Weather and Climate - Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

aos.wisc.edu

Weather and Climate - Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

Notes

• Enter forecasts this week for TUS (Tucson,

AZ) before 6PM

• You may be removed from the contest (by

the managers) if you consistently make

forecasts that are ‘extreme’

• Continue to fill out forecasting logs (for

extra credit)

• Reading: Martin: begin Section 3


Weather and Climate

(Lecture 11)

Instructor: Prof. Michael C. Morgan

Teaching Assistant: Dianna N. Nelson


During deposition, water changes

phase from _____ to _____.

A. vapor, solid

B. vapor, liquid

C. solid, vapor

D. liquid, vapor


Which of the following is a process that

involves the absorption of latent heat?

A. Deposition

B. Condensation

C. Sublimation

D. Freezing


How does a moist surface in the morning

affect the high temperature for the day?

A. Raises it

B. Lowers it

C. Doesn’t have any affect


During evaporation, water changes

phase from _____ to _____.

A. vapor, solid

B. vapor, liquid

C. solid, vapor

D. liquid, vapor


The average albedo of the Earth is…

A. 10%

B. 30%

C. 70%


Energy Balance

• The earth and its atmosphere combined

send off to space just as much energy

as they receive.

96

117


Water in the Atmosphere

• Water comprises 0-4% of the earth’s

atmosphere

• Water is important to the earth’s energy

budget because of:

– Latent heat release

– Greenhouse gas

• Water has a high heat capacity


Ideal (Perfect) Gas Law

Gas constant (J/(kg K))

p = ρ RT

pressure (Pa)

density kg/m 3

Temperature (K)


Phase changes that release latent heat

•Condensation

Vapor => Liquid

•Freezing

Liquid => Solid (Ice)

• Deposition

Vapor => Solid (Ice)


Phase changes that absorb latent heat

• Evaporation

Liquid => Vapor

• Melting

Solid (Ice) => Liquid

• Sublimation

Solid (Ice) => Vapor


Phase Changes

• If you leave a glass of water sitting out for

many days, what happens to the water

level in the glass?

….does it go up?

…..does it go down?

…..does it remain constant?


Phase changes

• What happens if you cover a glass of

water with plastic wrap and let it sit out

for many days?

…….does the water level go up?

…….does it go down?

…….does it stay the same?

When evaporation balances condensation……..

the air is said to be saturated with water vapor.


What determines the rate of

evaporation?

•Wind

• Temperature of the Water

What determines the rate of

• Air temperature

condensation?


Some vapor

condenses into

clouds, and then falls

as precipitation

Hydrologic Cycle

Wind transports water vapor

to other regions

Precipitation lands

on ground and in

water ways.

Water evaporates

back into vapor

Water evaporates from

oceans

Water runs off land into oceans

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