brochure 2012 - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

proyectos.cchs.csic.es

brochure 2012 - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

Research Unit

Intellectual History of

the Islamicate World

Islam, Christianity and Judaism Interwined


Research Unit

Intellectual History of

the Islamicate World

Vivantes International Medicine

Medicine – Made in Germany

Islam, Christianity and Judaism Interwined

Vivantes Netzwerk für Gesundheit GmbH is the biggest state-owned

hospital chain in Germany. Located in Europe’s health capital Berlin,

Vivantes owns 9 Hospitals und 14 nursing homes and treats 500.000

patients p.a. (30% of all patients treated in Berlin). The hospital chain

employs 13,500 members of staff, has 5000 beds and over 40 centres

of excellence. In 2010 sales volume has been 850,000 EUR.

To the international market Vivantes offers 4 products:

1.) Patient Therapy Program: High quality treatment of foreign patients

in Berlin (approx. 1500 patients p.a.) in over 100 medical departments

2.) Visiting Experts – Vivantes experts as guest lecturers and guest

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3.) Education Program – Further education of foreign physicians at Vivantes

4.) Consulting & Management in the healthcare sector through Vivantes

International GmbH

Vivantes

Netzwerk für Gesundheit GmbH

Vivantes International Medicine

Am Nordgraben 2

Berlin 13509

Germany

international@vivantes.de

Tel. +49 (0)30 130 12 1664/

1668/ 1684/ 1685

Fax +49 (0)30 130 12 1082

Cooperation Consulting Our Facilities

Head of Research Unit

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sabine Schmidtke

www.vivantes-international.com


Contents

Message from the President 7

Mission and Vision 8

The Team 8

Staff 9

Associated Team Members 10

International and National Cooperations 12

The work of the Research Unit Intellectual History of the Islamicate World and its research areas 14

Executive Summary 14

Detailed Description of the Research Areas and the Current Projects: 14

Critical Avicennism in the Islamic East of the 12th century 14

Muslim and Jewish philosophy intertwined during the 13th through 15th centuries 16

Philosophy in Iran during the Ṣafavid and Qajar Periods 18

Aesthetics 19

The formative period of Mysticism 21

Rationalism and Rational Theology in the Islamicate World 22

Counterreactions 27

The intellectual and religious heritage of Shīʿism (Zaydism and Imamism) 28

Interreligious Controversies 30

Bible in Arabic among Christians, Jews and Muslims 34

Achievements (2003–2012) 35


Message from the President

Thank you for your interest in the Research Unit Intellectual History

of the Islamicate World. One of Freie Universität’s prominent research

centers, the Research Unit combines key features and strengths that

have been decisive for the success of Freie Universität in the recent years:

a clear international orientation, a research program that cuts across traditional

disciplinary boundaries and a commitment that reaches beyond

the academic world, true to the founding heritage of Freie Universität.

The Research Unit acts as an umbrella structure for various research

projects, all of which have been very successful in acquiring external

funding, but its objective is not merely an organizational one. Rather, the

overarching intellectual goal is to arrive at a better and more comprehensive

understanding of the intellectual history of the Islamicate world,

with particular attention to the medieval, pre-modern and early modern

periods. The Research Unit employs a new perspective in the pursuit of

this aim: rather than starting out from one of the traditional disciplines –

Islamic Studies, Jewish Studies, Studies of Eastern Christianity – it relies

on an interdisciplinary approach. With this orientation, it takes up - in

many significant ways – a tradition that is at the same time a key object

of its own research: The tradition of exchange between Muslim, Jewish

and Christian scholars that existed in the Islamicate World for centuries.

This intellectual history bears inspiring witness to a rational dialogue between

the three monotheistic religions. An understanding of Islam that

sees this dialogue as an integral part of its historical heritage would indeed

be much more than merely an academic matter.

Reflecting the research profile of the Research Unit Intellectual History

of the Islamicate World, its team unites scholars from various disciplines,

countries and cultural backgrounds. The extensive international

network, reaching from the Near East to Europe and North America,

makes another vital contribution to its diversity in the academic, cultural

and methodolgical sense.

I am convinced that the work of the Research Unit Intellectual History

of the Islamicate World will continue to make groundbreaking

contributions to academic research and beyond. In closing, let me also

thank all sponsors who have provided external funding for the work of

the Research Unit. Needless to say, the work done would not have been

possible without their support.

Peter-André Alt

President of the Freie Universität Berlin

7


Mission and Vision

In a world in which borders increase in significance – be they cultural or

religious, political or economic–academic research has the power to demonstrate

that intellectual movements disregard any such border and

that symbiosis is the norm rather than the exception. This held true

for intellectual movements in one of today’s hottest conflict areas, the

Middle East, cradle of the three monotheistic religions and for more

than two millenia home to major strands of human culture. If we

wish to establish lasting peaceful relations between leading cultures, religions

and political entities, we require above all knowledge about our

own intellectual heritage, about that of others, and about the ways

they intersect. Such knowledge will not only foster mutual respect,

but it will also prevent the spread of ideologically distorted perceptions of

one another. An open mind in research, a readiness to widen the scope of

scholarly investigation, and a willingness to share its results with a wider

audience contribute significantly to the shaping of a public opinion

that is less biased and more refined.

Departing from the customary academic approach with its (often

exclusive) focus on either Muslim, Jewish or Christian authors and their

writings, the Research Unit Intellectual History of the Islamicate

World at Freie Universität Berlin (formally established in 2011 and exclusively

funded through third-party funding) is unique in its threedimensional

appreciation of the region’s intellectual history. With

its specific approach it strives to contribute to a peaceful atmosphere

between Muslims and non-Muslims both in the Muslim world and in

the global context. Its members are committed to groundbreaking research

in a variety of aspects of the intellectual history of the Islamicate

world in the medieval, pre-modern and early modern periods. The results

of their efforts are communicated not only to the scholarly community

worldwide but also to a wider public in East and West.

The various activities and projects that are now under the umbrella

of the Research Unit have been funded since 2003 by a variety of foundations

and institutions, among them the German-Israeli Foundation

(GIF) (2003–06), the Fritz Thyssen Foundation (2005–07, 2010–11), the

Gerda Henkel Foundation (2005, 2006–07, 2008), the Rothschild Foundation

(Yad ha-nadiv) (2006), the European Science Foundation (ESF)

(2007), the European Research Council (ERC) (2008–13), the German

Foreign Office (2009–11), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

with the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) (2010–13), and

the Einstein Foundation (2010–15).

The Team


The team working at the Research Unit Intellectual History of the

Islamicate World at Freie Universität Berlin not only studies the centuries-old

intellectual symbiosis between Islam, Judaism and Christianity,

it also reflects that symbiosis. The team is international and multireligious,

with an almost equal number of Muslims and non-Muslims,

comprising scholars from various Western countries and from the Middle

East. While all are leading experts in several disciplines of Islamic Studies,

some are also specialized in Christian and Jewish Arabic literature

with proficiency in related languages such as Syriac and Aramaic,

Coptic, Judaeo-Arabic, Hebrew and Persian. Close cooperation among

the staff and the associated team members and an interdisciplinary approach

characterize the work of the Research Unit.

To achieve the maximum outreach within the scholarly community

and the wider public, the team members publish regularly in a variety

of languages – English, French, German, Arabic, Persian and Hebrew –

on the internet,1 in peer-reviewed journals and in well-established

book series, both in the West and in the Islamic world. Moreover, the

director of the Research Unit is editor-in-chief of the journal Intellectual

History of the Islamicate World, published by Brill, Leiden, that has

recently been launched.2 The Research Unit also publishes three book

series in cooperation with leading academic institutions in Iran.3 The aim

is to publish critical editions of important, previously unedited texts and

facsimile editions of particularly valuable manuscripts in the field of the

intellectual history of the Islamicate world and Muslim history. Sixteen

volumes have been published since 2006; another four volumes are currently

in press. Research results and ongoing projects are regularly announced

through the page of the Research Unit,4 its individual members’

homepages and through the various social networks.5 In addition to

publications for an academic audience, the Research Unit is also addressing

a wider audience, through a bi-annual Newsletter (in German),6 a

monthly eNewsletter (English and German) and by organizing regularly

public events aimed at the general public.

Staff


Dr. Hassan Ansari (Research Associate 2005–07, Senior Research Associate

2009–13), PhD Paris 2009 (Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes)7

Josephine Gehlhar (Student Assistant since 2009)

Dr. Katja Maria Jung (coordinator of the Research Unit since 2012), PhD

1 E.g., http://ansari.kateban.com/.

2 www.brill.com/ihiw.

3 Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Mysticism. Facsimiles and Editions (since 2006, edited in

cooperation with the Iranian Institute of Philosophy, Tehran); Classical Muslim Heritage Series

(since 2011, edited in cooperation with Mīrāth-e maktūb, Tehran); Muslim History and Heritage

Series (since 2011, edited in cooperation with Markaz-i Dā‘irat al-ma‘ārif-i buzurg-i islāmī, Teheran).

4 http://www.geschkult.fu-berlin.de/e/islamwiss/institut/Intellectual_History_in_the_Islamicate_

World/index.html.

5 http://www.facebook.com/\#!/pages/Rediscovering-Theological-Rationalism-in-the-Medieval-

World-of-Islam/144710522241165; http://www.facebook.com/pages/Research-Unit-Intellectual-

History-of-the-Islamicate-World/120655678037693; http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/Departments/

Research_Unit_Intellectual_History_of_the_Islamicate_World_Institut_f%C3%BCr_

Islamwissenschaft

6 Cf. http://www.geschkult.fu-berlin.de/e/islamwiss/Intellectual_History_in_the_Islamicate_World/

Newsletter/index.html.

7 http://ansari.kateban.com/.

8 9


Munich 2010

Dr. Lukas Muehlethaler (Senior Research Associate, 2009–13), PhD Yale

20108

Jonas Müller-Laackmann (Student Assistant since 2012)

Samir Mahmoud (Senior Research Associate since 2012)

Prof. Sabine Schmidtke (Founding Director of the Research unit), DPhil

Oxford 1990, Professor at Freie Universität Berlin since 20029

Gregor Schwarb (Research Associate 2005–07, Senior Research Associate

2009–13), former Academic Director of the Centre for the Study of

Muslim-Jewish Relations, Cambridge10

Dr. des. Jan Thiele (Senior Research Associate, 2012–13)11


Associated Team Members

Dr. Michael Ebstein (Rothschild Fellow), PhD The Hebrew University of

Jerusalem 201112

Dennis Halft OP, PhD candidate Institute of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität

Berlin13

Prof. Omar Hamdan, Professor of Qurʾānic Studies, Eberhard Karls-Universität

Tübingen14

Prof. Wilferd Madelung, Laudian Professor of Arabic (Emeritus), University

of Oxford

Damaris Pottek, PhD candidate Institute of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität

Berlin15

Dr. Reza Pourjavady, PhD Freie Universität Berlin 2008, currently Research

Associate, McGill University, Montreal, Institute of Islamic Studies16

Ahmad-Reza Rahimi-Riseh, PhD candidate Institute of Islamic Studies,

Freie Universität Berlin17

Dr. Abdurrahman al-Salimi, PhD Durham 2001 (Ministry of Endowments

and Religious Affairs, Oman)

Prof. Adel Y. Sidarus, Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies (Emeritus),

University of Evora, Portugal

8 http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/LukasMuehlethaler.

9 http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/SabineSchmidtke.

10 http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/GregorSchwarb.

11 http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/JanThiele.

12 http://huji.academia.edu/MichaelEbstein

13 http://www.institut-chenu.eu/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=146&Itemid=95.

14 http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/einrichtungen/verwaltung-dezernate/i-forschung-strategie-undrecht/zentrum-fuer-islamische-theologie.html.

15 http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/TamarIs.

16 http://mcgill.academia.edu/RezaPourjavady.

17 http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/AhmadRezaRahimiRiseh.

10 11


Prof. Sarah Stroumsa, The Alice and Jack Ormut Professor of Arabic

Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, recipient of a Humboldt Research

Award (2011/12)18

Dr. Sophia Vasalou, PhD Cambridge 2006

Dr. Ronny Vollandt, DPhil Cambridge (UK) 2011, IRHT, Section Hébraïque,

CNRS Paris19

Zeus Wellnhofer, PhD candidate Institute of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität

Berlin20

Eva-Maria Zeis, PhD candidate Institute of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität

Berlin21

International and National Cooperations


The team members of the Research Unit Intellectual History of the

Islamicate World have excellent working relations with a variety of academic

institutions and scholars in the Middle East, in Europe and the

US. In Turkey, long-standing relations have been established with scholars

working on related topics at Yıldız Technical University, Department

of Humanities and Social Sciences (Prof. M. Sait Özervarli) and at ISAM

Center for Islamic Studies and Marmara Unversity (Prof. Osman Gazi

Özgüdenli, Dr. Harun Anay22), all in Istanbul, and at Uludağ Üniversitesi

İlahiyat Fakültesi in Bursa (Dr. Kadir Gömbeyaz23, Dr. Veysel Kaya24).

In Yemen, the team members are working in close cooperation with

the Imām Zayd b. ʿAlī Cultural Foundation (IZbACF) / Muʾassasat al-

Imām Zayd b. ʿAlī al-thaqāfiyya, Ṣanʿāʾ.25 In Iran, the Dāʾirat al-maʿārif-i

buzurg-i islāmī26 and the Written Heritage Research Centre27, Tehran,

should be mentioned. In Uzbekistan, the Research Unit is cooperating

with the al-Biruni Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences

of Uzbekistan. Good working contacts with the King Faisal Centre

for Research and Islamic Studies28 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the

Jumʿat al-Mājid Reseach Center in Dubai29 have been established over

the past years. The Research Unit is also closely collaborating with the

joint Israeli-Palestinian research project Intellectual encounters: Phi-

losophy and Science in the World of Medieval Islam30 in Jerusalem/al-

Quds, with Prof. Sara Sviri, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the

Ben Zvi Institute in Jerusalem. At Tel Aviv University, the Research Unit

is collaborating with Dr. Camilla Adang31 and Prof. Meira Polliack32 on a

research project The Bible in Arabic among Jews, Christians and Muslims.

The members of the Research Unit are also cooperating with the Institute

of Samaritan Studies, Holon, Israel (Binyamin Tsedaka).

In the West, the Research Unit is closely cooperating with the Institute of

Islamic Studies at McGill University in Montreal where Prof. Robert Wisnovsky

and Prof. Jamil Ragep have initiated “The Post-classical Islamic

Philosophy Database Initiative” (PIPDI),33 with Prof. Alexander Treiger34

of Dalhousie and his discussion group “Arabic Bible”, with Prof. Asad

Q. Ahmed of Washington University in St. Louis, as well as Prof. Ahmet

T. Karamustafa and Prof. Jon McGinnis of the University of Missouri,

who coordinate the Mellon Sawyer Seminar “Graeco-Arabic Rationalism

in Islamic Traditionalism: The Post-Classical Period (1200-1900 CE)”, with

Prof. Mohammed Ali Amir-Moezzi,35 Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes,

Paris, with Prof. Ayman Shehadeh, School of Oriental and African Studies,

London, with Prof. Peter Adamson, King’s College, London, and

Munich University, with Professor Ulrich Rudolph (Zürich) on the Ueberweg:

Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie (Islamische Philosophie),

with Prof. Maribel Fierro, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,

Madrid,36 with Prof. Khaled el-Rouayheb, Islamic Intellectual History,

Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University,37 with

Prof. David Hollenberg, University of Oregon,38 and Prof. Bernard Haykel

and Dr. David Magier, Princeton University and Princeton University Library

on “The Yemeni Manuscripts Digitization Initiative” (YMDI),39 and

with Boris Zaykovsky, Russian National Library, St. Petersburg.

Within Germany, the Research Unit is collaborating closely with the

recently founded Center for Islamic Theology (Zentrum für Islamische

Theologie), Tübingen, directed by Prof. Omar Hamdan, a former member

of the Research Unit (2010–11).40 The Research Unit is also closely

cooperating with the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin in a variety of research

projects and conferences.41


18 http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~stroums/.

19 http://cnrs.academia.edu/RonnyVollandt

20 http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/ZeusWellnhofer.

21 http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/EvaMariaZeis.

22 http://www.isam.org.tr/; http://english.isam.org.tr/.

23 http://uludag.academia.edu/KadirG\%C3\%B6mbeyaz.

24 http://uludag.academia.edu/veyselkaya; http://ilahiyat.uludag.edu.tr/tr/akademikkadro/

kadro/408-veysel-kaya.html.

25 http://www.izbacf.org/.

26 http://www.cgie.org.ir/.

27 http://www.mirasmaktoob.ir/.

28 http://www.kfcris.com/.

29 http://www.almajidcenter.org/Arabic/Pages/default.aspx/.

30 http://www.intellectualencounters.org/.

