Groundwater - Akademi Sains Malaysia

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Groundwater - Akademi Sains Malaysia

GROUNDWATER AVAILABILITY

AND QUALITY IN MALAYSIA

Ismail C. Mohamad and Mohammed Hatta Abd Karim

Minerals and Geoscience Department Malaysia

(JMG)


CONTENT

• Occurrences of GW

• Ways to get them

• What have we done in Malaysia

• Availability of GW in Malaysia

• GW Quality

• Production of Mineral Water

• Future Directions

• Conclusions


•Partially confined by low permeability strata (an aquitard)

•Fully confined by overlying impermeable strata (an aquiclude)


GROUNDWATER OCCURRENCES

Groundwater is water that is found underground in cracks and spaces in soil,

sand and rocks. The area where water fills these spaces is called the saturated

zone of a geologic formation. The top of this zone is called the water table. The

water table may be only a meter below the ground’s

(a) (b) ©

Groundwater

occurrences in (a)

sand, (b) rock

fractures, and (c)

rock solution

cavities (limestone)


CONTENT

• Occurrences of GW

• Ways to get them

• What have we done in Malaysia

• Availability of GW in Malaysia

• GW Quality

• Production of Mineral Water

• Future Directions

• Conclusions


DUG

WELL


CONSTRUCTION OF HORIZONTAL WELL

AT JELI BY AKSB


JMG’s hard rock drilling machine


CONTENT

• Occurrences of GW

• Ways to get them

• What have we done in Malaysia

• Availability of GW in Malaysia

• GW Quality

• Production of Mineral Water

• Future Directions

• Conclusions


• The

National

Economic

Action

Council

(1998) in the National Economic Recovery

Plan had identified groundwater as one

source

that

has great

potential

to

be

developed.


Opening ceremony by The Honorable Minister at the

Dengkil groundwater scheme in Selangor

POLITICAL WILL !!!


Why lack of gw development

There are several reasons for the lack of extensive

groundwater development in Malaysia:

i. the

failure

to

recognise the

potential of

the

groundwater resources

ii. the misconception that groundwater exploitation

is not sustainable

iii.

iv.

the lack of full assessment of the resource due to

budget constrain and few expertise, and

the lack of strategic plan and action plan for the

development and management of the resource.


Types of Groundwater Resources


ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS

- depend on alluvial materials,

thickness, aquifer parameters

(porosity), recharge rate, surrounding

aquifer and precipitation.

HARD ROCK AQUIFERS

- depend on lithology, fracture density,

some rock depends on cavities, some

depend on porosity, recharge potential and

thickness.


0

50% 20% 2% 0%

30 m

100 m

Vertical assessment of

Aquifers in Malaysia

300 m

500 m


Aerial assessment

Water divide

RC1

Recharge area

well

RC2

On spot

Alluvial aquifer

River catchment

IRBM/IWRM

Hard Rock Aquifer Regime

‘Mega Watershed’


Needs for assessments

• Geological details

• Structural geology analysis

• Geophysical studies

• Location of drilling well site

• Drilling technology used

• Testing for safe yield

• Water quality analysis

• Gw modelling and reserve value

• Zoning of aquifers and recharge areas

• Proper usage of gw


Assessment methodology

• Assessment of aquifer by adhoc studyofdemandedsites

demanded sites

• Patchy studies of alluvial aquifers

• Hard rock aquifers being assess by ‘wild cat’ manner

• Generally need a proper basin study

• Need thorough study of aquifers penetrating at different depth

(shallow alluvial aquifer < 30 m, deep alluvial aquifer > 30 m)

• Hard rock aquifer should be investigated throughly with the help

of remote sensing analysis and geophysics. Two types of hard

rock aquifers should be studied (100 m)

