Advanced Processing for Imaging Nano ... - Cosmiacpubs.org

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Advanced Processing for Imaging Nano ... - Cosmiacpubs.org

Advanced Processing for Imaging

Nano-Spacecraft

Dr. Steve Suddarth

COSMIAC

(505) 803-2684

Steve.suddarth@cosmiac.org

1


Agenda

• What is COSMIAC’s CubeSatCam?

• Why LEO surveillance?

• What’s Hard About It?

• Systems progress to date

• Conclusions


CubeSatCam General Idea: “Big Surveillance”

from Space with Small Packages

• Goal: Make the highest resolution spacebased

camera in a 10cmx10cmx30cm

package

• Prove out the concept of inexpensive LEO

surveillance capability.

• Work toward real-time networking.

• Pave way for higher resolution capabilities

that are still highly affordable

• Proves key electronic innovations and make

their benefits generally available

3


Why LEO Surveillance?

Goal: Continuous Coverage of one Place

• Requires persistence

• On orbit, that means high altitude – OR – many

spacecraft

• Whole system must be affordable, buildable

150

D

100

ne s

( Dkm ⋅ )

50

0

0 110 × 3

210 × 3

310 × 3

410 ×

D


Space Radiation Environment and

CMOS Technology

HEO: Highly Elliptical Orbit

GEO: Geosynchronous Earch Orbit

MEO: Medium Earch Orbit

Van Allen Radiation Belts:

Illustrated by Aerospace Corp.


“Exponential Times”

Moore’s “Original” Law Magnetic Storage Comm B/W Cost

Time for another

Moore’s Law


Change that Matters to Us

•Cut Launch Cost

•Make Better Use of Launch Capacity

•Standardize

& Optimize

•Miniaturize

•Reconfigurable

Electronics target highest

payoff directly

•7


CubeSats are a Key

Experimental “Playground”

• Proposed in 1999 by Stanford Prof. Bob Twiggs as

a picosatellite standard:

– 10 x 10 x 10cm, ~ 1 kg maximum mass; can be combined to

create multiple “U” cubes (e.g., double, triple, etc…)

• Broad acceptance, large active developer list:

– 53 U.S. companies; 50 U.S. universities, several high

schools

– 41 foreign universities on six continents

– 32% of papers at ‘08 SmallSat Conference were CubeSat

related

CUTE 1.7 + APD (Tokyo

Tech. University)

CP4 (CalPoly) as seen from

AeroCube-2 (Aerospace)

QuakeSat-1

(Stanford University and

QuakeFinder, LLC)

CSTB1

(The Boeing Corporation)


“Containerization” and

Standard Interfaces

P-POD

CanX-2 (Canada)

A Revolution in World-Wide Transport

A Revolution in Space Transport


Great Minds Think Alike

Pumpkin

MISC Satellite

Technical University

of Berlin

LAPAN - TubSat

In conjunction with Indonesian National Institute

of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN)

Naval Postgraduate School

TinyScope


What’s So Hard About It?

• EVERYTHING!

• Attitude Determination and Control (Pointing to

arcsecs)

• Optics (taken to diffraction limit)

• Communications (to megabits)

• Image quality and jitter

Processing in small space packages (gOps)

• Power generation (10’s of watts)


High-Level Examination Shows

CubeSatCam Feasible

(but not easy to make it excellent)

• ADACS:

– Desire well under 1 U and few Watts

– Need ~1 deg accuracy

– Desire


Taking CubeSat to the Limit

• Diffraction-limited optics

• On-board image

processing

– Compression

– Blur removal

– ADACS registration

• High-speed

communications

1-deg Error Circle

Potential Image

x

x

Desired Image


Processing Challenges

• Camera Correction

• Blur reduction

• Georegistration (and its necessary

projection)

• Compression


Unusual feature – Blur correction for

motion


Three Generations of Flutter Shutter

Systems Under Development

1. SLR-based 2. Machine vision-based

3. Based on novel 12.5 MPix Dalsa electronically shuttered CMOS

focal plane


Improvements to GeoProjection

Timelines (estimates – in work)

• For 24.5 MPix RGB image onto 12 MPix projection area

Basic polygon-based model on dual-core ~2s

Direct texture-map projection on dual-core

~1.1s

Direct texture-map on nVidia 9400M GTS

~120ms

Similar implementation in Spartan FPGA ???


Space “Plug-and-Play” Architecture

(SPA) Comes to Tiny CubeSats

Mission Code / Scripts

Satellite Data Model

Application

#1

SM

Application

#2

Task Manager

Application

#i

Data Manager

Sensor Manager (SM) SM SM

Application

#N

Processor

Manager

RF

CPU

Camera

Thermometer

GNC Comp

Current

Monitor

SDM – Satellite Data Module

ASIM – Applique Sensor Interface Module

XTED – eXtended Transducer Electronic

Datasheets

Lyke (AFRL), Cannon (USU), Jacobsen (USU),

Fronterhouse (PnP Solutions), Kief (UNM/COSMIAC)


Tiny, Low-Power Electronics for

Capture and Upstream Processing

• Compact Form Factor Space Computing

– Fault tolerant, power efficient reconfigurable low-power FPGA

board with a 10cm x 10cm footprint

– Intended for C&DH or Payload Processing

– Can fit into SPA as

• SDM / SM

• ASIM

• Or all of the above

– Status:

• Tape-out within 2 weeks

• Fabrication within 2 months

FPGA

Board

Power

Board

Sensor

Board


Completed Designs

FPGA Main Board

Top

Bottom

Silkscreen Top

Silkscreen Bottom

Power Board

Top

Bottom

Silkscreen


Power Generation

Potential Deployable Solar Panel Configurations

1 2 3 4 5 6

Configuration 1 2 3 4 5 6

Number of cells 24 32 48 48 64 72

Approx mass w/hinges (g) 99.6 148.3 222.4 222.4 296.5 100

Approx Max power gen. *(W) 28.0 37.3 55.9 55.9 74.5 18.8

Orbit average power** (W) 11.8 15.7 23.5 23.5 31.4 8.2

* Using 29.9% efficiency solar cells

** Based on 80% energy conversion efficiency


Solar Panel Deployment


Conclusion

• CubeSatCam concept appears feasible

• Many subsystems in medium phases of maturity

• Some processing tasks underway or demonstrated

feasibl

• Many technical challenges lie ahead

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