31 http://telaviv.academia.edu/CamillaAdang; http://vimeo.com/38437580.

32 http://www.tau.ac.il/humanities/vip/polliackm.htm.

33 http://islamsci.mcgill.ca/RASI/pipdi.html.

34 http://religiousstudies.dal.ca/Faculty%20and%20staff/Alexander_Treiger.php.

35 http://www.ephe.sorbonne.fr/annuaire-de-la-recherche/mamirmoezzi.html.

36 http://csic.academia.edu/maribelfierro.

37 http://tinyurl.com/nelc-fas-harvard-edu-rouayheb.

38 http://ymdi.uoregon.edu/.

39 http://ymdi.uoregon.edu/.

40 http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/einrichtungen/verwaltung-dezernate/i-forschung-strategie-undrecht/zentrum-fuer-islamische-theologie.html.

41 See, e.g., http://staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/nc/die-staatsbibliothek/ausstellungen-undveranstaltungen/detail/article/2012-01-12-5714/.

12 13


The work of the Research Unit Intellectual History of

the Islamicate World and its research areas

Executive Summary

Intellectual richness and unparalleled variety characterize the Islamicate

world throughout its history and a fundamental understanding

of the intellectual history of the Islamic cultural sphere is possible

only if research is not confined within denominational boundaries. The

Qurʾān regards itself as the last, perfect link in a chain of progressive

divine revelations. It is, thus, very much aware of its own generic

linkage to the two preceding monotheistic religions, Judaism and Christianity.

The early Muslims adopted many Jewish and Christian elements

as they had evolved during Late Antiquity. Christians and Jews were

also involved in shaping Muslim intellectual history in subsequent

centuries. From the 9th century CE Muslims, Christians and Jews shared

a common everyday and cultural language, Arabic, which they used

to communicate ideas, concepts and texts, and the ensuing exchange was

mutually enriching. For centuries representatives of all three religions

read a very similar canon, especially in the so-called rational sciences

(theology, philosophy, aspects of legal methodology, the natural sciences,

and medicine) and belles lettres and thus contributed to its development.

The dynamic was multi-dimensional. Christian and Jewish authors influenced

Islamic thought, while the writings of Muslim thinkers had an

impact on non-Muslims. Interreligious interaction is a historical fact

that continues into the modern age.

While this has been amply demonstrated for some selected periods and

regions, scholars usually opt for a one-dimensional approach with an (often

exclusive) focus on either Muslim, Jewish or Christian authors and

their writings. In all three fields and for a variety of reasons, the scholarly

investigation of the “rational sciences” beyond denominational borders is

still in the beginning phase. This calls for an entirely new framework

for innovative research that systematically crosses the boundaries

between three major disciplines of academia and research, viz. Islamic

Studies, Jewish Studies and the study of Eastern Christianity.

This approach characterizes the work carried out at the Research Unit

Intellectual History of the Islamicate World.


Detailed Description of the Research Areas and the Current

Projects:

Critical Avicennism in the Islamic East of the 12th century

The reception of the philosophy of Avicenna (d. 1037) in the Islamic and

Christian West has been documented for some time. Less understood is

the reception of Avicenna’s philosophy in the East of the Islamic

world, where it occurred on a much greater scale and proved much more

momentous. Two hundred years after the death of Avicenna, major con-

14


cepts of his philosophy had become an integral part of new philosophical

schools and traditional disciplines.

Yet only rarely was Avicenna’s philosophical system accepted wholesale.

Especially during the 12th century, various thinkers interpreted and reevaluated

his works from a number of perspectives. While they generally

retained Avicenna’s conceptual framework, they modified or relinquished

some of his most central tenets. They did so for various reasons. Some

attempted to resolve problems inherent to the Avicennan system. Others

tried to integrate Avicennan ideas into hitherto nonphilosophical contexts.

This process and the philosophical concepts and positions resulting

from this process will be termed “critical Avicennism”.

To better understand the formation of critical Avicennism, members of the

Research Unit study figures and writings from the 12th century that

are central to this process. They aim to draw the intellectual landscape of

that period, to make important texts accessible, and to understand the

developments of central philosophical concepts in detail.

The works of the famous 12th-century logician and philosopher ʿUmar

b. Sahlān al-Sāwī in defense of Avicennan philosophy (Lukas Muehlethaler

/ Reza Pourjavady) illustrate the reaction to critical Avicennism

and the modification of Avicennan tenets in its wake. Two philosophical

works of ʿUmar b. Sahlān, his Nahj al-taqdīs and his response to criticisms

of Avicennan philosophy, are being critically edited and made accessible

through translation and analysis. In these works, ʿUmar b. Sahlān defends

central Avicennan concepts against critiques by al-Shahrastānī (d. 1153)

and Abū l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī (d. after 1164-5). The monograph, Defending

Avicennan Philosophy: ʿUmar b. Sahlān al-Sāwī in Response to the Criticisms

of Abū al-Barakāt al-Baghdādī and Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm al-

Shahrastānī, will be ready for the press in 2013.

A study of Abū l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī’s philosophical work and its

reception (Lukas Muehlethaler) looks at how key concepts in Avicenna’s

philosophy are transformed by Abū l-Barakāt and how the

transformed concepts are taken up by Abū l-Barakāt’s contemporaries

and later thinkers. Chief among them is Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 1210)

whose conceptualization of philosophical positions is of central importance

for 13th-century Arabic philosophy and theology. Fakhr al-Dīn’s

reception and transformation of the Avicennan tradition in general and

Abū l-Barakāt’s philosophy in particular are therefore traced through a

number of case studies.


Muslim and Jewish philosophy intertwined during the 13th through

15th centuries

Apart from the towering figure of Abū l-Barakāt, the Jewish philosopher

and convert to Islam of the 12th century, there are many additional examples

of Jewish and Muslim thinkers who were well-versed in both religious

traditions and who left an impact on Jewish and Muslim readers

alike. One of the most prominent Jewish philosophers belonging to this

category is ʿIzz al-Dīn Ibn Kammūna. Ibn Kammūna was born into

a Jewish family of 13th century Baghdad and received a thorough

education in both Jewish and Islamic letters. Little is known about

his life but it is evident that he held a high-ranking position in the administration

of the Ilkhānid empire, although there is no indication that

he ever converted to Islam. Like many Muslim scholars of his time, he

enjoyed the patronage of the Minister of State, Shams al-Dīn al-Juwaynī

(d. 1284) and his family, to whom he dedicated most of his works. He

also corresponded with the most important intellectuals of his time. Ibn

Kammūna’s philosophical writings and particularly his commentary

on the Kitāb al-Talwīḥāt by Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī, as well as his

independent works in this discipline significantly shaped the development

of Islamic philosophy in the Eastern lands of Islam over

the following centuries. The Research Unit (Sabine Schmidtke / Reza

Pourjavady) is currently preparing critical editions of Ibn Kammūna’s

commentary on Avicenna’s Remarks and admonitions (al-Ishārāt wal-tanbīhāt)

(editio princeps) and of his Examination of the three religions

(Tanqīḥ al-abḥāth li-l-milal al-thalāth). A monograph on Ibn Kammūna’s

theory of the soul (Lukas Muehlethaler) is about to go to press.

The vast holdings of manuscript collections of Jewish provenance (esp.

the Abraham Firkovitch collection in St. Petersburg) in many respects

still await scholarly exploration and the material they contain specifically

for the later period (12th through 15th centuries and beyond) is bound to

change our current perception of Jewish philosophy in the lands of Islam

and its intertwinedness with the Muslim environment significantly as research

progresses. Sabine Schmidtke is engaged with the literary output

of the intriguing figure of David ben Joshua Maimonides (d. 1415), the

last head of the Jewish community of Egypt from the descendants of Moses

Maimonides. In contrast to Ibn Kammūna’s, his professional life took

place within the confines of the Jewish community(ies) and his works (all

written in Arabic, but in Hebrew characters) circulated exclusively among

Jewish readers. Born in Egypt, David succeeded his father Joshua Maimonides

as nagīd or Head of the Community following the latter’s death

in 1355. For reasons that remain unclear, he left his homeland to take up

residence in Syria for a decade during the 1370s and 1380s. He resumed

his office as head of the community after his return to Egypt and retained

it until his death. Apart from being a prolific author himself, David is

well known as a book collector and an accomplished scribe, and numerous

copies of works in his hand by earlier Jewish and Muslim authors in

a variety of disciplines have survived. It was particularly during his time

in Aleppo that David assembled an impressive library containing numerous

copies of works that he had either commissioned or copied himself.

These testify to his scholarly abilities and his erudition in both the Jewish

and Muslim literary traditions. He wrote a commentary on Maimonides’

Mishneh Torah, an influential code of Jewish law, as well as

numerous works in the fields of ethics, philosophy, logic as well as a comprehensive

handbook of Sufi mysticism. These works testify to David’s

deep immersion into a variety of Muslim rational sciences. In philosophy,

he was not only familiar with the peripatetic thought of Avicenna, but

also acquainted with numerous writings of the founder of Illuminationist

philosophy, Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī, and he may have possessed

a copy of Ibn Kammūna’s commentary on Suhrawardī’s K. al-Talwīḥāt.

David was likewise familiar with the writings of the renowned Muslim

thinker Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazzālī (d. 1111) and of the latter’s student Fakhr

al-Dīn al-Rāzī. In addition, he quotes extensively from the earlier Muslim

literature on mysticism, and was evidently well-versed in the Muslim as-

16 17


tronomical tradition.

Although none of the works of David ben Joshua ever reached a wider

Muslim readership, as was the case with the writings of his co-religionist

Ibn Kammūna, he did reach out on a more personal level. During his

time in Syria, David befriended the Muslim scholar ʿAlī b. Ṭaybughā

al-Ḥalabī al-Ḥanafī al-Muwaqqit (d. 1391?), who wrote a commentary

on Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah (Book of Knowledge, Fundamental

precepts of the Torah I–IV) based on an Arabic translation by David ben

Joshua and the latter’s own commentary. Both commentaries are extant

in manuscript and provide evidence for a fruitful and stimulating exchange

between two distinguished scholars of the 15th century, a Jew and

a Muslim, on the fundamental issues of a Jewish Code of Law. These commentaries

are being closely studied and will be edited by Gregor Schwarb.

Philosophy in Iran during the Ṣafavid and Qajar Periods


During the Ṣafavid period (1502–1736), Iranian philosophy was characterized

by two main strands, one following the thought of Ṣadr al-Dīn al-

Shīrāzī (“Mullā Ṣadrā”, d. 1640), the other strand following that of Rajab

ʿAlī al-Tabrīzī (d. 1669). While much scholarly attention has been paid

over the last decades to the renowned Mullā Ṣadrā, Rajab ʿAlī al-Tabrīzī

and his extended circle of students has so far mostly escaped scholars’

attention. One of the projects of the Research Unit (Ahmad Reza Rahimi

Riseh) is therefore concerned with his philosophical œuvre and its reception.

Five of his works have been preserved in manuscript. In addition to

this, the writings of his numerous students are another major source for

the reconstruction of his thought. The most important of his students are

Muḥammad Rafīʿ Pīrzādeh (d. first half 18th c.), ʿAlī Qulī Qaračaġāy Khān

(d. after 1680), Qawām al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Rāzī (d. 1683), Mullā Ḥasan

al-Lunbānī (d. 1683), Mullā ʿAbbās al-Mulawī (d. after 1690), Muḥammad

b. Mufīd (“Qāḍī Saʿīd al-Qummī”, d. 1695), Muḥammad Ismāʿīl b.

Muḥammad Bāqir al-Khwātūnābādī (d. 1704) and Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-

Fattāḥ al-Tunkābunī (“Fāḍil-i Sarāb”, d. 1712). The project aims at reconstructing

Rajab ʿAlī al-Tabrīzī’s biography, providing a detailed inventory

of his writings with descriptions of all preserved manuscripts, a study of

his students and their writings, as well as an analysis of his philosophical

thought in comparison with that of his contemporary Mullā Ṣadrā.

Next to nothing is known in modern scholarship about the rich philosophical

tradition in Iran during the Qajar period. One of the current

projects of the Research Unit (Reza Pourjavady / Sabine Schmidtke)

is therefore to edit a collective volume devoted to this period, The Philosophical

Tradition in Iran during the Qajar Period (1794–1925). Each chapter

will treat one key thinker of the period and will be written by a leading

Western or Iranian experts in the field: Chapter One: Shaykh Aḥmad

al-Aḥsāʾī (by Hassan Ansari); Chapter Two: Mullā Muḥammad Mahdī

Narāqī (by Reza Pourjavady); Chapter Three: Mullā ʿAlī Nūrī (by Sajjad

Rizvi); Chapter Four: Mullā Hādī Sabzavārī (by Fatemah Fana); Chapter

Five: Āqā ʿAlī Mudarris Zunūzī (by Mohsen Kadivar); Chapter Six: Mīrzā

Abū l-Ḥasan Jilva (by Encieh Barkhah); Chapter Six: Lithograph Editions

of Philosophical and Theological Works in Qajar Iran (by Reza Pourjavady

/ Sabine Schmidtke). The publication of the volume is envisaged for 2013.

One of the characteristic features of this period is the increased interest

in ancient Greek philosophical texts and pre-Avicennan philosophical

writings. The intellectual endeavour in an attempt to shed light

on the legacy of Greek philosophy can be traced back to the end of the

15th century to Shiraz which was at the time the main cultural centre

of philosophy in the Eastern lands of Islam. Here, the two main figures

who initiated the Eastern renaissance movement were Jalāl al-Dīn al-

Dawānī (d. 1502) and Ghiyāth al-Dīn al-Dashtakī (d. 1541-42). Gradually,

a large corpus of Graeco-Arabica (including pseudo-Graeco Arabica)

was assembled by scholars, one of the most significant texts being the socalled

Theologia Aristotelis, an adapted paraphrase of sections of Enneads

IV to VI of Plotinus, which had made an immense impact in Christian,

Muslim and Jewish circles during the 16th and 17th centuries. In a

joint project, Reza Pourjavady and Sabine Schmidtke study this shift and

its consequences in the Muslim philosophical writings of the 16th, 17th,

and 18th centuries. With the help of an archive containing digitized copies

of all the relevant manuscripts produced from the early 16th to late

18th centuries and a database with an analytical description of the extant

manuscripts they are examining the corpus of Greek and pre-Avicennan

Muslim philosophical works that was copied/read during this

period. Moreover, Muslim philosophical works written in this period are

being examined in order to study the appropriation of the Graeco-

Arabica by the Muslim philosophers of the period under investigation.

Aesthetics


In addition to the rigorous philosophical inquiries into post-Avicennan

philosophy and intellectual history, there are projects that are more thematic

such as the topic of aesthetics (Samir Mahmoud). Despite the

existence of numerous studies of Islamic art and architecture, there is a

dearth of scholarship in what precisely links these works to the overall

intellectual and cultural climate of their time, particularly its aesthetic

sensibilities. What complicates the matter is the conspicuous absence

of an Arabic equivalent to the word ‘aesthetics’. The lack of terminology,

however, does not mean that the themes and correlata suggested

by the term ‘aesthetics’ were not discussed in medieval Islamic

thought. Muslims not only enjoyed beauty but promoted the arts.

The precise nature of this relationship between art and beauty depends

on the author, period, and school of thought under consideration.

Regardless of the different approaches to beauty, one can safely say that

medieval Muslim philosophers, theologians, and mystics always

discussed aesthetics in the context of their discussions on metaphysics,

theology, or ethics and not as a sui generis topic in any modern

sense. The task of exploring such a wide range of source is an onerous

one that requires the patient scholar to search in many different places.

He has to turn to the philosophical works that address questions of

intelligible beauty and the nature of sensible beauty inherited from the

Greek texts; mystical works that discuss the beauty of the world as instances

or manifestations of Divine Beauty; theological discussions on

18 19


the signs of God in nature, discussions about the divine attributes such as

we find in the kalām disputes of the Muʿtazilites and Ashʿarites; ethical,

moral, and jurisprudential treatises that warn of the dangers of sensuous

pleasure; literary discussions of aesthetics in poetry; discussions

of vision and how the perception of an object affects the perceiver such

as we find in the field of optics; various Sufi writings on the nature of

perception and matter; alchemy and how one thing can be made to appear

as another; psychology, particularly writings on dreams and the

imagination; and ‘licit magic,’ i.e. treatises that often discuss the allure

and magical power of poetry, geometrically designed talismans, and images

or what is referred to as apotropaic. In the above-mentioned sources

there are either direct references to the correlata of aesthetics or else

indirect and implicit assumptions about their nature vis-à-vis their relationship

to the entire metaphysical, philosophical, theological, mystical,

scientific, or ethical framework within which they are discussed. It

is more accurate, then, to speak of the existence of a multiplicity of aesthetic

sensibilities. The focus on Ibn ʿArabī (d. 638/1240) in this research

project stems from the importance of Ibn ʿArabī and his legacy in

post-Avicennan Islamic intellectual history. In regards to the relevance

of Ibn ʿArabī to aesthetics, his theory of ‘the imagination’ and

‘liminal images’ as intermediaries between different realms of meaning

that both reveal and conceal in an ambiguous manner have a lot to offer

a theory of art as mediation and the nature of re-presentation and

mimesis. His theory on how the imagination works can significantly

enrich contemporary understandings of the relation between geometric

signification and imaginative programs suggested by the geometric art

and the nature of the creative process. His understanding of sympathy

and ornament as animated can contribute to the art historical and

anthropological debate surrounding the significance of ornament. He also

offers a brilliant psychological analysis of ‘images’ and the imaging

process, why certain traditions have figurative representation. Moreover,

his is the first lucid and internally coherent account of the ban on figuration

in the Islamic tradition. He presents a fresh and renewed appreciation

for the meaning of ‘the abstract’ and ‘the geometric,’ their relation to

‘representational images,’ and their fundamental role in art and religion.

