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The Handy Dandy Reference Guide (pdf) - Esperanto-USA

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One-Page <strong>Handy</strong>-<strong>Dandy</strong> <strong>Esperanto</strong> Start-up Kit<br />

Nouns Adjectives Other useful words<br />

amiko ............................. friend bela ............................ beautiful aŭ ........................................ or<br />

edzo, edzino ........... husband, wife bona ................................. good ĉar ............................... because<br />

filo, filino .............. son, daughter facila ................................ easy ĉu ......... (starts a yes/no question)<br />

instruisto ........................ teacher granda ............................... large de .......................... of, from, by<br />

kato .................................... cat grava ......................... important eble ................................ maybe<br />

knabo, knabino ............. boy, girl juna ................................ young jes ..................................... yes<br />

libro ................................ book kelka ................................. few kaj ..................................... and<br />

paĝo ................................. page multa ..................... many, much kun .................................. with<br />

papero .............................. paper nova .................................. new la ...................................... the*<br />

patro, patrino ......... father, mother sama ................................ same ne ....................................... no<br />

plumo ................................ pen varma ....................... warm, hot tre ..................................... very<br />

seĝo ................................. chair<br />

tablo ................................ table blanka .............................. white al ......................................... to<br />

blua .................................. blue antaŭ .............................. before<br />

manĝaĵo ............................ food bruna .............................. brown en ........................................ in<br />

akvo ................................ water flava .............................. yellow sur ...................................... on<br />

ĉokolado ..................... chocolate griza ................................. gray<br />

kafo ................................ coffee nigra ................................ black ĉi tio ................................. this<br />

teo ...................................... tea ruĝa .................................... red ĉi tie ................................. here<br />

vespermanĝo ................... supper verda ................................ green tio .................................... that<br />

Notes: Notes: tie .................................... there<br />

hieraŭ ......................... yesterday<br />

hodiaŭ ............................. today<br />

morgaŭ ...................... tomorrow<br />

Verbs<br />

jaro ................................... year<br />

ami ............................... to love Phrases monato ........................... month<br />

aŭdi ............................... to hear Bonvole .......................... Please semajno ............................ week<br />

aŭskulti ........................ to listen Ĉu mi rajtas ..................... May I tago ................................... day<br />

bezoni ........................... to need Ĉu vi ŝatas .............. Do you like<br />

devi .................. to have to, must Dankon ..................... Thank you * “a” and “an” are not translated.<br />

deziri ................ to desire, to want Ĝis la ......................... Goodbye<br />

doni .............................. to give Kiel oni diras ..... How do you say Notes:<br />

esti .................................. to be Mi bezonas ...................... I need<br />

fari ..................... to make, to do Mi devas ............. I must, have to<br />

havi .............................. to have Mi ne komprenas ............. I don’t<br />

iri .................................... to go<br />

understand<br />

labori ........................... to work Mi ne scias ............. I don’t know • Four times easier to learn<br />

legi ................................ to read Ne dankinde ....... You’re welcome • Spoken by two million people<br />

lerni .............................. to learn Ni iru .......................... Let’s go • Politically and culturally<br />

manĝi ............................. to eat Ripetu, bonvole ..... Repeat, please acceptable everywhere!<br />

paroli ........................... to speak Saluton ............................ Hello<br />

povi ................. to be able to, can Notes:<br />

preni .............................. to take<br />

For more info:<br />

scii .................... to know (a fact)<br />

<strong>Esperanto</strong> League for North<br />

skribi ........................... to write<br />

America, Inc.<br />

sidi .................................. to sit PO Box 1129, El Cerrito CA 94530<br />

stari ............................. to stand<br />

(800) ESPERANTO or<br />

studi ............................ to study (800) 377-3726<br />

ŝati ............. to appreciate, to like<br />

www.esperanto-usa.org<br />

trinki ........................... to drink<br />

info@esperanto-usa.org<br />

veni ............................. to come<br />

vidi ................................. to see<br />

Canadian <strong>Esperanto</strong> Association<br />

voli .......................... to want to<br />

Box 2159, Sidney, BC V8L 3S6<br />

www.esperanto.ca/kea<br />

<strong>Esperanto</strong>: the international language that works!<br />

© 2003 ELNA. Lupoprodukto. 2003.02.22


Alphabet and<br />

pronunciation<br />

a father ĥ loch<br />

b boy i teen<br />

c bits j yes<br />

ĉ chip ĵ leisure<br />

d drive k king<br />

e pen l lesson<br />

f father m moon<br />

g get n news<br />

ĝ jet o no<br />

h help<br />

p<br />

r<br />

s<br />

ŝ<br />

t<br />

u<br />

ŭ<br />

v<br />

z<br />

party<br />

read<br />

ski<br />

ship<br />

trip<br />

boot<br />

water<br />

drive<br />

zebra<br />

Verb endings<br />

Sample affixes<br />

infinitive .... –i iri .......... to go bo– ................... in-law<br />

past ........... –is iris ......... went ge– ................... both sexes<br />

