular genres from kroncong to Hawaiian style to early rock. It

has also acquired a multiplicity of meanings deriving from its contested origins and history,

including an alleged French source, its adoption as the Malaysian national anthem, and the

cultural politics of recent competing claims to its ownership by Malaysia and Indonesia. The

paper explores some of these meanings, in particular, some surprising Australian connections

and identifications, manifest in the song’s Australian sheet music publication in 1946 with a

dedication to the ‘members of the 7th, 8th and 9th divisions who were in Malaya’ and an

influential 1952 Australian recording on the Columbia label. Terang Bulan exemplifies the way

a song can transcend the specifics of musical style, lyrics and socio-cultural positioning to

capture a regional imaginary.

Bionote: Dr Aline Scott-Maxwell is an ethnomusicologist with research interests in Indonesian and

Australian music. She is a lecturer in the Sir Zelman Cowen School of Music, Monash University,

and is director of the School’s gamelan ensemble. She is on secondment from the Monash

University Library, where she is Senior Asian Studies Librarian.



SILA, Muhammad Adlin (The Australian National University)

Title: Religious Change and Mobility: The Role of Malay Migrants in the Islamization of Bima,


Abstract: This paper highlights the role of Malay migrants in shaping religious changes in Bima,

Sumbawa Indonesia. The role of Malay migrants coming from Sumatra has been centrally

important in the institutionalization of Islam in Bima, turning the local kingdom into a

sultanate (Islamic kingdom), creating local manuscripts written in Malay language called Bo,

and introducing a distinct festival called Hanta Ua Pua. Here I would like to discuss the mobility

of Malay migrants and their role in installing Islam as the formal religion of Bima kingdom in

the 17th century. As for the festival, the locals celebrate Hanta Ua Pua as a tribute to the early

Malay migrants who a played key role in introducing Islam to ther area. I argue that the

festival is important in reference to the construction of local Muslim identity. The festival has

become a lens through which we can see the process of religious change in reference to the

migration of Muslims or the spatial movement of Islamic ideas in a trans-local religious process.

Bionote: Muhammad Adlin Sila is a PhD student of anthropology at the Australian National

University (ANU), College of Asia and the Pacific (CAP), School of Culture, History and Language

(SCHL). He is currently writing a thesis examining everyday experiences of being Muslim in

Bima in West Nusa Tenggara. In Indonesia, he is a researcher at the Ministry of Religious

Affairs. His research mainly focuses on social anthropology, economic sociology, religion and

institutions. He has published several books and research articles. One of his articles is entitled

“The festivity of Maulid Nabi in Cikoang, South Sulawesi: between remembering and

exaggerating the spirit of the Prophet”. Studia Islamika, 8 (3): 1- 56, 2001.


SOBARI, Wawan (Brawijaya University and Flinders University)

Title: Electability and the Myth of the Rational Voter: Debating Polls for the 2014 Election

Abstract: Approaching the 2014 Election, Indonesian pollsters have been keen to release their

polls presenting similar trends in party electability among the three big parties. The majority of

pollsters favour the prospects of the Golkar Party for domination in the future election,

although large disparity concerning party electability exists across pollsters, and this has

sparked serious questions. The paper critically assesses some of the underlying logic of polls by

comparing them according to the poll methodology, pollsters’ profile, facts of swing voters,

the politics of consulting, and voters’ rationality. Central to the assessment is the argument

that, firstly, similarity in deploying poll methodology as well as investigation of pollsters’

profiles are not adequate to provide convincing answers on discrepancies of parties’

electability. Next, scrutiny of swing voters also creates questions as large disparities in their

numbers do not reflect the central facts of nearly simultaneous polls. Critical observation leads

to the argument that partisan polls constitute the root of disparity. Divisions between pollster

camps are useful to explain different interests beyond polls discrepancy. As well, the paper


argues that oversimplified analyses of voters’ rationality have yielded misapprehensions

concerning the unique characteristics of Indonesian voters. Ultimately, the dominant

deployment of scientific approach (episteme) in undertaking polls has overlooked contexts,

values, and praxis of voters as well as the issue of power among pollsters.