His theory of love as that which is occasioned by beauty can as much

explain the erotic gaze and offer a theory of the beautiful as the daemon

in Plato’s Symposium, and his theory of language and writing as a

distinct mode of being remains to be explored from an aesthetic point of

view. The continuity of many of these themes throughout his commentators

and the possible influence it may have had on the development of

the arts in the Ottoman and Safavid lands has yet to be explored. There is

yet another significance to Ibn ʿArabī that is more contemporary. The rise

to prominence of abstract art in the 20th century poses an interesting

path of inquiry regards to Islamic art in general and Ibn Arabī’s

thought in particular. If one follows Alois Riegl’s notion of a Kunstwollen,

one can bridge the temporal divide between medieval abstract and

geometric Islamic art and 20th century ornament and art through

a serious intellectual debate. This has already started in the pioneering

scholarship of Islamic art historians such as Oleg Grabar, Gulru Necipoglu,

and Valerie Gonzalez. The project will thus bring Islamic studies,

Western aesthetics and art history, and anthropology into dialogue.

In addition, it will offer, in lieu of Hans Belting’s latest book, Florence and

Baghdad: Renaissance Art and Arab Science, a renewed appreciation for a

distinct Islamic aesthetic sensibility not governed or evaluated on Western

art historical terms.

The formative period of Mysticism


Together with Sara Sviri (Jerusalem), the Research Unit (Sabine Schmidtke)

recently launched a new project aiming to explore aspects and trends

of Islamic mysticism in its formative period and revisiting processes,

themes, images, practices, terminology and thought models pertaining

to the literary products of the 9th–11th centuries, which demarcates the

formative period of Islamic mysticism. Underlying this approach is the

contention that within Islamic studies a typological and comparative approach

to the origins of Islamic mysticism is a desideratum. The literary

corpora pertaining to this period, Sufi and non-Sufi alike, contain materials

which may shed new light on the versatility and fluidity of the

prevailing mystical trends during this early period. Thus, although issues

pertaining to Sufism will remain central to this research, other, non-Sufi,

mystical models and trends are being explored whose portrayal, in both

the original compilatory and hagiographic literature as well as in modern

scholarship, has hitherto been marginalized. The aim is to address

such oversights and to offer a more complete picture of the topic under

discussion by exploring a wide range of textual sources – some published

and many still in manuscript – by pursuing rigorous text-based philology

together with historical, prosopographic and comparative-thematic

methodologies. The project proceeds along three main axes, first the continuum

of Late Antique trends, motifs, topoi and practices; secondly

the build-up of Sufi culture from local centres to an all-inclusive

movement; thirdly philosophical mysticism and theological trends.

Within this field, the Research Unit (Hassan Ansari / Sabine Schmidtke)

is collecting, sorting out and analyzing hitherto unconsulted material relating

to the Sufi-Ashʿarite connection in Nishapur – notably some of the

works of Abū Saʿd al-Khargūshī (d. 1015-16) that were believed to be

lost – Khargūshī being marginalized in current Sufi studies but whose

importance as a witness to early processes and definitions has been duly

highlighted by Sara Sviri. Moreover, together with Sara Sviri the Research

Unit also explores the engagements with Sufism of other theological

schools active in Nishapur and Khurasan such as the Karrāmiyya and

the Ḥanafiyya. Studies in the background of Christian (Syriac) monasticism

and “ascetism” will eventually also be considered.

Rationalism and Rational Theology in the Islamicate World


Rationalism has been a salient feature of Muslim theological thought

from the earliest times. Despite the fact that rationalism had its opponents

throughout Islamic history, it continued to be one of the mainstays

of Muslim theological (and legal) thought, and it is only in the wake of

modern Islamic fundamentalism that rationalism has become marginal-

20 21


ized and threatened as never before.

The disputed issue of authenticity notwithstanding, a small corpus of

texts is extant in which doctrinal issues such as free will versus determinism

are dealt with in a dilemmatic dialogue pattern. The display of

the dialectical technique in these texts testifies to the use of reason in

the formulation of and argumentation for doctrinal issues from a very

early period onwards. There is a near-consensus among contemporary

scholars that the Muslim dialectical technique of kalām can be traced

back to similar patterns of dilemmatic dialogue that were characteristic

for the Christological controversies raging in 6th century Alexandria

and, more importantly, 7th century Syria. These are based on late antique

(“pagan”) schools of rhetorics.

The Muʿtazila was the earliest “school” of rationalist Islamic theology

and one of the most important and influential currents of Islamic

thought. Muʿtazilites stressed the primacy of reason and free will and developed

an epistemology, ontology and psychology that provided a basis

for explaining the nature of the world, God, man and the phenomena of

religion. In their ethics, Muʿtazilites maintained that good and evil can be

known solely through human reason. The Muʿtazila had its beginnings in

the 8th century and its classical period of development was from the latter

part of the 9th until the middle of the 11th century. The movement gradually

fell out of favour in Sunni Islam and had largely disappeared by the

14th century. Its impact, however, continued to be felt in Shīʿī Islam where

its influence subsisted through the centuries. Moreover, modern research

on the Muʿtazila from the beginning of the 20th century onwards gave

rise to a renaissance of the Muʿtazilite notion of rationalism finding its

expression in the so-called “Neo-Muʿtazila”.

Within the field of Islamic Studies, scientific research of Muslim rational

theology is a comparatively young discipline, as a critical mass

of primary sources became accessible only at a relatively late stage.

Muʿtazilite works were not widely copied and few manuscripts have survived.

So little authentic Muʿtazilite literature was available that until the

discovery of a significant number of Muʿtazilite texts in the early 1950’s

in Yemen, Muʿtazilite doctrine was mostly known through the works of

its opponents.

Second in importance in the use of rationalism was the theological movement

of the so-called Ashʿariyya, named thus after its eponymous

founder, Abū l-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī (d. 935). Ashʿarī and his followers aimed

at formulating a via media between the two dominant opposing strands

of the time, Muʿtazilism and traditionalist Islam. Methodologically, they

applied rationalism in their theological thought as was characteristic for

the Muʿtazila while still maintaining the primacy of revelation over that

of reason. Doctrinally, they upheld the notion of ethical subjectivism

as against the ethical objectivism of the Muʿtazila. On this basis, they

developed their own theological doctrines. Within the Sunni realm at

least, Ashʿarism proved more successful and enjoyed a longer life than

Muʿtazilism, yet, like Muʿtazilism, Ashʿarism was constantly challenged

by traditionalist opponents rejecting any kind of rationalism.

While modern research on the Muʿtazila has begun relatively late, research

on Ashʿarism started already in the 19th century, due to the fact

that more manuscripts of Ashʿarite texts are preserved in European libraries

than Muʿtazilite ones. Major landmarks in the 20th century were

22 23


the publications of R. J. McCarthy in 1953 and 1957. Additional advances

in recent decades were made by the numerous studies of M. Allard, R.

M. Frank and D. Gimaret. In addition to the efforts by Western scholars,

many scholars in the Islamic world have also contributed significantly

to the research of this movement. This progress notwithstanding, many

desiderata remain in the scholarly investigation of the Ashʿariyya,

particularly with respect to the earlier phase of the movement. Among the

most spectacular findings by a member of the Research Unit were two so

far completely unknown manuscripts of the opus magnum by the important

Ashʿarite theologian Abū Bakr al-Bāqillānī, Hidāyat al-mustarshidīn

in Russia and Uzbekistan.

The various strands of rational Muslim theological thought within

Islam are closely related to each other as they were shaped and reshaped

in a continuous process of close interaction between its respective

representatives. This also holds true for other theological schools

that were less prominent in the central areas of the Islamic world, such as

the Māturīdiyya (named thus after its eponym Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī,

d. 944) which was heavily indebted to traditional Ḥanafite positions and

to Muʿtazilite thought alike, but whose centre was in the North-East of

Iran so that it has made relatively little impact. Of considerable importance

is also the Ibāḍiyya, which reacted in many ways to Muʿtazilism

(Wilferd Madelung / Abdurrahman al-Salimi).

What has been stated about the close interaction between the various

strands of thought within Islam equally applies to the relations of Islam

with other religions that were most prominently represented in the medieval

world of Islam, viz. Judaism and Christianity. Here, similar phenomena

of reciprocity can be observed. Jews, Christians, and Muslims

had Arabic as their common language and therefore naturally shared

a similar cultural background. Often reading the same books and all

speaking and writing in the same language, they created a unique intellectual

commonality in which an ongoing, constant exchange of ideas,

texts, and forms of discourse was the norm.

Judaism proved much more receptive to basic Muslim doctrinal notions

such as divine unicity than Christianity, and it was Muʿtazilism in particular

that was adopted to varying degrees from the 9th century onwards

by both Rabbanite and Karaite authors, so that by the turn of the 11th century

a “Jewish Muʿtazila” had emerged. Jewish scholars both composed

original works along Muʿtazilite lines and produced copies of Muslim

Muʿtazilite books, often transcribed into Hebrew characters. The influence

of the Muʿtazila found its way to the very centres of Jewish religious

and intellectual life in the East. The Karaites and several of the Heads of

the ancient Rabbanite Academies (Yeshivot) of Sura and Pumbedita (located

by the 10th century in Baghdad) adopted the Muʿtazilite worldview.

By contrast, Ashʿarite works and authors were received among Jewish

scholars to a significantly lesser degree and in a predominantly critical

way. The study of Jewish Muʿtazilism began a century ago with the

works of S. Munk (1859) and M. Schreiner (1895). Schreiner and Munk,

however, were not aware of the primary sources to be found among the

various Genizah materials that had been discovered and retrieved during

the second half of the 19th century in Cairo by a number of scholars

and manuscript collectors. Among the many Muʿtazilite manuscripts

found in the Abraham Firkovitch collection (taken from the former library

of the Karaite Synagogue in Cairo) thirteen were described in detail

by A.J. Borisov in an article published in 1935. Additional landmarks in the

study of Jewish Muʿtazilism were H. A. Wolfson’s Repercussions of the Kalam

in Jewish Philosophy (1979) and G. Vajda’s studies on Yūsuf al-Baṣīr,

particularly his edition of Baṣīr’s al-Kitāb al-Muḥtawī on the basis of a

manuscript from the Kaufmann collection in Budapest (1985). On the basis

of Borisov’s descriptions of the Firkovitch Muʿtazilite manuscripts and

from fragments in the British Library, H. Ben-Shammai was able to draw

additional conclusions regarding the identity of some of the Muʿtazilite

materials preserved by the Karaites.

In 2003, the “Muʿtazilite Manuscripts Project Group” was founded

by the head of the Research Unit Intellectual History of the Islamicate

World, Sabine Schmidtke, and by the Director of Research, Center

for the Study of Judeo-Arabic Culture, Ben Zvi Institute (Jerusalem),

David Sklare, in order to assemble and identify as many fragments of

Muʿtazilite manuscripts as possible from Jewish as well as Shīʿī repositories.

Although much has been achieved over the past years, major textual

resources still remain unexplored. Among the fragments of philosophical

and theological texts found in the various Genizah collections, the material

that originated in the Ben Ezra Genizah (Cairo) and is nowadays

mostly preserved in the Taylor-Schechter collection at Cambridge University

Library (and other libraries in Europe and the USA) is until now

still largely unidentified and only rudimentarily catalogued. A systematic

study of all Muʿtazilite fragments will render the reconstruction of many

more so far lost Muʿtazilite (Muslim and Jewish) writings possible. As

such, this Genizah material significantly supplements the extensive findings

of the manuscript material found in the Russian National Library in

St. Petersburg, which likewise has so far only partly been explored.

The Research Unit (Gregor Schwarb) has been working on the reconstruction

of several key-texts of Jewish Muʿtazilism, such as Yeshuʿah ben

Yehudah’s K. al-Tawriya or Sahl b. al-Faḍl al-Tustarī’s K. al-Īmāʾ and will

edit a number of Muʿtazilite texts by Muslim authors which have only

been preserved in Jewish manuscript collections (Omar Hamdan / Sabine

Schmidtke / Gregor Schwarb).

Muʿtazilism had also left its mark on the theological thought of the Samaritans.

It is not clear whether Samaritans (whose intellectual centres

between the 9th to the 11th centuries were mainly Nablus and Damascus)

had studied Muslim Muʿtazilite writings directly or whether they rather

became acquainted with them through Jewish adaptations of Muʿtazilism.

The study of Samaritan literary activities in Arabic in general and of Samaritan

Muʿtazilism in particular is still very much at the beginning. The

only relevant text that has been partly edited and studied is the Kitāb al-

Tubākh by the 11th century author Abū l-Ḥasan al-Ṣūrī, who clearly shares

the Muʿtazilite doctrinal outlook. The majority of Samaritan theological

writings composed in Arabic still await a close analysis. New insights into

the quality of Samaritan Muʿtazilism will be presented in a forthcoming

study on two newly identified Samaritan treatises by Abū l-Ḥasan

al-Ṣūrī and Munajjā b. Ṣedaqah (Gregor Schwarb).

Moreover, Muslim theologians devoted much thought and energy to a

critical examination and refutation of the views of Christianity and (to a

lesser extent) Judaism, as is evident from the numerous polemical tracts

written by them against these religions. While the majority of refutations

against Christianity by early Muslim theologians are lost,

there are a few extant anti-Christian texts from the 9th century that give a

24 25


good impression of the arguments that were employed. Moreover, many

of the earliest treatises in defense of Christianity in Arabic are preserved,

and it is evident that their authors were well acquainted with Muslim

kalām techniques and terminology. Given the basic disagreements between

Muslim and Christian theological positions, such as the Muslim

notion of divine unicity (tawḥīd), which is incompatible with the Christian

understanding of trinity and incarnation, any kind of far-reaching

adoption of any of the Muslim school doctrines by Christian theologians

was out of question. The most intensive reception of Muslim kalām can be

observed among Coptic and Syriac-orthodox writers (Bar Hebraeus

and contemporaries) of the 13th and 14th centuries.

Approximately all extant writings of the first generation of Christian

mutakallimūn writing in Arabic have been edited and (partly) translated,

and modern scholars, such as S. H. Griffith and D. Thomas, have studied

them in detail. Likewise, all of the few extant anti-Christian writings by

Muslim rational theologians have been published in critical editions. By

contrast, much work still needs to be done on the vast corpus of Coptic

Christian writings (13th and 14th c. CE), only few of which have so

far been published in critical editions, let alone studied. It is this corpus

that still needs to be made available in critical editions and to be studied

in order to locate them within the “whirlpool” of intellectual activities

in the medieval world of Islam. Through a comprehensive study on the

reception of Maimonides and Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī in the writings

of Coptic theologians of the 13th and 14th centuries and the edition

of the two major works by al-Rashīd Abū l-Khayr Ibn al-Ṭayyib,

Gregor Schwarb will highlight the contribution of Jewish and Muslim intellectual

thought to the “Golden Age” of Copto-Arabic literature.

Within the field of theological rationalism in the medieval world of Islam

between the 10th and the 13th centuries beyond and across denominational

borders, all major desiderata have been identified and are being

addressed in a number of projects in the framework of the ERC Project

“Rediscovering Theological Rationalism in the Medieval World

of Islam”. Among the most important ongoing projects within this field

are the Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology (editor: Sabine Schmidtke)

that will comprise some forty contributions by internationally renowned

scholars in the field, among them all team members of the Research Unit.

The publication of the Handbook is envisaged for 2013.

Another more specific though at the same time groundbreaking project

of the Research Unit is the Handbook of Muʿtazilite Works and Authors

that has been accepted for publication by Brill (Leiden) (editor: Gregor

Schwarb). The work, which is close to completion, will discuss in detail

some 500 representatives of Muʿtazilism (Sunnis, Twelver Shīʿīs, Zaydīs

and Jews), together with detailed inventories of their respective theological

writings and extant manuscripts.


