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IN SITU - FAO

IN SITU - FAO

CONTENTS LIST OF

CONTENTS LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 7 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9 INTRODUCTION 11 1. Climate 11 2. Rainfall 11 3. Climate 12 3.1 Coastal plain 12 3.2 Mountainous regions 12 3.3 High plains 12 3.4 Eastern desert (plateau) 12 4. Soil 13 5. Water resources 13 6. Crop production system 14 CHAPTER 1 THE STATE OF DIVERSITY 15 1.1 Basic value of the plant genetic resources 15 1.2 Diversity within and between PGRFA species 15 1.2.1 The diversity of PGRFA species 15 1.2.2 The state of diversity of major crops 16 1.2.3 Minor crops and underutilized species 19 1.2.4 Wild crop relatives and wild plants for food production 20 1.3 Factors influencing the state of PGRFA diversity 20 1.4 Future needs and priorities 21 1.5 State of arts 21 CHAPTER 2 THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 22 2.1 PGRFA inventories and surveys 22 2.2 On-farm management and improvement of PGRFA 24 2.3 Future needs and priorities 24 CHAPTER 3 THE STATE OF EX SITU MANAGEMENT 25 3.1 Main ex situ conservation organizations 25 3.1.1 Agricultural Research and Extension Authority (AREA) 25 3.1.2 Faculty of Agriculture, Sana’a University 25 3.1.3 Foreign organizations 25 3.2 Types of conservation 26 3.3 Number of accessions and important crops conserved 26

3.4 Documentation 27 3.5 Characterization, evaluation and regeneration 27 3.6 Future perspectives for collection and conservation 28 3.6.1 Collection 28 3.6.2 Conservation 28 CHAPTER 4 THE STATE OF USE 29 4.1 The importance of PGRFA utilization 29 4.2 Utilization and enhancing the use of PGRFA 29 4.2.1 Direct use of PGRFA by the farmer 29 4.2.2 PGRFA utilization for crop production improvement 30 4.2.3 PGRFA utilization constraints 31 4.2.4 Priorities to overcome PGRFA use constraints 31 4.3 Seed systems and the role of markets 32 4.3.1 Conventional seed production 32 4.3.2 Seed multiplication institutions 32 4.3.3 Seed marketing and distribution 33 4.3.4 Constrain of seed supply systems 34 4.3.5 Future needs and priorities 34 4.4 Crop improvement programs and food security 34 4.4.1 Constrains 34 4.4.2 Priorities and perspectives 35 CHAPTER 5 THE STATE OF NATIONAL PROGRAMS, TRAINING AND LEGISLATION 36 5.1 The national program 36 5.2 Networks 37 5.3 Education and training 37 5.4 National legislations 37 5.5 Information systems 38 5.6 Public awareness 38 5.7 Needs and priorities for program development, training and legislation 38 CHAPTER 6 THE STATE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION 39 6.1 International networks 39 6.2 International programmes 39 6.3 International agreements 40 CHAPTER 7 ACCESS TO PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES AND SHARING OF BENEFITS ARISING OUT OF THEIR USE AND FARMERS’ RIGHTS 41 7.1 Background 41 7.2 International agreements in relation to access and benefit sharing for GRFA 41 7.3 The state of access to GRFA 41 7.4 Sharing benefit of the use PGRFA 42 7.5 Implementation of farmers and breeders’ rights 42

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