• Other new techniques including GIS, geostatistics and

isotope tracer techniques are needed to assess recharge,

groundwater flow patterns and interaction with surface water

system


The JMG approaches

• Explore potential groundwater by basinal

approach, to get actual reserve and safe

yield of the basin

• Explore potential groundwater from the

hard rock aquifers

• Explore potential groundwater source from

requested areas/needs and subsequently

developed for use


JMG – RMK BUDGET

RMKe 5 - RM 2.0 million

RMKe 6 -

RM 6.7 million

RMKe 7 – RM 4.8 million

RMKe 8 – RM 10.0 million

RMKe 9 – RM 26.0 million

RMKe 10 – RM 35.0 million

JMG

– Drilling machines 5 units - small to medium range

– Hydrogeologist and assistant – 50 persons

Private sectors and Universities

– Drilling machines 10 units – small to medium range

- Hydrogeologist and assistant – 50 persons


CONTENT

• Occurrences of GW

• Ways to get them

• What have we done in Malaysia

• Availability of GW in Malaysia

• GW Quality

• Production of Mineral Water

• Future Directions

• Conclusions


Peninsular Malaysia

Groundwater development in Peninsular Malaysia started since the early

1900’s

in Kelantan.

60% of the groundwater exploited is for domestic supply

35% for industrial supply and

5% for agricultural use.

• To date about 0.2

Peninsular Malaysia.

million m 3 /d of groundwater is being exploited in

• In Peninsular Malaysia, 4categories

of potential groundwater resources:

The most productive aquifers are the alluvium (sand and

gravel),

which can yield from fom50

to 100 m 3 /h/well.

The most productive aquifer in hard rock is in limestone, which

can produce up to 50 m 3 /h/well. But most within the developed areas and

extraction may develop sinkhole.

Fractured sandstone, their metamorphic equivalent and

aquifers can yield up to 30 m 3 /h/well.

volcanic rock

The least productive type of aquifer is made up of fractured igneous

rocks, which can give 20 m 3 /h/well.


Sarawak

• The first recorded abstraction of groundwater by tube wells in Sarawak

was in 1954 in Sarikei followed by similar schemes in Bintangor and Sri

Aman.

Groundwater is presently the main source of water supply in several

coastal villages such as Belawai, lgan, Oya, Kabong, Pulau Bruit, Tatau,

Limbang and several other new schemes under development.

• Investigation and development of groundwater resources by the JMG

Sarawak have developed d in the seventies, 13 areas of groundwater well

fields for reticulated water supplies in the coastal region of Sarawak. A

large groundwater scheme in Lambir has been developed to augment

the Miri Water Supply. During the water crisis in 1997, groundwater has

become the new source of water supply when the surface source from

Sg. Liku was greatly reduced.

• 3 categories of aquifers:

shallow aquifers (sand, gravel and peat),

deep aquifers in sedimentary basins and

deep aquifers in fractured hard rocks.

• To date, about 0.05 million m 3 /d of groundwater is being exploited in

Sarawak.


Sabah

• The only form of exploitation has been by coastal villagers who have

been digging shallow wells for domestic supplies for years and the

small-scale

scale tube well abstraction in Sandakan, Kota Belud and Kuala

Penyu. In Labuan, groundwater is being used conjunctively with

surface water to supply the water needs on the island.

• The most productive aquifer so far known is the Sandakan Formation

(thick-bedded

sandstone)

The Belait Formation (at the south-west

coast and in Labuan) and the

Crocker Formation which are extensively faulted and fractured form a

good groundwater potential.

Quaternary and Recent alluvium which cover the coastal areas gives

small but sufficient yield to the isolated villages.

• In the 8th

and 9th

Malaysian Plan much work has been done by the

JMG to explore the hard rock areas. At this moment, about 0.0202

million m 3 /d of groundwater is being exploited in the Sabah state.


Water Resources in Malaysia

ays a

(based from JICA study 1982)

Water Resources

Quantity (billion m 3 )

Annual rainfall 990

- Surface runoff 566

- Evapotranspiration 360

- Groundwater recharge 64

Surface artificial storage 25

Groundwater storage 5000


Alluvial basins

• Sg Melaka, Langkawi

• Sg Kerian, Perak

• Sg Perak (kuala

kuala)

• Sg Perak-Sg

Bernam *

• Sg Bernam-Sg

Selangor*

• Sg Langat

(kuala), Selangor

• Sg Muar, Johor*

• Sg Johor

• Sg Pahang (Delta)

• Sg. Bebar, Pahang

• Sg Rompin, Pahang

• Sg Terengganu

• Sg Kelantan(KB)

• Sg Sarawak, sarawak

• Sg Sibu, Sarawak

• Sg Baram,

Sarawak

• Sg Kinabatangan, Sabah

Hard Rock aquifers

•Limestones [>10 areas]

•Sedimentary S t rocks [ > 100 areas]

•Metamorphic rocks [ > 10 areas]

•Volcanics [ >10 areas]

•Granites [ >10 areas]


CONTENT

• Occurrences of GW

• Ways to get them

• What have we done in Malaysia

• Availability of GW in Malaysia

• GW Quality

• Production of Mineral Water

• Future Directions

• Conclusions


GW quality

• Generally good

• Fe & Mn values > WHO limit ( 60 % of well)

• Hg, As, Pb, NO3, high in isolated wells at N.