Bionote: Wawan Sobari is a lecturer in the Department of Political Science at Brawijaya University

in Malang, Indonesia. He gained B.A in Political Science in 1999 from the Department of

Government Studies, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia. Wawan obtained MA in

Development Studies with specialisation in Public Policy and Management from the

International Institute of Social Studies (ISS), the Netherlands in 2006. Currently he is pursuing

a Research Higher Degree Program in the Department of Politics and Public Policy, Flinders

University, Australia. His project focuses on local elections (pilkada), especially on policy

behaviour, informal governance practices, and voter behaviour. In addition, Wawan is a Senior

Researcher at the Jawa Pos Institute of Pro-Otonomi (JPIP). JPIP is an independent and nonprofit

organisation funded by Jawa Pos (the biggest newspaper group in Indonesia) centring its

activities on research and advocacy to promote progressive decentralisation in Indonesia.


TAPSELL, Ross (The Australian National University)

Title: Convergence and Media Freedom in Indonesia

Abstract: The media industries in Indonesia are currently undergoing profound change due to the

convergence of 'old' and 'new' media. Media companies which previously only specialised in

one platform (such as print, radio, television or online) are now forming larger, multi-platform

media conglomerates. Media owners are creating multi-platform “news services”. Previously

separate offices of newspapers and television stations are being synchronised. Journalists are

renamed as “content providers”, and editors “curators” of this content. Citizen journalism,

where the general public takes on the role of journalists and reports information, is fast

becoming incorporated into mainstream news media content, increasingly produced for

mobile devices such as the iPad, iPhone or Blackberry. Sensing a drastic change in the media

landscape, the Indonesian government began drafting a Convergence Bill (RUU Konvergensi

Telematika).This process of convergence provides a ‘fork in the road’ for media freedom in

Indonesia. It is providing an opportunity for information to become more concentrated,

controlled and cartelised. Convergence is also providing greater diversity of opinion and

expression through a variety of platforms and mediums, particularly involving social media and

citizen journalism. The central aim of this paper is to discuss the broader implications for

media freedom in Indonesia in this "new era" of media convergence.

Bionote: Dr Ross Tapsell is a lecturer in the School of Culture, History and Language at the College

of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University. He has been a Visiting Fellow at The

University of Indonesia, Airlangga University (Surabaya) and the Centre for Strategic and

International Studies (Jakarta). He has also worked with The Jakarta Post and the Lombok Post.

He researches on press freedom in Southeast Asia. (ross.tapsell@anu.edu.au)


THOMAS, Paul (Monash University)

Title: The English-language Press in Pre-independence Indonesia: An English Window in a Dutch


Abstract: This paper examines the presence of the English-language press in pre-independence

Indonesia. Generally considered peripheral, ephemeral, and defined by a transient expatriate

readership, here it is contrasted with a broader proposition that focuses attention on its

supranationalrole. It is proffered that its most significant function was as a portal for the

translation and dissemination of East Indies news. The circulation of this news beyond the

immediate colonialborders to the neighbouring cluster of British colonies reveals an

extemporised regional network of Anglophone media. However, the temporary nature of

archipelago’s English language press resulted in a link that was regularly broken, and

consequently a portal more often closed than open. The lack of a sustained presence arguably

provided the Dutch with a less critical regional eye on their affairs. This paper is drawn from a

more extensive project on the English language press in Indonesia which hopes to contribute

to an understanding of its translational role in regional communication.