– was felt also in North-Africa and Islamic Spain (al-Andalus). Among

the staunchest opponents of these two currents of rational theology was

Abū Muḥammad Ibn Ḥazm (d. 1064) who was a representative of the

Ẓāhirī or literalist approach to the sacred scriptures and who categorically

rejected all theological speculation. This resulted in a series

of works in which he vehemently polemicized against the teachings of

both Muʿtazilites and Ashʿarites. The Research Unit (Sabine Schmidtke,

in collaboration with Maribel Fierro and Camilla Adang) is finalizing a

reference work devoted to the Ẓāhirī thinker Ibn Ḥazm, entitled Ibn

Ḥazm of Cordoba: Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker, that will be

published (early 2013) in the Brill series “Handbuch der Orientalistik”. The

majority of contributions were presented during an international conference

held in Istanbul in 2008 (funded by the Gerda Henkel Foundation).

The sections that will be covered in the volume are “Life and Times of Ibn

Ḥazm”, “Legal Aspects”, “Ẓāhirī Linguistics”, “Art and Aesthetics”, “Theology,

Philosophy and Ethics”, “Intra- and Interreligious Polemics”, “Reception

and Impact on Medieval and Modern Muslim thought”.

Another project (Sophia Vasalou) focuses on the theology of the Hanbalite

scholar Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328). Ibn Taymiyya represents

an important case both in terms of the history of the changing

relationship of Ḥanbalite theologians – traditionally distrustful of the

methods of reason – to other theological schools, but also in terms

of evolving accounts of the relationship between reason and revelation.

In this context, Ibn Taymiyya’s view of ethics and the sources of

moral knowledge holds particular significance. Ibn Taymiyya seeks to

articulate a new via media between existing approaches to the nature of

value which would transcend both Muʿtazilite and Ashʿarite configurations.

Influenced both by his extensive readings of kalām as well as his

wide-ranging interests in falsafa, Ibn Taymiyya articulates a view that

presents itself as a revised Muʿtazilism, claiming that reason delivers

knowledge of the values of human actions. This claim involves a reworked

understanding of reason that brings it into close relationship with a new

epistemological idiom, that of human nature or fiṭra. In this new configuration,

the notion of welfare or maṣlaḥa comes to occupy a crucial

role, and a heavy accent is placed on the role of desire, as against reason,

in the knowledge of good and evil. The deeper motivations of Ibn Taymiyya’s

proposed synthesis are rooted in an understanding of theology in

which theological doctrines are understood and assessed in terms of their

pragmatic, or better said, “spiritual”, ends. Just how this synthesis relates

to the existing theological possibilities represented by the Mu‘tazilite and

Ash‘arite schools is a central question to consider in this connection, and

one that holds the key to understanding both the genuine innovativeness,

as well as the true substance, of Ibn Taymiyya’s rationalism. Gaining a

clearer view of Ibn Taymiyya’s ethical approach is of crucial importance,

on the one hand, for refining our history of a theological debate

that played a significant part in Islamic theological self-understanding. At

the same time, and given the wide diffusion of Ibn Taymiyya’s legacy

in the modern era, it may also enable us to construct the prolegomena

for a history of contemporary theological developments.

Counterreactions

Although the Muʿtazila and the Ashʿariyya originated in the Eastern

part of the Islamic world, their influence – especially that of the latter


26 27


The intellectual and religious heritage of Shīʿism (Zaydism and

Imamism)

The scholarly investigation of Shīʿite Islam and its three branches, Twelver

(or Imami) Shīʿism, Zaydism and Ismāʿīlism, began much later than that

of Sunnī Islam, and Shīʿism has long been considered to be of marginal

importance at best. The Iranian Revolution of 1979, which cannot be

understood without taking the legal characteristics of Twelver Shīʿism

and its historical development into consideration, has proved this evaluation

to be wrong and since then the study of Twelver Shīʿite Islam is

steadily on the rise. The study of Ismāʿīlism has been actively promoted

over the last three decades by the current imam of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs, Aga

Khan IV (b. 1936), and the Institute of Ismaili Studies in London that was

established in 1977 under his auspices. In contrast to these two branches

of Shīʿite Islam, Zaydism has so far attracted much less scholarly attention,

partly because it has been perceived as being more marginal than

either Twelver Shīʿism (which is the state religion of Iran and a politically

significant community in Lebanon, Iraq and the Arabian peninsula) and

Ismāʿīlism (due to the active role of the Aga Khan in its scholarly investigation).

However, the recent conflict in Yemen shows how important it

is to understand the legal and political notions of Zaydism, as its adherents

represent some of the most significant political factions in the country,

and their views will no doubt be an important factor in the future

developments in Yemen.

It is only during the last years that the vast holdings of the various private

and smaller public libraries of Yemen are being made available

to the scholarly community. While some of these materials have been

used for various publications by members of the “Muʿtazilite Manuscripts

Project Group”, the majority still awaits close study. This also applies to

the development of Muʿtazilite thought among the Zaydites from the 12th

century onwards.

The Research Unit (Hassan Ansari / Sabine Schmidtke / Gregor Schwarb /

Jan Thiele) focusses on some of the most neglected fields of Zaydī thought

and practice. Some results of these efforts are included in a special issue

of the peer-reviewed journal Arabica: Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies/Revue

d’études arabes et islamiques, The neglected Šīʿites: Studies in

the legal and intellectual history of the Zaydīs = Arabica 59 iii-iv (2012)

that is published by Brill, Leiden.

Gregor Schwarb is preparing a comprehensive study of the development

of Zaydī legal methodology (uṣūl al-fiqh) that is closely related

to Muʿtazilism on the one hand and to Ḥanafism on the other. Jan

Thiele is focusing on Zaydī Yemenī doctrinal thought during the 12th

and early 13th centuries that was primarily under the influence of the

Muʿtazilite thought of the school of the Bahshamiyya. Beside his indepth

studies into the ontology and cosmology of al-Ḥasan al-Raṣṣāṣ he is

now preparing an editio princeps of the majority of the latter’s works on

theology. One of the major concerns of al-Raṣṣāṣ was with the rival group

of the Muṭarrifiyya, whose adherents upheld notions of natural causality

and a cosmology that was inconceivable for mainstream Zaydism of

the time. Hassan Ansari is currently preparing a comprehensive study

on the doctrinal history of the Muṭarrifiyya. Hassan Ansari and Sabine

Schmidtke further study the doctrinal developments of Yemeni Zaydī

thought since the 13th century, focusing in particular on the growing

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The Institute of Asian and African Studies

The Nehemia Levtzion Center for Islamic Studies

and

Freie Universität

Research Unit Intellectual History of the Islamicate World

announce

The second

New Frontiers in Islamic Studies

German-Israeli Summer School

funded by the Einstein-Stiftung, Berlin

9–14 September at Freie Universität Berlin

The Genizah:

An unexploited source for the intellectual

history of the medieval world of Islam

The purpose of this School is to introduce students

of Islamic Studies to the immense riches of

the Genizah, to demonstrate its relevance and

potential through a number of case studies and

to enable them to work with the Genizah materials

on their own. Special emphasis will be laid on

technical and methodological issues related to

the material.

Conveners:

Prof. Sabine Schmidtke (FU)

and Prof. Reuven Amitai (HU)

Coordinator: Jan Thiele

The School is aimed at graduate

(MA and PhD) students in Islamic

Studies and adjacent fields. The

School will be conducted in English;

reading knowledge of Arabic is

required (knowledge of Hebrew is

preferred, but not necessary).

Students coming from outside Berlin

will receive full room and board.

Attendance throughout the week

of the Summer School is mandatory.

The School will be considered

equivalent to 2 academic credits

(approval pending).

For further information and application

please contact Jan Thiele

e-mail: jan.thiele@arcor.de

Application ends 31 May 2012

28


eservations of Zaydī theologians towards the doctrines of the Bahshamites,

as is the case with the prominent and prolific theologian of the 13th

century, ʿAbd Allāh b. Zayd al-ʿAnsī (d. 1268).

Another project of the Research Unit (Hassan Ansari / Sabine Schmidtke)

is concerned with the socio-legal history of the Zaydīs in Northern

Iran beyond the 12th century that has so far hardly been explored in

scholarship, using an untapped source, the Kitāb al-Ibāna by the 11th century

legal scholar al-Hawsamī and the rich commentary literature that

has been written on this work over several generations. A detailed analysis

of the text and its commentaries first aims at reconstructing the networks

of Zaydī scholars of Northern Iran from the 10th century until the

beginning of the Safavid dynasty (15th century). In addition to this, the

text is being used to prepare a study of the development of legal doctrines

among the Nāṣiriyya branch.

Within the field of Twelver Shīʿism, Hassan Ansari and Sabine Schmidtke

are tracing new, so far unexplored and often unknown doctrinal works,

focusing in particular on the interim period between the two towering

figures of al-Sharīf al-Murtaḍā (d. 1044) and al-Ḥimmaṣī al-Rāzī (d. 1204),

author of al-Munqidh min al-taqlīd who was significantly influenced by

the theological thought of Abū l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī (d. 1045) as against al-

Murtaḍā who maintained mostly the views of the Bahshamiyya.

Interreligious Controversies


The relations between the Muslim majority and the members of religious

minorities (Jews and Christians) in the central lands of the Ottoman

Empire and in Iran received a series of new stimuli from the 15th and 16th

centuries onwards, which were reflected in intensified encounters in the

intellectual, literary, and social spheres.

The most important momentum in the Ottoman Empire for a new social

and intellectual flourishing of the Jews in particular was the immigration

of Jewish exiles from the Iberian Peninsula in the aftermath of

the Spanish Reconquista of 1492. In Safavid and early Qajar Iran

(ca. 1500–1850), it was the increasing presence of Christian, initially

mainly Catholic, missionaries that constituted the main catalyst. From

the 19th century onwards they were joined by Protestant missionaries,

mainly from Britain. In the Ottoman Empire, where native Christians of

different denominations were numerous, the foreign missionary effort

seems to have had less of an impact than in Iran. On the other hand, the

Jewish communities in the latter country did not experience the same

kind of renaissance enjoyed by their coreligionists in the Ottoman lands.

Most studies of the social position of Jews and Christians in both abovementioned

areas are based mainly on writings produced by members of

the minority groups, which often results in a one-sided picture. A systematic

and comprehensive discussion of materials documenting the

Muslim perception of the non-Muslim minorities is still largely absent.

One type of source that has hitherto been insufficiently explored

is Muslim polemical and apologetical literature. In more than one

respect, this genre of writings can supply information about the intellectual

as well as the social position of the religious minorities. The

arguments used, the events and persons referred to (even if at times only

obliquely), as well as the literary sources quoted allow us to draw conclusions

concerning the position of the respective minority. Moreover, the

statements with which the Muslim authors preface or justify their works,

the multiplication of polemical and apologetical tracts and the proliferation

of copies of these same tracts, inform us about the socio-historical

contexts in which these texts were written and subsequently reproduced.

Muslim apologetical and polemical literature against other monotheistic

religions from the first six centuries of the Islamic era has been

relatively well studied. However, existing research repeatedly raises the

contention that in subsequent centuries this type of literature had little

new to offer and that relatively few such tracts were being produced to

begin with, so that further scholarly occupation with this field would

yield few results. This contention is based on a mere lack of information

on the relevant material that can be encountered in libraries in presentday

Turkey, Iran and India. With regard to Iran, where private and public

collections of manuscripts are relatively well catalogued by now, it is clear

that a wealth of hitherto unexplored manuscript material is available

which can shed important new light on the relations between the

Muslim majority and the religious minorities under its rule. In the case

of Turkey, where the process of cataloguing manuscripts is in a less advanced

stage, chance finds of isolated manuscripts have already revealed

that a systematic search for, and study of, polemical and apologetical

materials is a worthwhile undertaking. Moreover, many libraries

in India (holding considerable collections of polemical works in Persian

from 17th century onward) and Europe (among them in particular the

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana in Rome) have important holdings in

this field which so far remain untapped. So far, well over three hundred

relevant texts have been located, and as the project progresses, numerous

additional texts are likely to be discovered.

Major results of this project have already been published over the past

years. At present, the following projects are being addressed by members

of the Research Unit:

(Dennis Halft) It was particularly during the early 17th century that European

missionaries found a favourable climate to promote the Catholic

faith in the Safavid Empire. Welcomed by the Shāh in his capital Isfahan,

the missionaires held disputations with Shīʿī scholars on Christian

and Islamic doctrines. From these disputations arose an extensive

Muslim polemical literature in Persian refuting Christian beliefs that

has been little studied so far. Among these Shīʿī scholars Sayyid Aḥmad

ʿAlawī (d. betw. 1644 and 1650), a well-known disciple of Shaykh Bahāʾī

(d. 1622 or -23) and Mīr Dāmād (d. 1631), composed five polemical writings

against the Christian doctrine, among them Miṣqal-i ṣafāʾ dar

tajliya u taṣfiya-yi Āyina-yi ḥaqq-numā (about 1032/1622–23). In ʿAlawī’s

treatises, which have come down to us in about 40 manuscripts in different

recensions, the representative of the so-called School of Isfahan brings

forward both theological and philosophical arguments by Illuminationists

as well as Peripatetics with strong references to Sufi thought in refutation

of the concepts of Trinity and Incarnation and in support of the Muslim

faith. Based on a comprehensive discussion of the manuscript copies and

the author’s Arabic literary sources, the project aims to analyze Sayyid

Aḥmad ʿAlawī’s theological and philosophical thinking regarding Christi-

30 31


anity on the vast intellectual background of his time. The wide diffusion

of copies of ʿAlawī’s treatises with an apparent Wirkungsgeschichte on

later refutations as far as India points to the significance of his thinking

in a period of transition from Arabic to Persian polemical writings

during the 17th century. Combining different approaches of Islamic as

well as Comparative Religious Studies, the project proposes to make a

contribution to the study of the perception of Christianity by Shīʿī Muslims

and of the interdependence of Christian-Muslim thinking.

(Reza Pourjavady / Sabine Schmidtke) During the Qajar period a number

of comprehensive polemic tracts against Judaism were composed,

mostly by converts or their descendants. Most of this material is preserved

in Iranian libraries only and therefore beyond the reach of most Western

scholars, while Iranian scholars often hesitate to work on these materials.

Among these texts is Maḥḍar al-shuhūd fī radd-i yahūd by Ḥājjī Bābā b.

Muḥammad Ismāʿīl Qazwīnī Yazdī, who was the son of a Jewish convert

to Islam, that was completed on 5 March 1797. The book consists

of seven comprehensive chapters (bāb), most of which are further subdivided

into sections (faṣl). It is replete with Biblical materials adduced

to prove the prophet Muḥammad’s annunciation in the Bible, discusses

in detail the earlier prophets on the basis of biblical, pseudo-biblical and

later Islamic materials, and treats likewise in detail Christianity and the

correct perception of Jesus Christ. As such, the work which is impressive

in its elaborateness and variety of materials it contains, shares

characteristics with a variety of literary genres well known from earlier

periods – most importantly the famous genre of the dalāʾil al-nubuwwa,

works detailing the proofs for the prophethood of Muḥammad, and the

genre of interreligious polemics. Although the text is not unknown to the

scholarly community, it has not been analyzed as to its sources, the materials

and arguments it contains or its reception among later readers –

Muslim and Jewish alike. Its popularity and significance is evident from

the comparatively high number of preserved manuscripts. The text has

been published twice on the basis of a single manuscript respectively, first

in the 1960ies by Aḥmad al-Ḥusaynī on the basis of a manuscript held in

Yazd (Yazd: Kitābkhāna-yi Vazīrī, 196-[?]) and again in 2000 by Ḥāmid

Ḥasan Navvāb on the basis of one of the manuscripts held in Qum (Qum:

Ḥuẓūr, 2000). None of these qualifies as a critical edition, for apart from

the narrow manuscript basis the editors lacked the required philological

ability to treat the numerous Hebrew quotations contained in the text

with sufficient justice. Moreover, no attempt was made to analyze the

intellectual background of the author and to trace his sources. We have

been able to trace so far eleven manuscript copies of the text in Iranian

libraries (Tehran: Dānishgāh, Majlis, Malik Millī, Millī; Yazd: Kitābkhānayi

Vazīrī; Qum: Kitābkhāna-yi Āyat Allāh Nūrī, Markaz-i iḥyāʾ-i mīrāth-i

Islām; Tabrīz: Kitābkhāna-yi Thiqat al-islām) and more may come to light

in European libraries. Within the Research Unit, a critical edition of the

text will be prepared, together with an indepth analysis of its sources, in

order to be able to locate the text on the larger map of interreligious

exchanges during the pre-modern and, more specifically, Qajar period

of Iranian history.


a r a b i c a s p e c i a l i s s u e

Arabica - Special Issue 59/3-4

Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies/Revue d’études arabes et islamiques

Guest-Editor: Sabine Schmidtke

Originally founded by Evariste Lévi-Provençal in 1954 as an organ for French arabists, Arabica

has now become a multidisciplinary academic journal, with an international editorial board

representing various fields of research. It is dedicated to the study of the Arab world’s classical and

contemporary literatures, languages, history, thought and civilization. From a wider perspective,

Arabica is open to the general fields of Islamicate studies and intercultural relations between Arab

societies and the other cultural areas throughout history. It actively endeavors to participate in

the development of new scholarly approaches and problematics. In addition to original research

articles in English and French (preferably), Arabica also publishes ‘notes and documents’, book

reviews, and occasionally academic debates in its ‘methods and debates’ section. Special issues

may deal with a specific theme, or publish the proceedings of a conference.