present ....... –as iras .......... goes mal– ................. opposite<br />

future ......... –os iros ..... will go –aĵ– .................. stuff, material<br />

imperative ... –u iru ............ go! –ar– .................. group, set<br />

conditional .. –us irus....would go –eg– ................. large<br />

–ej– .................. place<br />

Noun endings<br />

–estr– ................ boss<br />

Singular Plural –et– .................. small<br />

Subject –o –oj –id– .................. offspring<br />

Direct obj. –on –ojn –il– .................. tool<br />

–in– .................. female<br />

Adjective endings<br />

–ul– .................. person<br />

Numbers<br />

0 nulo 7 sep Singular Plural<br />

1 unu 8 ok<br />

Subject –a –aj<br />

Example:<br />

2 du 9 naŭ cat kato<br />

3 tri 10 dek<br />

Direct obj. –an –ajn<br />

kitten katido<br />

4 kvar 100 cent<br />

5 kvin 1,000 mil Use prepositions for indirect object. Pronouns<br />

6 ses 1,000,000 miliono I mi we ni<br />

Adverbs you vi (sing. and plural)<br />

Examples: End in “e”: rapide = rapidly<br />

he li they ili<br />

12 dek du more .... pli very ..... tre she ŝi it ĝi<br />

278 ducent sepdek ok most .... plej too ...... tro one oni thou ci<br />

unua first<br />

dua second Examples:<br />

Possessive pronouns formed by adding<br />

“a”: mia = my, mine<br />

duono a half<br />

too fast = tro rapide<br />

triono a third<br />

fastest = plej rapida<br />

Correlatives<br />

ONE<br />

THING<br />

KIND<br />

PLACE<br />

WAY<br />

REASON<br />

TIME<br />

QUANTITY<br />

ONE’S<br />

WHICH,<br />

WHAT THAT SOME NO<br />

KIU<br />

TIU<br />

IU<br />

NENIU<br />

which (one), that (one) someone, no one,<br />

who<br />

somebody nobody<br />

KIO<br />

TIO<br />

IO<br />

NENIO<br />

what (thing)<br />

KIA<br />

what kind of,<br />

what a...<br />

KIE<br />

where<br />

KIEL<br />

how,<br />

in what way<br />

KIAL<br />

why,<br />

for what reason<br />

KIAM<br />

when,<br />

at what time<br />

KIOM<br />

how much/many,<br />

what quantity<br />

KIES<br />

whose,<br />

which one’s<br />

that (thing)<br />

TIA<br />

that kind of,<br />

such a...<br />

TIE<br />

there<br />

TIEL<br />

thus,<br />

in that way<br />

TIAL<br />

so,<br />

for that reason<br />

TIAM<br />

then,<br />

at that time<br />

TIOM<br />

that much/many,<br />

so much/many<br />

TIES<br />

that one’s<br />

something<br />

IA<br />

some kind of<br />

IE<br />

somewhere<br />

IEL<br />

somehow,<br />

in some way<br />

IAL<br />

for some reason<br />

IAM<br />

at some time<br />

IOM<br />

some<br />

(quantity)<br />

IES<br />

someone’s,<br />

somebody’s<br />

nothing<br />

NENIA<br />

no kind of<br />

NENIE<br />

nowhere<br />

NENIEL<br />

in no way<br />

NENIAL<br />

for no reason<br />

NENIAM<br />

never,<br />

at no time<br />

NENIOM<br />

none,<br />

no quantity<br />

NENIES<br />

no one’s,<br />

nobody’s<br />

EACH,<br />

EVERY<br />

ĈIU<br />

each (one),<br />

everybody<br />

ĈIO<br />

everything<br />

ĈIA<br />

every kind of<br />

ĈIE<br />

everywhere<br />

ĈIEL<br />

in every way<br />

ĈIAL<br />

for every reason<br />

ĈIAM<br />

always,<br />

every time<br />

ĈIOM<br />

all of it,<br />

the whole<br />

quantity<br />

ĈIES<br />

everyone’s,<br />

everybody’s

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