Bionote: Paul Thomas is coordinator of Indonesian Studies and lecturer in Translation Studies in

the School of Languages, Cultures and Linguistics at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

His research is in the historical and cultural role of translation/interpreting with specific

reference to Australia and Southeast Asia. His current research projects include the

translational role of English-language press in Indonesia and the promotion of the

Indonesian/Malay language in Australia as a Cold War strategy. (paul.thomas@monash.edu)

THOMAS, Karen Kartomi (Monash University)

Title: Women in Theatre in the Riau Islands

Abstract: The Indonesian government's opening up of Natuna in the Riau Islands to large-scale

gas and oil exploration in the 1970s instigated a destabilization of the performing arts

including their gender aspects. From being an almost inaccessible group of remote islands for

six months of the year due to the monsoons, movement between the islands and mainland

Sumatra has increased significantly resulting from the modest beginnings of affordable flights

and ferry routes. In the district of Natuna located in Indonesia’s most northern border in the

South China Sea, the social impact of gas and oil exploration cannot be divorced from the preexisting

landscape with its layers of gender relations in theatre, Islamic adherence and

economic disparities. This paper explores the changes in the people’s oral performative

transmission and preservation of their art in the last 30 years. Reorganizing gender relations

has contributed to changes in the theatre’s content, form and meaning. Audiences have

reevaluated tastes in theatre.


Bionote: Dr Karen Kartomi Thomas is Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for Theatre and

Performance (CTP) and the Performance Research Unit (PRU) at Monash University. She is

researching the theatre and performance of Sumatra including Lampung and the Riau Islands.

She is also coauthoring a book on the ceremonial performing arts of Lampung province based

on her research conducted in 2011-13. (karen.thomas@monash.edu)

TICKELL, Paul (UNSW, Canberra)

Title: Porn, Pap and Politics - Journalism, Literature and the Formation of the Early Indonesian


Abstract: The first modern political organisation in Indonesian emerges in 1908, in an

organisational sense seemingly out of nothing. Within 20 years there are a plethora of

organisations, representing a range of ideological positions and of these organisations the PKI

(Indonesian Communist Party is one of the most significant. The PKI was an organisation that

drew its membership from across the colony of the Netherland East Indies, a range of

ethnicities and social backgrounds. This paper attempts to examine the processes of Bildung

(education, role modelling and ideological formation) that allowed the members of this

organisation to identify as communists and to 'translate' communist ideology into a local and

personal context. The paper looks at both creative fiction, written by leading members of the

party (Marco, Semaun, Soemantri and others) as well as newspaper articles with a view to

understanding this process of identification.

Bionote: Paul Tickell teaches Indonesian at UNSW, Canberra and is Deputy Head of the School of

Humanities and Social Sciences. (p.tickell@adfa.edu.au)

TSAO, Tiffany (University of Newcastle)

Title: Global Environmental Discourse and Local-Colour Literature in East Kalimantan

Abstract: Literary works portraying a particular setting or culture (termed ‘local colour’ literature)

are often perceived as an attempt to counter the homogenising effects of globalisation,

describing local people, places, and events and documenting distinctive ways of life that the

latter threatens to obliterate. However, recent literary works from East Kalimantan show that

the relationship between local colour and globalization may not be as antagonistic as generally

thought. Short stories and novels written about Dayak culture associate traditional Dayak ways

of life with responsible stewardship of the natural environment, relying on terminology,

concepts, and strategies belonging to an environmentalist discourse that has become heavily

standardized the world over. This paper will examine literary works that utilize globalised

environmental discourse to depict traditional Dayak culture as closely aligned with

environmental conservation and sustainability, complicating the position of the Dayak in

relation to the past, present, and future, and undermining current trajectories of

modernisation and development being taken by the province.


Bionote: Tiffany Tsao received her PhD from UC-Berkeley and is currently a lecturer at the

University of Newcastle. She has published several articles on the environment and

evolutionary theory in literature and natural history texts on Indonesia, and is currently at

work on a book on contemporary East Kalimantan literature. (tiffany.tsao@newcastle.edu.au)

UTOMO, Ariane (The Australian National University)

Title: Attitudes to Gender Roles among School Students in Indonesia: School Textbooks, Parental

Influence, and Regional Variation

Abstract: Mapping the attitudes of gender roles among young people and understanding how

these attitudes are shaped, are useful instruments for policy makers seeking to design

effective strategies to achieve gender equity in post-Suharto’s Indonesia. Using data from