The neglected Šīʿites: Studies in the legal and intellectual history of the Zaydīs

Guest-Editor: Sabine Schmidtke

Arabica 59/3-4

SOMMAIRE/CONTENTS

2012: Volume 59 (in 6 issues)

• ISSN 0570-5398 / E-ISSN 1570-0585

• Institutional subscription rates

Electronic only: EUR 455.- / US$ 637.-

Print only: EUR 501.- / US$ 701.-

Electronic + Print: EUR 546.- / US$ 764.-

• Individual subscription rates

Print only: EUR 167.- / US$ 234.-

For more information see www.brill.nl/arab

Sabine Schmidtke, The History of Zaydī Studies: An Introduction 185

Najam Haider, A Kūfan Jurist in Yemen:

Contextualizing Muḥammad b. Sulaymān al-Kūfī’s Kitāb al-Muntaḫab 200

Sabine Schmidtke, Biblical Predictions of the Prophet Muḥammad

among the Zaydīs of Iran 218

Hassan Ansari, Un muḥaddiṯ muʿtazilite zaydite : Abū Saʿd al-Sammān

et ses Amālī 267

Jan Thiele, La causalité selon al-Ḥākim al-Ǧišumī 291

Maher Jarrar, Al-Manṣūr bi-Llāh’s controversy with Twelver Šīʿites

concerning the occultation of the Imam in his Kitāb al-ʿIqd al-ṯamīn 319

Bernard Haykel and Aron Zysow, What Makes a Maḏhab a Maḏhab:

Zaydī debates on the structure of legal authority 332

Gregor Schwarb, Muʿtazilism in a 20th century Zaydī Qurʾān

commentary 371

James Robin King, Zaydī revival in a hostile republic: Competing

identities, loyalties and visions of state in Republican Yemen 403

32


Bible in Arabic among Christians, Jews and Muslims

Many of the major translations of the Bible, produced from ancient

into modern times, resulted from the need for more accessible versions

of the sacred scriptures felt among Jews and/or Christians.

The Old and/or New Testaments were no longer understood in their original

languages (Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek) by large parts of these communities

who either spoke or became more widely educated in their current

vernaculars and/or lingua franca. Thus the Septuagint (produced in

Alexandria, around the 3rd century B.C.E), filled the need of Greek-speaking

Jews, and later also of early Christians; the Latin Vulgate supplied

the Catholic clergy in medieval Europe with a more accessible version.

Other famous, if much later, examples include the German translation

produced by Martin Luther in the 16th century, or the King James Bible

produced around the same time in England, which aimed to make the

Bible accessible to the populace in their spoken tongues. In the Middle

East of pre-Islamic times, there also existed various Bible translations:

Aramaic-speaking Jews produced a range of Jewish Aramaic translations

(e.g., the Targum), often used alongside the Hebrew Bible, while Christian

Aramaic speakers produced various Syriac versions (e.g., the Peshitta),

often used alongside the Septuagint. With the spread of Islam, however,

Arabic became the new common language, and the hallmark of

the cultured elites, not only among the growing body of converts to Islam,

but also among those whom the Qurʾān calls “People of the Book”,

namely, the Jews and the Christians, whose scriptural heritage guaranteed

their religious autonomy throughout the Islamic domain. From the

8th century socially-mobile Christians and Jews used Arabic not only for

speech but also as their written language, for religious, literary and scientific

purposes. They increasingly composed and consumed works in

Arabic alongside their continued usage of culturally-distinctive literary

and liturgical writings in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Syriac and Coptic. The

oldest Arabic Bible versions have come down to us from this early

stage of the arabicization process of these groups for whom scriptural

translation was the initial vehicle in reforming their communal identity

and adapting it to a new world at a time of profound political and cultural

change. Christians and Jews of different denominations (Rabbanites,

Karaites, Jacobites, Nestorians and Copts) as well as Samaritans now

started to produce translations of those parts of the Bible they held

sacred. With the spread of Islam to Spain, local Catholic clergymen, too,

started to become involved in these activities. The Arabic translations in

turn engendered a host of commentaries, likewise in Arabic, on individual

biblical books or the entire Bible. Together with Camilla Adang, Meira

Polliack (Tel Aviv University) and Ronny Vollandt (CNRS, Paris), the Research

Unit is currently preparing a comprehensive research project that

will address these schools of translation and their inner varieties in

great detail. Apart from fully preserved texts, thousands of manuscript

fragments and codices containing portions of these translations and

commentaries have come down to us, although, with a few notable exceptions,

only few of them have so far been studied in depth. They reveal a

large variety in stylistic approaches, vocabulary, scripts (e.g., Hebrew or

Syriac), ideologies (e.g., literal versus explanatory translations) and specific

doctrinal aspects.

Once Arabic translations became readily available, Muslims, too, began

to take a greater interest in the Jewish and Christian scriptures, in which

they believed the Prophet Muḥammad was annunciated and the coming

of Islam foretold. Some of the earliest extant texts by Muslim writers

containing significant Biblical material have already been studied by

members of the Research Unit (Sabine Schmidtke). In the more comprehensive

project, all genres of Islamic literature and thought in which the

influence of the Arabic Bible translation movement may be perceived will

be taken into consideration.

Achievements (2003–2012)


The Research Unit Intellectual History of the Islamicate World at

Freie Universität Berlin combines the research projects devoted to post-

Avicennan philosophy, the “Muʿtazilite Manuscripts Project Group”, the

Research Project “Rediscovering Theological Rationalism in the Medieval

World of Islam”, including Counterreactions; the Research Projects “Bible

in Arabic” and “Interreligious Contacts and Controversies in the Ottoman

Empire and pre-modern Iran” and the projects devoted to “Mysticism”.

Some aspects of the research project devoted to post-Avicennan philosophy

began in 2003, funded by a grant by the German-Israeli Foundation

(GIF) (2003–06). It resulted in several publications on the early commentators

of Suhrawardī, ʿIzz al-Dawla Ibn Kammūna, Shams al-Dīn al-

Shahrazūrī and Quṭb al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī, and a number of representatives

of the so-called “School of Shīrāz”, among them a monograph on the life

and work of the Jewish philosopher Ibn Kammūna (a Persian translation

will soon go to press) and critical editions of most of his writings in philosophy.

Within this research area, three new projects have been defined,

viz. (i) “Critical Avicennism in the Islamic East of the 12th century”, (ii)

Muslim and Jewish philosophy intertwined during the 13th through 15th

centuries, (iii) “Philosophy in Iran during the Ṣafavid and Qajar Period”.

Some results of the second project have already been published.

The “Muʿtazilite Manuscripts Project Group” was founded in 2003,42

an international group of some fifteen scholars from Europe, the US, Israel

and Palestine, from Lebanon, Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia and Iran, setting

out to collect, record and prepare critical editions of all unpublished

material of Muʿtazilite provenance. Funded by various grants of the Fritz

Thyssen Foundation (2005–07, 2010–11), the Gerda Henkel Foundation

(2005, 2008), and the Rothschild Foundation (Yad ha-nadiv) (2006), the

project has held three international workshops in Istanbul (with participants

from the West, including Israel, and the Islamic World) and published

more than twenty critical editions and facsimiles, along with several

monographs and edited volumes and many studies.

The efforts of the “Muʿtazilite Manuscripts Project Group” have been

merged since 2008 with the Research Project “Rediscovering Theological

Rationalism in the Medieval World of Islam”, that is funded by

the European Research Council (2008–13).43 The project focuses on theo-

42 http://www.geisteswissenschaften.fu-berlin.de/izma/forschung/laufend/mutazila/index.html.

43 http://www.facebook.com/\#!/pages/Rediscovering-Theological-Rationalism-in-the-Medieval-

World-of-Islam/144710522241165; http://www.geisteswissenschaften.fu-berlin.de/en/izma/forschung/

34 35


logical rationalism in the medieval world of Islam between the 10th and

the 13th centuries beyond and across denominational borders. Within this

field, all major desiderata have been identified and are addressed in a

number of primary and secondary sub-projects, many of which have already

been completed and are published. So far, two international conferences

have been held in 2009 and 2010, again with participants from the

West and the Islamic World, and numerous critical editions and studies

have been published in English, French, German, Arabic and Persian. Another

international conference, Takfir: A diachronic perspective, was held

in October 2011 in Madrid, in collaboration with the ERC Project KOHE-

POCU. A further conference is planned for spring 2013 that will focus on

“Jewish and Christian reception(s) of Muslim theology”.

The purpose of the Research Project “Contacts and Controversies between

Muslims, Jews and Christians”, which was funded by the Gerda

Henkel Foundation (2005–07), was to bring into focus new textual materials

that shed fresh light on the intellectual and social exchanges between

Muslims and non-Muslims both in the Ottoman lands and in pre-modern

Iran and to foster intensified cooperation between scholars from a variety

of disciplines. An international exploratory workshop on the topic, “The

Position of Religious Minorities in the Ottoman Empire and Early Modern

Iran, as Reflected in Muslim Polemical and Apologetical Literature”, was

funded by the European Science Foundation (ESF) (2007). The results of

this project were published in a collective volume and several articles in

peer-reviewed journals.

The Research Project “Bible in Arabic” evolved in close cooperation with

Meira Polliack and Camilla Adang (Tel Aviv University). Apart from numerous

studies tracing the reception of the various Christian translation

traditions among Muslim scholars during the first centuries of Islam that

have already been published (Sabine Schmidtke), the collaborators will

convene an international workshop on “The Bible in Arabic among

Jews, Christians and Muslims” in May 2012. Moreover, the first issue of

the recently established journal Intellectual History of the Islamicate World

(editor-in-chief: S. Schmidtke), to be published in summer 2013, will be

devoted exclusively to this topic.

A = Article; B = Blog; C = Conference paper / invited lecture; CE = Critical

Edition; CV = Collective volume; E = Encyclopaedia entry; F = Facsimile;

M = Monograph; R = Review article

DOCUMENTA ARABICA

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2003

[A] S. Schmidtke, “II Firk. Arab. 111 – A copy of al-Sharīf al-Murtaḍā’s

Kitāb al-Dhakhira completed in 472/1079–80 in the Firkovitch-Collection,

St. Petersburg,” [Persian] Maʿārif 20 ii (1382/2003), pp. 68–84.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “The ijāza from ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṣāliḥ al-Samāhījī to Nāṣir

al-Jārūdī al-Qaṭīfī: A Source for the Twelver Shiʿi Scholarly Tradition of

Baḥrayn,” Culture and Memory in Medieval Islam. Essays in Honour of Wilferd

Madelung, eds. Farhad Daftary & Josef W. Meri, London: I.B. Tauris in

laufend/theological_rationalism/index.html.

36

Diese Publikation wurde unterstützt durch

This publication has been supported by

Alumni Association of Freie Universität Berlin

www.fu-berlin.de/erg


association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2003, pp. 64–85.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Recent Studies on the Philosophy of Illumination and

Perspectives for Further Research,” Dāneshnāmah. The Bilingual Quarterly

of the Shahīd Beheshtī University 1 ii (Spring/Summer 2003), pp. 101–19

(English section), p. 69 (Persian Section).

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Studies on Saʿd b. Manṣūr Ibn Kammūna (d. 683/1284):

Beginnings, Achievements, and Perspectives,” Persica. Annual of the

Dutch-Iranian Society 29 (2003), pp. 105–21.

2004

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Re-Edition of al-Minhāj fī uṣūl al-dīn by Jār Allāh al-

Zamakhsharī,” [Persian] Maʿārif 20 iii (1382/2004), pp. 107–48.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “A Bibliography of Ibn Abī Jumhūr al-Aḥsāʾī’s Works.

Translated with additions and corrections by Ahmad Reza Ra-hi-mi

Risseh,” [Persian] Nusḥeh Pazūḥī. A Collection of Essays and Articles on

Manuscripts Studies and Related Subjects 1 (2004), pp. 291–309.

[A] R. Pourjavady & S. Schmidtke, “Quṭb al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī’s (d. 710/1311)

Durrat al-Tāj and Its Sources. (Studies on Quṭb al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī I),” Journal

Asiatique 292 i-ii (2004), pp. 309–28.

[CE] Abu l-Qasim al-Busti, Kitāb al-Bahth ʿan adillat al-takfīr wa l-tafsīq

(Investigation of the evidence for charging with kufr and fisq). Edited with

an Introduction by W. Madelung & S. Schmidtke, Tehran: Iran University

Press, 1382/2004.

2006

[A] B. Chiesa & S. Schmidtke, “The Jewish Reception of Samawʾal al-

Maghribī’s (d. 570/1175) Ifḥām al-yahūd. Some Evidence from the Abraham

Firkovitch Collection I,” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 31

(2006), pp. 327–49.

[A] W. Madelung, “Abu l-Husayn al-Basri’s proof of the existence of God,”

Arabic Theology, Arabic Philosophy, from the Many to the One. Essays in

Celebration of Richard M. Frank, ed. J. Montgomery. Leuven 2006, pp. 273–

80.

[A] R. Pourjavady & S. Schmidtke, “Muslim Polemics against Judaism

and Christianity in 18th Century Iran. The Literary Sources of Āqā

Muḥammad ʿAlī Bihbahānī’s (1144/1732–1216/1801) Rādd-i shubahāt alkuffār,”

Studia Iranica 35 (2006), pp. 69–94 [Abbreviated Persian translation

by Muḥammad Kāẓim Raḥmatī: http://www.rahmati.kateban.com].

[A] R. Pourjavady & S. Schmidtke, “Some notes on a new edition of a medieval

philosophical text in Turkey: Shams al-Dīn al-Shah-ra-zūrī’s Rasāʾil

al-Shajara al-ilāhiyya,” Die Welt des Islams 46 i (2006), pp. 76–85.

[A] S. Schmidtke, `‘The Karaites’ Encounter with the Thought of Abū

l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī (d. 436/1044). A Survey of the Relevant Materials in

the Firkovitch-Collection, St. Petersburg,`` Arabica 53 (2006), pp. 108–42.

[Persian translation by Muḥammad Kāẓim Raḥmatī: http://www.religions.ir/mag/mag.php?magid=11117§ion=7].

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Ibn Abī Jumhūr al-Aḥsāʾī und sein Spätwerk Sharḥ al-

Bāb al-ḥādī ʿashar,” Reflections on Reflections. Near Eastern writers reading

literature. Dedicated to Renate Jacobi, eds. A. Neuwirth & A. C. Islebe,

Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2006, pp. 119–45.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Forms and Functions of ‚Licences To Transmit’ (Ijāzas)

in 18th-Century-Iran. ʿAbd Allāh al-Mūsawī al-Jazāʾirī al-Tustarī’s (1112–

73/1701–59) Ijāza kabīra,” Speaking for Islam. Religious Authorities in Muslim

Societies, eds. Gudrun Krämer & Sabine Schmidtke, Leiden: Brill, 2006,

pp. 95–127.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Un projet international: le manuel des œuvres et manuscrits

muʿtazilites,” Chronique du manuscrit au Yémen 2 (Juni 2006) [French

version: http://cy.revues.org/document198.html; Arabic version: http://

www.cefas.com.ye/spip.php?article158].

[A] G. Schwarb, “Sahl b. al-Faḍl al-Tustarī’s K. al-Īmā,” Ginzei Qedem:

Shenaton le-ḥeḳer ha-genizah 2 (2006), pp. 61*–105*.

[C] G. Schwarb, “Arabic Translations of Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah

and the Commentary of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn al-Muwaqqit on Sefer ha-Maddaʿ,

Hilkhot Yesodei ha-Torah I–IV”, (International Conference “Bridging the

Worlds of Judaism and Islam”, Bar-Ilan University, 3–4 January 2006).

[C] G. Schwarb, “Sahl b. al-Faḍl al-Tustarī’s K. al-Īmāʾ” (Jerusalem, Institute

for Advanced Studies, 14 February 2006).

[CE] Abū l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī, Taṣaffuḥ al-adilla. The extant parts introduced

and edited by W. Madelung & S. Schmidtke. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz,

2006.