Sembilan, Terengganu, Selangor, Melaka

• Colliform, E coli presence at KB shallow

unconfined aquifer

• Saline occur naturally at some west coast of WM

and some coastal areas of Sarawak


Groundwater quality protection

and management

• There are a number of artificial sources of

potential groundwater contamination such as

sanitary landfill, septic tank, wastewater, toxic

chemical disposal site, agricultural chemicals

and Underground Storage Tank (UST)

• One critical aspects of preventing groundwater

pollution is the identification of recharge area

for the aquifer. In such, protection of the

recharge area is vital.


• Aeration

• pH treatment

• Filtration

• Carbon filter

• Zeolite

• Micro filter

• Ultra membrane

• ….UV light

Treatment


“SPATR” GENERAL LAYOUT

PRIMARY FILTRATION

SECONDARY FILTRATION

Aeration Tank

Aeration Tower

Sedimentation Tank

Storage Tank

Ultra Membrane

Filter

To storage/

elevated tank

Booster Pump

Activated

t Zeolite

Charcoal Filter

Filter

Legend:

Charcoal

Submersible Pump

Sand

Tube Well


CONTENT

• Occurrences of GW

• Ways to get them

• What have we done in Malaysia

• Availability of GW in Malaysia

• GW Quality

• Production of Mineral Water

• Future Directions

• Conclusions


Production of Mineral Water

Mineral Water

Check all aspects related to gw source

before giving consent to licence

Monitor regularly on the supply well

and surrounding areas

Compare well yield with production


MINERAL WATER INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA

(data from MOH)

STATE

LICENCE SOURCE AREA

Perlis

Penang

Kedah

Perak

Selangor

N/Sem

Johor

Pahang

1

1

3

5

25

1

6

1

Kaki bukit

Ayer Hitam

Sarawak 2 Matang

K. Setar, Pendang, Kulim

Taiping

Klang, Ulu Selangor. UK, Italy, France

Lenggong

Segamat, K.T, B.Pahat, Macap, U.Tiram

Bentong

TOTAL 45 Local 17 areas, Overseas 6 areas


Mineral water industry Plant


CONTENT

• Occurrences of GW

• Ways to get them

• What have we done in Malaysia

• Availability of GW in Malaysia

• GW Quality

• Production of Mineral Water

• Future Directions

• Conclusions


Present GW Utilisation in Malaysia

((

((60 Dom, 35 Ind, 5 Agr))


(2010) (2020)

GW 3% 20 %

446 MLD 3,304 MLD

WATER REQUIREMENT for Malaysia

= 13,216 MLD = 16,520 MLD

JICA 1982, Optimum Yield of GW = 6 Bm3/year

= 16.4 BLD = 16,438 MLD


Merely some indications……,

to achieve 100 % EXPLORATION COVERAGE

SHALLOW ALLUVIAL

WELL SPACING = 1000 M

MALAYSIA needs 33,000 wells

DEEP ALLUVIAL AND HARD ROCK

WELL SPACING = 8000 M

MALAYSIA needs 5,000 wells

WILL NEED AT LEAST RM 800 million


CONJUNCTIVE USE


CONTENT

• Occurrences of GW

• Ways to get them

• What have we done in Malaysia

• Availability of GW in Malaysia

• GW Quality

• Production of Mineral Water

• Future Directions

• Conclusions


CONCLUSIONS

Groundwater plays an important role in supplementing the

domestic,

industrial

and agricultural

water

needs

of the

country

• Contribution and potential value of groundwater have not yet

been fully recognised, and not enough efforts have been

made to promote its proper exploitation, management and

conservation

• Issues ranging from misconception, assessment, databank to

sustainability

• Review Institutional Arrangement and Legal Framework

• Strategic Planning have been formulated

• Proposed Action Plan to be discussed ?????


Thank you

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