Gender in School Textbooks study and the Gender and Reproductive Health Survey conducted

across 4 provinces in 2011, we seek to examine to what extent gender roles socialization at

home and through formal schooling may influence the degree of egalitarian attitudes among

students. The paper begins by providing a brief overview of gender roles depictions in

Indonesian school textbooks. The paper then maps and contrasts the prevailing parental

gender role socialisation in the home and attitudes to gender roles among a group of year 6

(n=1,722) and year 12 (n= 6,555) respondents. Our findings suggest that 1) both the dominant

discourse of gender roles in school textbooks and the prevailing family environment where

school students are raised, continue to reflect the male breadwinner ideals, 2) controlling for

school types, province, sex, and religion in a multilevel framework, the family home

environment is a significant predictor of each student’s degree of egalitarian outlook. Such

results are supportive of the proposition that while Indonesian women are making remarkable

progress in their public participation, they continue to face the less malleable traditional

division of labour within the family. Such findings, coupled with the results indicating

divergent attitudes to gender roles among the boys and girls in the sample, are indicative of

future conflicts in gender relations. Policies designed to promote egalitarianism among school

students should strive to affect changes in gender roles socialisation in the home, and

investigate ways to particularly promote gender equity among boys and within the religious

school curriculum.

Bionote: This paper stems the Gender in School Textbooks Study, and the Gender and

Reproductive Health Survey Study 2011. Dr Iwu Utomo (fellow) and Professor Peter McDonald

are the principal investigators in these projects. Dr Ariane Utomo is a research fellow in ADSRI

- ANU. Anna Reimondos is a research assistant In ADSRI – ANU. Terry Hull is an Emeritus

Professor in ADSRI – ANU. We have a common interest in researching population dynamics in

Indonesia. (ariane.utomo@anu.edu.au)

UTOMO, Ariane (The Australian National University)


Title: Transition to Adulthood among Early School Leavers in Greater Jakarta

Abstract: We examine retrospective data on work history and transition to adulthood from a

sample of young adults (20-34) residing in Greater Jakarta who ever dropped out of school at

age 16 or below (N=799). It is commonly assumed that early school leavers would spend the

rest of their formative years working as a child worker. However, our sequence analysis of

work and education history of early school leavers reveals this is not always the case. Less than

a quarter of early school leavers worked in the immediate year following school exit. In

contrast, about 30 per cent neither worked nor studied between the ages 12-18. Among those

with early work experience, the top three occupations were workers in the

processing/manufacturing industry, domestic servants/babysitters, and as informal traders.

We found that early school leavers progressed faster into leaving parental home, marriage and

parenthood relative to those who left school at ages 17-19. Upon identifying that a small

number of respondents eventually managed to return to school, we found that father’s

education and sex were the main predictors of school re-entry. Despite the recent

achievement of gender parity in basic education in Indonesia, we found that female early

school leavers are especially disadvantaged relative to their male counterparts. Although,

women exhibited similar level of occupational stability to men during their years of early work

experience, they are likely to spend longer time neither working nor studying during their

formative years, progressed faster to their markers of adulthood, and are less likely to return

to school. Qualitative insights further probed into the school-to-work transition process and

current life situations of early school leavers.

Bionote: Dr Iwu Utomo (fellow) and Professor Peter McDonald are the principal investigators in

these projects. Dr Ariane Utomo is a research fellow in ADSRI - ANU. Anna Reimondos is a

research assistant In ADSRI – ANU. Terry Hull is an Emeritus Professor in ADSRI – ANU. We

have a common interest in researching population dynamics in Indonesia.


VICKERS, Adrian (University of Sydney)

Title: Writing Indonesian Art History

Abstract: The number of detailed accounts of Indonesian art history has increased in the last 10-

15 years, but many of these new writings focus only on present-day market concerns, or go

over specific movements or events without adding new information. Surveying the

historiography of Indonesian art raises questions of the roles of centre versus periphery, of the

nature of controversies and polemics in Southeast Asian art history, and the specific problem

of history being held hostage to present-day economic concerns. This presentation is a

preliminary exploration of the wider Indonesian art scene, coming out of the publication of my

recent book, Balinese Art: Paintings and Drawings of Bali 1800-2010.