[CE] Samawʾal al-Maghribī’s (d. 570/1175) Ifḥām al-yahūd. The Early Recension,

eds. I. Marazka, R. Pourjavady, S. Schmidtke, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz,

2006 (Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes; 57, 2).

[CE] Khulāṣat al-naẓar. An Anonymous Imami-Muʿtazilī Treatise (late

6th/12th or early 7th/13th century). Edited with an Introduction by S.

Schmidtke & H. Ansari, Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy & Institute

of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität Berlin, 2006. (Series on Islamic

Philosophy and Theology. Texts and Studies; 2).

[F] An Anonymous Commentary on Kitāb al-Tadhkira by Ibn Mattawayh.

Facsimile Edition of Mahdavi Codex 514 (6th/12th Century). Introduction

and Indices by S. Schmidtke, Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy & Institute

of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität Berlin, 2006. (Series on Islamic

Philosophy and Theology. Texts and Studies; 1).

[M] W. Madelung & S. Schmidtke, Rational Theology in Interfaith Communication.

Abū l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī’s Muʿtazilī Theology among the Karaites

in the Fatimid Age. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

[M] R. Pourjavady & S. Schmidtke, A Jewish Philosopher of Baghdad. ʿIzz

al-Dawla Ibn Kammūna (d. 683/1284) and His Writings, Leiden: Brill, 2006.

38 39


2007

[A] C. Adang & S. Schmidtke, “Islamic Rational Theology in the Collections

of Leiden University Library. The ‘Supplements’ of the Zaydī Imām

al-Nāṭiq bi-l-ḥaqq (d. 1033) to the theological Summa of Abū ʿAlī Ibn

Khallād (fl. second half of the 10th century),” Omslag. Bulletin van de Universiteitsbibliotheek

Leiden en het Scaliger Instituut 3–2007, pp. 6–7.

[A] R. Pourjavady & S. Schmidtke, “The Quṭb al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī (d. 710/1311)

Codex (Ms. Marʿashī 12868) (Studies on Quṭb al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī II),” Studia

Iranica 36 (2007), pp. 279–301.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Étude de la littérature polémique contre le Judaisme,”

Annuaire 114. Résumé des conférences et travaux 2005–2006. Ecole Pratique

des Hautes Etudes. Section des Sciences Religieuses. Paris 2007, pp. 183–86.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Capturing the meanings of God’s speech: the relevance

of uṣūl al-fiqh to an understanding of uṣūl al-tafsīr in Jewish and Muslim

kalām,” A Word Fitly Spoken: Studies in Mediaeval Exegesis of the Hebrew

Bible and the Qurʾān presented to Haggai Ben-Shammai, eds. Meir Bar-Asher,

Sarah Stroumsa, Bruno Chiesa, Simon Hopkins, Jerusalem: The Ben

Zvi Institute and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2007, pp. *111-*156.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Uṣūl al-fiqh im jüdischen Kalām des 10. und 11. Jahrhunderts:

Ein Überblick,” Orient als Grenzbereich? Rabbinisches und ausserrabbinisches

Judentum, ed. A. Kuyt and G. Necker, Wiesbaden 2007, pp.

77–104.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Die Rezeption Maimonides’ in der christlich-arabischen

Literatur,” JUDAICA: Beiträge zum Verstehen des Judentums 63 (2007), pp.

1–45.

[C] R. Pourjavady, “ʿAlī Qulī Jadīd al-Islām and his Hidāyat al-ḍāllīn” (ESF

Exploratory Workshop: “The Position of Religious Minorities in the Ottoman

Empire and Early Modern Iran, as Reflected in Muslim Polemical

and Apologetical Literature”. Istanbul 14–16 June 2007).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Baḥr al-ʿUlūm’s disputation with the Jews. A Survey

of the Transmission of the debate” (ESF Exploratory Workshop: “The Position

of Religious Minorities in the Ottoman Empire and Early Modern

Iran, as Reflected in Muslim Polemical and Apologetical Literature”. Istanbul

14–16 June 2007).

[CE] Rukn al-Dīn Ibn al-Malāḥimī al-Khwārazmī, Kitāb al-Fāʾiq fī uṣūl aldīn.

Edited with an Introduction by W. Madelung & M. McDermott, Tehran:

Iranian Institute of Philosophy & Institute of Islamic Studies, Freie

Universität Berlin, 1386/2007. (Series on Islamic Philosophy and Theology.

Texts and Studies; 3).

[CE] Jār Allāh al-Zamakhsharī, Kitāb al-Minhāj fī uṣūl al-dīn. Introduced

and edited by S. Schmidtke, Beirut: Arab Scientific Publishers, 1428/2007.

[CE] Critical Remarks by Najm al-Dīn al-Kātibī on the Kitāb al-Maʿālim

by Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, together with the Commentaries by ʿIzz al-Dawla

Ibn Kammūna. Edited with an Introduction by S. Schmidtke & R. Pourjavady,

Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy & Institute of Islamic Studies,

Freie Universität Berlin, 1386/2007 (Series on Islamic Philosophy and

Theology. Texts and Studies; 6).

[CV] A Common Rationality. Muʿtazilism in Islam and Judaism, eds. C. Adang,

S. Schmidtke & D. Sklare, Würzburg: Ergon, 2007 (Istanbuler Texte

und Studien; 15).

[F] Maḥmūd b. ʿAlī b. Maḥmūd al-Ḥimmaṣī al-Rāzī: Kashf al-maʿāqid fī

sharḥ Qawāʿid al-ʿaqāʾid. Facsimile Edition of MS Berlin, Wetzstein 1527.

Introduction and Indices by S. Schmidtke, Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy

& Institute of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität Berlin, 1386/2007

(Series on Islamic Philosophy and Theology. Texts and Studies; 4).

2008

[A] C. Adang & S. Schmidtke, “Aḥmad b. Muṣṭafā Ṭāshkubrīzāde’s

(d. 968/1561) polemical tract against Judaism,” Al-Qanṭara. Revista de Estudios

Arabes 29 i (2008), pp. 79–113, 537–38.

[A] ʿA. al-Sālimī, “al-Mutashābih li-l-Qurʾān li-l-Turaythīthī. Dirāsa lil-kitāb

wa-nusakhihi al-khaṭṭiyya,” Majallat maʿhad al-makhṭūṭāt al-

ʿarabiyya 52 (2008), pp. 7–43.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “The doctrinal views of the Banu l-ʿAwd (early 8th/14th

century): an analysis of ms Arab. f. 64 (Bodleian Library, Oxford),” Le

shiʿisme imamite quarante ans après. Hommage à Etan Kohlberg. Eds. M.

A. Amir-Moezzi, M. Bar-Asher, S. Hopkins. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009, pp.

357–82. [Partial Persian translation by Sayyid Muḥsin Mūsawī: http://tazkereh.kateban.com/entry1547.html].

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Theological Rationalism in the Medieval World of Islam,”

al-ʿUsur al-wusta: The Bulletin of Middle East Medievalists 20 i (April,

2008), pp. 17–29.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Abū al-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī on the Torah and its Abrogation,”

Mélanges de l’Université Saint Joseph 61 (2008), pp. 559–80.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Rationale Theologie in der islamischen Welt des Mittelalters,”

Verkündigung und Forschung 53 ii (2008), pp. 57–72.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “MS Mahdawi 514. An Anonymous Commentary on Ibn

Mattawayh’s Kitāb al-Tadhkira,” Islamic Thought in the Middle Ages. Studies

in Text, Transmission and Translation in Honour of Hans Daiber, eds. A.

Akasoy & W. Raven. Leiden: Brill, 2008, pp. 139–62.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Ibn Kammūna, fīlusūf-i taʾthīr gudhar,” Kitāb-i māh-i

falsafa 2 xiv (Ābān 1387/December 2008) [Special issue devoted to Ibn

Kammūna], pp. 133–35.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Découverte d’un nouveau fragment du Kitāb al-mughnī

fī abwāb al-tawḥīd wa-l-ʿadl du Qāḍī ʿAbd al-Jabbār al-Ha-ma-dā-nī dans

une collection karaïte de la British Library,” Mélanges de l’Institut d’Etudes

Orientales 27 (2008), pp. 119–29.

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Ibn Ḥazm on Ashʿarism and Muʿtazilism” (Workshop

“The Life and Work of Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba”. Istanbul 26–28 August 2008).

[CE] O. Hamdan & S. Schmidtke, “Qadi ʿAbd al-Jabbār al-Hamadhānī

(d. 415/1025) on the Promise and Threat. An Edition of a Fragment of

his Kitāb al-Mughnī fī abwāb al-tawḥīd wa l-ʿadl preserved in the Firkovitch-Collection,

St. Petersburg (II Firk. Arab. 105, ff. 14–92),” Mélanges de

l’Institut dominicain d’Etudes orientales 27 (2008), pp. 37–117.

[CE] Rukn al-Dīn Ibn al-Malāḥimī al-Khwārazmī, Tuḥfat al-mutakallimīn

40 41


fī l-radd ʿalā l-falāsifa. Edited with an Introduction by W. Madelung &

H. Ansari, Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy & Institute of Islamic

Studies, Freie Universität Berlin, 1387/2008. (Series on Islamic Philosophy

and Theology. Texts and Studies; 7).

[E] S. Schmidtke, “Jobbāʾī,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 14 (New York, 2008),

pp. 666–72.

[E] S. Schmidtke, “Ḥāl,” Dānishnāma-yi jahān-i Islam, vol. 12 (Tehran,

1387/2008), pp. 437–40.

[F] Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Abī Jumhūr al-Aḥsāʾī (d. after 906/1501), Mujlī

mirʾāt al-munjī fī l-kalām wa-l-ḥikmatayn wa-l-taṣawwuf. Lithograph edition

by Aḥmad al-Shīrāzī (Tehran 1329/1911). Reprinted with an Introduction,

Table of Contents, and Indices by S. Schmidtke, Tehran: Iranian Institute

of Philosophy & Institute of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität Berlin,

2008 (Series on Islamic Philosophy and Theology. Texts and Studies; 10).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Biblical predictions of the Prophet Muḥammad from

the 9th century.” (Department of Religious Studies, University of North

Carolina at Chapel Hill, April 2009).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Biblical materials in Zaydī sources.” (Reunion Conference,

Muʿtazilism in Islam and Judaism, The Institute for Advanced Studies,

The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, July 2009).

[C] G. Schwarb, “K. Mabādiʾ al-adilla fī uṣūl al-dīn by the Zaydī Imām

al-Nāṭiq bi-l-ḥaqq Abū Ṭālib Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusayn al-Buṭḥānī (d. 424/1033):

Who needs revelation?” (Reunion Conference, Muʿtazilism in Islam and

Judaism, The Institute for Advanced Studies, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem,

July 2009).

[C] J. Thiele, “Zaydī Adoptions of Bahshamī Thought: The Theology of al-

Ḥasan al-Raṣṣāṣ (d. 584/1188)” (Reunion Conference, Muʿtazilism in Islam

and Judaism, The Institute for Advanced Studies, The Hebrew University,

Jerusalem, July 2009).

2009

[A] H. Ansari, “ʿIlm al-kalām fī l-Islām. Al-Khiṭāb wa-l-tārīkh,” Al-Masār 10

iii (Fall 2009), pp. 63–120.

[A] H. Ansari & M.A. Amir-Moezzi, “Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-Kulaynī (m.

328 ou 329/939-40 ou 940-41) et son Kitʿb al-Kāfī: une introduction,” Studia

Iranica 38 ii (2009), pp. 191-247.

[A] M.A. Amir-Moezzi & S. Schmidtke, “Rationalisme et théologie dans

le monde musulman médiéval. Bref état des lieux,” Revue de l’histoire des

religions 226 iv (2009), pp. 613–38.

[A] L. Muehlethaler, “Ibn Kammūna on the argument of the Flying Man in

Avicenna’s Išārāt and al-Suhrawardī’s Talwīḥāt,” Avicenna and his Legacy:

A Golden Age of Science and Philosophy, ed. Y. T. Langermann, Turnhout:

Brepols, 2009, pp. 179–203.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Abū al-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī and his transmission of biblical

materials from Kitāb al-dīn wa-al-dawla by Ibn Rabban al-Ṭabarī: The evidence

from Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Mafātīḥ al-ghayb,” Islam and Christian-

Muslim Relations 20 ii (2009), pp. 105–18.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “New sources for the life and work of Ibn Abī Jumhūr

al-Aḥsāʾī,” Studia Iranica 38 (2009), pp. 49–68. [Persian translation by

Muḥammad Kāẓim Raḥmatī: “Manābiʿ-i tāzeh-yi yāb barāyi taḥqīq dar

zandagī u āthār-i Ibn Abi Jumhūr Ahsāʾī,” Nusḥeh Pazūḥī. A Collection

of Essays and Articles on Manuscripts Studies and Related Subjects 4 (in

press)].

[A] S. Schmidtke, “MS Berlin, Wetzstein II 1527. A unique manuscript

of Maḥmūd b. ʿAlī b. Maḥmūd al-Ḥimmaṣī al-Rāzī’s Kashf al-maʿāqid fī

sharḥ Qawāʿid al-ʿaqāʾid,” Tribute to Michael. Studies in Jewish and Muslim

Thought Presented to Professor Michael Schwartz, eds. S. Klein-Braslavy,

B. Abrahamov, J. Sadan, Tel Aviv: The Laster and Sally Entin Faculty of

Humanities, The Chaim Ro-senberg School of Jewish Studies, pp. 67*–78*.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “The Rightly Guiding Epistle (al-Risāla al-Hādiya) by

ʿAbd al-Salām al-Muhtadī al-Muḥammadī. A Critical Edition,” Jerusalem

Studies in Arabic and Islam 36 (2009), pp. 439–70.

2010

[A] H. Ansari, “Maḥmūd al-Malāḥimī al-Muʿtazilī fī l-Yaman,” al-Masār 11

ii (1431/2010), pp. 48–58.

[A] H. Ansari, “Al-Imām al-Muʾayyad bi-llah al-Hārūnī: fatāwā wa-ajwibat

al-masāʾil wa istiftāʾāt wujjihat ilayhī fī l-radd ʿalā al-bāṭiniyya wa

ġayrihā min al-masāʾil,” al-Masar 33, pp. 57-72.

[A] H. Ansari & S. Schmidtke, “The Zaydī reception of Ibn Khallād’s Kitāb

al-Uṣūl: The taʿlīq of Abū Ṭāhir b. ʿAlī al-Ṣaffār,” Journal asiatique 298

(2010), pp. 275–302.

[A] H. Ansari & S. Schmidtke, “Muʿtazilism after ʿAbd al-Jabbār: Abū

Rashīd al-Nīsābūrī’s Kitāb Masāʾil al-khilāf fī l-uṣūl (Studies on the transmission

of knowledge from Iran to Yemen in the 6th/12th and 7th/13th c. I),”

Studia Iranica 39 (2010), pp. 227–78.

[A] D. Halft, “Schiitische Polemik gegen das Christentum im safawidischen

Iran des 11./17. Jahrhunderts. Sayyid Aḥmad ʿAlawīs La-wā-miʿ-i

rabbānī dar radd-i šubha-yi naṣrānī.” Contacts and Controversies between

Muslims, Jews and Christians in the Ottoman Empire and Pre-Modern Iran.

Eds. Camilla Adang & Sabine Schmidtke, Würzburg 2010, pp. 273–334.

[A] J. Thiele, “Propagating Muʿtazilism in the VIth/XIIth century Zaydiyya:

The role of al-Ḥasan al-Raṣṣāṣ,” Arabica 57 v-vi (2010), pp. 536–58;

58 i (2011), p. 165.

[C] H. Ansari, “Un membre de l’école de Rayy, Abû l-Fadl al-ʿAbbâs b.

Sharvîn et son œuvre théologique” (Séminaire du Centre d’His-toire des

Sciences et des Philosophies Arabes et Médiévales (UMR 7219 - CNRS/

Université Paris–7 Denis Diderot/ EPHE/ Université Paris I) Sciences et

philosophie, de l’Antiquité à l’Äge classique Séance du samedi 30 janvier

2010, 10h–14h: Le Kalam (Théologie musulmane): état actuel de la recherche).

[C] H. Ansari, “L’école des théologiens muʿtazilites de Rayy: la famille

Farrazādhī” (Theological Rationalism in Medieval Islam: New Sources

and Perspectives. The Second International Conference of the European

42 43


Research Council’s FP 7 Project “Theological Rationalism in the Medieval

World of Islam”, 4–6 June 2010 in Istanbul, Turkey).

[C] H. Ansari, “Al-Shalmaghānī et al-Hidāyat al-kubrā: une des sources

d’al-Khaṣībī dans la formation de la doctrine Nuṣayrī,” Messianism and

Normativity in the Late Medieval and Modern Persianate World: Themes

and Sources, dirigé par Orkhan Mir-Kasimov, Freie Universität Berlin,

September 2010.

[C] H. Ansari, “La littérature du Hadith chez les zaydite en Iran et au Yémen,”

Journée d’études dans le cadre du projet transversal, “Controverses

sur les écritures canoniques en Islam,” dirigé par Daniel De Smet (CNRS/

LEM), November 2010.

[C] H. Ansari, “Les réfutations des zaydites contre les philosophes au VIe

et VIIe siècles,” ‘Science and Philosophy in Classical Islamic Civilization’;

8th International Conference of SIHSPAI (International Society for the

History of Arabic and Islamic Science and Philosophy), London, The Institute

of Ismaili Studies, December 2010.

[C] D. Halft, “Christian-Muslim Controversies in 17th Century Safavid Isfahan.

Missionaries in Conversation with Shīʿī Scholars” (31. Deutscher

Orientalistentag, Marburg, 21 September 2010, Section Iranian Studies).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “The Reception of Abū al-Barakāt’s Philosophical

Work: A Re-appraisal” (EAJS Conference Judaism in the Mediterranean

Context, 25–29 July 2010 in Ravenna, Italy).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “Ibn Kammūna on the Pre-Eternity of the Human

Soul” (SOAS Conference The Ontology of the Soul in Medieval Arabic

Thought, 19 September 2010 in London).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “What is the question? The conception of philosophical

problems in Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s commentaries on the works of Avicenna”

(Deutscher Orientalistentag, 21–24 September in Marburg).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “ʿUmar ibn Sahlān al-Sāwī’s Nahj al-taqdīs and the

early reception of Abū al-Barakāt al-Baghdādī’s philosophical work” (SI-

HSPAI Conference Philosophy and Science in Classical Islamic Civilisation,

3–5 December 2010 in London).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “Abū l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī’s Kitāb al-Muʿtabar and

the Avicennan Tradition” (AJS 42nd Annual Conference, 19–21 December

2010 in Boston).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “On the Position of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Nihāyat

al-ʿuqūl among his earlier works” (Theological Rationalism in Medieval Islam:

New Sources and Perspectives. The Second International Conference

of the European Research Council’s FP 7 Project ``Theological Rationalism

in the Medieval World of Islam, 4–6 June 2010 in Istanbul, Turkey).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “Syllogistics and the Soul: From the toolbox of a 13thcentury

philosopher in Baghdad” (Philosophy Department, John Hopkins

University, Baltimore, 17 December 2010).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Biblical testimonies to the Prophethood of Muḥammad

in Zaydi sources” (The Departments of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations,

Religious Studies and the Middle East Center at the University

of Pennsylvania, PA, 6 December 2010).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Breaking the wall of religious public opinion: How

the study of interfaith crosspollination in the Islamicate World can uncover

common ground” (Falling Walls: Berlin Conference on Future Breakthroughs

in Science and Society, 7–8 November 2010).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Ḥusām al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh b. Zayd al-ʿAnsī (d. 667/1268)

and his Kitāb al-Maḥajja al-bayḍā” (Religious movements and transformations

in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Israel Academy of Sciences,

January 2010).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Jewish (and Christian) Converts in the Medieval World

of Islam: Some Methodological Questions” (Herbert D. Katz Center for

Advanced Judaic Studies, Philadelphia, PA, 13 October 2010).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “Jewish Contributions to Islamic Learning in the Medieval

and Late Medieval Muslim World” (Vanderbilt University, Department

of Jewish Studies, Nashville, TN, 18 November 2010).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “The Islamic rational heritage - Muʿtazilism and

Ashʿarism to be rediscovered” (Shaykh Ibrahim Center, Manama, Bahrain,

February 2010).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “The Muʿtazilite Manuscripts Project: The example of

Abu l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī (d. 436/1045)” (al-Bīrūnī Institute of Oriental Studies,

Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 30 June 2010)

[C] S. Schmidtke, “The Muʿtazilite Manuscripts Project” (Deutsches

Archäologisches Institut, Sanaa, Yemen, 25 April 2010).

[C] S. Schmidtke, “The reception of Abu l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī and Ibn al-

Malāḥimī among the Zaydīs. The case of ʿAbd Allāh b. Zayd al-ʿAnsī”

(The Institute of Ismaili Studies, Shi’i Studies Lecture Series, London, 27

May 2010)

[C] S. Schmidtke, “The Reception of Ibn Khallād’s Kitāb al-Uṣūl” (Theological

Rationalism in Medieval Islam: New Sources and Perspectives. The

Second International Conference of the European Research Council’s FP

7 Project “Theological Rationalism in the Medieval World of Islam”, 4-6

June 2010 in Istanbul, Turkey)

[C] S. Schmidtke, “The Zaydi reception of Abu l-Husayn al-Basrî and Ibn

al-Malâhimî” (Séminaire du Centre d’Histoire des Sciences et des Philosophies

Arabes et Médiévales (UMR 7219 - CNRS/ Université Paris–7 Denis

Diderot/ EPHE/ Université Paris I) Sciences et philosophie, de l’Antiquité

à l’Äge classique Séance du samedi 30 janvier 2010, 10h–14h: Le Kalam

(Théologie musulmane): état actuel de la recherche).

[C] G. Schwarb, “Muʿtazilī-Zaydī uṣūl al-fiqh: A Longue Durée Perspective”

(Theological Rationalism in Medieval Islam: New Sources and Perspectives.

The Second International Conference of the European Research

Council’s FP 7 Project “Theological Rationalism in the Medieval World of

Islam”, 4–6 June 2010 in Istanbul, Turkey).

[C] G. Schwarb, “Jewish Muʿtazilite approaches to Hebrew semantics”

(Memorial Conference for Dr. Friedrich Niessen: The Semitic languages of

Jewish intellectual production. Madrid, CSIC, 11–12th March 2010).

[C] G. Schwarb, “A Maimonidean Trinitarianism: The Christology of Al-

Rashīd Abū l-Khayr Ibn al-Tayyib (d. after 1270)” (Third International

Congress of Eastern Christianity. Knowledge Transfer in the Mediterranean

World, University of Córdoba, 2–4 December 2010).

[C] J. Thiele, “Nūr al-Dīn Sulaymān b. ʿAbdallāh al-Khurāshī (d. 7th/13th

c.) and his K. al-Tafṣīl li-jumal al-Taḥṣīl” (Deutsches Archäologisches Insti-

44 45


ملزمة عن تاريخ اليمن الجزء ٥

حفاظا على تراث اليمن الثقافي

مشروع رقمنة اطوطات اليمنية

زابينه اشميتكه ويان تيله

tut, Sanaa, Yemen, 25 April 2010).

[C] J. Thiele, “The Commentary Literature on al-Ḥasan al-Raṣṣāṣ’ K. al-

Taḥṣīl” (Theological Rationalism in Medieval Islam: New Sources and Perspectives.

The Second International Conference of the European Research

Council’s FP 7 Project “Theological Rationalism in the Medieval World of

Islam”, 4–6 June 2010 in Istanbul, Turkey).

[C] E.-M. Zeis, “Proofs of Prophecy and Their Political-Theological Context:

The Kitāb Ithbāt nubuwwat al-nabī of the Zaydī mutakallim Imām

al-Muʾayyad bi-llāh al-Hārūnī (333–411)” (Theological Rationalism in

Medieval Islam: New Sources and Perspectives. The Second International

Conference of the European Research Council’s FP 7 Project “Theological

Rationalism in the Medieval World of Islam”, 4–6 June 2010 in Istanbul,

Turkey).

[C] S. Vasalou,

Preserving

“An

Yemen’s

innate

Cultural

moral

Heritage

knowledge? In quest of Ibn Taymiyya’s

moral epistemology” The Yemen Manuscript Digitization (Deutscher Project Orientalistentag, 21–24 September in

Marburg).

by Sabine Schmidtke and Jan Thiele

[C] S. Vasalou, “Ibn Taymiyya’s ethics between Ashʿarite voluntarism and

Muʿtazilite rationalism: a middle road?” (Theological Rationalism in Medieval

Islam: New Sources and Perspectives. The Second International

Conference of the European Research Council’s FP 7 Project “Theological

Rationalism in the Medieval World of Islam”, 4–6 June 2010 in Istanbul,

Turkey).

[CV] Contacts and Controversies between Muslims, Jews and Christians in

the Ottoman Empire and Pre-Modern Iran, eds. C. Adang & S. Schmidtke,

Würzburg: Ergon, 2010 (Istanbuler Texte und Studien; 21).

[E] C. Adang & S. Schmidtke, “Polemics (Muslim-Jewish),” Encyclopaedia

of the Jews in the Islamic World, ed. Norman A. Stillman, Leiden: Brill, 2010,

vol. 4, pp. 82–90.

[E] R. Pourjavady & S. Schmidtke, “ʿAlī Qulī Jadīd al-Islām,” The Encyclopaedia

of Islam. Three. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[E] S. Schmidtke, “Ibn Kammūna,” Encyclopaedia of the Jews in the Islamic

World, ed. Norman A. Stillman, Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[E] S. Schmidtke, “Samawʾal al-Maghribī,” Encyclopaedia of the Jews in the

Islamic World, ed. Norman A. Stillman, Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[E] G. Schwarb, “Kalām”, Encyclopedia of the Jews in the Islamic World, ed.

Norman A. Stillman, Leiden Brill, 2010, vol. III, pp. 91–98.

[E] G. Schwarb, “Yūsuf al-Baṣīr”, Encyclopedia of the Jews in the Islamic

World, ed. Norman A. Stillman, Leiden Brill, 2010, vol. IV, pp. 651–655.

Preserving Yemen’s Cultural Heritage

Hefte zur Kulturgeschichte des Jemen Band 5

2011

[A] H. Ansari, “L’héritage ésotérique du chiisme: un livre sur l’exégèse de

la sourate 97,” Arabica 58 i-ii (2011), pp. 7-18.

[A] H. Ansari, “Risāla fī dhanb al-ghība lil- Qāḍī ʿAbd al-Ğabbār al-

Hamaḏānī al-Muʿtazilī,” al-Masar 12 ii (2011), pp. 105-110.

[A] H. Ansari & S. Schmidtke, “Iranian Zaydism during the 7th/13th century:

Abū l-Faḍl b. Shahrdawīr al-Daylamī al-Jīlānī and his commentary

on the Qurʾān,” Journal Asiatique 299 (2011), pp. 205-11.

[A] H. Ansari & S. Schmidtke, “The literary-religious tradition among

7th/13th century Yemenī Zaydīs: The formation of the Imām al-Mahdī li-

Dīn Allāh Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusayn b. al-Qāsim (d. 656/1258),” Journal of Islamic

Manuscripts 2 i (2011), pp. 165-222.

[A] H. Ansari & S. Schmidtke, “Abū Saʿd al-Ḫargūšī and his Kitāb al-

Lawāmiʿ: A Ṣūfī Guide Book for Preachers from 4th/10th century Nīshāpūr,”

Arabica 58 (2011), pp. 503-18 (with Hassan Ansari).

[A] S. Schmidtke, “The Muslim Reception of Biblical Materials: Ibn Qutayba

and his Aʿlām al-nubuwwa,” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 22 iii

(2011), pp. 249-74.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Jemenitische Handschriften in der Staatsbibliothek zu

Berlin,” Für Forschung und Kultur. Sonderausgabe der Zeitschrift „BibliotheksMagazin“

anlässlich des 350. Geburtstags der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin

- Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin 2011, pp. 52-57.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Quei muri abbattuti dall’Islam medieval [Those Walls

Knocked down by Medieval Islam / Ces murs abattus par l’Islam medieval],”

Oasis: Cristiani e Musulmani nell’era del meticciato di civilità 13

(2011) [http://www.oasiscenter.eu/node/7199].

[A] S. Schmidtke & J. Thiele, “Preserving Yemen’s Cultural Heritage: The

Yemen Manuscript Digitization Project,” Fair Observer 27 July 2011 (http://

www.fairobserver.com/article/preserving-yemens-cultural-heritage-yemen-manuscript-digitization-project?page=3).

[A] G. Schwarb, “Muʿtazilism in the Age of Averroes,” In the Age of Averroes:

Arabic Philosophy in the Sixth/Twelfth Century, ed. P. Adamson, London:

Warburg Institute, 2011, pp. 251–82.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Manuskripte im Portrait: Eine Sprache, viele Schriften,”

Newsletter of the Research Unit Intellectual History of the Islamicate World

2 (2011), p. 4.

[B] S. Schmidtke, “Muslimische Ideengeschichte jenseits der Religionsgrenzen:

Chancen und Perspektiven” (http://fu-berlin.academia.edu/

SabineSchmidtke/Blog/51642/Muslimische-Ideengeschichte-jenseits-der-

Religionsgrenzen-Chancen-und-Perspektiven).

[C] H. Ansari, “Un bref historique des commentaires coraniques chez les

théologiens muʻtazilites, zaydites et imâmites jusqu'à la fin du septième

siècle,” “L’exégèse philosophique du Coran”, dirigé par Meryem Sebti

(CNRS), April 2011.

[C] H. Ansari & Sabine Schmidtke, “Le traitement des Muṭarrifites comme

des kuffâr,” International Conference: “Takfīr: A Diachronic Perspective,”

Madrid, CSIC, October 2011.

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “On the conception of philosophical problems in

Faḫr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Mafātīḥ al-ġayb and his philosophical commentaries”

(Séminaire sur l’Exégèse philosophique du Coran, CNRS, Villejuif,

April 12, 2011).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “Critical Avicennism of the 6th/12th century” (Workshop

“Arabische Wissenschaft,” Max-Planck-Institute Berlin, June 24,

2011).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “Konzepte der Selbstwahrnehmung in der arabisch-

46 47


en Philosophie,” (Abschied vom Seelischen? Erkundungen zum menschlichen

Selbstverständnis (Interdisziplinäre Veranstaltungsreihe, Universität

Zürich, October 10, 2011).

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “The correspondence between Naǧm al-Dīn al-Kātibī

al-Qazwīnī and Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī on proofs for the existence of the necessary

of existence” (Rationalist Sciences I: Logic, Physics, Metaphysics,

and Theology in the Post-Classical Period, Washington University in St.

Louis. December 3–5, 2011).

[C] G. Schwarb, “Theological and Philosophical Fragments in the British

Library Genizah Collection”, London: The British Library, Genizah Workshop,

2 June 2011, 4pm - 5pm.

[C] G. Schwarb, “The Samaritan Abū l-Ḥasan al-Ṣūrī and the Qaraites:

Qaraite-Samaritan Relations in the 5th/11th century Bilād al-Shām: Encounters,

Polemics, and Intertextualities” (15th Congress of the Society for

Judaeo-Arabic Studies, Cambridge 15-18 August 2011).

[C] G. Schwarb, “Parallel Text Processing and the critical edition of Judaeo-Arabic

Texts” (15th Congress of the Society for Judaeo-Arabic Studies,

Cambridge 15-18 August 2011).

[C] G. Schwarb, “Muʿtazilism in a 20th Century Zaydi Qurʾān Commentary”,

London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Centre of Islamic

Studies, The Qurʾān: Text, Society and Culture, 11th November 2011, 3pm

- 4pm. (http://www.soas.ac.uk/islamicstudies/conferences/quran2011/

file72296.pdf), http://www.soas.ac.uk/islamicstudies/conferences/

quran2011/file72262.pdf

[C] G. Schwarb, “Non-Polemical Intellectual Encounters Between Muslims

and Jews,” Cambridge: The Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Centre of Islamic

Studies, University of Cambridge; The Centre for the Study of Muslim-

Jewish Relations, Woolf Institute; Intertwined Worlds: The Judaeo-Islamic

Tradition, 12th September 2011, 9am - 10am [To be published in the conference

proceedings, within the Studies on the Children of Abraham series

(http://www.brill.nl/publications/studies-children-abraham)]

[C] G. Schwarb, “Qaraite-Samaritan Relations in 5th/11th Century Bilād

al-Shām: Encounters, Polemics, and Intertextualities,” Cambridge: Cambridge

University Library, Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit, Society

for Judaeo-Arabic Studies, Judaeo-Arabic Culture and the Arabic Speaking

World: Linguistic, Textual and Social Crosspollinations, 16th August

2011, 5pm - 6pm

[C] G. Schwarb, “Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ṣūrī and the Qaraites: Qaraite-Samaritan

Relations in 5th/11th Century Bilād al-Shām”, Oxford: Oxford Centre

for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, British Association for Jewish Studies,

Annual Conference 2011, ‘Jewish Languages’, 19th July 2011, 6pm - 7pm.

[CE] C. Adang, W. Madelung, S. Schmidtke, Baṣran Muʿtazilite Theology:

Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad b. Khallād’s Kitāb al-uṣūl and its reception. A Critical

Edition of the Ziyādāt Sharḥ al-uṣūl by the Zaydī Imām al-Nāṭiq bi-l-ḥaqq

Abū Ṭālib Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusayn b. Hārūn al-Buṭḥānī (d. 424/1033), Leiden:

Brill, 2011 (Islamic History and Civilization).