Bionote: Professor Adrian Vickers has been carrying out research on Indonesia for almost thirty

years, with recent work focusing on art history and history. His disciplinary background is


mainly in history, anthropology and cultural studies. As well as the Indonesian language, his

research has involved drawing on sources in Balinese, Kawi (Old and Middle Javanese), and

Dutch. He is currently Director of the Asian Studies Program at the University of Sydney.


WAHYUNINGROEM, Sri (The Australian National University)

Title: Rethinking the Role of Transitional Justice in Indonesia's Democratization

Abstract: After democratization started in 1998, there have been many attempts to bring truth

and justice with respect to past human rights abuses in Indonesia, in what is commonly

referred to as the transitional justice approach. Even though almost all transitional justice

mechanisms have been opted for and implemented at one time or another, this has had little

impact on society in taking Indonesia towards the rule of law, reconciliation and peaceful

democracy. As frequently suggested in the literature on transitional justice, these mechanisms

often became strategies of the state to gain international recognition and domestically enact a

new regime of impunity. My paper is looking at the relationship between democracy and

transitional justice, both to consider how aspects of Indonesia’s democratic process have

helped or hindered transitional justice, and to reflect on its outcomes which are very different

from those mentioned in various studies in the literature on transitional justice.

Bionote: Sri Wahyuningroem is currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Political and

Social Change, ANU. She previously taught political science at the University of Indonesia, and

worked with national and international organisations on issues related to human rights, post

conflict, gender and democracy. (Sri.Wahyuningroem@anu.edu.au)

WEINTRÉ, Johan (Flinders University)

Title: Challenges in Regional Autonomy of Kapuas Hulu District in West Kalimantan: Decisions on

Market and Moral Economy in Dayak Communities

Abstract: A shift from centralised government to regional autonomy has increased the ability of

members in local communities to engage in local decision making. As a possible result of this

an increase was noted of traditional land management in some communities, whilst in another

community a decline was observed. This paper examined the various socio-economic aspects

of a specific Taman, Kantu’ and Iban Dayak community and the underlying causes that

influence land use. It was carried out in order to investigate the correlation of local autonomy

and Dayak leadership capacity in combination with a commitment to sustainable agricultural

and noteworthy levels of community social welfare as part of a moral economy. The research

is significant as it has been indicated that decisions of elders and village elite appear to be one

of the most decisive factors of channelling individual family resources in traditional farming or

market focused agriculture.


Bionote: Johan Weintré is finalising his candidature at Flinders University with a research focus

on natural resources, social capital and governance in several Dayak communities. This specific

interest in rural communities developed when he was a guest lecturer at the State University

of Semarang and researcher associate at Gadjah Mada University. Those positions enabled

him to observe social allegiances in remote locations in the Indonesian archipelago. In the

course of this research he has been able to compare and evaluate local interaction of various

groups and the socio-economic impact on natural resource management.


YASIH, Diatyka Widya Permata and Andi Rahman Alamsyah (Universitas


Title: Youth Identity and Local Democracy

Abstract: This paper seeks to dispel myths about young people as a positive political force that

has shaped youth identity in Indonesia, which have been reproduced as factual accounts of

historical developments, from the 1928 Youth Oath, to the 1974 Malari event, and the 1998

Reformasi. Data collected from fieldwork in a mining community in West Java is used to

illustrate how local elites in post-authoritarian Indonesia use youth identity to gain power and

protect their interests. The phenomenon itself is a product of decentralization, where local

democracy has opened spaces to mobilize political and economic resources, as well as myths

about young people in the struggle for power. Our argument challenges the tendencies of

previous studies to view young people as agent of democratic change and representation of

the people. It also questions the tendency to view the student movement as a non-partisan

voice, which contrasts starkly with the venal maneuvering of established political figures.

Bionote: Diatyka Widya Permata Yasih and Andi Rahman Alamsyah, Department of Sociology,

Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Indonesia. (diatykawidya@gmail.com)


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