[CE] Early Ibāḍī Literature: Abu l-Mundhir Bashīr b. Muḥammad b. Maḥbūb,

Kitāb al-Raṣf fi l-Tawḥīd, Kitāb al-Muḥāraba and Sīra. Introduced and

edited by Abdulrahman al-Salimi and Wilferd Madelung. Wiesbaden:

Harrassowitz, 2011 (Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes).

[F] Sulaymān b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Khurāshī, Kitāb al-Tafṣīl li-jumal al-Taḥṣīl.

Facsimile Edition of Ms Berlin, Glaser 51. With Introductions and Indices

by H. Ansari and J. Thiele, Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy & Institute

of Islamic Studies, Freie Universität Berlin, 2011 (Series of Islamic

Philosophy Theology and Mysticism. Facsimiles and Editions).

[M] S. Schmidtke and J. Thiele, Preserving Yemen’s Cultural Heritage: The

Yemen Manuscript Digitization Project, Ṣanʿāʾ: Deutsches Archäologisches

Institut, 2011 (Hefte zur Kulturgeschichte des Jemen; 5).

[M] J. Thiele, Kausalität in der muʿtazilitischen Kosmologie. Das Kitāb al-

Muʾattirāt wa-miftāḥ al-muškilāt des Zayditen al-Ḥasan al-Raṣṣāṣ (st.

584/1188), Leiden: Brill, 2011 (Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Science.

Texts and Studies; 84).

2012

[A] H. Ansari, “Pišgoftār: al-Malāḥimī u kitāb al-Muʿtamad-e u,” Rukn al-

Dīn Ibn al-Malāḥimī al-Khwārazmī, al-Muʿtamad fī uṣūl al-dīn, edited and

introduced by Wilferd Madelung, Tehran: Mīrāth-e maktūb (Classical

Muslim Heritage Series).

[A] G. Schwarb, “Semantics of Hebrew in Medieval Theological and Philosophical

Thought”, Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics, ed.

G. Khan, Leiden: Brill, 2012.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Capturing the Meanings of God’s Speech: The Relevance

of uṣūl al-fiqh to an understanding of uṣūl al-tafsīr in Jewish and Muslim

kalām,” Tafsīr: Interpreting the Qurʾān (Critical Concepts in Islamic Studies),

Volume II: Tafsir: Theory and Constructs, Part 3: Procedural and Conceptual

Devices (article no. 18), ed. M. Shah, London & New York: Routledge

2012 [reprint].

[A] G. Schwarb, “Theological Semantics in Yūsuf al-Baṣīr’s Risāla fī maʿnā

ijāzat al-naskh”, The Semitic Languages of Jewish Intellectual Production.

Memorial Volume for Dr. Friedrich Niessen, eds. María Angeles Gallego and

Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Leiden: Brill 2012.

[C] D. Halft, “Quelque relation rabbinique secrete” (H. Corbin)? Some

Notes on Sayyed Aḥmad ʿAlavī’s (d. between 1054/1644 and 1060/1650)

Quotations from the Hebrew Bible in his Shiʿi Refutations of Christianity,

International Workshop “The Bible in Arabic among Jews, Christians and

Muslims”, Tel Aviv University, Israel, May 24, 2012.

[C] L. Muehlethaler, “Bare self-awareness as cognitive basis in the epistemology

of Abū l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī,” Between Selfhood and Selfawareness:

Varieties of Subjectivity in the Arabic and Latin Traditions The

Finnish Institute in Berlin, April 12, 2012

[CE] Rukn al-Dīn Ibn al-Malāḥimī al-Khwārazmī, al-Muʿtamad fī uṣūl aldīn.

Revised and enlarged edition by Wilferd Madelung, Tehran: Mīrāth-e

maktūb, 2012 (Classical Muslim Heritage Series; 1).

[E] S. Schmidtke, “Ibn Mattawayh,“ The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Three

(Leiden: Brill).

[F] Legal Methodology in 6th/12th century Khwārazm: The Kitāb al-Tajrīd

fī uṣūl al-fiqh by Rukn al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. al-Malāḥimī al-Khwārazmī (d.

536/1141). Facsimile edition of MS Arab e 103 (Bodleian Library, Oxford),

with an introduction and indices by Hassan Ansari and Sabine Schmidtke,

48 49


Tehran: Markaz-i Dāʾirat al-maʿārif-i buzurg-i islāmī, 1390/2012.

[M] H. Ansari, Bar-rassī-hā-yī tārīkhī har ḥawza-yi islām wa tashayyuʿ:

Majmūʿa-yi nawad maqāla wa-yaddāsht, Tehran: Kitābkhāna-yi mūze wa

markaz-i asnād-i majlis-i shūrā-yi islāmī, 1390/2012.

[M] J. Thiele, Die Theologie des Zayditen al-Ḥasan ar-Raṣṣāṣ. Rezeption und

Entwicklung bahšamitischer Lehren im Jemen des 6./12. Jahrhunderts, unpublished

PhD thesis, Freie Universität 2012.

In press

[A] C. Adang & S. Schmidtke, “Muʿtazilī Discussions of the Abrogation of

the Torah. Ibn Khallād (4th/10th century) and His Commentators,” Reason

and Faith in Medieval Judaism and Islam. Ed. M. Ángeles Gallego. Leiden:

Brill.

[A] H. Ansari, “Un muḥaddith muʿtazilite zaydite: Abū Saʿd al-Sammān

et ses Amālī,” The neglected Šīʿites: Studies in the legal and intellectual history

of the Zaydīs = Arabica. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 59 iii-iv

(2012), pp. 267-90.

[A] H. Ansari, “Zamīne hāye tārīḫī ye taʾlīf e kitāb e Nihāyat ul-marām,”

in Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn al-Makkī’s Nihāyat ul-marām fī dirāyat ul-kalām, Facsimile

Publication with Introduction and Indices by Ayman Shihadeh, Tehran:

Mīrāth-e maktūb (Classical Muslim Heritage Series).

[A] H. Ansari, “The Kitāb al-waṣiyya of ʿĪsā b. al-Mustafād: The history of

a text,” Law and Tradition in Classical Islamic Thought, eds. Michael Cook,

Najam Haider, Intisar A. Rabb and Asma Sayeed, Palgrave Series in Islamic

Theology, Law, and History, Palgrave Macmillan.

[A] H. Ansari & S. Schmidtke, “Muʿtazilism in Rayy and Astarābād: Abu

l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās b. Sharwīn,” Studia Iranica 41 (2012).

[A] D. Halft, “A Hitherto Unknown Persian Manuscript of Ḥosayn Vāʿeẓ

Kāšefī’s (d. 910/1504-05) Treatise on Ethics Aḫlāq-e moḥsenī in the Dominican

Priory in Vienna,” Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 3 (2012), pp. 1-13.

[A] L. Muehlethaler, “Ibn Kammūna on the Pre-Eternity of the Human

Soul,” Muslim World.

[A] R. Pourjavady & S. Schmidtke, “La vie, l’œuvre et la pensée philosophique

d’Ibn Kammūna,” Ibn Kammūna, Examen de la critique des trois

religions monothéistes, trad. Simon Bellahsen, Paris: Vrin.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “The History of Zaydī Studies: An Introduction,” The

neglected Šīʿites: Studies in the legal and intellectual history of the Zaydīs =

Arabica. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 59 iii-iv (2012), pp. 185-199.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Biblical predictions of the Prophet Muḥammad among

the Zaydīs of Iran,” The neglected Šīʿites: Studies in the legal and intellectual

history of the Zaydīs = Arabica. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 59 iiiiv

(2012), pp. 218-266.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Two commentaries on Najm al-Dīn al-Kātibī’s al-

Shamsiyya, copied in the hand of David b. Joshua Maimonides’ (fl. ca.

1335-1410 CE),” Law and Tradition in Classical Islamic Thought, eds. Michael

Cook, Najam Haider, Intisar A. Rabb and Asma Sayeed, Palgrave

Series in Islamic Theology, Law, and History, Palgrave Macmillan.

[A] S. Schmidtke, “Early Ashʿarite Theology: Abū Bakr al-Bāqillānī (d.

403/1013) and his Hidāyat al-mustarshidīn,” Bulletin d’Etudes Orientales.

[A] G. Schwarb, “The reception of Maimonides in Christian-Arabic literature”,

Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the Society of Judaeo-Arabic

Studies, ed. Y. Tobi, Haifa.

[A] G. Schwarb, “A Maimonidean Trinitarianism: The Christology of Al-

Rashīd Abū l-Khayr Ibn al-Tayyib (d. after 1270),” Proceedings of the Third

International Congress of Eastern Christianity: Knowledge Transfer in the

Mediterranean World, ed. Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Cordoba: Cordoba

University Press.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Muʿtazilism in a 20th century Zaydī Qurʾān commentary,”

The neglected Šīʿites: Studies in the legal and intellectual history of

the Zaydīs = Arabica. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 59 iii-iv (2012),

pp. 371-402.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Zaydī-Muʿtazilī Traditions of uṣūl al-fiqh, 4th/10th–

11th/17th centuries,” Theological Rationalism in Medieval Islam: New

Sources and Perspectives, Leuven: Peeters, 2013.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Jewish Adaptations of Islamic Legal Hermeneutics (uṣūl

al-fiqh),” Jewish—non-Jewish Relations – Between Exclusion and Embrace,

ed. H. Holtschneider and M. Diemling (to be published online @ http://

www.jnjr.div.ed.ac.uk/). (includes a critical edition of a Jewish adaptation

of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s K. al-Maʿālim fī uṣūl al-fiqh).

[A] J. Thiele, “La causalité selon al-Ḥākim al-Ǧišumī,” The neglected Šīʿites:

Studies in the legal and intellectual history of the Zaydīs = Arabica. Journal

of Arabic and Islamic Studies 59 iii-iv (2012), pp. 291-318.

[CE] Nukat al-Kitāb al-Mughnī. A Recension of ʿAbd al-Jabbār al-

Hamadhānī’s (d. 415/1025) al-Mughnī fī abwāb al-tawḥīd wa-l-ʿadl. Al-

Kalām fī l-tawlīd. Al-Kalām fī l-istiṭāʿa. Al-Kalām fī l-taklīf. Al-Kalām fī

l-naẓar wa-l-maʿārif. The extant parts introduced and edited by O. Hamdan

and S. Schmidtke. Beirut: Orient Institut (Bibliotheca Islamica).

[CV] S. Schmidtke (ed.), The neglected Šīʿites: Studies in the legal and intellectual

history of the Zaydīs = Arabica. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies

59 iii-iv (2012).

[E] S. Schmidtke, “Ibn Mattawayh,” The Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam

(Tehran).

[E] G. Schwarb, “Amr”, The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Three (Leiden: Brill).

[E] G. Schwarb, “al-Aṣamm”, The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Three (Leiden:

Brill).

[E] G. Schwarb, “Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Baṣrī”, The Encyclopaedia of Islam.

Three (Leiden: Brill).

[F] Twelver Shīʿite Theology in 6th/12th century Syria. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b.

ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī and his Commentary on al-Shaykh al-Ṭūsī’s

Muqaddima. Facsimile Publication with Introduction and Indices by Hassan

Ansari and Sabine Schmidtke. Tehran: Mīrāth-e maktūb, [in press]

(Classical Muslim Heritage Series; 2).

[R] G. Schwarb, Review of M. Goldstein, Karaite Exegesis in Medieval Jerusalem:

The Judeo-Arabic Pentateuch Commentary of Yūsuf ibn Nūḥ and Abū

al-Faraj Hārūn (Texts and Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Judaism,

26), Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011 [ISBN 978-3-16-150972-8], to be pub-

50 51


lished in the Journal of Semitic Studies.

[R] G. Schwarb, Review of C. Adang, W. Madelung and S. Schmidtke

(eds.), Baṣran Muʿtazilite Theology: Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad b. Khallād’s Kitāb

al-Uṣūl and its reception, Leiden: Brill, 2011, to be published in BSOAS 75,2

(June 2012).

[R] G. Schwarb, Review of J. Thiele, Kausalität in der muʿtazilitischen

Kosmologie: Das Kitāb al-Muʾaṯṯirāt wa-miftāḥ al-muškilāt des Zayditen

al-Ḥasan ar-Raṣṣāṣ (st. 584/1188), Leiden: Brill, 2011, to be published in

BSOAS 75,2 (June 2012).

[R] G. Schwarb, Review of S. Stroumsa, Maimonides in His World: Portrait

of a Mediterranean Thinker, to be published in Speculum: A Journal of Medieval

Studies 87,2 (2012).

Forthcoming

[A] H. Ansari & S. Schmidtke, “Al-Shaykh al-Ṭūsī: His Writings on Theology

and Their Reception,” The Study of Shīʿī Islam: The State of the Field,

Issues of Methodology and Recent Developments, eds. Farhad Daftary and

Gurdofarid Miskinzoda, London: I.B. Tauris.

[A] H. Ansari, S. Schmidtke & J. Thiele, “Muʿtazilism among Yemeni

Zaydīs,” The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, ed. Sabine Schmidtke,

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[A] L. Muehlethaler, “Konzepte der Selbstwahrnehmung in der arabischen

Philosophie,” in H.-U. Rüegger, E. Dueck, S. Tietz (eds.) Abschied vom

Seelischen? Erkundungen zum menschlichen Selbstverständnis, Vdf Hochschulverlag

ETH Zuerich: Zürich, 2012. ISBN 978-3-7281-3424-0.

[A] L. Muehlethaler, “The philosophical theology of Ibn Sīnā and his

school” Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, ed. Sabine Schmidtke, Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

[A] L. Muehlethaler, “Revising Avicenna’s ontology of the soul: Ibn

Kammūna on the soul’s eternity a parte ante,” The Muslim World.

[A] G. Schwarb, “ʿAlī b. Ṭaybughā’s (d. 793/1391) Commentary on Maimonides’

Mishneh Torah, Sefer ha-Maddaʿ, Hilkhot Yesodei ha-Torah I-IV:

A Philosophical Encyclopaedia of the 14th Century”, in tbd.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Excursus II - The Jewish and Samaritan Reception of

Muʿtazilism,” The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, ed. S. Schmidtke,

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[A] G. Schwarb, “Excursus III - The Coptic Reception of Ashʿarite Theology,”

The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, ed. S. Schmidtke, Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

[A] G. Schwarb, “The Scholastic phase of the Muʿtazila up to Abū ’l-Ḥusayn

al-Baṣrī including his reception in Baghdad and Khwārazm,” The Oxford

Handbook of Islamic Theology, ed. S. Schmidtke, Oxford: Oxford University

Press.

[A] J. Thiele, “Theological Compendia in Late 6th/12th and Early

7th/13th Century Zaydism: Al-Ḥasan al-Raṣṣāṣ’s K. al-Taḥṣīl and its commentaries,”

Theological Rationalism in Medieval Islam: New Sources and

Perspectives, eds. Lukas Mühlethaler & Gregor Schwarb, Leuven: Peeters.

[A] J. Thiele, “Abū Hāshim al-Jubbāʾī’s (d. 321/933) theory of

states (aḥwāl) and its adaption among Ashʿarite theologians,” The Oxford

Handbook of Islamic Theology, ed. Sabine Schmidtke, Oxford: Oxford University

Press.

[CV] S. Schmidtke (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

[CV] R. Pourjavady & S. Schmidtke, The Philosophical Tradition in Iran

during the Qajar Period (1794-1925).

[CV] Kh. El-Rouayheb & S. Schmidtke (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Islamic

Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[CV] S. Schmidtke, C. Adang, M. Fierro (eds.), Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba: Life

and Works of a Controversial Thinker, Leiden: Brill (Handbuch der Orientalistik).

[CV] Theological Rationalism in Medieval Islam: New Sources and Perspectives,

eds. Lukas Mühlethaler & Gregor Schwarb, Leuven: Peeters.

[E] S. Schmidtke, “Abu l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī,” The Encyclopeadia of the World

of Islam (Tehran)

[M] H. Ansari, L’imamat et l’Occultation selon l’imamisme: Etude bibliographique

et histoire des texts, Leiden: Brill.

[M] L. Muehlethaler & R. Pourjavady, Defending Avicennan Philosophy:

ʿUmar b. Sahlān al-Sāwī in Response to the Criticisms of Abū l-Barakāt al-

Baghdādī and Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Shahrastānī.

52 53


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Version: 2.0 2012-05-15

Layout and typography: Jonas Müller-Laackman

Photographs title page, 4, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 23, 25, 27, 31, 34: Ernst Fesseler

Manuscript images pp. 13, 21 @Russian National Library (with kind permission)

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Research Unit Intellectual History of the Islamicate World

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